Double stranded DNA forms a double helix structure. Small segments of the chromosome that encode a single protein are called genes. . The DNA double helix coils up into compact structures called chromosomes.SUMMARY: DNA is composed of nucleotides bonded to a sugar-phosphate backbone.



Junji Yoshii§. 2014. Satoshi Futo‡§. Kannondai. Japan ‡ Fasmac Co. Chiyoda-ku. Atsugi. fax: +81-29-838-7369. Japan Anal. Ibaraki 305-8642. pp 8621–8627 DOI: 10. 2-1-12. Reona Takabatake†. and Kazumi Kitta*† † National Food Research Institute. 2014 Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society *Tel: +81-29-838-7369.. Shigehiro Naito†. Midorigaoka. 5-1-3. Kanagawa 243-0041. Tsukuba. e-mail: kaz@affrc. Hiroki Nakae§..Development of a Reference Material of a Single DNA Molecule for the Quality Control of PCR Testing Junichi Mano†. Ltd. Chem. 86 (17). National Agriculture and Food Research Organization. Tokyo 1020083. 2-4-10.go.1021/ac501314s Publication Date (Web): July 25. ABSTRACT: .jp. Japan § Japan Micro Array Consortium.. Kojimachi. Shuko Hatano‡.

the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the . the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence.We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence. The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products. and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule. Subsequently.

The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods. . and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation. the quality control of PCR analyses.standard sequence. performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability.

. more commonly known as DNA. This transmission of all or part of an organism's DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity from one generation to the next.Introduction: WHAT IS DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA does more than specify the structure and function of living things — it also serves as the primary unit of heredity in organisms of all types. All living things have DNA within their cells. a portion of their DNA is passed along to their offspring. nearly every cell in a multicellular organism possesses the full set of DNA required for that organism. is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. In fact. In other words. while still allowing for slight changes that contribute to the diversity of life. whenever organisms reproduce. However.

exactly.But what. and it also provides a basic overview of the process of DNA discovery. is DNA? What smaller elements make up this complex molecule. . how are these elements arranged. and how is information extracted from them? This unit answers each of these questions.

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