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Allocation of UPFC in North West Grid of Iran


to Increase Power System Security
Babak Asadzadeh, Vahid Asadzadeh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Member, IEEE,
and Gevorg B. Gharehpetian, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract-- The exploitation of Flexible Alternating-Current


Transmission Systems (FACTS) based on power semiconductor
devices is growing regularly in power systems to solve issues
caused by electrical energy generation, transmission and
consumption. Implementation of FACTS is a highly complex
problem where solution often involves comprehensive study on
power system diagnosis, possible solutions, the purpose of
installation and efficiency of FACTS devices on improving
network parameters.
In this paper the placement of Unified Power Flow Controller
(UPFC) in Azerbaijan transmission network of year 2016 has
been studied. The allocation method is based on sensitivity
analysis, to increase the load-ability, to improve the voltage
profile and to decrease the steady state transmission losses. It is
proposed to use losses index further than common indexes to
improve sensitivity analysis. The best installation locations have
been presented in this paper.
Index Terms-- Azerbaijan Regional Electric Company,
FACTS, Power System Controller, Power System Security,
UPFC.

I. INTRODUCTION

OWADAYS in power systems, generation companies


(GENCO) tend to utilize available network capacity by
controlling of load flow in electrical transmission and
distribution lines. Development of FACTS controllers based
on power semiconductor devices provides opportunities to
control load flow and improve system performance. UPFC is
the most important element to control and compensate power
transmission systems that it is able to control of electrical
parameters of transmission line (such as Voltage, Impedance
and phase angle) simultaneously and selectively. Also, using
of UPFC element causes in increasing of power transmission
capacity in congested lines, considerable improvement of
power system stability and security, creating more flexibility
in placement of new power generation plants, decreasing
generation costs and supplying secure transmission lines with
B. Asadzadeh is with Dispatching Center of Azerbaijan Regional Electric
Company
(AREC),
Tabriz,
4865-51385,
Iran
(e-mail:
b_asadzadeh@azer.co.ir).
V. Asadzadeh is with Engineering Deputy of Industrial Special Project
Development, MAPNA Group, Tehran, 15188-13413, Iran (e-mail:
asadzadeh_v@mapnamd3.com).
S. H. Hosseini is with the Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering,
Tabriz
University,
51666-16471,
Iran
(e-mail:
hosseini@tabrizu.ac.ir).
G. B. Gharehpetian is with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Amirkabir University, Tehran, 13597-45778, Iran (e-mail: grptian@aut.ac.ir).

978-1-4244-6547-7/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

neighboring electrical companies and power systems.


However, in many cases increasing of the power system
capacity requires establishing of new transmission lines or
increasing current capacity and voltage level of available
transmission lines [2], [3].
230 kV transmission lines involve the highest amount of
power exchange in power network of Iran. Azerbaijan
Regional Electric Company (AREC) grid includes North West
area of Iran power system. In this paper we intend to
investigate Azerbaijan 230 kV transmission lines to allocate
proper installation location for UPFC and efficiency of UPFC
implementation on power system control.
For power system identification and state estimation,
various methods and indices are used such as sensitivity
coefficient, voltage instability margin, maximum loading
proximity, test function, reduced determinant, tangent vector
and etc. These methods and indices have variant advantages
and application domain in power system analysis [4], [5].
Considering power transmission capacity and voltage limit
base parameters on power transmission planning, It is
essential to use specified index that helps numerical load flow
analysis during both normal and emergency conditions.
Reviewing of different references shows that it is impossible
to obtain only one comprehensive index. Mainly, Performance
Index method is used to estimation of power system state from
voltage instability proximity and maximum loading proximity
points of view. In this paper, performance index is utilized.
Results of load flow are analyzed in each step. It is proposed
to use losses index further than common indexes to improve
sensitivity analysis in long term power system planning.
DIgSILENT software is used to simulate UPFC static
modeling. UPFC static model is inserted in all 230 kV
transmission substations at both sides of 230 kV transmission
lines. Impact of UPFC utilization is explored from network
buses voltage level, power transmission capacity and power
transmission losses points of view.
II. UPFC STATIC MODEL
Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) concept was
released by Gyugi in 1991 including parallel and series
transformer and two voltage source convertors with common
DC link which is shown in Fig. 1 [4].

