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Standalone PV System for non Linear Load

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In Standalone PV System for non Linear Load

Mouna TALI, Abdellatif OBBADI*, Abdelkrim ELFAJRI, Youssef ERRAMI

Laboratory: Electronics, Instrumentation and Energy Team: Exploitation and Processing of Renewable Energy

Faculty of Science University Chouaib Doukkali Department of Physics

Route Ben Maachou, 24000 El-Jadida, Morocco

natalimou@hotmail.fr

obbadi.a@ucd.ac.ma

elfajri@hotmail.com

errami_y@hotmail.com

harmonics mitigation by using different types of filters. Passive

filter is one of them and is employed due to his simplicity,

economical cost and high reliability in power system. This paper

presents an analysis and study of three types of passive filters to

minimize harmonics distortion caused by non linear loads in

standalone PV system. In order to achieve the certain filtering

effect, it is necessary to combine different filter topologies;

generally these topologies can be divided into two categories:

series AC reactor and shunt passive filter such as tuned filters

and high pass filters. This paper presents firstly the basic design

and components of PV system, secondly describes the causes of

harmonics and their effects and presents the means to improve

power quality and to protect the equipment in our power system.

The proposed system is verified by the simulation using

Matlab/Simulink environment.

Keywords- Passive Harmonic Filter; Total Harmonic Distortion

(THD); Photovoltaic cell; PV inverter; LC filter; Non Linear Load.

I.

filters [6].

This paper focuses on the analysis and design of harmonic

passive filters for a single phase standalone PV system, single

tuned filter for low order frequencies and high passive filter

for high order frequencies [6-7]. This work is organized as

follows section discusses in brief the modeling of the

standalone PV system; section describes the passive filters

design for the harmonics mitigation in the standalone PV

system. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the proposed

standalone system.

Boost

Converter

Non Linear

Inverter

DC/AC

Load

PV module

Passive

Filter

INTRODUCTION

pollutant nature of fossil energies has increased the interest of

the development of renewable energies.

Solar energy is plentiful worldwide, and the best way to

produce electricity without pollution[1].We can use solar PV

systems for domestic use and store excess electricity in

batteries for later use this is a Standalone PV System, or feed

into the electricity grid to reduce the electricity bill [2-3].

In standalone PV system power electronic equipment and non

linear loads are widely used and resulted serious harmonic

problems. Normally, standalone PV system is designed to

operate at frequencies of 50Hz. Although certain types of

loads produce current and voltage signal with frequencies that

are integer multiples of the 50Hz fundamental frequency [4].

These higher frequencies are called electrical pollution that is

known as power system harmonics. Harmonics causes

obstruction to the normal operation of the equipment or the

system. Harmonics are generated by various reasons such as

saturation, switching like thyristor/diode rectifiers, cyclo

converters can interact adversely in the PV system. It is

imperative to analyze, quantify and reduce these harmonics to

a level which meets the IEEE 519-1992 standard [5]. A large

number of filter topologies and filtering techniques are

of PV cells connected in series to obtain a desired DC voltage,

a DC/DC boost converter is used to generate a higher DC

voltage, a DC/AC inverter is necessary to provide an AC

output voltage. For the standalone application and non linear

loads, Passive Filter must be used for harmonics mitigations.

II.

A. PV Cell

Photovoltaic cell generates electricity by converting

sunlight, due to the fact that the voltage and current output of a

signal PV cell can be too small, PV cell is connected in series

or parallel combination to obtain the voltage and current level

suitable for practical use. The PV cell can be modeled as a

current source Iph in parallel with a diode, shunt resistor Rsh and

series Rs resistor as shown in figure 2.

vd

Figure 2. Model of a PV cell

solar cell, the current generated I can be obtained as:

I = I I I

(1)

the solar irradiance, Id is the current flowing through the diode

which depends on the solar cell temperature; Ish is the current

flowing in the equivalent shunt resistance of the solar cell [2].

V = V + R I

(2)

I = (V + IR )R sh

qV

I = I [ exp(

) 1 ]

nKT

(3)

Load current, f is output voltage frequency 50Hz and Vo is the

RMS value of inverter output voltage, the filter capacitance

value C is then calculated from the resonance relation as given

in:

1

(2f0 )2 L

III.

C. Full-Bridge Inverter:

Single phase Full-Bridge inverter is used to convert the DC

output voltage of the DC/DC Boost Converter into AC voltage

required for an AC loads, in the standalone PV system. Pulse

Width Modulation (PWM) is used to create proper gating

signals for switches. The gate signals are pulses obtained by

comparing a reference sinusoidal signal Vref with a triangular

signal Vc [2-3-4].

