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Automatic Control Control System Representation 1-Nov-16

Automatic Control

 

Control System Representation

 

1-Nov-16

Aims for this chapter

  • Convert block diagrams to signal-flow diagrams.

  • Reduce a block diagram of multiple subsystems to a single block representing the transfer function from input to output.

  • Find the transfer function of multiple subsystems using Mason’s rule.

  • Represent state equations as signal-flow graphs

  • Represent multiple subsystems in state space in cascade, parallel, controller canonical, and observer canonical forms.

  • Perform transformations between similar systems using transformation matrices; and diagonalize a system matrix

System Block Diagram Representation

  • So far, we have been working with individual subsystems represented by a block with its input and output via considering

    • Modeling & Linearization

    • Laplace Transform & Input/output TF representation

modeling

System Block Diagram Representation  So far, we have been working with individual subsystems represented by

= − x + x

x

2

sin x + u

linearization

System Block Diagram Representation  So far, we have been working with individual subsystems represented by

x= − x + u

System Block

 

Representation

U (s )

( s ) ( s ) ( s ) TF

G (s )

 
( s ) ( s ) ( s ) TF

X (s )

( s ) ( s ) ( s ) TF

TF

 

:

  • X ( )

s

U

( )

s

= G s ( )
= G s
( )

Laplace

Transform

=

1

s + 1

  • For more complicated systems, they are going to be represented by the interconnection of many subsystems

System Block Diagram Representation

  • As you already know, a subsystem is represented as a block with an input, an output, and a transfer function.

System Block Diagram Representation  As you already know, a subsystem is represented as a block
  • Many systems are composed of multiple subsystems based on the following fundamental signal flow

Summation junction point
Summation junction point
System Block Diagram Representation  As you already know, a subsystem is represented as a block
Pickoff point
Pickoff point

System Block Diagram Representation

  • We will now examine some common topologies for interconnecting subsystems and derive the single transfer function representation for each of them.

  • These common topologies will form the basis for reducing more complicated systems to a single block (or the so-called equivalent representation).

  • The topologies include:

    • A. Cascade Form

    • B. Parallel Form

    • C. Feedback Form

System Block Diagram Representation

  • A. Cascade Form

  • For the cascade form, it can be found that each signal is derived from the product of the input times the transfer function

System Block Diagram Representation  A. Cascade Form  For the cascade form, it can be

Equivalent

Representation

System Block Diagram Representation  A. Cascade Form  For the cascade form, it can be

System Block Diagram Representation

  • B. Parallel Form

  • Parallel subsystems have a common input and an output formed by the algebraic sum of the outputs from all of the subsystems.

Equivalent
Equivalent
System Block Diagram Representation  B. Parallel Form  Parallel subsystems have a common input and

Representation

System Block Diagram Representation  B. Parallel Form  Parallel subsystems have a common input and

System Block Diagram Representation

  • C. Feedback Form

  • Note that the feedback system is the basis for our study of control systems engineering.

System Block Diagram Representation  C. Feedback Form  Note that the feedback system is the
System Block Diagram Representation  C. Feedback Form  Note that the feedback system is the

Equivalent

Representation

System Block Diagram Representation  C. Feedback Form  Note that the feedback system is the
System Block Diagram Representation  C. Feedback Form  Note that the feedback system is the

Block Diagram Manipulation

  • Following shows the equivalent block diagrams when transfer functions are moved left or right past a summing junction

Block Diagram Manipulation  Following shows the equivalent block diagrams when transfer functions are moved left
Block Diagram Manipulation  Following shows the equivalent block diagrams when transfer functions are moved left

C (s ) = G (s )(R (s ) X (s ))

Block Diagram Manipulation  Following shows the equivalent block diagrams when transfer functions are moved left

C (s ) = G (s )R (s ) G (s )X (s )

Block Diagram Manipulation

  • Following shows the equivalent block diagrams when transfer functions are moved left or right past a summing junction

Block Diagram Manipulation  Following shows the equivalent block diagrams when transfer functions are moved left
Block Diagram Manipulation  Following shows the equivalent block diagrams when transfer functions are moved left

C (s ) = G (s )R (s ) X (s )

 1  C s ( ) = G s ( )  R s (
1
C s
( )
=
G s
( )
R s
( )
X
( ) 
s
G s
( )

Block Diagram Manipulation

  • Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block to the left past a pickoff point & to the right past a pickoff point.

Block Diagram Manipulation  Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block
Block Diagram Manipulation  Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block
Block Diagram Manipulation  Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block
Block Diagram Manipulation  Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block
Block Diagram Manipulation  Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block
Block Diagram Manipulation  Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

  • Based on the previous topologies, let’s try to simply the following system block diagram.

