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# FALL 2016

NAME
DATE

## FINAL EXAM STUDY

GUIDE
CET 385-0?
CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATING I

CET 385

Construction Estimating I
Final Exam Study Guide

Name

Chapter 7Labor

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What unit of time is used to measure labor? What does it represent? The unit of time
used in estimating is the labor hour. The labor hour represents the amount of work one person can
do in one hour.
The unit of time used in estimating is the __________ hour.
A. Half
B. Full
C. Labor
D. Calendar

The labor hour represents the amount of ________ one person can do in one hour.
A. Work
B. Progress
C. Time
D. None of the above

## 2. How do climatic conditions influence the amount of work actually completed in an

hour? Both extreme hot and cold will tend to slow down the pace of work.

Both extreme hot and cold will tend to slow down the pace of work. True

3. Where would you use cycle time to estimate productivity? When you have a repetitive
process such as hauling gravel with a dump truck or installing sheathing on a roof or a wall.
Always use __________ time to estimate productivity when you have a repetitive process such as
hauling gravel with a dump truck or installing sheathing on a roof or a wall.
A. Down
B. Cycle
C. Production
D. Official
4. Where would you use the rate of progress to estimate productivity? When the work is
performed linearly, such as paving or striping a road, placing a concrete curb using slip-forming

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When work is performed linearly, such as paving or striping a road, placing a concrete curb using
slip-forming machine, or grading a road, use the rate of progress to estimate productivity. True

5. What federal laws govern employment of labor and what do they cover? Fair Labor
Standards Act (FLSA) requires that employers pay nonexempt employees at least the current
minimum wage established by the federal government and at least one and a half times the regular
pay for hour worked in excess of 40 hours per week. The Davis-Bacon Act requires that prevailing
wages be paid on jobs with Federal funding.

6. What effect can upcoming labor union negotiations have on a bid? Upcoming labor
union negotiations make it difficult to arrive at a set price of the project. The estimator must build
anticipated wage increases into the bid.

7. What effect could an extreme shortage of skilled workers have on the cost of a
project? A shortage of skilled workers may increase the cost of construction. The contractor may
have to offer incentives to attract the needed crafts or lesser-trained personnel may have to be
used. Either of these scenarios adds to increased construction costs. The incentives increase the
unit labor cost while using less trained personnel elongate the amount of time required to complete
the task, increasing the labor costs.

8. How can working conditions on the job site affect worker productivity? Job site working
conditions can affect worker productivity if they cannot easily and efficiently get the materials that
they need to do their job. This may be due to a number of factors such as, limited storage, tight
working space, poor timing of materials deliveries and insufficient equipment.

9. What are some of the things an open-shop contractor can do to retain workers?
Provide: a living wage, medical insurance, reasonable work schedules that include vacation and sick
leave, rewards for outstanding performance, and open lines of communication between
management and the employees.

## Workers Compensation Insurance

CET 385

Construction Estimating I
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## General Liability Insurance

Insurance Benefits

Retirement Contributions

Union Payments

## Vacation, Holidays, and Sick Leave

Name

11. How do allowances differ from reimbursements? Reimbursements are based on actual
costs and are not taxed as wages to the employee. Allowances are taxed as wages.

12. How are vacation, holidays, and sick leave included in the labor burden? They are
incorporated into the labor burden by including the wages paid for vacation, holidays, and sick
leave in the employees wages before other burden costs are calculated. These hours are not
included in the number of billable hours.

13. How can crews be used in the estimating of labor? How does this compare with
using individual workers? While the labor hour measures the amount of work one worker does
in an hour most work is done by crews, or groups of workers. Using crews allows the estimator to
price how much work and equipment it will require to do a certain amount of work. It may be based
on work per hour or on the amount of time it would take to do a certain amount of work.

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Chapter 8Equipment
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What are the advantages to a small contractor of renting equipment instead of
owning?
The contractor can get the most suitable piece of equipment
The rental company handles maintenance
The contractor does not tie up their capital
2. What is depreciation on equipment? Depreciation is the loss in value of equipment that the
contractor owns. The loss is a result of age, wear and tear, and obsolescence. It is important that
some cost of replacing worn equipment be charged to each job so that when the equipment is worn
out it can be replaced.
3. What operating costs must be considered? Operating costs include everything required to
operate each piece of equipment. Typically, those items would be:
Fuel
Lubrication (oil and grease)
Filters
Tires
Tire repair
Repair or repair reserve
4. Why should interest be included in the equipment costs if the contractor paid cash for
the equipment? Interest should be included in the equipment costs even if the contractor paid
cash for the equipment because the money would be earning interest if it had not been used for the
purchase of the piece of equipment
5. Why must mobilization be included in the cost of equipment? Mobilization time is the
amount of time that is required to transport the equipment to the job site, set it up, and remove it
after its use is completed. These costs are directly attributable to the project and should be charged
to the project.

