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Universidad de Ciencia y Tecnologa

Globalizacin, Ambiente y Desarrollo Humano

Push/Pull Theory

Professor: Bryan Muoz Castillo

Fausto Bolaos Meja

Ana Paola Valverde Rodrguez

Stephanie Kwong

Bairon Daz Prez

Jose Francisco Rojas Segura

III Cuatrimestre, 2016

San Jos, Costa Rica

Push/Pull Theory
The push and pull theory is based on factors than make people immigrate or
emigrate from a country. Push factors are those that make a person leave a country,
while pull factors are those that can attract people to move to a new city or country,
according to Kyaing (2012), some factors can be, economical situation,
demographical situation, lifestyle, political situations and socio-cultural situations.
People can be attracted to a country because they search for factors that they do not
have in their current country, for example, better jobs, more money to sustain their
family, better political system, better public services, among other things their current
place of living does not offer them. Kyaing (2012)
Transnationalization Theory
In the words of Faist (2010) transnationalization refers to sustained cross-border ties,
events and processes across the borders of several national states. Both non-state
agents and states participate. In addition, Grsan (2007) said that
transnationalization, refers to the global process through which the political,
economic and ideological forms of the relations among the societal actors
increasingly transcend the nation-state borders.
The major topics addressed by transnational studies include: economic globalization,
the transnationalization of the state, classes, political processes, and culture, and the
current integration processes taking place around the world through formal
organizations such as NAFTA and the European Union (Robinson 1998).
Nye and Keohane (1971) argued that transnationalism affects diverse areas of
international governance including interstate politics, values, US foreign policy, and
international organization.
Differences and similarities between push/pull and transnationalization
One of the main differences between these two theories is that transnationalization is
more focused on globalization, meaning that people try to include ideologies
between the people that are involved, and push/pull theory revolves around
abandoning your culture and joining a new one that is more convenient for the
persons needs, nevertheless, both theories are born from the same problematic,
people that are in the search of a better economic situation, political system, values,

among other things that their current country does not possess or does not give to
the people.

Grsan, M (2014) Globalization, Governance and the Transnationalization of a
Faist, T. (2010). Towards Transnational Studies: World Theories, Transnationalization
and Changing Institutions. Journal Of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 36(10). Retrieved
Kyaing Kyaing Thet (2012) Pull and Push Factors of Migration: A Case Study in the
Urban Area of Monywa Township, Myanmar, retrieved from: