IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO.
2/3/4, FEBRUARY/MARCH/APRIL
1995
1055
Selection Technique for Subcarrier Frequencies
and Modulation Indices
Tien M. Nguyen, Senior Member, IEEE, and Sami M. Hinedi, Senior Member, IEEE
A bstmctllhis paper presents a simple technique for the design of a
phasemodulated residual camer communications link to mitigate
mutual intelferences among the channels for optimum system
pelfonnance. The emphasis is on two data channels which are
operated simultaneously with a rnnging signal. The data channels
employ PCMPM and PCM/P!jKlPM modulation schemes for high
and low data lnte channels, respectively. The technique pmposed
here selects: the optimum (1) subcamer frequency to reduce the
intelference between the two data channels, and (2) modulation
indices to suppress the undesired signals in the data channels.
Further, this technique also pmvides optimum balance of power
between the two telemehy data channels and the m g i n g channel.
Although this technique is pmposed to optimize the pelfonnance
deglndation for two data channels, generalizations can be made for
more than two data channels. To make the generalizations easier, this
paper pn?sents an algolithm based on the pmposed technique, along
with numerical results: demonshting its applicability.
I. INTRODUCTION
In the design of a multiple telemetrydata channel, phasemodulated residual carrier communications link, the designer
is faced with two problems, namely, (1) The interference
between the data channels, and (2) The optimum power
division between the carrier and the various data components.
The problems become more challenging when the twoway
turn around coherent ranging signal is operated simultaneously
with multiple telemetry data channels on the downlink. For
simultaneous operation of multiple telemetrydata and ranging
channels, the optimum power apportionment among various
signals is particularly desirable. This is due to transmitter
power limitations or possibly harmful interference in the
various data channels as the range modulation progresses to
lower frequencies. However, in general, the interference in the
opposite direction, i.e., from the data channels to the ranging
channel is usually negligible. As an example, For the
NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL) ranging receiver, it has been shown in [ l ] that the
N A S M P L ranging receiver is not susceptible to outofband
Paper approved by Joseph L. Harold, the Editor for Satellite Communications
& Coding of the IEEE Communications Society. Manuscript received:
February 19, 1993; Revised August 31, 1993. This paper was presented in
part at the IEEE Intemational Conference on Electromagnetic Compatibility,
New Jersey August, 1991.
Tien M. Nguyen and Sami M. Hinedi are with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr.,Pasadena, California.
IEEE Log Number 9410900.
interference. Therefore, the optimization of the link
necessitates selecting (1) the subcarrier frequency (or
frequencies) to avoid interference between the data channels;
(2) optimum modulation indices so that data performances in
the presence of the ranging signal achieve the desired levels.
Maximum system efficiency is determined by the required
telemetry data bit rates, ranging accuracy, and signaltonoiseratio ( S N R ) in each channel, as well as by the specified
transmission system.
The international Consultative Committee for Space Data
Systems (CCSDS) recommends that a subcarrier be used with
the residual carrier when transmitting at low bit rate and that
PSK subcarrier modulation be used when a telemetry
subcarrier is employed (PCM/PSK/PM modulation scheme).
Further, the CCSDS also recommends that the NFU data
format be used with PCM/PSK/PM. In addition, the CCSDS
recommends that the Manchester (or biphase) data format be
used with residual carrier when transmitting at a high data rate
(PCMPM modulation scheme) [2].
Based on these
recommendations, a block diagram for the communications
link investigated in this paper is shown in Figure 1.
In the past, some methods have been devised toward
structured approach to the determination of the optimum
modulation indices [371. However, these methods are either
complicated [3] or only appropriate for (i) multiple data
channels that assume identical thresholds in all the subcarrier
channels [4]; and (ii) a single data channel operating
simultaneously with the ranging channel [571. The extensions
of these available methods to the case of simultaneous range
and multiple telemetry data channels operation are not
apparent to the designer. The purpose of this paper is to
extend the previous results [471 to the case of multiple data
channel operating simultaneously with a coherent turnaround
ranging channel. This paper develops a method for selecting
the subcarrier frequency and modulation indices such that (a)
the interference between the data channels is minimum; (b) the
RF carrier demodulator does not degrade the telemetry data
threshold; (c) all the data channels will achieve a desired
performance in the presence of the ranging signal, (d) a
specified ranging accuracy can be achieved, (e) the useful
power in the first order sidebands of both the data and the
ranging channels must be as large as possible and consistent
with the constraints (b), (c), (d).