P
J1 =

J 3 =

J = Pbal
5

P
V
Q
J4 =
V
Pbal
J6 =
V
J2 =

PUPFC

E
UPFC
Q

J8 =
E

Pbal
J9 =
E
J7 =

( 2)

Where , V , E are state variables of power network


and is Pbal balanced exchanged power between UPFC
convertors offered by below equation:

Pbal = PB + PE = 0

Fig. 1. Structure and outline of UPFC

Voltage source connected to series transformer is capable


of voltage injection with appropriate angle and amplitude in
order to control active and reactive power transmitting
through transmission line. Voltage source connected to
parallel transformer permits to control voltage amplitude of
bus by injecting appropriate amount of reactive power. Ideal
converter through DC link is adjusted to make balance in
exchanged active power between power system and series
converter and between power system and parallel converter.
In this simulation, PWM type convertor with 15.3 kV nominal
voltage is utilized.
Jacobian matrix is reformed to enter UPFC static model
in traditional load flow equations. In this model the UPFC
values of each analysis step are known and power network
state is identified after adjusting these parameters [5].
Fig. 2 shows UPFC static model for load flow calculation.
This model can consider complete behavior of parallel
converter and UPFC losses during the simulation.

(3)

PB and PE are respectively active power of series


convertor and parallel convertor which are implemented in
UPFC structure. Moreover, having inserted UPFC adjustments
in computational relations of P and Q, final relationship is
derived as below in the UPFC connected buses:
P = Pi + PiUPFC
( 4)
Q = Qi + QiUPFC
The Newton-Raphson method is used for load flow
calculation.
III.

CRITERIA FOR APPROPRIATE PLACEMENT OF UPFC

A. Sensitivity Analysis
1) Sensitivity analysis for Voltage stability
Impedance of branches in high voltage system is more
reactive. So, injected reactive power primarily depends on
voltage altitude of a bus. While injected active power mainly
depends on voltage angle [6], [7].
To determine voltage control capability of power system,
the voltage change (V ) should be analyzed with small

modification of injected reactive power (Q ) . Linearization


of equations set point makes the load flow equation reduced as
below:

J P
J
Q

J Pv P
*
=
J QV V Q

(5)

Fig. 2. UPFC static model for load flow calculation

Where it shows that sensitivity parameters with same type


with V / Q can be directly derived from Jacobian matrix.

In general, the load flow equation is defined as following


equation [6]:

Considering P = 0 , the angle vector can be neglected


in equation (5).

P J1
Q = J

3
Pbal J 5

J2
J4
J6

J 7
J 8 * V
J 9 E

= J P1 J PV V

(1)

(6)

So,

( J Q J P1 J PV + J QV )V = Q
144424443

(7 )

Also, the improved elements of Jacobian matrix are defined


as in (2).

J QV

Reversing J QV , V / Q can be considered as:


~ 1

V = J QV Q = SVQ Q

(8)

Therefore, the voltage change in each network bus can be


calculated by linear combination of changes in reactive power
of network buses:

Vi = Si1Q1 + ... + Sii Qi + ... + Sin Qn

Vm
ref
m

Voltage altitude at bus m


Reference voltage altitude at bus m

(9)

J P depends on transmitting active power and JV depends

Sii , diagonal element of matrix S , indicates voltage


changes in bus i due to small changes in reactive power of
same bus. Whereas, Sij indicates voltage changes in bus i
due to small changes in reactive power of bus j . High
sensitivity (V / Q ) in power systems means that minor

on voltage altitude at network buses. J P indicates


participation portion of network branches to distribute active

change in reactive power will result in large voltage swing. As


long as voltage reaches voltage stability limit, voltage
sensitivity (V / Q ) will intensively increase.
Furthermore, Non-stiff areas of power system can be
located according to high sensitivity of voltage in buses.
2) Sensitivity analysis of losses
With the same approach described in previous section, its
possible to calculate sensitivity of active (Ploss / Q ) and
reactive

(Qloss / Q )

losses versus changes in injected

reactive power. Sensitivity of active and reactive losses is


obtained by accumulating contributions of branches connected
to the each branch in power transmission network. Reactive
loss sensitivity can be used to detect non-stiff branches of
power systems.
3) Other sensitivity analysis methods
Different effective methods for sensitivity analysis such as
branch participation analysis, modal analysis (Eigen values,)
and etc. can be applied to determine initial identification of
power systems state. However, these are not studied in this
paper.
B. Power System Security Index
In addition to the network sensitivity index, power system
performance in the presence of FACTS devices may be
assessed with some other criteria. Some of these criteria
include loading and voltage security index of transmission
lines which are obtained by following equations:

JP =

i Pi

2n

Max
i 2n Pi

JV = bm (Vm Vmref ) 2

(10)

(11)

Where

i
m
n
ai , bm
Pi
Pi

max

Number of transmission lines


Number of buses connected to load
Exponential coefficient
Weighting factors
Active power passing through line

Maximum active power passing through line i

power. However, JV indicates distance of voltage altitude of


network buses with reference levels [8], [9]. If number of
congested transmission lines of system decreases, it will lead
to J P reduction. Similarly, if the voltage altitudes reach the
reference levels, JV should be negligible.
IV. AZERBAIJAN TRANSMISSION NETWORK SPECIFICATION
Fig. 3 shows schematic interconnection of substations in
Azerbaijan regional electrical company scope of
responsibility. As shown in the figure, Azerbaijan
transmission network has specific characteristic. Its coverage
includes three provinces of Iran (Ardebil, West Azerbaijan,
and East Azerbaijan). Also, it exchanges electric energy with
foreign countries such as Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, Armenia
and Turkey. In near feature, cooperation with Iraqs power
system will be developed.
Current total installed power unit in Azerbaijan network is
2672.6 MW and maximum demand is about 2151 MW. This
network contains one 400/230 kV substation, sixteen 132/230
kV and 63/230 kV substation, 798 km-length 400 kV online
transmission line and 3078 km-length 230 kV online
transmission line.
A. Azerbaijan Power System in 2016
Based on scheduled planning for 2016 as horizon year,
developing installed units and constructing new power plants
will increase generation capacity to 4150 MW and forecasted
demand will be 4372 MW (55.3 and 103 percent of growth in
comparison with 2009).
Load flow studies show that in current conditions and in
despite of network development planning for horizon year,
Azerbaijan network suffers from non-uniform distribution of
power plants and non-effective connections of 230 kV lines
for uniform distribution of active power. Even assuming
minimum number of interrupts for power lines and generation
units, these non-uniformities take the network to critical
condition and sometimes cause to collapse. Power plants
outages do not ensure good results for the Azerbaijan and
national network in the term of reliability, economically and
energy exchanges with neighboring countries. Furthermore,
large number of line interrupts leads to considerable damages
on electrical or mechanical part of generation units in the
medium term point of view.

4
West Azarbaijan Network

East Azarbaijan Network

HS835
58. km

FH827
100. km

BF834
18. km

Urmieh C.C

Mahabad2

Tikmeh

BN835
85. km
MU801
121. km

N Sahand
AQ901
150. km

MN817
58. km

TM803
79. km

CH838
75. km

HM804
27. km

EN830
30. km

AE902
200. km

Miandoab2

ASTARA NET

ZN820
134. km

TAGIDIZAJ

VS816
34. km
DT825
81. km

Sardrood

AN810
72. km

AD829
14. km

GILAN NET

AD828
14. km

CU801
24. km

CU802
24. km

Vali

Tabriz

BZ831
43. km

AL809
118. km

AB810
43. km

Urmieh 2

MOGHAN

BZ815
43. km

AR813
21. km

IMISH2
Shafa
AF812
53. km

LU808
130. km

Khoy3

FR821
32. km

EXCH. Azerbaijan

ZH824
106. km

AZAR

LU807
130. km

AHAR

BH823
97. km

SUNGUN

FH822
100. km

GS831
87. km

AGARA2

TURKEY 154

TURKY1

Ardabil Network

GH832
98. km

EXCH. Armania

EXCH. TURKEY

ARDABIL

Mianeh
MN818
58. km

NSAHAN4

MIANE4
ZANJAN

GHARB

GHAIATI 400 RAJAEE 400

Fig. 3. Schematic interconnection of electrical substations Azerbaijan Regional Electrical Company

1) Obtaining equivalent model of national grid


To achieve rapid network analysis, Irans national grid is
reduced from the view of exchanging buses between
Azerbaijan network and national grid. Reduced model shown
in Fig. 4 is obtained based on Thevenin's law with using
voltage sources and parameters are summarized in table I, II.
Sensitivity Analysis is performed as initial evaluation of
network to have better vision of network status in 2016. The
first sensitivity criterion is V / Q which is expressed
in p.u. / M var .

