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2

= G s
( )

# System Block Diagram Representation

• ##  Many systems are composed of multiple subsystems based on the following fundamental signal flow

Summation junction point
Pickoff point

Equivalent

1
C s
( )
=
G s
( )
R s
( )
X
( ) 
s
G s
( )

# Block Diagram Manipulation

• ##  With the aid of the block diagram manipulation, the roots (or the poles) of the single transfer function can be found by solving the denominator polynomial.

The roots of the system
affect the response.

# Block Diagram Manipulation

• ##  MATLAB function name: “roots”

2
Ex.1. Consider a polynomial
s
+
2
s +
3
=
0
2
− 2
±
2
4
3
The roots are
s
=
= − 1 ±
2
1, 2
2

5

4

3
s
+
4
s

2

# Signal Flow Graphs

• ## system

signal
Interconnection of
systems & signals

# SFG to State Space Representation

• ##  Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives

Equivalent Representation
.
ci(t)
ri(t)
ci(t)
s-domain  Time domain

# SFG to State Space Representation

• ##  Transfer function representation

Signal flow graph
x
x
x
3
2
1

x1(t) .
x2(t) .
x3(t) .

x
1
State
x
Equation
2
x
3

2

3

3

2

1

Output
Equation
y = x
1

Canonical
Form
Parallel

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

1.
2.
3.

+
+
+
+
+

C s
( )
T ∆
( )
=
=
( )
N
k = 1
k
k
G s
R s

G
( )
s G
( )
s G
( )
s
1
2
3
G
( )
s G
( )
s
1
3

1

2

2

2

3

3

1

2

2

3

3

1

2

1

3

3

2

2

1

2

3

1

3

N

k =

1

k

k

2

k

=

1

k

k

1

1

2

3

2

2

1

3

2

2

3

1

1

2

1

2

2

3

3

3

1

2

1

3

3

3

3