In general, there is much harmonic component in output

inverter voltage, thus by choosing a high value of the carrier

frequency facilitates filtering of current and reduces the

harmonic output voltage but power switches have a limited

time of conduction then its necessary to find a compromise,

hence a LC filter is designed and used to filter the high

frequency harmonic in output inverter voltage.

The most commonly used indices to quantify voltage and

current distortions are voltage and current THD that can be

calculated as follows.

X1

(6)

(7)

(4)

A Boost converter is proposed and preferred of DC/DC

converter in standalone PV system because he can step up

small DC voltage produced by PV panel to a higher level

suitable for the DC/AC inverter [2].

THDX =

C=

Vd: voltage across the diode.

q: electronic charge: 1,60210-19 C.

K: Boltzmanns constant: 1,3810-23.

T: solar temperature in Kelvin scale.

Is: rated short circuit current of solar cell.

max 2

hh=2

Xh

D. LC filter:

To reduce harmonics contained in output inverter voltage

and to create a clean output sinusoidal voltage the LC Low pass

filter is used. It is placed between the inverter and the load in a

standalone PV system. The LC filter chosen is a second order

which eliminates all high order harmonics; the filter inductance

value L is calculated such that the voltage drop across the

inductor is less than 3% of the inverter output voltage Vo [2].

(5)

Non-linear loads consisting of components such as rectifiers,

lighting electronic ballasts, fluorescent lights generate and

inject current and voltage Harmonics in the power system. The

main problems are additional power losses in the electrical

equipment, errors in measurement. Therefore mitigation is

required to maintain Power Quality and improve energy

efficiency and reduce the potential for device failure by using

Harmonic Passive filters [8].

B. Seriesconnected AC Reactor :

Series AC Reactor is constituted of an inductor connected

in series with the non linear loads, this type of configurations

is considered as a low pass filter. Figure 3 illustrates the basic

configuration of series-connected reactor in the power system.

It has the ability to pass low frequency harmonics and

provides high impedance to high frequency harmonic currents

to limit their proliferation into the power system. The merit of

this filter is in its low cost, small size and provides no system

resonance condition.

The value of the inductor is set to a voltage drop of between

3% and 5% of the nominal voltage of the network [9].

Li

Voltage

source

Non linear

load

Shunt Passive filters always been considered as a good

solution to solve harmonic current problems [10], shunt

follows:

1. Band pass filters (of single or double tuned).

2. High pass filters (of first, second, third-order or C-type).

3. Composite filters.

Shunt passives filters as shown in figure 4.

Usually, a value of Q ranges between 20 and 100. High Qvalue filter gives the best reduction in harmonic distortion.

The interaction of the filter with the source reactance Ls

always creates a parallel resonance condition addition to the

series resonance frequency of the filter [11].

fp =

Rf

Higher order filter is a single-tuned filter where the Lh and Rh

elements are connected in parallel instead of series. This

connection results in a wide-band filter having impedance at

high frequencies limited by the resistance Rh.

Its total impedance is given by:

Lf

Ch

Cf

(b) High pass filter

The single tuned filter consisting of inductor Lf, capacitor

Cf and small damping resistor Rf are connected in parallel with

non linear loads to provide low-impedance paths for specific

harmonic frequencies, thus resulting in absorbing the dominant

harmonic currents flowing out of the load. Furthermore it also

compensates reactive power at system operating frequency.

The impedance versus frequency of this filter is shown:

1 + R f Cf S + Lf Cf S

Zf (S) =

Cf S

(8)

power compensation Qc required to improve power factor, Cf

can be expressed as:

Qc

1

(1 2 )

2

2f1 U

Zh (S) =

R h + L h S + R h L h Ch S 2

R h C h S + L h Ch S 2

(9)

[12] as given by the equation (15):

with

1

Lf 2fn =

Cf 2fn

(11) as:

Lf =

1

(2fn )Cf

(11)

is affected by the quality factor of the filter Q.

R f = 2f1 n

Lf

Q

(12)

(15)

The previous descriptions imply that the passive harmonic

filters can be characterized by their impedance variation with

frequency. The harmonic currents and voltage of a system with

a non linear load and a harmonic filter can be analyzed

approximately by using the model shown in figure 5.

Li

(a)

(b)

Is

Zs

Voltage

Source

Passive filter

(10)

a fundamental frequency.