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6. Why is it important that reports from the field pertaining to equipment be kept?
Reports from the field that accurately show how much the equipment was used and how much work
it accomplished are an important part of the cost accounting that must be done at the home office.
This accounting is important not only for the job under construction, but to provide accurate
information for the cost estimating database. The accuracy of this database is important since it will
be used in estimating the cost for future projects.
7. If there is excessive idle time for equipment on the job, to what factors may this be
attributed? Factors which may contribute to excessive idle time for equipment on a project
include bad weather, poor working conditions, and poor management which might include poor
scheduling, poor field supervision, poor maintenance, and perhaps excessive equipment on the
project.

Chapter 9Excavation
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What type of information about the excavation can the estimator learn from the
specifications? Information from the specifications include the scope of work, what happens to
the excess material, who does the clearing and grubbing, removal of trees, if topsoil stored on site,
and where and who does the excavation for the mechanical trades.
2. How does the type of soil to be excavated affect the estimate? The type of soil affects
the estimate by:
The amount of swell varies for each type of soil affecting the amount of soil that needs to be
used as backfill or hauled away.
The type of soil also affects the slope at the sides of the excavation. This affects the amount
of soil that must be excavated, backfilled, and will determine whether bracing or piles will be
required to support the sides of the excavation.
The type of soil may also affect the type of equipment selected for the excavation and how
long it will take to perform the work.
3. What is the unit of measure in excavation? Excavation is measured in Cubic Yards (cy)
There are 27 cubic feet in a cubic yard. When specifying the volume of excavation one needs to
specify if it is measured in bank (in-situ) cubic yards, loose cubic yards, or compacted cubic yards.
Although they are each one cubic yard, the density of the soil is different in each of these instances.
4. How will the type of soil, shape of the excavation, and amount of work to be done
affect the equipment selection?

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The type of equipment selected must match the type of work to be done. Each portion of the
excavation needs to be analyzed and the best piece of equipment must be selected. Certain pieces
or groups of equipment are designed to handle specific types of excavation. Using the wrong
equipment may take more time and add work to the project.
5. What is the difference between a bank cubic yard, a loose cubic yard, and a
compacted cubic yard? Why are they important in estimating excavation?
Bank cubic yard- represents soil in its natural condition. Cuts and excavation are measured in
bank cubic yards.
Loose cubic yards- represent soil after it has been excavated and has yet to be compacted. The
density of loose soil is less than the same soil in its bank condition. Soils are transported in their
loose state; therefore, volume of the soil transported is larger than the volume excavated.
Compacted cubic yards- represent soils after they have been compacted. In general, soils in a
compacted state are denser than soils in the bank condition; therefore, more soil needs to be
excavated than volume of the backfill.
6. What is meant by cut and fill? Cut consists of bringing the ground to a lower elevation by
removing earth. Conversely, fill is the bringing in of soil to raise the elevation of a site.
7. What does the estimator have to consider if there is a substantial amount of cut on
the job? What if there is a substantial amount of fill? When estimating cut the estimator will
have to consider where the soil is being removed, where the removed soil will be hauled to, what
equipment will be required and how much it will cost. When large amounts of fill are required the
estimator will have to determine where the fill can be obtained from, what equipment will be
required to get it to the site, how it will be compacted and spread and how much it will cost.
8. How can the estimator get an estimate of the depth of topsoil on the project? One of
the primary sources of information is from the soil borings which are included in the contract
documents. Another is to visit the site and dig a small hole with a shovel or posthole digger and
measure the depth. If the later method is used a number of observation need to be made to insure
that a fair representation has been made.
9. What type of excavation is considered to be general excavation? General excavation is
the mass excavation of large amounts of soil such as that for a basement, footing, or cut for a
highway or parking lot.
10. How does general excavation differ from special excavation? While general excavation
is mass excavation needed for the project, special excavation is any portion of the work that will
require special equipment used for a particular portion of the work or requires hand excavation.
11. What is excess and borrow, and how are each considered in the estimate?
Excess- the soil that is to be removed from the site when all of the excavation is complete.
Borrow- the soil that must be brought to the site to complete the required excavation.
Once all of the excavation calculations are complete it can be determined if there is an excess or
borrow situation. Excess soil must be hauled away. Borrow must be brought in. This affects the
estimate in terms of selection of equipment, the amount of soil, and the length of haul. All of these
factors impact the cost of excavation.
12. How will the possibility of a high water table or underground stream affect the bid?
The possibility of a high water table or stream affects the bid because they may require some form
of dewatering system to be installed during the construction of the project.
13. What are piles, and under what conditions might they be required on the project?
Piles are supports used to shore up the soil when there is not space to slope the soil so it will be
safe to work without fear of soil caving in.