C.IMP. 5

C.IMP. 2

C.IMP. 15

C.IMP. 3

V
~

ZANJAN

C.IMP. 8
C.IMP. 12

V
~

Zanjan (AC V.)

SHAHIDGHAYATI2

C.IMP. 4

Ghaiati (AC V.)

C.IMP. 10

C.IMP. 9

C.IMP. 11

NGS_GILAN

SAGHEZ2

NGS_Gilan (AC V.)

C.IMP. 6

C.IMP. 1 ASTARA

C.IMP. 14

V
Punel (AC V.)

C.IMP. 7

Astara (AC V.)

Sagez (AC V.)

B. Network Modeling
Sufficient information for network modeling of national
grid including current status, quantity of production in
generation units, size and location of new power plants and
new power lines, available compensation elements and
amount of loads was obtained from planning deputy of
TAVANIR (Irans national ISO) and added to model structure
to form proper Deck in DIgSILENT environment. In addition
to mentioned information, all data belongs to Azerbaijan
network state in 2016 and connection to neighboring countries
also was implemented in software environment.

C.IMP. 13

PUNEL2

Fig. 4. Reduced Thevenin equivalent model of national grid


TABLE I.
PARAMETERS OF VOLTAGE SOURCES OBTAINED FROM REDUCED MODEL OF
NATIONAL GRID

Sources Voltage (pu) Angle (deg) Impedance (ohm)


Astara
0
127.7
543.06+131.47
Ghaiati
0.99
-7.76
1.29+16.98
NGS_Gilan
1.01
-19.0
0.94+5.31
Punel
0.97
-13.40
8.44+34.04
Sagez
0.88
-21.43
17.98+52.46
Zanjan
0.91
-27.06
7.78+24.28

5
TABLE II
PARAMETERS OF TRANSMISSION LINES OBTAINED FROM REDUCED MODEL OF
NATIONAL GRID

Line
IMP.1
IMP.2
IMP.3
IMP.4
IMP.5
IMP.6
IMP.7
IMP.8

Impedance (pu)
(+7.1-j15.1)E+12
(+2.9+j24.7)E-05
(-5.2+j32.8)E+10
(+8.2+j74.0)E+1
(+8.6+j15.1)E+1
(-7.5-j13.9)E+14
(+1.9+j8.1)E-04
(+1.0+j55.3)E-05

Line
IMP.9
IMP.10
IMP.11
IMP.12
IMP.13
IMP.14
IMP.15

Impedance
(1.6+j41)E-5
(-1.5+j31)E-3
(5.2-j3.3)E10
(-1.8+j5.8)E0
(-4.9+j1.6)E0
(1.2+j1.1)E-3
(-0.4+j1.3)E0

Fig. 5. shows calculated V / Q in Azerbaijan networks


buses. Below mentioned buses have the high degrees of
sensitivity: Khoy3, Urmieh 2 and Urmieh C.C; while
following buses have low degree of sensitivity: Astara,
Zanjan, Pounel

tried to use equipment in the current network for UPFC


installation in the existent transmission substations. Maximum
loading capacity is supposed 300 MW for 230 kV lines. Six
stairs is considered to UPFC implementation into the network.
a) Assessment of J P Index
Assuming

i = 1, n = 2

in equation 10, loading capacity

index of transmission lines is obtained as below:

1 Pi

J P = Max
i 4 Pi

(12)

J P without presence of UPFS equals to 0.3716.


Considering six stairs for inserting UPFC into in service
substations of network, total number of cases that should be
studied equals to 444. Due to high number of cases, it is only
selected the cases where the value of J P is less than 0.25.
Analysis of some cases is not possible cause not to converge
power flow calculation.
Table III shows results of J P assessment in Azerbaijan
grid. For better perception, results are classified into three
zones including province of West Azerbaijan as zone 1 (area
U), province of East Azerbaijan as zone 2 (area T) and
province of Ardebil as zone 3 (area A).
TABLE III
RESULTS OF JP ASSESSMENT WITH UPFC IMPLEMENTATION

Jp (n=2,i=1)
Fig. 5. V / Q changes in Azerbaijan networks buses

Second sensitivity criterion (Ploss / Q ) is analyzed and

results are sorted in Fig. 6 to determine networks weak and


non-stiff transmission lines. In this analysis, most of 230 kV
lines within province of West Azerbaijan exchanging active
power with Irans west regional DISCO and Turkey are
classified as weak lines.

