. Double stranded DNA forms a double helix structure. The DNA double helix coils up into compact structures called chromosomes. Small segments of the chromosome that encode a single protein are called genes.SUMMARY: DNA is composed of nucleotides bonded to a sugar-phosphate backbone.



jp. Midorigaoka. 86 (17). ABSTRACT: .1021/ac501314s Publication Date (Web): July 25. Japan ‡ Fasmac Co. Shigehiro Naito†. National Agriculture and Food Research Organization. Kojimachi. Reona Takabatake†. Chem. Junji Yoshii§. Hiroki Nakae§. Satoshi Futo‡§. Kanagawa 243-0041. and Kazumi Kitta*† † National Food Research Institute..go. pp 8621–8627 DOI: 10. Chiyoda-ku. Ltd. Kannondai. Shuko Hatano‡. Atsugi. fax: +81-29-838-7369. e-mail: kaz@affrc.Development of a Reference Material of a Single DNA Molecule for the Quality Control of PCR Testing Junichi Mano†. 2014 Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society *Tel: +81-29-838-7369. Tokyo 1020083.. Japan § Japan Micro Array Consortium. 5-1-3.. Japan Anal. Tsukuba. 2-4-10. 2014. 2-1-12. Ibaraki 305-8642.

and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products. The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. Subsequently. the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the . The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule. the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence.We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence.

performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. the quality control of PCR analyses.standard sequence. and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation. .

is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. This transmission of all or part of an organism's DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity from one generation to the next. DNA does more than specify the structure and function of living things — it also serves as the primary unit of heredity in organisms of all types. In fact.Introduction: WHAT IS DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid. All living things have DNA within their cells. more commonly known as DNA. a portion of their DNA is passed along to their offspring. while still allowing for slight changes that contribute to the diversity of life. whenever organisms reproduce. nearly every cell in a multicellular organism possesses the full set of DNA required for that organism. However. . In other words.

and it also provides a basic overview of the process of DNA discovery. is DNA? What smaller elements make up this complex molecule. exactly.But what. how are these elements arranged. and how is information extracted from them? This unit answers each of these questions. .

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