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14. For a project, your company needs to haul away 1,450 bank cubic yards (bcy) of soil.
If the soil has a swell of 25 percent, how many loose cubic yards (lcy) of soil will need to
be hauled? How many truckloads are required to haul the soil offsite if each truck can
haul nine loose cubic yards?
Determine the volume of the haul and the number of loads as follows:
Cubic yards of haul (lcy) = 1,450 bcy (1 + 0.25) = 1,812 lcy
15. For a project, your company needs to haul away 350 bank cubic yards of sand. If the
sand has a swell of 12 percent, how many loose cubic yards of sand will need to be
hauled? How many truckloads are required to haul the sand offsite if each truck can haul
12 loose cubic yards?
Determine the volume of the haul and the number of loads as follows:
Cubic yards of haul (lcy) = 350 bcy (1 + 0.12) = 392 lcy
16. If 750 compacted cubic yards (ccy) of in-place soil is required for a project, how
many loads of import will be required? The import material has a swell of 30 percent and
shrinkage of 90 percent. The trucks can haul 10 loose cubic yards.
Determine the volume of the haul and the number of loads as follows:
Required bcy = 750 ccy / 0.90 = 833 bcy
Loose cubic yards = 833 bcy (1 + 0.30) = 1,083 lcy
17. If 1,490 compacted cubic yards of in-place soil is required for a project, how many
loads of import will be required? The import material has a swell of 14 percent and
shrinkage of 95 percent. The trucks can haul 12 loose cubic yards.
Determine the volume of the haul and the number of loads as follows:
Required bcy = 1,490 ccy / 0.95 = 1,568 bcy
Loose cubic yards = 1,568 bcy (1 + 0.14) = 1,788 lcy

Chapter 10Concrete
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between plant ready-mixed concrete and job-mixed concrete?
Plant ready-mixed concrete is concrete, which is prepared at a central plant and then delivered to
the jobsite. These plants serve more than one construction site. Job-mixed concrete requires a field
batching plant to be built. It provides concrete for the project under construction and usually is
dismantled when the project is complete.
2. Under what circumstances might it be desirable to have a field batching plant for jobmixed concrete? It might be desirable to have a field batching plant for job-mixed concrete when
there is no existing ready-mixed companies close enough to supply the concrete or if the existing
companies cannot handle the additional work of supplying a large project. It may be advantageous

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when there is a large volume of concrete to be poured, justifying the cost of setting up a batch
plant.
3. What is the unit of measure for concrete? The unit of measure for concrete is the cubic
yard (cy).
4. Why does the estimator have to keep the different places that the concrete will be
used separate in the estimate (e.g., concrete sidewalks, floor slabs)? The concrete for
each portion of the project should be listed separately on the workup sheets because they will
probably be required on the job at different times, and require different reinforcing, forms, curing,
and finishing.
5. Why should the different strengths of concrete be kept separate? Different strengths of
concrete should be taken off separately because the higher the strength the greater the cost.
6. Where would the estimator most likely find the strength of the concrete required?
The strength of the concrete is most likely spelled out in the specifications although this information
may also be found on the drawings.
7. How is rebar taken off? In what unit of measure are large quantities ordered? Rebar is
usually taken off in linear feet of each size of bar and then converted into weight. Most rebar is sold
by hundred weight (cwt). The required lap affects the estimate because it increases the linear feet
of reinforcing bars that are required.
8. How does lap affect the rebar quantities? Lap affects the rebar quantities because it
9. How is wire mesh taken off? How is it ordered? Wire mesh is taken off by square feet
required and converted into the number of rolls or sheets that need to be ordered.
10. How is vapor barrier taken off? How does the estimator determine the number of
rolls required? Vapor barrier is taken off by the square foot required and converted into size of
rolls required. The estimator can best determine the size rolls required to determine the minimum
amount of waste by making a sketch of how the vapor barrier can be laid out on the job. It may take
several sketches to determine the most economical layout.
11. What unit of measure is used when taking off expansion joint fillers? Expansion joint
filler is taken off in linear feet with the size and type of material noted.
12. What unit of measure is used when taking off concrete finishes? Concrete finishes are
estimated by square feet (or square yards) of surface to be finished. When more than one finish is
required each finish must be listed separately.
13. Why should each finish be listed separately on the estimate? Each finish is listed
separately so that it can be bid as accurately as possible. Typically, each finish will require different
amounts of material and labor.