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Based on the previous topologies, let’s try to simply the following

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

  • Examine the summation nodes, one can find

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Examine the summation nodes, one can find

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

  • Examine the feedback terms, one can find

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Examine the feedback terms, one can find
Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Examine the feedback terms, one can find
Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Examine the feedback terms, one can find

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

  • Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

  • Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!
Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!
Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

  • Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

  • Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!
Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a SINGLE transfer function!

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)
Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)
Block Diagram Manipulation (ex.)

Block Diagram Manipulation

  • With the aid of the block diagram manipulation, the roots (or the poles) of the single transfer function can be found by solving the denominator polynomial.

The roots of the system affect the response.
The roots of the system
affect the response.
  • Note that the above TF is also called the closed-loop transfer function and the poles dominate the stability of the CL system.

  • The relationships between the roots and the time domain response will be discussed in the next chapter~

Block Diagram Manipulation

  • In MATLAB, it provides a function to solve the roots of polynomials.

  • MATLAB function name: “roots

2  Ex.1. Consider a polynomial s + 2 s + 3 = 0 2 −
2
Ex.1. Consider a polynomial
s
+
2
s +
3
=
0
2
− 2
±
2
4
3
The roots are
s
=
= − 1 ±
2
1, 2
2
  • Solve it by MATLAB using

roots([1 2 3])

Block Diagram Manipulation  In M ATLAB , it provides a function to solve the roots

-1.0000 + 1.4142i -1.0000 - 1.4142i

  • Ex.2. Consider a higher order polynomial

s

5

+

2

s

4

+

3

roots([1 2 3 4 5 6])

3 s + 4 s
3
s
+
4
s

2

+

5

s +

6

=

0

-1.4918

+ 1.2533i

  • 0.5517 -0.8058 + 1.2229i

- 1.2533i

  • 0.5517 -0.8058 - 1.2229i

Signal Flow Graphs

  • Signal-flow graphs are an alternative to block diagrams.

  • Unlike block diagrams (which consist of blocks, signals, summing junctions, and pickoff points), a signal-flow graph consists only of

branches and nodes, which represent systems and signals,

respectively.

  • system

Signal Flow Graphs  Signal-flow graphs are an alternative to block diagrams.  Unlike block diagrams
Signal Flow Graphs  Signal-flow graphs are an alternative to block diagrams.  Unlike block diagrams
signal
signal
Interconnection of systems & signals
Interconnection of
systems & signals

Signal Flow Graphs

  • Recall the system represented in block diagram

Signal Flow Graphs  Recall the system represented in block diagram  The corresponding signal flow
  • The corresponding signal flow graph is

Signal Flow Graphs  Recall the system represented in block diagram  The corresponding signal flow

Signal Flow Graphs

  • Again, for the parallel system block diagram

Signal Flow Graphs  Again, for the parallel system block diagram

Signal Flow Graphs

  • Last, for the feedback form

Signal Flow Graphs  Last, for the feedback form

Signal Flow Graphs

  • Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph!

Signal Flow Graphs  Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph!
Signal Flow Graphs  Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph!
Signal Flow Graphs  Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph!

SFG to State Space Representation

  • Following we are trying to transform each 1 st order block into an equivalent differential equation.

  • Recall that each first-order block is of the form

SFG to State Space Representation  Following we are trying to transform each 1 order block

Cross-multiplying

SFG to State Space Representation  Following we are trying to transform each 1 order block
SFG to State Space Representation  Following we are trying to transform each 1 order block
  • Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives

Equivalent Representation . ci(t) ri(t) ci(t) s-domain  Time domain
Equivalent Representation
.
ci(t)
ri(t)
ci(t)
s-domain  Time domain

SFG to State Space Representation

  • For a given transfer function, one can also

    • firstly represent the system in the form of signal flow graph.

    • secondly represent the system by the (time domain) differential equation.

    • finally represent it in the form of state-space

  • For the following 3 rd order TF

  • SFG to State Space Representation  For a given transfer function, one can also  firstly
    • It can be represented by the following “Cascade Form

    SFG to State Space Representation  For a given transfer function, one can also  firstly
    • We have known that each 1 st order system can be transformed into a 1 st order differential equation.

    SFG to State Space Representation

    • Transfer function representation

    SFG to State Space Representation  Transfer function representation  Signal flow graph x x x
     Signal flow graph x x x 3 2 1
    Signal flow graph
    x
    x
    x
    3
    2
    1
    • State differential equation

    SFG to State Space Representation  Transfer function representation  Signal flow graph x x x
    SFG to State Space Representation  Transfer function representation  Signal flow graph x x x
    SFG to State Space Representation  Transfer function representation  Signal flow graph x x x
    SFG to State Space Representation  Transfer function representation  Signal flow graph x x x

    SFG to State Space Representation

    • Moreover, based on the differential equation

    SFG to State Space Representation  Moreover, based on the differential equation  We are able
    • We are able to represent it in the following compact form

    SFG to State Space Representation  Moreover, based on the differential equation  We are able
    SFG to State Space Representation  Moreover, based on the differential equation  We are able
    • This matrix form is the so-called “state-space representation”.

