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11/30/2016

MONDAY, NOVEMBER 14TH, 2016

Review Question:
Agenda:

Case Study

CHAPTER 6

A Tour of the Cell

With your table partner, match the parts!

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 15TH, 2016

Review Question:
Agenda:

Finish case study


Reading Guide for Chapter 6
Mastering Biology Quiz is due Friday at 11:59
Lab: How to use a microscope

Body Tube

Nosepiece
Objectives

Ocular lens
(Eyepiece)

Arm
Stage

Stage Clips
Diaphragm
Light

Whats my power?
To calculate the power of magnification, multiply the power of the
ocular lens by the power of the objective.

Coarse Adjustment

What are the powers of


magnification for each of
the objectives we have on
our microscopes?

Fine Adjustment
Base

Always carry a microscope with one hand


holding the arm and one hand under the base.

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How to Focus a Microscope:

Comparing Powers of Magnification

Step 1. Stage at lowest position and objective on the red (4x). This is storing position!
Step 2: Use coarse objective to focus image.

We can see better details with higher the


powers of magnification, but we cannot see
as much of the image.

Step 3: Turn to yellow (10x) objective. DO NOT TOUCH THE COARSE ADJUSTMENT.
Step 4: Use FINE ADJUSTMENT to focus image.
Step 5: Carefully turn to blue (40x) objective. DO NOT TOUCH THE COARSE ADJUSTMENT.
Step 6: Use FINE ADJUSTMENT to focus image. 40x objective may not fit, dont force it.

Which of these images


would be viewed at a
higher power of
magnification?

TIPS:
1. Go through all of the steps and dont see anything? Start over from the beginning!
2. DO NOT use the coarse adjustment on any objective except the RED 4x objective.

Safety concerns when working with slides


Slides are GLASS: they are fragile and easy to
break. Handle with care!

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 15TH, 2016

Limits to cell size lab

Please dont use the coarse (big) adjustment on


the highest (blue) objective!
If you break a slide, let Mrs. Pagett know right
away so it can be cleaned up. Do not attempt to
clean up the glass by yourself!

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 17TH, 2016

Review Question: Which structure is common to


plant and animal cells?

A. Chloroplast
B. Cell wall made of cellulose
C. Central Vacuole
D. Mitochondrion
E. Centriole

Agenda:

A few notes
Baggie Cells
Cell Race

YOU MUST KNOW

Three differences between


prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The structure and function of
organelles common to plant and
animal cells.
The structure and function of
organelles found only in plant cells
or only in animal cells.

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A PROKARYOTIC CELL (BACTERIA)

2 TYPES OF CELLS:
1. Prokaryotes: Domain Bacteria &
Archaea
2. Eukaryotes (Domain Eukarya):
Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals

PROKARYOTE VS. EUKARYOTE


before

true

No

kernel
nucleus
DNA in a nucleoid
Cytosol
No organelles other
than ribosomes
Small size
Primitive
i.e. Bacteria & Archaea

Has

Cells

kernel
nucleus and nuclear
envelope
Cytosol
Membrane-bound
organelles with
specialized
structure/function
Much larger in size
More complex
i.e. plant/animal cell

must be small to maintain a large surface


area to volume ratio
Large S.A. allows rates of chemical exchange
between cell and environment

CELL SIZE AND SCALE


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/
Scale of the Universe:
http://www.onemorelevel.com/game/scale_of_the_unive
rse_2012

NUCLEUS
Function: control center of cell
Contains DNA
Surrounded by double membrane (nuclear envelope)
Continuous with the rough ER
Nuclear pores: control what enters/leaves nucleus
Chromatin: complex of DNA + proteins; makes up
chromosomes
Nucleolus: region where ribosomal subunits are
formed

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NUCLEUS
Contains DNA
Function: control center of cell
Surrounded by double membrane (nuclear envelope)
Continuous with the rough ER
Nuclear pores: control what enters/leaves nucleus
Chromatin: complex of DNA + proteins; makes up
chromosomes
Nucleolus: region where ribosomal subunits are
formed