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14. Where would the estimator look to determine if any curing of concrete is required on
the project? The estimator would most likely find any concrete curing requirements in the
specifications.
15. Why must the estimator consider how the concrete will be transported to the job
site? The estimator must consider how the concrete will be transported to the jobsite to determine
if ready-mixed concrete is available or if they will have to arrange for job-mixed concrete.
16. What unit of measure is used when taking off concrete forms? How can reuse of
forms affect the estimate?
The most common unit of measurement for concrete forms is square feet of contact area (SFCA).
Form reuse affects the estimate because it will impact the amount of form material required and
the labor of installing and removing the form materials. It also affected the placement of concrete
on the project. If form materials are to be reused once installed, additional concrete cannot be
placed until the forms are removed and reset.
17. What unit of measure is used for form liners? When might it be more economical to
The unit of measure usually used for form lines is square feet required.
Form liners might be rented instead of purchased when the amount of usage on the job does not
provide sufficient use for purchase to be economical.
18. What two methods of pricing might a subcontractor use for precast concrete? The
two methods of pricing a subcontractor might use for installing the units would be lump sum or unit
price.
19. Many suppliers take the responsibility of installing the precast units. Why might this
be desirable? It might be desirable to have the supplier install the units if they have personnel
experienced in the particular type of installation.
20. Under what conditions might it be desirable for a contractor to precast the concrete
on the job site? A contractor might decide to precast the concrete on the jobsite if no precast
plant is located close enough to serve the project, the price quoted is higher than the cost of precasting on the project site or the pieces are too large to transport.

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Chapter 11Masonry
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What factors affect the costs of labor when estimating masonry? Factors which affect
the cost of labor when estimating masonry includes the particular masonry unit (size, shape and
weight), bond pattern, number of openings, shape of walls, distance units will be moved, height of
wall and the shape and color of the mortar joints. Other factors may include union work rules and
weather conditions.
2. How may the type of bond (pattern) affect the amount of materials required? The type
of bond affects the amount of materials needed and requires the estimator to make a more
accurate study of each size of material required so they may be more accurately bid and ordered.
3. Why is high accuracy required with an item such as masonry? High accuracy is required
on the masonry estimate because it is often a large percentage of the total project.
4. Why should local suppliers be contacted early in the bidding process when special
shapes or colors are required? Local suppliers should be contacted about special colors and
shapes in the masonry estimate early in the bidding process to give them time to review the
contract documents and see if they want to bid the job. If they do not want to bid the job. If they
want to bid the project they will need time to carefully prepare an estimate and bid.
5. Why must the estimator separate the various sizes of masonry units in the estimate?
The estimator separates the various sizes of the masonry units in the estimate so that the estimate
will be as accurate as possible. The different sizes have different costs and require differing
amounts of labor.
6. What is a cash allowance and how does it work? For certain items required to build the
project the specifications may allow for a cash allowance to be set aside for the purchase of a
specific item or material type. If the actual costs exceed the amount in the allowance the owner will
be charged for the additional amount.
7. How are stone veneer quantities estimated? Stone veneer quantities are usually estimated
by the area in square feet of a given thickness.
8. How may cold weather affect the cost of a building? Cold weather may affect the cost of
constructing a building by the need for temporary enclosures, temporary heat, thawing of
materials, slower rates of work, and a higher frequency of equipment repair.
9. Determine the number of 8-inch-high by 8-inch-wide by 16-inch-long concrete (CMU)
blocks required to complete 250 feet of the fence whose cross section is shown in Figure

10

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11.22. If lintel blocks are required wherever the #4 horizontal bars are located, how
many plain blocks and how many lintel blocks are needed for the wall?
Find the area of the wall as follows:
Wall area (sf) = 250 68 = 1,667 sf
There are 1.125 block per sf.
Number of blocks = 1,667 sf 1.125 blocks per sf = 1,875 blocks
There are two rows of lintel blocks, one at 4 and one at 68.
Lintel blocks = 2 250 12 in per ft / 16 = 375 lintel blocks
Plain blocks = 1,875 blocks 375 blocks = 1,500 plain blocks
10. Determine the amount of rebar needed for the CMU fence in Problem 9. Allow for
two inches of cover. Add 10 percent for lap and waste to the horizontal bars.
The vertical bars are calculated as follows:
Number of spaces = 250 12 in per ft / 32 = 94 spaces
Add 1 to get the number of vertical bars Use 95 bars
The vertical bars are 66 long (68 2).
Total length of vertical bars (lf) = 95 bars 6.5 per bar = 618 lf
Total weight of vertical bars (pounds) = 618 lf 1.043 pounds per lf = 645 pounds
Four horizontal bars are needed; two at 4 and two at 68.
Total length of horizontal bars (lf) = 250 4 bars = 1,000 lf
Total weight of horizontal bars (pounds) = 1,000 lf 0.668 pounds per lf = 668 pounds
Total weight of horizontal bars (pounds) = 668 pounds 1.10 = 735 pounds
Total weight of rebar (pounds) = 645 pounds + 735 pounds = 1,380 pounds
11. Using 3.5 cubic feet of mortar per 100 square feet of wall, determine the amount of
mortar needed for the CMU fence in Problem 9.
From Problem 9, the area of the fence is 1,667 sf or 16.67 sq.
Mortar (cf) = 16.67 sq 3.5 cf per sq = 58.3 cf
12. Determine the cost to lay the CMU block in Problem 9. It takes 5.5 mason labor hours
and 7.5 laborer labor hours to construct 100 square feet of wall. The average wage rate
for the masons is \$39.74 per labor hour and the average wage rate for laborers is
\$22.35 per labor hour.
From Problem 9, the area of the fence is 1,667 sf or 16.67 sq.
Mason labor hours = 16.67 sq 5.5 lhr per sq = 91.7 lhr
Mason labor cost = 91.7 lhr \$39.74/lhr = \$3,644
Laborer labor hours = 16.67 sq 7.5 lhr per sq = 125 lhr
Laborer labor cost = 125 lhr \$22.35/lhr = \$2,794
Total labor cost = \$3,644 + \$2,794 = \$6,438
13. Determine the number of 8-inch-high by 8-inch-wide by 16-inch-long concrete blocks
required to complete the wall in Figures 11.23 and 11.24. The overhead doors are 10
feet wide by 12 feet high. If lintel blocks are required wherever the #4 horizontal bars
are located and above the doors, how many plain blocks and how many lintel blocks are
needed for the wall?
Find the net area of the wall as follows:

11

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## Gross wall area (sf) = 80 174 = 1,387 sf

Area of doors (sf) = 4 10 12 = 480 sf
Net area (sf) = 1,387 sf 480 sf = 907 sf
There are 1.125 block per sf.
Number of blocks = 907 sf 1.125 blocks per sf = 1,020 blocks
There are five rows of lintel blocks, located at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 174. The bottom three rows pass
through the doors and are only a total of 40 long (80 4 10). The top two rows are 80 long.
There is 40 feet (4 10) of lintel block above the doors.
Lintel blocks (ft) = 3 40 + 2 80 + 40 = 320
Lintel blocks (ea) = 320 12 in per ft / 16 = 240 blocks
Plain blocks (ea) = 1,020 blocks 240 blocks = 780 blocks

Chapter 12Metals
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What two materials are most commonly used for structural framing metals, and how
are they priced? The two most commonly used metals for structural framing are steel and
aluminum. They are both priced by weight, usually by the ton.
2. Under what conditions might it be desirable for the contractor to use a structural
subcontractor to erect the structural metal frame of the project? The conditions under
which it might be desirable for the contractor to use a structural subcontractor to erect the
structural metal frame of the building is when the contractor does not have the equipment and
skilled personnel to erect the framing.
3. Why should the estimator list each of the different shapes (such as columns and steel
joists) separately? The estimator must list each of the different shapes separately since the
costs per ton will vary. Bulk items such as columns and beams will be less per ton than steel joists,
which require longer and different equipment to fabricate.
4. What is the unit of measure for metal decks? What type of information needs to be
noted? The unit of measure for metal decks is the square (100 square feet). Information to be
noted includes type of material, depth, gauge, finish, and method of attachment.
5. How are fabricated metal and ornamental metal usually priced? The estimator should
contact possible suppliers and see how they want to bid the job, whether it will be by the unit,
material only and if labor is included.

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Chapter 13Wood
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What unit of measure is used for lumber? The unit of measure used to estimate lumber is
board foot, board feet, or thousand board feet.
2. Determine the number of board feet for the following order: (See page 200, Formula 131)
Where:
N=Number of feet (board measure)
P=Number of pieces of lumber
T=Thickness of the lumber (in inches)
W=Width of the lumber (in inches)
L=Length of the pieces (in feet)
12=inches (1 foot), a constant-it does not change

## 190 - 2 4 @ 8'0" long = 1,013.33 bf

1,120 - 2 4 @ 12'0" long = 8,960 bf
475 - 2 6 @ 16'0" long = 7,600 bf
475 - 2 12 @ 16'-0" long = 15,200 bf
18 - 2 8 @ 18'0" long = 432 bf