This paper is organized as follows: in Section 2 the
communications system model under investigation is
00906778/95$4.00
0 1995 IEEE
1056
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2/3/4, FEBRUARY/MARCH/APRIL 1995
The uplink signal received at the satellite receiver can be
expressed mathematically as:
described; the criteria for selecting the subcarrier frequency
and modulation indices are presented in Section 3; the
algorithm for computing the optimum subcarrier frequency and
modulation indices is illustrated in Section 4; numerical
examples are provided in Section 5; and the main conclusion
is given in Section 6.
sl(t) = fisin[2rrf,t + m,,r,(t)l+ nl(t)
where PI denotes the uplink signal power in watts, m,, is the
uplink ranging modulation index in radians, nl(t) denotes the
additive white Gaussian noise observed at the input of the
satellite receiver, and rl(t) denotes the ranging signal.
To illustrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm, the
ranging signal used in this analysis is generated by the
NASA's DSN/JPL [8]. The range modulation transmitted by
the DSN consists of a sequentially transmitted series of square
waves. The highest frequency square wave is sent first, and
this wave is responsible for providing the precision of the
range measurement. This component is called the "clock
frequency" (denote by fRo). The remaining square waves,
referred to as "code frequencies," (denote by fR> are used to
resolve the ambiguity (or uncertainty) in the a priori range
estimate. It is necessary to sequentially transmit all code
frequencies from the clock frequency to the lower frequency
until the ambiguity is resolved. As range modulation
progresses to lower frequencies, the possibility of it causing
interference with the telemetry data channels increases. To
avoid this problem, code frequencies are chopped (or biphase
modulated with the clock frequency, yielding a clock
frequency square wave which is periodically inverted [8].
The uplink signal s,(t) will be processed by the satellite
receiver, i.e., after being locked to the uplink carrier
frequency, the uplink ranging signal will be demodulated. The
11. DESCRIPTION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEM MODEL
A simplified block diagram of the communications system
under investigation is shown in Figure 1 . The communications
link described in this figure consists of two parts, namely, an
uplink and a downlink part. In the uplink part, the carrier is
phase modulated by a ranging signal. Here, the telecommand
is assumed to be off, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The uplink
signal is tracked by the phasedlocked loop (PLL) in the
satellite subsystem. The carrier tracking at the satellite
demodulates the carrier and downconverts the uplink
frequency to an intermediate frequency (IF) for ranging
demodulation. The turn around downlink ranging signal
consists of the uplink ranging and feed through noise. The
power of this turn around ranging signal is controlled by the
automatic gain control (AGC) loop. For the downlink, the low
rate telemetry data is phasemodulated on a telemetry sinewave
subcarrier and then phase modulated simultaneously with the
downlink ranging signal on the residual carrier. On the other
hand, the high rate data is biphase modulated directly on the
same residual RF carrier, as depicted in Figure 3. In this
model, the uplink signal will have the ranging signal phase
modulated on the uplink carrier frequency fl.
V k Y
Commana
Frequency f l u l t l p i i e r
Signal
Low Rate
Telemetry 4Low Rate
cormat ing
Tele'netry
Demooulation
and Grcuna
Transmi~sion
Contr311eo
Hlgh Rate
Formattng
ana Ground
Transmission
Carrier
Tracking
and
Demodulatlcn
A/D Converter
In Digital
SuSsystem
L
Ranging
Denccu:ator
Assembly

GROUNDSYSTEM
'IGURE
Hlgh Rate
Telemetry
DemcCuiatiGn
(1)
SPACECRAFT SYSTEM
1 A SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR T W O TELEMETRY DATA CHANNELS OPZSATCD SIMULTANEOUS'.Y WlTM TLiE RANGING R E C E I V E R
NGUYEN AND HINEDI: SELECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SUBCARRIER FREQUENCIES AND MODULATION INDICES
1057
Residual
Carner
/
I
4'
Sauare Wave
Ranging Signal
( 1 MHz Clock
Freq Component)
C
frequency
f l 5IR
f,  3 f R
f,.fR
1,
fl+iR
1, +3fR f, +5fR
Figure 2. Plot of the Uplink Spectrum with the C o m m a n d Turned
acquired ranging code will be turned around coherently to the
downlink signal to be phase modulated on it. Here, it will be
assumed that the carrier tracking will be done perfectly at the
satellite receiver and that the ranging transponder bandwidth
will allow only the first harmonic of the highest ranging clock
component to pass through. The uplink noise will be filtered
by the satellite receiver and the filtered version of the noise
will also be turned around through the ranging transponder.
