DNA REFLECTION.

Double stranded DNA forms a double helix structure. The DNA double helix coils up into compact structures called chromosomes. .SUMMARY: DNA is composed of nucleotides bonded to a sugar-phosphate backbone. Small segments of the chromosome that encode a single protein are called genes.

PROJECT IN SCIENCE .

LADY JULY DELA CRUZ TVL1-COOKERY .

ABSTRACT: .go. e-mail: kaz@affrc. Midorigaoka.Development of a Reference Material of a Single DNA Molecule for the Quality Control of PCR Testing Junichi Mano†. Kannondai. Chiyoda-ku... Satoshi Futo‡§.. Japan § Japan Micro Array Consortium. Shigehiro Naito†. Atsugi. Kojimachi. National Agriculture and Food Research Organization. pp 8621–8627 DOI: 10. Reona Takabatake†. Ltd. Japan ‡ Fasmac Co. 2-4-10. Japan Anal. Tsukuba. fax: +81-29-838-7369. Junji Yoshii§. and Kazumi Kitta*† † National Food Research Institute. 5-1-3. 2-1-12.jp. Ibaraki 305-8642.1021/ac501314s Publication Date (Web): July 25. Kanagawa 243-0041. Tokyo 1020083. 2014. Hiroki Nakae§. 2014 Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society *Tel: +81-29-838-7369. Chem. Shuko Hatano‡. 86 (17).

the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the . The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule. and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence. Subsequently.We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence.

PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments. and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation.standard sequence. the quality control of PCR analyses. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods. .

In fact. more commonly known as DNA. All living things have DNA within their cells. a portion of their DNA is passed along to their offspring. This transmission of all or part of an organism's DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity from one generation to the next. while still allowing for slight changes that contribute to the diversity of life. DNA does more than specify the structure and function of living things — it also serves as the primary unit of heredity in organisms of all types. However. In other words.Introduction: WHAT IS DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid. whenever organisms reproduce. nearly every cell in a multicellular organism possesses the full set of DNA required for that organism. is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. .

is DNA? What smaller elements make up this complex molecule. how are these elements arranged. and it also provides a basic overview of the process of DNA discovery. . exactly.But what. and how is information extracted from them? This unit answers each of these questions.

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