Fig. 6. (Ploss / Q ) changes Azerbaijan networks transmission lines

2) UPFC implementation into Azerbaijan network


Using the UPFC model described in section II, this model
structured and simulated in DIgSILENT software
environment. This model is inserted to the buses sided at the
both end of each transmission lines.
To achieve optimum network security index, the stairs for
50 MW and 15 Mvar is used in UPFC capacity. Usually, 30 to
45 percent of UPFC capacity is reactive power [10], [11]. Its

No Area
1
U
2
U
3
U
4
U
5
U
6
U
7
U
8
U
9
T
10
T
11
T
12
T
13
T
14
T
15
T
16
T
17
T
18
T
19
T
20
T
21
T
22
T
23
A
24
A
25
A
26
A
27
A
28
A

Locatio
P2-C3
P4-C2
P4-C1
P1-C4
P8-C3
P7-C4
P2-C1
P2-C2
P14-C1
P7-C3
P10-C3
P10-C4
P18-C1
P23-C1
P18-C2
P7-C2
P13-C1
P16-C4
P11-C3
P18-C3
P18-C4
P17-C1
P19-C3
P19-C2
P19-C1
P24-C1
P21-C4
P21-C3

Steps
St.1 St.2 St.3 St.4 St.5 St.6
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

In zone 1 (area U) lowest value of J P reoffers to the cases


in which UPFC is installed at Khoy3 substation in the busbur
connected to Urmiey transmission lines (P2-C3) or installed at
Urmiey2 substation in the busbur connected to Mahabad2
transmission lines (P4-C1).
In zone 2 (area T), most of table records have same
priority. But, according to practical experience in the field of
effective utilization of the network, it is better to choice theses
three location for UPFC installation:

Tabriz substation in the busbur connected to Aar


substation (P10-C4)
Mianeh substation in the bus connected to Tikmedash
substation (P18-C1)
Shafa substation in the bus connected to Azar
substation (P13-C1)
In zone 3 (area A), the bus in Ardebil power plant
substation connected to Ahar transmission line is selected as
installation location for UPFC. It is notable point that in the all
cases of UPFC placement, considering 300 MW and 100
Mvar does not get an acceptable answer and its maximum
capacity is limited by 250 MW and 80 Mvar.
b) Assessment of JV Index
To obtain network voltage security index, It is assumed that

bm ,Vmref in equation 11 equal to 0.2 and 230 kV respectively.


Hence, JV is calculated as below:

JV = 0.2(Vm 230) 2

(13)

Similar to J P assessment, minimum value of JV is used


to locate UPFC in the network. The value of JV according to
based load of network is 0.082. The cases with JV index
higher than 0.07 are excluded from study to reduce large
number of evaluation specimens. Virtually, all of the remained
study cases lead to an appropriate answer in terms of voltage
security. Table IV shows results of JV assessment in
Azerbaijan grid.
3) Loss index for evaluation of UPFC placement
Power loss of the network year 2016 is 92.44 MW.
Considering this amount of power loss as base value for
comparison of study cases and 94 MW for maximum
acceptable power loss, Table V is obtained. In some cases
power loss exceed 132 MW. Table V shows that rows 5, 6, 7
(in zone 1), rows 15, 17 (in zone 2) and rows 33, 34, 35 (in
zone 3) are the superlative locations to install UPFC.
C. Combination of evaluation criteria
To create perfect criteria for evaluation of UPFC
placement, equation 14 defines proper index for power loss of
the network.

J loss = Cm (lossm loss ref )2

(14)

Where

lossm

Net power loss for case m

loss ref

Base power loss in the network year 2016


(equals to 92.44 MW)

Cm

WEIGHT FACTOR (ASSUMED 0.2 IN THIS STUDY)

TABLE IV
RESULTS OF JV ASSESSMENT WITH UPFC IMPLEMENTATION

Jv
No Area
1
U
2
U
3
U
4
U
5
U
6
U
7
U
8
T
9
T
10
T
11
T
12
T
13
T
14
T
15
T
16
T
17
T
18
T
19
T
20
T
21
T
22
T
23
T
24
T
25
T
26
T
27
T
28
T
29
A
30
A
31
A
32
A