The power of the filtered ranging signal and noise are kept
constant by an automatic gain controlled circuit (see Figure 1).
In addition to the transponded ranging signal and uplink noise,
the downlink signal of the satellite will have two telemetry bit
streams. One of them, the high data rate channel will be biphase (Manchester) modulated directly on the carrier, while the
lower data rate will be NRZ phase modulated onto a sinewave
subcarrier and subsequently phase modulated onto the
downlink signal. The downlink signal, s,(t), can be modeled
as:
Off
where P, denotes the downlink signal power in Watts, f2
denotes the downlink carrier frequency in Hz, m, is the high
rate modulation index in radians, d,(t) is the biphase
(Manchester) data at high rate, m2 is the low rate modulation
index in radians, d,(t) is the NRZ data at low rate, f,, denotes
the subcarrier frequency for low rate data channel in Hz, m,
is the downlink ranging modulation index in radians, r2(t)
denotes the filtered uplink ranging signal, n,'(t) denotes the
filtered uplink noise, and nz(t) denotes the additive white
gaussian noise observed at the input of the ground station
receiver.
The filtered uplink ranging signal and noise are given by
[lo]:
(4)
High Rate
Residual
/ spectrum
carrier
112 +lSC
Legend
IRo= ranging clock lrequency (Iypcally 1MHz)
ranging componenl being chopped
IR
lsc
= sutCarr,er 1requency
R I = high rate channel Symbol rate
RI
= low
rate channel symbol late
Figure 3. Plot 01 the Downlink Spectrum with the TurnAround Ranging Stgnal
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2/3/4, FEBRUARY/MARCH/APRIL 1995
1058
where Q(t) is a Gaussian random process with zero mean and
unit power with
(5)
r:=
[i]
(6)
where Jk(.) is the Bessel function of kh order.
111. DESIGN CRITERIA
Here,
aRand p are defined by
(7)
Note that a, is the ranging S N R at the input of the ranging
transponder, 6' the uplink noise power and 6,' the uplink
ranging power at the output of the ranging transponder given
by :
(9)
If we let
Y ,= m,r:
(lo)
Yz=m,Y:
(l
then as a function of yi, i = 1, 2, the power in the carrier
component [ l o ] , the recoverable power in the firstorder
sideband of the downlink ranging signal, the recoverable
power in the high rate data channel and the recoverable power
in the low rate data channel are all given by [ 101
p,= P,J%Y ,>cos2(m,>Ji(mz>exP(r~)
(12)
To optimize the power division for the camer and data
channels and minimize the interferences among the various
data and ranging channels, the subcarrier frequency and
modulation indices are designed such that the following
criteria are best met.
A. Criterion 1: the subcarrier frequency of the low rate data
channel must be chosen to reduce the interference between the
data channels to an acceptable level.
This criterion relates the subcarrier frequency with the data bit
S N R degradation. If we choose the subcarrier frequency, fsc,
for the low rate data channel such that the bit S N R
degradation, A,(dB), to the low rate channel due to the dataspectrum interference from the high rate channel is to be
negligible, then the bit S N R degradation, A,(dB), to the low
rate channel due to the interference from the ranging will also
be negligible. This is due to the fact that the power allocated
into the high rate is much more than the low rate channel.
