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# Fluid Mechianics

## 1. How a negative pressure gradient does help the flow?

A negative pressure means pressure is less at the downstream which helps to
keep the total mechanical energy lower at the downstream section. Thus it
aids the flow, since the flow of real fluid is driven by the difference in total
mechanical energy.
2. Can a jet engine travel faster than the relative velocity of the
ejecting gasses? Can a rocket do the same?
A jet engine can never travel faster than the relative velocity of its exhaust
gasses. A rocket can do so.
3. How does a rough surface improve heat transfer?
In laminar flow they wont affect inside a tube flow. If their height ia higher
than that of HBL, then they can induce turbulence. If the roughness height is
higher than that of the viscous sub-layer, in turbulent flow, then they create
disturbance and thus increases the turbulence and thus increase mixing and
thus reduces the boundary layers thickness further.
4. What is the significance of friction factor at all?
For practical purposes, the pressure losses in fluid flow are lumped using a
friction factor that represents the percentage/relative loss compared to the
local dynamic pressure (kinetic energy per unit volume; .5 m v^2/V=.5
v^2). Thus the losses in pressure are written as; Losses=K 0.5 v^2. This is
assumed to apply for both laminar and turbulent flows, with K=f L/D. For
laminar flow with f=64/Re. Note that since there is a v in the denominator,
the v^2 becomes v for laminar flow in the formula for pressure losses, but
stays as v^2 for turbulent flows. So for Re=2000, f=64/2000=.032. For the
nearly the same flow but in turbulent mode the lowest (smooth pipes) f=.05
as read from the Moody diagram (see below). Note that in the same diagram,
friction falls to f=0.008 for Re=10^7 for example. This is due to the shielding
of the pipe by a thin laminar sub-layer. The overall losses however are many
times higher than laminar flows- as the pressure losses go as v^2 as given
above.

P
D
L
f=
1
V 2
2

## In laminar flow through a duct

So , P=

f=

64 64
=
Vd

32 VL
D2

So , P V
In highly turbulent flow through a duct
hence f

So , P V

## So pressure drop in highly turbulent flow is more.

In the intermediate range

P V

12

If

P V 3
P
D
L
then, f =
V
1
2
V
2
So f increases with V which is impossible.

## 5. Why friction factor is more at the same Re compared to laminar flow?

For a Re of 3000 a laminar flow will give f value of 0.021, whereas a turbulent
flow gives a f of about o.05 (from modi diagram). This is because in a
turbulent flow there is an extra mechanism of pressure loss, that is formation
of eddies. So for a same Re a turbulent flow will give higher f as well as higher
pressure loss. This is same for all Re if by a hypothetical phenomenon laminar
flow still exists at a high Re.
6. Why friction factor decreases as Re increases in laminar flow but
losses increase?
In laminar flow losses are mainly due to viscous resistance of fluid. As Re increases the inertia
force increases compared to viscous force. This causes the losses to be less compared to the
dynamic pressure. This is a result of inertia dominating over the viscous forces. This can be
shown mathematically.
In external flow

U
0.5

x
C
0.5 U 2 0.5 U 0.5 U x

1
x

In internal flow

2
x

du
dy
C=
0.5 u2

u
r

C
=
2
0.5
ru
0.5 u

1
4

So in both external internal laminar flows skin friction coefficient and friction factor decreases
respectively.
Shear stress in external flow

=C

1
1
2
2
20.5
1.5
U
U U
U
2

U 1.5
Lin internal flow,

p=f

L1
64 L 1
32 UL
U 2=
U 2=
2
D2
D2
D

p V
So losses increase as Re increases or velocity increases.

1
1.5
, U
x

1
, p V

## 7. Why friction factor decreases as Re increases in turbulent flow but

losses increase?
8. Why the flow becomes turbulent after a certain distance through the
plate?
9. Can you use Bernoullis equation for pumps and turbines?
10.
Why drag force in case of external flow and pressure drop in case
of internal flow?
The engineer is frequently interested in the pressure drop needed to sustain
an internal flow because this parameter determines pump or fan power
requirements.
Drag force is required for calculating how much power or thrust does a body
reauired to move through a fluid.
11.

Show that

4 C f =f

dP A dP 1
=(
)( D )
dx P
dx 4 h

1 dP
(
) Dh

4 dx
1
Cf=
=
= f
1
1
4
V2
V 2
2
2
Cf=

1
4