Steps
Locatio
P1-C1
P1-C2
P5-C1
P2-C1
P6-C2
P22-C1
P1-C3
P12-C1
P14-C1
P26-C2
P16-C1
P2-C2
P13-C4
P14-C3
P11-C4
P15-C1
P2-C3
P17-C1
P13-C1
P11-C2
P16-C3
P7-C2
P16-C4
P14-C2
P11-C1
P8-C1
P8-C2
P13-C2
P19-C1
P19-C2
P19-C5
P24-C2

St.1
0.1
0.1
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.08
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.1
0.08

St.2
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.09
0.08

St.3
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.09
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.07

St.4
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.07

St.5
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07

TABLE V
CALCULATED RESULTS OF POWER LOSS INDEX
Losses
No Area Locatio St.
1
U
P 1-C1 94
2
U
P 1-C4 91
3
U
P 2-C1 93
4
U
P 2-C2 91
5
U
P 2-C3 91
6
U
P 4-C1 95
7
U
P 4-C2 100
8
U
P 5-C1 92
9
U
P 22-C1 90
10
T
P 7-C2 92
11
T
P 7-C3 96
12
T
P 7-C4 93
13
T
P 8-C1 92
14
T
P 10-C3 93
15
T
P 10-C4 102
16
T
P 11-C4 93
17
T
P 12-C1 96
18
T
P 13-C1 92
19
T
P 13-C3 92
20
T
P 14-C1 92
21
T
P 14-C3 92
22
T
P 15-C1 91
23
T
P 16-C1 92
24
T
P 16-C3 94
25
T
P 16-C4 92
26
T
P 18-C1 93
28
T
P 18-C2 92
29
T
P 18-C4 92
30
T
P 23-C1 92
31
T
P 26-C2 92
32
A
P 19-C1 93
33
A
P 19-C2 92
34
A
P 19-C3 92
35
A
P 19-C5 95
36
A
P 20-C1 92
37
A
P 21-C3 93
38
A
P 21-C4 92

St.
92
92
94
91
91
92
96
93
90
93
94
93
92
91
97
94
92
93
93
92
93
91
91
94
92
92
91
93
94
92
93
91
92
93
92
93
94

Steps
St. St.
91 93
94 96
95 98
92 94
91 92
91 90
92 90
94 96
91 93
93 94
93 94
94 95
93 94
91 91
94 92
96 98
90 90
94 95
93 94
92 94
94 96
92 94
91 91
94 95
93 95
94 96
92 93
95 97
96 98
92 93
95 98
91 91
92 92
92 93
93 95
95 97
96 99

St.
96
100
103
99
94
92
88
101
96
98
95
99
97
92
89
104
93
99
97
98
101
101
93
96
99
102
98
102
104
96
104
93
93
94
101
103
105

St.
96
100
103
99
94
92
88
101
96
98
95
99
97
92
89
104
93
99
97
98
101
101
93
96
99
102
98
102
104
96
104
93
93
94
101
103
105

St.6
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07

In this study, it is considered 0.2 for weight factor C m and


92.44 for reference power loss. In consequence, J loss is
obtained as below:
J loss = 0.2(lossm 92.44) 2

(15)

An objective function is formulated with combination of


the

mentioned

indexes

( J P , JV , J loss )

by

following

equation:

J lvl = J loading + JVoltage + J loss

(16)

Minimizing J lvl will lead to optimize UPFC placement


and computed results are shown and summarized in table VI.
TABLE VI
RESULTS OF MINIMIZING OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

Steps

No Area Location St.1 St.2 St.3 St.4 St.5 St.6


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

P1-C1
P1-C2
P1-C4
P2-C1
P2-C2
P2-C3
P4-C1
P4-C2
P4-C3
P5-C1
P22-C1
P7-C2
P7-C3
P7-C4
P8-C1
P8-C2
P8-C3
P8-C5
P10-C3
P10-C4
P11-C2
P11-C3
P11-C4
P13-C1
P13-C3
P13-C4
P14-C1
P14-C3
P15-C1
P16-C1
P16-C3
P16-C4
P18-C1
P18-C2
P18-C4
P23-C1
P26-C2
P19-C1
P19-C2
P19-C3
P19-C4
P19-C5
P20-C1
P21-C3
P21-C4
P24-C1
P24-C2

1.2
2.6
0.8
0.3
0.5
0.7
1.9
13.4
5.8
0.4
1.8
0.4
2.6
0.6
0.3
1.4
0.4
1.2
0.4
19.5
2.9
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.9
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
1.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.3