RIBOSOMES
Function: protein synthesis
Composed of rRNA + protein
Large subunit + small subunit
Types:
1. Free ribosomes: float in cytosol, produce
proteins used within cell
2. Bound ribosomes: attached to ER, make
proteins for export from cell

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)

ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM:
Regulates protein traffic & performs
metabolic functions

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)

Network of membranes and sacs


Types:
1. Rough ER: ribosomes on surface
Function: package proteins for secretion,
send transport vesicles to Golgi, make
replacement membrane
2. Smooth ER: no ribosomes on surface
Function: synthesize lipids, metabolize
carbs, detox drugs & poisons, store Ca2+

GOLGI APPARATUS
Function: synthesis & packaging of materials (small
molecules) for transport (in vesicles); produce lysosomes
Series of flattened membrane sacs (cisternae)
Cis face: receives vesicles
Trans face: ships vesicles

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LYSOSOMES
Function: intracellular digestion; recycle cells
materials; programmed cell death (apoptosis)
Contains hydrolytic enzymes

VACUOLES
Function: storage of materials (food, water, minerals,
pigments, poisons)
Membrane-bound vesicles
Eg. food vacuoles, contractile vacuoles
Plants: large central vacuole -- stores water, ions

Parts of plant & animal cell p 108-109

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MITOCHONDRIA
Function: site of cellular respiration
Double membrane: outer and inner membrane
Cristae: folds of inner membrane; contains enzymes
for ATP production; increased surface area to ATP
made
Matrix: fluid-filled inner compartment

CHLOROPLASTS

ENDOSYMBIONT THEORY

Function: site of photosynthesis


Double membrane
Thylakoid disks in stacks (grana); stroma (fluid)
Contains chlorophylls (pigments) for capturing
sunlight energy

PEROXISOMES

Functions: break down fatty acids; detox alcohol


Involves production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)

Mitochondria & chloroplasts


share similar origin
Prokaryotic cells engulfed by
ancestors of eukaryotic cells
Evidence:
Double-membrane
structure
Have own ribosomes &
DNA
Reproduce independently
within cell

CYTOSKELETON: NETWORK OF PROTEIN FIBERS

Function: support, motility, regulate biochemical


activities

11/30/2016

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 18TH, 2016

Review Question: Identify the structure labeled A and


explain how it is adapted for the organelle to function
efficiently.

SURFACE AREA EXAMPLE (ANIMAL):

Cristae (inner membrane) provide additional surface area


for the enzymatic reactions of respiration.

Agenda:

Discuss Baggie Cells


Discuss Cell Race
Start Chapter 7
Animal Care

FOLDS VILLI MICROVILLI

Small Intestine: highly folded surface to


increase absorption of nutrients
Villi: finger-like projections on SI wall
Microvilli: projections on each cell

SURFACE AREA EXAMPLE (PLANT):


Root hairs: extensions of root epidermal cells;
increase surface area for absorbing water and
minerals

INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS (ANIMAL


CELLS)

EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM)


Outside plasma membrane
Composed of glycoproteins (ex. collagen)
Function: Strengthens tissues and transmits external
signals to cell

Tight junctions: 2 cells


are fused to form
watertight seal
Desmosomes: rivets
that fasten cells into
strong sheets
Gap junctions:
channels through which
ions, sugar, small
molecules can pass

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PLANT CELLS
Plant Cells Only

Animals Cells Only

Cell wall: protect plant,


maintain shape
Composed of cellulose
Plasmodesmata:
channels between cells to
allow passage of
molecules

Central vacuoles

Lysosomes

Chloroplasts

Centrioles

Cell wall of cellulose

Flagella, cilia

Plasmodesmata

Desmosomes, tight and


gap junctions
Extracellular matrix
(ECM)

HARVARD CELL VIDEO


http://multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu/anim_innerlife
.html