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3. How would you determine the number of studs required for a project? The number of
studs required for a project is determined by:
1. Check of the specifications for the size and spacing of the studs.
2. Determine the linear feet of wall required, divide the length by the spacing required, add for any
openings, corners, wall intersections, and any miscellaneous areas such as gable ends of the wood
frame construction.
4. How do you determine the number of joists required? The number of joists (floor and
ceiling) required for a project are determined by:
1. From the contract documents determine the size, spacing, and grade of framing required.
2. Divide the spacing of the joist into the length to be covered and add one.
3. Calculate the length of the joists; remember to include bearing at the end and lap.
5. What is the difference between pitch and slope, as the terms pertain to roofing? Pitch
is rise of the roof divided by the span. Slope is the rise of the roof divided by the run (horizontal
distance to the ridge).
6. Determine the length of rafter required for each of the following conditions if the run
is 16'0":
1/ 12 pitch (1.015 factor) 160 1.015 = 16.24
1/6 pitch (1.055 factor) 160 1.055 = 16.88
3 in 12 slope (1.03 factor) 16 1.03 = 16.48
4 in 12 slope (1.055 factor) 16 1.055 = 16.88
7. What unit of measure is used for plywood when it is used for sheathing? How is
plywood waste kept to a minimum? The unit of measure for plywood when it is used as
sheathing is the number of sheets required. The thickness, identification marks, veneer grades, and
any species grade noted should also be listed. Plywood waste can be kept to a minimum by
planning the sheet layout for the project so that there are a minimum number of cuts that have to
be made and so that the carpenter knows ahead of time whether a cut piece can be used
elsewhere on the project.
8. What unit of measure is most likely to be used for laminated beams? The unit of
measure most likely to be used for laminated beams is the linear feet required. The estimator
should note the size of beams required, the type material, and the finish.
9. What unit of measure is most likely to be used for wood decking? How is it
determined? The unit of measure for wood decking is the board measure. This is determined by
calculating the square feet of area to be covered and multiplying it by a thickness of wood factor.
10. What unit of measure is used for wood trim? If it requires a finish, where is this
information noted? Wood trim is estimated by linear feet with the size and shape noted. Any
finishes required are usually noted in the specifications.

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## Chapter 14Thermal and Moisture Protection

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between waterproofing and damp-proofing? Waterproofing is
designed to resist the passage of water and usually designed to resist hydrostatic pressure to which
a wall of floor might be subjected. By contrast, damp-proofing is designed to resist dampness only,
not to resist the passage of water or hydrostatic pressure.
2. What is membrane waterproofing, and how is it estimated? Membrane waterproofing
consists of a buildup of tar or asphalt and membranes (plies) into a strong impermeable blanket. It
is estimate by the square (100 square feet).

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3. What is parging, and what unit of measure is used? Parging is a mixture of cement, fine
aggregate, and water used on exterior foundation walls to reduce the penetration of moisture into
the building. The unit of measure is cubic feet.
4. What is the unit of measure for roll batt insulation? What type of information should
be noted on the estimate? The unit of measure for roll batt insulation is the number of rolls as
determined by the square feet to be filled. The estimate should note the thickness, type, and facing
required.
5. What is the unit of measure for shingle roofing? What type of information should be
noted on the estimate? The unit of measure for shingle roofing is the square (100 square feet).
Information to be noted includes the color, style, weight, and exposure.
6. What is the unit of measure for built-up roofing? What type of information should be
noted on the estimate? The unit of measure for buildup roofing is the square (100 square feet).
Information to be noted includes the number of plies, base sheets, any aggregate covering, and the
number of coats of bituminous materials.
7. Determine the square feet of waterproofing needed for a rectangular basement 26
feet by 40 feet. The waterproofing is 8 feet high. How many gallons of waterproofing are
needed if one gallon of waterproofing will cover 60 square feet?
Find the amount of waterproofing as follows:
Length of wall = 26 + 40 + 26 + 40 = 132
Area to be waterproofed = 132 8 = 1,056 sf
Gallons of waterproofing = 1,056 sf / 60 sf per gallon = 17.6 gallons
8. Determine the cost to waterproof the basement in Problem 7 using a productivity of
1.00 labor hours per square (100 square feet) and an average labor rate of \$23.17 per
labor hour.
From Problem 7, the area of waterproofing is 1,056 sf or 10.56 sq.
Labor hours = 1.00 lhr per sq 10.56 sq = 10.56 lhr
Labor cost = 10.56 lhr \$23.17/lhr = \$244.68
9. Determine the square feet of waterproofing needed for the basement shown in
Figures 14.12 and 14.13. The waterproofing starts 6 inches from the top of the wall and
continues to the top outside corner of the footing. How many gallons of waterproofing
are needed if one gallon of waterproofing will cover 65 square feet?
Find the amount of waterproofing as follows:
Length of wall = 21 + 5 + 15 + 20 + 36 + 25 = 122
Height of the waterproofing = 8 6 + 11 = 85
Area to be waterproofed = 122 85 = 1,027 sf
Gallons of waterproofing = 1,027 sf / 65 sf per gallon = 15.8 gallons
10. Determine the cost to waterproof the basement in Problem 9 using a productivity of
0.95 labor hours per square (100 square feet) and an average labor rate of \$24.42 per
labor hour.
From Problem 9, the area of waterproofing is 1,027 sf or 10.27 sq.
Labor hours = 0.95 lhr per sq 10.27 sq = 9.76 lhr
Labor cost = 9.76 lhr \$24.42/lhr = \$238.34
Chapter 15Doors and Windows
REVIEW QUESTIONS

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1. What accessories should be checked for when taking off windows and curtain wall?
Window and curtain wall accessories include glass, glazing, screens, hardware, weather-stripping,
mullions, sills, stools, flashing, and lintels. Carefully check the drawing details and specifications.
2. Define glazing. Why must the estimator determine who will perform the required
glazing? Glazing is the setting (installation) of whatever material will be set in the window or
curtain wall frames. While many standard frames are glazed at the factory it is common for projects
to have all glazing done on the job. Subcontractors usually do the specialized work.
3. What information is required to price a door? The information required to price a door
includes sizes required, frame and core type, face veneer, prefinished or job finished, pre-hung or
job hung, hardware, and accessories.
4. Describe the advantages in pre-fitting and pre-finishing doors. The advantages of prefitted and prefinished doors are that it takes a difficult estimating item and simplifies it
considerable. It means that the door will not have to be hung or fitted in the field.
5. Why should the type of finish required on the door and door frames be noted on the
workup sheet? The type of finish required on the doors and door frames should be noted in the
workup sheets to be certain that it is not forgotten in the estimate. If the finishes are to be done on
the job they must be included under finishes. Factory finishes need to be noted to be certain they
are properly included in the estimate.
6. Describe briefly the ways hardware may be handled on a project. Hardware is broken
down into rough and finished hardware. Rough hardware is almost always included in the contract
and must be estimated. Finish hardware may be handled by a cash allowance or as a complete
schedule of hardware required, which is bid by a hardware supplier.
7. What precautions must an estimator take when using an allowance, from the
specifications, in the estimate? When the estimator uses a cash allowance from the contract
documents, great care must be taken to understand exactly what is covered with the allowance.
Often the cash allowance is for materials only and the estimator still must estimate the associated
labor costs.
8. What is the unit of measure for glass, and why should the various types and sizes
required be listed separately? The unit of measure of glass is square feet. The various types
and sizes need to be listed separately in order to develop an accurate bid.

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Chapter 16Finishes
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between drywall and wetwall? Drywall construction utilizes
wallboard while wetwall utilizes plaster and stucco. Since the plaster and stucco are applied wet it is
referred to as wetwall construction and since the wallboards are dry they are referred to a drywall.
2. Why should walls of various heights, thicknesses, and finishes be listed separately?
Walls with various heights, thickness, and finishes should be listed separately so that the estimator
can accurately do a quantity take off of each area for wall sizes, finishes, and heights. These
variables may also affect the pricing of the required labor.
3. What procedure is used to estimate the steel studs and runners used? The procedure
used to estimate steel studs is to make a listing of each wall length, its thickness and height and
then calculate the studs required.
The number of studs is calculated by determining the linear feet of wall required, dividing the
length by the spacing required, adding for any openings, corners, and wall intersections; then
The runners are calculated by finding the total linear feet of each wall, note its width, and add
together wall lengths of the same width. Runners are required at the top and bottom of the studs.
4. List the types of lath used for wetwall and the unit of measure for each.
Gypsum tile the number of units
Gypsum plaster lath number of sheets or thousands of square feet
Metal lath square yards
Wood lath square yards
5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using subcontractors for drywall and
wetwall construction? Drywall and wetwall are special types of construction which require
specialized methods of installation and equipment. It may be more economical to have
subcontractors who specialize in this type of construction to do the work.
Subcontractors often have specialized experience, equipment, and workers capable of doing a
particular portion of work better and more economically than a general contractor.
One disadvantage is that the estimator must still do an estimate and compare it with the
subcontractors proposal. Other disadvantages include the dependence on someone else to do the
work, meet the time schedule, and perform in a workmanlike fashion.
6. What unit of measure is used for wood block flooring, and what information should be
noted on the workup sheets? The unit of measure is square feet area to be covered or by the
square (100 sf). The information to be noted includes the thickness of material, type of material,
method of installation, and finish.
7. What unit of measure is used for resilient flooring, and what information should be
noted on the workup sheets? The unit of measure for resilient flooring is the square foot.
Information to be noted includes the thickness of flooring, size and shape, color, design layout, type
of subfloor, and underlayment.

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8. What unit of measure is used to estimate carpet, and what can be done to minimize
waste? The unit of measure for carpet is the square yard. Waste can be minimized by carefully
planning the layout of each room so that waste is minimized.