Hence if we let:
1
R, =  = high rate channel bit rate
TI
where TI is the high rate bit period
E,,
 3
high rate channel bit signaltonoise ratio
No
S,(f,T,) = normalized power spectral density of the high rate
channel (units of HzI)
A,(dB) = bit S N R degradation to the low rate channel due to
dataspectrum interference from the high rate channel.
From Reference [SI, the bit S N R degradation A,(dB) can be
1059
NGUYEN AND HINEDI: SELECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SUBCARRIER FREQUENCIES AND MODULATION INDICES
Residua,
where fsc is the subcarrier frequency to be selected. The later
is chosen such that A,(dB) is in the order of 0.1 dB or smaller,
i.e., A,(dB) .S 0.1 dB. After selecting fsc,we must verify that
the selected subcarrier frequency is not near the ranging clock
frequency fRo. Here we will assume that the NASNJPL
ranging receiver is employed for ranging measurement [8], and
that the maximum ranging clock frequency is about 1 MHz.
The transmitted ranging frequency is given by the following
relationship [8]:
66
f,= 64 QN
where N denotes the ranging component. When N = 0, it
corresponds to the highest ranging clock frequency, fRo,of
roughly 1 MHz.
Note that "chopping" (or biphase
modulating) is some times employed during ranging in which
case the 1 MHz ranging clock is modulo two added to the fl
ranging component resulting in a signal spectrum as shown in
Figure 4. By setting the estimated subcarrier frequency, fgc,
found in (16) equal to f, and solving for N, we obtain
N = INT[3.32 log 1.03"
,
where INT[x] is the greatest integer which is less than or equal
to x.
The ranging component found in (18) represents the
ranging component which is closest to fSc. Using [8], we can
compute the maximum ranging power, P,, contained in the first
harmonic of the
ranging component. It is given by [8],
assuming 1 MHz ranging clock frequency is used
Here PI is normalized by the total ranging power. Using (19)
and Reference [SI we can determine the bit SNR degradation,
A,(dB), to the low rate data channel due to the dataspectrum
interference from the ranging. It is found to be:
Carrier
I R Ranging Component
being chopped by I R ~ .
ranging clock lrequency
Figure 4. Ranging Signal Spectrum
Ell,

low rate channel bit signaltonoise ratio
NO
=
'
Modulation Loss of Ranging
=
Modulation Loss of Low Rate Data P,,
(Margin),= 1
R,
IOw rate channel bit rate
T,
where T, is the low rate bit period
(21)
where P, and P,, are given by Equations (13) and (15),
respectively.
If for a selected fiC we have A,(dB) IA,(dB), then this
frequency is indeed a good choice for the subcarrier. Note
that to compute A,(dB) we need to have the modulation
indices for both ranging and data channels. If we let
(PJNJ,
=
threshold signaltonoise power density ratio
in the carrier channel (in dBHz)
(PD,/NJT =
threshold signaltonoise power density ratio
in the data channel (in dBHz). The index i
= 1 and 2 corresponds to high and low rate
data channel, respectively
(P,/Nd), =
threshold signaltonoise power density ratio
in the ranging channel (in dBHz).
@c/No)o
operating signaltonoise power density ratio
in the carrier channel (in dBHz),
(PDi/N,J0
operating signaltonoise power density ratio
in the data channel (in dBHz). For i = 1, it
corresponds to high rate channel, and i = 2
for low rate channel,
(PR/NJO 3
operating signaltonoise power density ratio
in the ranging channel (in dBHz).
The computation of (Pc/NJT, (PD,/No)T,(PR/NJTare straight
forward and they can be found in [5]. Based on these
definitions, we can define the carrier, the data and the ranging
margins as follow:
A,(dB)= lOlog[l + $ k l s P l ]
where
1 MHz
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2/3/4, FEBRUARY/MARCH/APRIL
1060
(23)
1995
This criterion ensures optimum power division among the data
channels to achieve the desired bit error rate performances in
the data channels. To satisfy this criterion, the modulation
indices must be chosen so that, from (23)
where
Based on the above definitions, the following criteria will
direct us to select an optimum set of modulation indices for
optimum power division and minimum bit S N R degradations
among the data channels. For more than one subcarriers, one
should select the subcarrier frequencies in such a way that the
interferences among the data channels are minimized.