At the harmonic frequency f = n. f1 the filter reactor provides

a series resonance.

(14)

calculate with formula (9) and (11).

R h = Q. Lh h

Where = 2

(13)

2(Lf + Ls )Cf

Lh

Rh

Non

Linear

Load

If

Zf

Vs

Ih

harmonic filter.

harmonic Ih, passive filters are modeled as impedance

elements. The harmonic currents to system source and

harmonic filter, and harmonic voltage in the system can be

found as:

Zs = Zsource + ZLi

Is =

Zf

.I

Zf + Zs h

(16)

(17)

Zs

.I

Zf + Zs h

(18)

Vs =

Zf . Zs

.I

Zf + Zs h

(19)

Zf =

Zfs . Zfh

Zfs + Zfh

(20)

If =

IV.

Is

1

H(S) = =

Ih 1 + Zs Yf

Y =

frequencies. For low frequencies, it has a 0dB gain from 0Hz to

the parallel resonant frequency in passive filter r. Hence, the

harmonics filtering is divided between the two filters: the low

order harmonics are compensated using the tuned filters, while

the high-order harmonics are filtered by the high pass filter.

a full wave bridge rectifier with RL Load is proposed and

simulated using Matlab/Simulink in this paper as shown in

figure 8, the simulation is carried out as series AC reactor

alone, and combination of series reactor and two single tuned

filters to the 3rd and 5th harmonics and a high pass filter to

compensate higher order harmonics.

(21)

1

1

1

=

+

Zf Zfh Zfs

(22)

impedance Zfs and high order filter impedance Zfh. Equation

(17) and (19) show that the harmonic current Is and voltage Vs

can be reduce by the harmonic filter. In the composite passive

filter, combination of two lower order filters 3rd and 5this

designed to suppress lower harmonic frequencies, and one

second order high pass filter is used for eliminating the high

order frequencies.

1

SIMULATION RESULTS:

Voltage source

1

Cf3 S

Cf5 S

=

+

Zf 1 + R f3 Cf3 S + Lf3 Cf3 S 2 1 + R f5 Cf5 S + Lf5 Cf5S 2

R h Ch S + Lh Ch S

+

R h + Lh S + R h Ch Lh S

Passive Filters

The harmonic spectra and THD for source voltage and source

current are analyzed with no filter, with a series AC reactor and

with composite filters.

(23)

LC filter connecting.

Figure 6. Impedance frequency plot of passive filters combination

Figure 10 (a) and (b) show the source current and source

voltage waveforms before filtering.

harmonics and after 7th harmonics high pass filter provides low

impedance to attenuate high frequency harmonics.

(a)

filters H(s) shown by equation (21) is plotted to assess the

overall filter performance as shown in figure 7.

(b)

Figure 7. Bode magnitude diagram of the transfer function for the passive

filter.

current and source voltage before compensation.

Figure 13. (b) Voltage Harmonic Spectrums with series inductor.

reduced to 8,31% from 17% whereas voltage harmonic

distortion is reduced to 6,63% from 14,1%, it is clear that is an

acceptable mitigation, through it is not coming with the limits

specified by the std IEEE 519, its advantage is also that it does

not cause the problem of resonance.

Figure 14 (a) and (b) show the source current and source

voltage waveforms after combination of shunt passive filter

and series inductor.

Figure 11. (b) Voltage Harmonic Spectrum without Passive filter.

Figure 12 (a) and (b) show the source current Is and source

voltage Vs wave forms after the first solution: series inductor

installation, as a result is much closer to sinusoidal one.

(a)

(a)

(b)

Figure 14. Source current and source Voltage with composite filter.

(b)

current and supply voltage after Passive Filter combination.

Figure 12. source current is and source voltage Vs with series inductor.

current and supply voltage after series inductor installation.

Combination of passive filters to 1,09% and also the supply

voltage is reduced to 2,03%.

V.

CONCLUSION:

standalone system, using three types of passive filters namely,

series reactor and shunt passive filters: single tuned and high

pass filters in eliminating harmonics. Line reactor offers the

advantage of his simplicity and low cost it provides no system

resonance condition and its can achieve a significant reduction

in harmonics but the total harmonic distortion cannot be below

to 5% that is why use of shunt passive filters was necessary to

improve system quality.

Figure 15. (b) Source Voltage spectra after filtering.

TABLE . TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION FOR CURRENT AND

VOLTAGE.

compensation of the source current and source voltage at a high

level THDI = 1,09% THDV= 2,03% in the simulation. Our

results meet the IEEE 519 recommended harmonic standard.