Chapter 17Electrical
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between single and separate contracts? Single contracts all of
the work to be done on the project, including the electrical work is the responsibility of one single
prime contractor. This centralizes the responsibility for the work being done and means that the
owner only has to deal with one contractor who is responsible for the project.
Separate contract The owner enters into separate contracts with various contractors, including
electrical contractors, for various portions of the work.
2. Why are the plumbing, HVAC, and electrical portions of the work often put out under
separate contracts? The plumbing, HVAC, and electrical portions of the job are often put out
under separate contracts because they are major portions of the work which require specialists, the
owner does not want to leave this selection to the general contractor, and the general contractor
adds a percentage to their price to coordinate the work and billings.
3. Why should the estimator review the electrical portions of the job whether it involves
single or separate contracts? The estimator should review the electrical portions of the job
whether it is a single or separate contracts because under either contract there may be areas of
coordination and mutual responsibility which the estimator must be aware of.
4. Why is cooperation and coordination so important between the various contractors on
a project? Cooperation and coordination is important between the various contractors on a job
because the finished project requires the blending of all trades on the job. This includes the
understanding of who is responsible for what and when it needs to be done and the importance of
accomplishing all work on time.
5. How will the various types of construction affect the cost of the electrical work? The
various types of construction affect the electrical work because it affects the cost and difficulty of
installation. The costs will vary dramatically by the type of construction. While steel joists offer
excellent flexibility for running conduit and conductors, precast concrete will require considerable
more planning.

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Chapter 18Plumbing
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. How do the various codes affect the installation of the plumbing portions of the
project? The various codes affect the installation of the work because the applicable code must be
followed in the installation. It usually affects the sizing, layout, and installation procedures used for
the plumbing, HVAC, and electrical.
2. What type of work is most generally included under plumbing? Plumbing usually
includes water supply and sewage and storm water drainage.
3. Why would an estimator call a subcontractor if it is suspected that the
subcontractors bid is too low? It is important that a bidder be notified if the estimator believes
that their bid is too low because each contractor on the job must make a profit or they will go out of
business. If a contractor cannot make a profit on the job they may be slow to staff the project or
may cut corners in an attempt to minimize their losses.
4. Why should the estimator review the plumbing portions of the project whether it
involves single or separate contracts? The plumbing portion of the contract documents should
be reviewed by the general contractors estimator to determine if there are any obvious errors,
overlaps of work or missing information. The estimator will want to be certain of who is responsible
for many of the coordination aspects of the job, such as trenching, backfilling and the like.
5. How do the various types of construction affect the cost of the plumbing work? The
various types of construction affect the cost of installation of the plumbing work because each will
make it either easy or more difficult to install. In addition, some types of construction require more
coordination than do others.

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## Chapter 19Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Would electric heat most likely be placed under electrical, plumbing, or HVAC? In most
contracts, electric heat would be included under the heating section of the contract. In most cases
it would still require a licensed electrician to install it.
2. How do the various types of construction affect the cost of the heating work? The type
of construction will determine how easily installed the system will be. This has a direct effect on the
cost of the project.
3. Why are subcontractors hired under single contracts to perform the HVAC work?
Subcontractors are hired because installation of the HVAC portion of the project requires expertise
which the general contractors crews most likely do not have. In addition, some contract documents
and building codes require licensed personnel to perform the work.

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Chapter 20Profit
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Where should home office overhead be included? It should be included in the estimated
cost of the building as a separate line item.
2. How should project risk affect the profit on a job? Profit should be increased on risky jobs.
It is far better to bid what you feel is high enough to cover the risks than to neglect the risks, bid
low, and lose money.
3. Why should you track your competitors bids? So that the data can be used when
selecting a profit margin.

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4. What is the problem with needing or wanting a job? You may ignore the risk
associated with the project and included too little profit to cover the risks.
5. What should an estimator take into account when setting the profit margin for a job?
Job size, accuracy of the takeoff and pricing, who is bidding on the job, quality of the drawings, how
well you understand the job, architect or engineers reputation, other risks, and potential problems.

## Chapter 21Other Estimating Methods

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. How would you determine the costs for a project using the project comparison
method? By comparing the proposed project to one or more similar projects that the company has

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built and then adjusting these costs for any differences in the projects, including project location,
inflation, and changes in market conditions.
2. How would you determine the costs for a project using the square foot method and
in-house cost data? Determine the historical cost per square foot, then multiply the square
footage of the proposed project by this cost per square foot. Finally, adjust the price to compensate
for differences in the project.
3. What are some of the ratios that you would use to prepare a line-by-line square foot
estimate?

Area ratio
Perimeter ratio
Fixed cost (1)

4. What components would you include in an exterior wall assembly for a residence?

## The most common included:

Bottom (sill) plate
Studs
Top plate(s)
Wood sheathing
Insulation
Drywall
Paint
Exterior finish (siding, brick, stucco, etc.)

5. List the items that you would need to include in a concrete footing and foundation
wall assembly.
The list should include:
Footing concrete
continuous footing rebar
cross wise footing rebar
dowels
foundation concrete
horizontal foundation rebar
vertical foundation rebar
Other

water stop
footing forms
foundation forms
anchor bolts

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