    SFG to State Space Representation

    • Consider again the same 3 rd order TF but represented to a partial- fraction expansion (i.e., the “Parallel Form”)

    SFG to State Space Representation  Consider again the same 3 order TF but represented to
    • It is the sum of the individual first-order subsystems.

    SFG to State Space Representation  Consider again the same 3 order TF but represented to

    X1(s)

    X2(s)

    X3(s)

    SFG to State Space Representation  Consider again the same 3 order TF but represented to
    • So the signal-flow graph is

    SFG to State Space Representation  Consider again the same 3 order TF but represented to

    SFG to State Space Representation

    • Based on the signal, one can derive the corresponding differential equation

    SFG to State Space Representation  Based on the signal, one can derive the corresponding differential
    SFG to State Space Representation  Based on the signal, one can derive the corresponding differential
    x1(t) . x2(t) . x3(t) .
    x1(t) .
    x2(t) .
    x3(t) .
    • Thus, the state-space representation is

    SFG to State Space Representation  Based on the signal, one can derive the corresponding differential
    SFG to State Space Representation  Based on the signal, one can derive the corresponding differential
    SFG to State Space Representation  Based on the signal, one can derive the corresponding differential

    SFG to State Space Representation

    • Again, for the same system but without partial fraction expansion()

    SFG to State Space Representation  Again, for the same system but without partial fraction expansion()
    • Applying cross-multiplying yields

    SFG to State Space Representation  Again, for the same system but without partial fraction expansion()
    SFG to State Space Representation  Again, for the same system but without partial fraction expansion()
    • The corresponding differential equation is found by taking the inverse Laplace transform. Assuming zero initial conditions results in

    SFG to State Space Representation  Again, for the same system but without partial fraction expansion()
    • One can further obtain a “Canonical Form”.

    SFG to State Space Representation

    • Now define

    SFG to State Space Representation  Now define x 1 State x Equation 2 x 
    x 1 State x Equation 2 x  3
    x
    1
    State
    x
    Equation
    2
    x
    3

    = x

    2

    = x

    3

    = − 9 x

    3

    26 x

    2

    +

    24 x

    1

    + 24 r

    Output Equation y = x 1
    Output
    Equation
    y = x
    1
    SFG to State Space Representation  Now define x 1 State x Equation 2 x 
    • State-space form

    SFG to State Space Representation  Now define x 1 State x Equation 2 x 
    SFG to State Space Representation  Now define x 1 State x Equation 2 x 
    SFG to State Space Representation  Now define x 1 State x Equation 2 x 

    SFG to State Space Representation

    Canonical Form Cascade Parallel
    Canonical
    Form
    Cascade
    Parallel
    SFG to State Space Representation Canonical Form Cascade Parallel  The last representation of the system
    • The last representation of the system yields a diagonal system matrix.

    • What is the advantage of diagonal representation?

      • Each equation is a 1 st -order differential equation in only one variable. The equations are said to be decoupled.

      • Thus, we could solve these equations independently.

    Mason’s rule

    • Earlier, we have discussed how to reduce block diagrams to single transfer functions.

    • Now we are ready to discuss a technique for reducing signal-flow graphs to single transfer functions that relate the output of a system to its input.

    • Mason’s rule (derived by S. J. Mason, 1953) can be used for reducing a signal-flow graph to a single transfer function via certain formulas.

    Mason’s rule

    • Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure that the definitions of the components are well understood.

      • A. Loop gain

      • B. Forward-path gain

      • C. Non-touching loops

      • D. Non-touching-loop gain

  • Before introducing Mason’s rule, let’s examine the above definitions.

  • Mason’s rule

    • Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure that the definitions of the components are well understood.

      • A. Loop gain

      • B. Forward-path gain

      • C. Non-touching loops

      • D. Non-touching-loop gain

    + + + + +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    • The product of branch gains found by traversing a path that starts at anode and ends at the same node

    Mason’s rule  Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure

    Mason’s rule

    • Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure that the definitions of the components are well understood.

      • A. Loop gain

      • B. Forward-path gain

      • C. Non-touching loops

      • D. Non-touching-loop gain

    + + + + +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    • The product of gains found by traversing a path from the input node to the output node of the signal-flow graph in the direction of signal flow

    Mason’s rule  Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure

    Mason’s rule

    • Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure that the definitions of the components are well understood.

