Module 2:Heredity:Inheritance and Variation *DNA is a double helix molecule composed of complementary strands of deoxyribonucleotides units. .The structure of the DNA provides a mechanism for making accurate copies of the molecule.and cytosine bonds with guanine.as well as so the life of the entire organism. *In DNA.tRNA supplies amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled as protein.tRNA.When DNA replicates.2 identical copies of DNA molecules are produced.and cytosine bonds with guanine. Replication James Watson and Francis Crick-worked out that DNA is double helix like a twisted staircase in 1953. Translation -DNA directs the production of proteins and determines the formation of mRNA. *Transfer RNA. *In RNA.rRNA.the cytoplasm. *Ribosomes. *RNA is a single stranded.which are exactly the same as the original. *mRNA brings information from the DNA in the nucleus to the protein manufacturing area.This is why each set of 3 nucleotides in the mRNA is called a codon.in that the mRNA becomes the template of information to make proteins. -Each set of 3 nucleotides in an mRNA molecule codes for one amino acid in a protein.examples are mRNA. -Proteins control the activities of the cell.adenine always bonds with thymine.rRNA and ribosomal proteins hold tightly into the mRNA using its information to assemble the amino acids in the correct order. 3 types of RNA that help build proteins.adenine bonds with uracil.The complementary base pairs of the DNA are held by hydrogen bonds.Each codon specifies a particular amino acid.

Changes in the sequences of bases in normal hemoglobin and the one affected by mutation.These changes can affect many genes. -Is a change in the base sequence of DNA.A recessive gene causes sickle-cell anemia.such that chromosomes break and reunite the wrong segments.duplication or rearrangement that may occur during the cell cycle and meiosis. -Mutation in eggs or sperm may affect future generations by transmitting these changes in the offspring.where most of the red blood cells stiffen and become sickle shape in affected people.Structural changes can occur druing the formation of egg or sperm cells in fetal development. -Changes that affect the structure of chromosomes can cause problems with growth.develppment.or they may affect whole chromosomes.People affected by the diseases eventually die. *Chromosomal mutation occurs at the chromosome level resulting in gene deletion.If there is a lose or gain of chromosomal material.Theses diseased cells carry less oxygen than normal cells.The normal process of crossing-over and recombination may be affected.there can be significant clinical consequences.Pieces of DNA .Mutations in non-sex (somatic)cells only are not hereditary.and function of the body’s systems.or in any cell after birth.It may affect only one gene. -Abnormalities in chromosomal structure may occur during meiosis.It maybe caused by parts of chromosomes breaking off or rejoining incorrectly.MUTATION:Changes in the Genetic Code. *Gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene.

*Turner’s syndrome-(X instead of XX or XY).is a trisomy of chromosome 18. Cri du chat.asymmetrical skull.This is a very rare disorder.and very short.About 99% die in infancy.slanting eyes and mild to moderate mental retardation.with poor or excessive language skills.Men with this condition are usually sterile and tend to have longer arms and legs and to be taller than their peers. *Edwards syndrome-which is the second most common trisomy after Down’s syndrome.caused by the deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome.usually are quite healthy therafter.are moderately to severely mentally retarded.Symptoms include mental and motor retardation and numerous congenital anomalies causing serious health problems.Characteristics include decreases muscle tone. *Down’s syndrome-usually caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21).Those affected have normal intelligence or mild mental retardation.Most have a bleeding disorder called ParisTrousseau syndrome. *Jacobsen syndrome-is also called terminal 11q deletion disorder.abnormal eye feature and bone development and a “caved-in” appearance .However those who live past their first birthday.They have a characteristic hand appearance with clenched hands and overlapping fingers.They are often shy and quiet and have a higher incidence of speech delay.a small head and jaw.low hairline.can be rearranged within one chromosome or transferred between 2 or more chromosomes.stockier build .They often have a short stature.Female sexual characteristics are present but underdeveloped. *Klinefelter’s syndrome-(XXY).Affected individuals have wide-set eyes.It is French and the condition is so named because affected babies make high-pitched cries that sound like a cat.

size. Genetic Engineering -A modern biotechnology called genetic engineering produces transgenic or GM crops of organisms. -Karyotype-is an image of the full set of chromosomes of an individual that displays the normal number.When DNA from 2 different species are joined .Human Karyotyping Occasionally.This can reveal the gender of a fetus or test for certain defects through examination of cells from uterine fluid-a procedure called amniocentesis-or through sampling of placental membranes.It is estimated that one in 156 births has some kind of chromosomal abnormality. and shape.primarily the result of nondisjunction or translocation.Such changes.are so severe that the pregnancy ends in miscarriage-meaning loss of an embryo or fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy or fertilization does not occur at all.Scientists have developed methods to move genes from one species into another.chromosomal material is lost or rearranged during the formation of gametes or during cell division of the early embryo.

Transgenic organisms are able to manufactre genetic products foreign to them using recombinant DNA. .together.it is called recombinant DNA. This prrocess uses restriction enzymes to cleave one organism’s DNA into fragments and other enzymes to splice the DNA fragment into plasmid foreign DNA.

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