DNA REFLECTION.

SUMMARY: DNA is composed of nucleotides bonded to a sugar-phosphate backbone. Small segments of the chromosome that encode a single protein are called genes. Double stranded DNA forms a double helix structure. The DNA double helix coils up into compact structures called chromosomes. .

PROJECT IN SCIENCE .

LADY JULY DELA CRUZ TVL1-COOKERY .

5-1-3.jp. Japan ‡ Fasmac Co. Tsukuba. Kannondai. and Kazumi Kitta*† † National Food Research Institute. ABSTRACT: .. Shigehiro Naito†. Hiroki Nakae§. 2-1-12. pp 8621–8627 DOI: 10. National Agriculture and Food Research Organization. e-mail: kaz@affrc. Atsugi. Tokyo 1020083. Chiyoda-ku. fax: +81-29-838-7369. Satoshi Futo‡§. 2014. Junji Yoshii§.Development of a Reference Material of a Single DNA Molecule for the Quality Control of PCR Testing Junichi Mano†.go.. Kojimachi. 86 (17). Kanagawa 243-0041. Reona Takabatake†. Shuko Hatano‡. Japan Anal. Ltd.. Japan § Japan Micro Array Consortium. 2014 Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society *Tel: +81-29-838-7369. Midorigaoka. Chem. Ibaraki 305-8642. 2-4-10.1021/ac501314s Publication Date (Web): July 25.

The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. Subsequently. the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the . and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule.We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence. the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products.

. the quality control of PCR analyses. performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation.standard sequence.

. In other words. DNA does more than specify the structure and function of living things — it also serves as the primary unit of heredity in organisms of all types. In fact. This transmission of all or part of an organism's DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity from one generation to the next. while still allowing for slight changes that contribute to the diversity of life. However. more commonly known as DNA. All living things have DNA within their cells.Introduction: WHAT IS DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid. is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. a portion of their DNA is passed along to their offspring. nearly every cell in a multicellular organism possesses the full set of DNA required for that organism. whenever organisms reproduce.

But what. is DNA? What smaller elements make up this complex molecule. and it also provides a basic overview of the process of DNA discovery. exactly. how are these elements arranged. . and how is information extracted from them? This unit answers each of these questions.

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