Current source Is

Harmoni

c order

3rd

inductor

11.99%

6.74%

3.55%

17.00%

5th

7th

THD

With

passive

filter

With

series

Without

filter

Voltage source Vs

7.00%

3.73%

2.03%

8.31%

0.05%

0.02%

0.8%

1.09%

Without

filter

10.70%

6.76%

4.35%

14.10%

With

series

inductor

5.2%

2.92%

1.71%

6.63%

With

Passive

filter

0.12%

0.09%

0.79%

2.03%

source voltage of the system before compensation and with

combination of passive filters. After connecting a line reactor

we can see that source current and source voltage are improved

as compared to the previous case, through it is not coming with

the limits specified by the std IEEE 519, after connecting shunt

passive filter, it is observed that the distortion of the mains

current and voltage decreased to a level as mentioned in the std

IEEE 519, THD of the voltage and current are lying below

2,03% and 1,09% respectively where as the limits specified by

IEEE 519.

The R, L, C parameters of the PFs for the simulation are given

in table II and III.

TABLE .VALUES OF DESIGNED PASSIVE FILTERS

Filters

C(F)

R()

L(H)

Series reactor

Li= 15e-3

Tuned filter

C3rd= 60 e-6

R3rd = 0.05

Tuned filter

L5th = 12.15e-3

R5th = 0.05

CHP= 50 e-6

RHP = 20

LC filter

Lc = 2.25mH ; Cc = 4.7 F

PV source

VDC=400v Vs=220V,f=50Hz

Load

RL=10; LL=25mH

REFERENCES

N. Hadjsaid, "La distribution dnergie lectrique en prsence de

production dcentralise", Edition Lavoisier, 2010.

[2] Paras Karki, Brijesh Adhikary, "MATLAB/Simulink based modeling

and simulation of gird-connected solar photovoltaic system in

distribution power network," Fifth International Conference on Power

and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal, 28 30 October 2013.

[3] A.Z.M.S. Muttalib, S.M. Ferdous, A.M. Saleque, N.M.A. Hasan, M.M.

Chowdhury, "Design and simulation of an inverter with high frequency

sinusoidal PWM switching technique for harmonic reduction in a

standalone/ utility grid synchronized photovoltaic system," IEEE

Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), International Conference,

pp.1168-1173, 18-19 May 2012.

[4] A. S. K. Chowdhury, M. S. Shehab, M. A. Awal, M. A. Razzak, "Design

and implementation of a highly efficient pure sine-wave inverter for

photovoltaic applications," IEEE Informatics, Electronics & Vision

(ICIEV), International Conference, pp. 1-6, May 2013.

[5] IEEE Standard 519-1992, "IEEE Recommended Practices and

Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems", 1993.

[6] M. Jayaraman, V.T. Sreedevi, R. Balakrishnan, "Analysis and design of

passive filters for power quality improvement in standalone PV

systems," Engineering (NUiCONE), Nirma University International

Conference , pp.1-6, 28-30 Nov. 2013.

[7] D.C. Bhonsle, R.B. Kelkar, "Harmonic pollution survey and simulation

of passive filter using MATLAB," Recent Advancements in Electrical,

Electronics and Control Engineering (ICONRAEeCE), International

Conference, pp.230-236, 15-17 Dec. 2011.

[8] Z. A. Memon, M. A. Uquaili, M. A. Unar, "Harmonics mitigation of

industrial power system using passive filters," Mehran University

Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 31, no 2, p. 355360, April 2012.

[9] M. F. Arman, "An 'Active' Passive-Filter Topology for Low Power

DC/AC Inverters," Ph.D.Thesis, Dept. Elect. & Comp. Eng., Brunel

Univ.-London, UK, 2011.

[10] S. Chun-Lien, H. Ci-Jhang, "Design of passive harmonic filters to

enhance power quality and energy efficiency in ship power systems",

IEEE 49th Industrial and Commercial Power System (I&CPS)

Technical, pp. 1 -8, 2013.

[11] J.C. Das, Passive Filters-Potentialities and Limitations, IEEE Trans.

on Industry Applications, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 232-241, January 2004.

[12] P. MATHAN MOHAN, G. AMUTHAN, "Comparative Evaluation of

Various Single Phase Harmonic Filters for Non-Linear Load," IEEE

International Confrence On Advances In Engineering, Science And

Management (ICAESM-2012), pp. 622-627, 30-31 March 2012.

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