0.4
1.3
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.9
0.8
3.2
0.7
0.3
1.3
0.3
1.2
0.6
0.3
1.7
2.0
5.2
2.1
0.7
0.8
0.3
0.6
1.1
0.4
0.3
0.7
0.6
1.0
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.8
1.5
0.7

0.6
1.5
0.9
1.9
0.3
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.4
2.0
1.0
3.5
1.0
0.6
4.1
0.7
2.4
0.5
0.7
3.1
0.3
0.7
0.4
0.9
1.1
0.4
0.7
0.5
1.5
2.6
0.6
1.2
0.9
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.5
1.7
3.0
3.2
2.4

0.4
4.4
3.0
6.2
1.1
0.4
1.9
1.8
1.7
3.1
0.4
0.9
0.9
1.9
1.0
3.1
0.9
6.7
0.8
0.4
8.4
0.5
7.6
1.7
1.2
8.4
0.7
2.9
0.9
0.6
1.8
1.5
3.2
0.8
4.3
7.5
1.0
5.7
0.7
0.4
0.9
0.3
2.0
5.2
8.4
6.8
7.9

2.8
14.7
12.4
23.8
9.4
1.1
0.8
4.0
0.7
16.7
2.3
5.7
2.0
8.8
5.4
5.3
0.4
16.9
0.4
2.4
0.7
1.4
28.6
7.9
4.6
28.8
7.1
16.3
14.3
0.4
3.4
10.1
18.4
5.8
19.9
27.2
4.3
25.5
0.3
0.4
5.9
0.6
13.8
23.7
33.5
20.1
33.9

2.8
14.7
12.4
23.8
9.4
1.1
0.5
3.6
0.4
16.8
2.3
5.7
1.8
8.7
5.5
5.3
0.5
16.8
0.4
2.5
0.6
1.3
28.6
7.9
4.5
28.8
7.1
16.3
14.3
0.5
3.6
10.1
18.3
5.6
19.8
27.2
4.7
25.5
0.3
0.4
5.9
0.6
13.8
23.7
33.5
20.2
33.9

Finally, appropriate options to UPFC allocation are


obtained. The first two options for each of mentioned zones
are listed:

In zone 1 (area U):


First, the bus in Miandoab2 substation connected to
Mohabad2 substation (P1-C1)
Second, the bus in Khoy3 substation connected to
Urmieh2 and Urmieh C.C substations (P2-C3)
The second option is more convenient. Because, it
satisfies the objective function in different cases for
UPFC. Proper capacity in this option is 200 MW and
60 Mvar.
In zone 2 (area T):
First, the bus in Sahand substation connected to Vali
substation (P8-C3)
Second, the bus in Sardroud substation connected to
Vali substation (P16-C1)
Due to available install equipment, the first option is
more convenient and possible to implement UPFC.
Proper capacity in this option is 250 MW and 80
Mvar.
In zone 3 (area A):
First, the bus in Ardebil power plant substation
connected to transmission of Gilan neighboring
province (P19-C3)
Second, the bus in Ardebil power plant substation
connected to Tagidizaj substation (P19-C5)
Proper capacity in these options is 150 MW and 50
Mvar
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, proper equations and models required for
evaluation of UPFC installation and utilization were
presented. Azerbaijan electric network was investigated as
actual case study for sensitivity analysis. The results of this
study are summarized in the following items:
Loading security index of transmission lines decreased
from 0.3716 in the base case to the value of 0.25.
Assuming 362 MW for loading of each 230 kV lines,
45 MW loading capacity has been released for each
path.
Voltage security index decreased from 0.081 to the
average value of 0.07 indicating proper voltage
reinforcement in network buses.
In some cases, the power losses decreased from 92.44
MW to 89 MW. So, in order to study more
comprehensive, objective function reformed to
consider power loss index which is proposed in this
paper.
It should be noted that dynamic study of Azerbaijan
network is carrying out based on the obtained results of this
paper.