      • A. Loop gain

      • B. Forward-path gain

      • C. Non-touching loops

      • D. Non-touching-loop gain

    + + + + +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    • Non-touching loops means loops that do not have any nodes in common

    The loop

    Mason’s rule  Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure

    does not touch

    1. 2. 3.
    1.
    2.
    3.

    Mason’s rule

    • Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure that the definitions of the components are well understood.

      • A. Loop gain

      • B. Forward-path gain

      • C. Non-touching loops

      • D. Non-touching-loop gain

    + + + + +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    +
    • The product of loop gains from non-touching loops taken two, three, four, or more at a time

    Therefore

    Mason’s rule  Mason’s formula has several components that must be evaluated. We must be sure

    Mason’s rule

    • The input/output transfer function C(s)/R(s) of a system represented by a signal-flow graph is

    where

    C s ( ) T ∆ ( ) = = ∑ ( ) N k =
    C s
    ( )
    T ∆
    ( )
    =
    =
    ( )
    N
    k = 1
    k
    k
    G s
    R s
    • k number of forward paths

    • Tk the kth forward-path gain

    • 1 Σ loop gains + Σ non-touching-loop gains taken two at a time Σ non-touching-loop gains taken three at a time + Σ non-touching-loop gains taken four at a time

    . .

    .

    • k ∆ − Σ loop gain terms in that touch the kth forward path: In other words; k is formed by eliminating from those loop gains that touch the k- th forward path.

    Mason’s rule (ex.)

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  A. The forward-path gains  B. Loop
    • Find the transfer function!!

      • A. The forward-path gains

      • B. Loop gains

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  A. The forward-path gains  B. Loop

    Mason’s rule (ex.)

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  C-1. Non-touching loops taken two at a
    • Find the transfer function!!

      • C-1. Non-touching loops taken two at a time.

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  C-1. Non-touching loops taken two at a

    Three possible

    combinations

    • C-2. Non-touching loops taken three at a time

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  C-1. Non-touching loops taken two at a
    • Hence one has

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  C-1. Non-touching loops taken two at a

    Mason’s rule (ex.)

    • Find the transfer function!!

      • We form k by eliminating from the loop gains that touch the k-th forward path:

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  We form ∆ k by eliminating from
    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  We form ∆ k by eliminating from
    • Finally, we have

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Find the transfer function!!  We form ∆ k by eliminating from

    Mason’s rule (ex.)

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Try to find the transfer function by using Mason’s rule!
    • Try to find the transfer function by using Mason’s rule!

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Try to find the transfer function by using Mason’s rule!

    Mason’s rule (ex.)

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph! 
    • Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph!

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph! 

     G ( ) s G ( ) s G ( ) s 1 2 3
    G
    ( )
    s G
    ( )
    s G
    ( )
    s
    1
    2
    3
    G
    ( )
    s G
    ( )
    s
    1
    3

     

    G

    1

    ( )

    s G

    2

    G

    2

    ( )

    s H

    2

    G

    3

    ( )

    s H

    3

    ( )

    s H

    ( )

    s

    ( )

    s

    • A. Forward-path gains

    • B. Loop gains

    1

    ( )

    s

    • C. Non-touching loops taken two at a time.

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph! 

    G

    2

    ( )

    s H

    2

    ( )

    s

    &

    G

    3

    ( )

    s H

    3

    ( )

    s

    G

    1

    ( )

    s G

    2

    ( )

    s H

    1

    ( )

    s

    &

    G

    3

    ( )

    s H

    3

    ( )

    s

    G

    2

    ( )

    s H

    2

    G

    1

    ( )

    s G

    2

    ( )

    s G

    ( )

    s H

    3

    ( )

    s H

    1

    ( )

    s G

    3

    • D. Non-touching loops gain

    • k=1

    ( )

    G s

    =

    N

    k =

    1

    T

    k

    k

    =

    2

    k

    =

    1

    =

    Mason’s rule (ex.)  Try to represent the following system by a signal flow graph! 

    T

    k

    k

    1

    1

    2

    3

     

    +

    T

    2

    2

    1

    +

    G G

    1

    )

    +

    (

    1

    3

    G H G H

    2

    2

    3

    T

    =

    G G G

    1

    1

    (

    G G H

    1

    2

    1

    G H

    2

    2

    G H

    3

    3

    3

    + G G H G H

    1

    2

    1

    3

    3

    )

    3

    ( )

    s

    ( )

    s H

    3

    ( )

    s

    Homework

    • Q.1 Represent the following block diagram by a single transfer function.

    Homework  Q.1 Represent the following block diagram by a single transfer function.  Q.2 Please
    Homework  Q.1 Represent the following block diagram by a single transfer function.  Q.2 Please
    • Q.2 Please draw the signal flow graph & represents it in the state- space form

    Homework  Q.1 Represent the following block diagram by a single transfer function.  Q.2 Please