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+ =xBE {x BE ;
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(P) n BE F BE + +x BEA Vx { ] BE BE ;
(R) i BE M i + x ii BE x BE xh BE V v, +
|n M { +vi n { c, A |l+ BE iM BE V j BE x BE r
c ;
(S) c BE BEi BE M {{ BE ci Z + =BE {Fh BE ;
(U) |BEiBE {h BE, VBE +iMi x, Z, xn + x V c, F BE + =BE
vx BE il |h j BE |i n J ;
(V) YxBE o]BEh, xn + YxVx il v BE x BE BE BE ;
(Z) VxBE {k BE Fi J + c n c ;
(\) BBDiMi + cBE Miv BE Fj =iBE BE + fx BE ii | BE
V ] xi fi cA |ix + ={v BE x< >S< BE U ;

[(]) n i-{i FBE c, Uc Snc iBE BE + +{x, lli, BE

|i{ BE A F BE + |nx BE *]


vx ( vx) +vx, 1976 BE v 11 u (3-1-1977 ) +i&l{i *

vx (U vx) +vx, BE v 4 u (+vSx BE iJ ) +i&l{i BE VAM *




51A. Fundamental duties.It shall be the duty of every citizen of India

(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National
Flag and the National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people
of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to
renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and
wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so
that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.]
[(k) who is a parent of guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or,
as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.]


Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 11 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).

Ins by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, s. 4 (date to be notified).