VI. REFERENCES
[1]
[2]

[3]
[4]

[5]

[6]

Edris,A. et al. "Controlling the Flow of Real and Reactive Power, IEEE
Computer Applications in power, Vol. 11, no. 1, January 1998
L. Gyugyi, C.D. Schauder, S.L. Williams, T.R.Reitman, D.R. Torgerson,
A. Edris, The Unified Power Flow Controller: A New Approach to
PowerTransmission Control, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 10,
No. 2, pp. 1085-1097, April 95.
S.A. Nabavi-Niaki, M.R. Iravani, Steady State and Dynmaic Models of
UPFC for Power System Studies, IEEE trans. on power systems, Vol.
11, No.4, pp. 1937-19436, November 1999.
Xuan Wei, Joe H. Chow, Behruz Fardanesh, A Common Modeling
Framework of Voltage-Sourced Converters for Load Flow, Sensitivity,
and Dispatch Analysis IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 2,
May 2004
Seungwon An, John Condren, Thomas W. Gedra, An Ideal Transformer
UPFC Model, OPF First-Order Sensitivities, and Application to
Screening for Optimal UPFC Locations , IEEE Transactions On Power
Systems, Vol. 22, No. 1, February 2007
880. Available: http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03-vidmar

[7]

Palo Alto , Power Flow Management, Technology Perspectives. EPRI,


CA, 1013980, 2007.
[8] J. G. Singh, S.N. Singh , Enhancement of Power System Security
through Optimal Placement of TCSC and UPFC , IEEE, 1-4244-12982007
[9] J. Romanus, L. Hassing, and T. Grling, A Loss-Sensitivity
Explanation of Integration of Prior Outcomes in Risky Decisions
Department of Psychology Gteborg University, No.3:27, 13
[10] Sung-HwanSong,Jung-Uk Lim, Installation and operation of FACTS
devices for enhancing steady-state security, Electric Power Systems
Research 70 .2004.
[11] Flexible Ac Transmission Systems Benefits Study, California Energy
Commission, OCT.1999
[12] L. Gyugi, A Unified power flow controller concept for flexible AC
transmission systems, in: Fifth International Conference on AC and DC
Transmission, London, September 1720, 1991, pp.1926.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES
Babak Asadzadeh was born in Sardasht, Iran in
1975. He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1998 from the University of PWIT,
Tehran, Iran, the M.S. degree from University of
Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, in 2008.
His current research interests include modeling
and application of power electronic devices in power
systems. He is employer in Azerbaijan Regional
Electric Company (AREC) from 2000.

Vahid Asadzadeh was born in Ardebil, Iran in 1986.


He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering in
2007 from the University of Khaje Nasir Toosi,
Tehran, Iran, He is student of M.S. degree at
University of Khaje Nasir Toosi, Tehran, Iran..
His current research interests include power
quality, Transmission network Expansion and electric
market. He is employer in industrial special project
development of MAPNA Group from 2008.

Seyed Hossein Hosseini (M93) was born in Marand,


Iran, in 1953. He received the M.S. degree from the
Faculty of Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz,
Iran, in 1976, and the D.E.A. and Ph.D. degrees from
National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine (INPL),
Nancy, France, in 1978 and 1981, all in electrical
engineering.
In 1982, he joined the Department of Electrical
Engineering, University of Tabriz, as an Assistant
Professor, where he was an Associate Professor from 1990 to 1995, and has
been a Professor since 1995. From September 1990 to September 1991, he
was a Visiting, Professor at the University of Queensland, Australia. From
September 1996 to September 1997, he was a Visiting Professor at the
University of Western Ontario, Canada. His current research interests include
power electronic converters, matrix converters, active and hybrid filters,
application of power electronics in renewable energy systems and electrified
railway systems, reactive power control, and harmonics and power quality
compensation systems such as static VAR compensator, unified power quality
conditioner, and flexible ac transmission system devices

Gevorg B. Gharehpetian (M00SM08) was born in


Tehran, Iran, in 1962. He received the B.S. degree
(with first class honors) from the University of Tabriz,
Tabriz, Iran, in 1987, the M.S. degree from Amirkabir
University of Technology (AUT), Tehran, in 1989,
and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from
Tehran University, Tehran, in 1996, all in electrical
engineering.
He received scholarship from DAAD (German
Academic Exchange Service) during 19931996 for the Ph.D. program. He
was with the High Voltage Institute, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany. He is
currently with the Department of Electrical Engineering, AUT. He is the
author or coauthor of more than 270 journal and conference papers. His
teaching and current research interests include power system and transformers
transients, flexible ac transmission systems devices, and high-voltage direct
current.
Prof. Gharehpetian was selected by the Ministry of Higher Education as a
Distinguished Professor in 2008. He was also the recipient of the National
Prize.