B. Criterion 2: the carrier margin must be equal to or smaller
than any of the subcarrier ( P C W S K P M ) and nonsubcarrier
(PCMIPM) data margins.
This criterion is particularly desirable when the data bit rate
of the low rate channel is nearly equal to or smaller than the
phaselocked loop noise bandwidth of the ground station
receiver. This criterion gives us the following, from (22) and
(23):
D
'i
IAi, i = 1 , 2
pc
where P, and PDi,for i = 1 , 2, are given by Eqns (12), (14)
and (15), respectively. Note that for i = 1 and 2 they
correspond to the high rate and low rate channels, respectively.
The parameter A, is defined as
[%Iial;
where (PD2/N&and (PD,/NJ, are defined as above. Note that
for the case of our interest, i.e., two data channels are allowed
to operate simultaneously with the ranging channel, we need
to determine only A,, since in dB, A, = A, + B. Note that the
extension of this criterion to multiple subcarriers is also
straight forward.
D. Criterion 4: the ranging operating point must be selected to
ensure optimum distribution of power between the low rate
data and the ranging channels for (i) an allowable bit S N R
degradation in the low rate data channel due to the presence
of the ranging signal; and (ii) a required ranging accuracy.
If the ranging threshold satisfies this criterion, then the
interference from the ranging channel to the high rate data
channel is negligible. This is because the power in the high
rate data channel is much stronger than that of the low rate.
To satisfy this criterion the modulation indices must be chosen
so that
kPR
D
'Z
A,
where P, and P,, are given by Equations (13) and (15),
respectively, and A, is defined as
Ai= 
(26)
=
1,
where (PDi/N&and (P,/NJ,
are defined as above. Note that
the extension of this criterion to multiple subcarriers is straight
forward.
C. Criterion 3: all the subcarrier and nonsubcarrier data
channels must have identical margins, so that as the total
received power decreases, all the data channels fall below the
thresholds simultaneously.
[$I
I:[
A,= 
k = design factor= 
4%
NGUYEN AND HINEDI: SELECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SUBCARRIER FREQUENCIES AND MODULATION INDICES
for
where As is defined in (21). It is in fact the ranging
suppression relative to the low rate data power level, which is
required to meet a specified performance degradation in the
low rate data channel due to the presence of the ranging
signal. For a selected AL (normally at the order of AH or
smaller), we can compute the required ranging suppression
A,(&). It is found to be [5]
A,(dB) = A,(dB)  [(SNR),,,+
P,(dB)]
where f is the Fourier frequency in kHz and T, is the high rate
data bit period in milliseconds.
Step 2: Calculate A,(dB) for an estimated subcarrier
frequency f,,, using results in Step 1. A good starting
value for f,, is 3R,.
Step 3: Check if A,(dB) I O . 1 dB. If not, repeat Step 2 until
A,(dB) 5 0 . 1 dB for a selected f,,.
Step 4: Check if the selected f,, is near the ranging clock
frequency fRo. The distance between f,, and fRo
should satisfy the following condition:
(37)
(33)
where PI is defined in (19), and A, and (SNR),,, are given by
) :1
(SNR),,, =  dB)  Coding Gain
Step 5:
(34)
Step 6:
Step 7:
(35 )
Since this criterion concerns with the bit SNR
degradation in the data channel due to the presence of the
ranging signal, then for more than one subcarrier, one should
be concerned with the subcarrier that carries the lowest data
rate and sitting nearest to the highest ranging clock frequency.
E. Criterion 5: the useful power in the firstorder sidebands of
both data and ranging channels must be as large as possible,
yet they must be consistent with the criteria (2), (3) and (4).
The channel threshold SM3 requirements specified in
Equations (26), (28) and (30) can be determined using the
same technique developed in [ 51.
Step 8 :
Step 9:
SteplO:
Step1 1:
IV. ALGORITHM FOR DESIGNING THE SYSTEM
This section describes a sequence of steps that are
used to: (1) compute the optimum subcarrier frequency for the
low rate data channel; and (2) search for the optimum set of
modulation indices when two data channels are operated
simultaneously with a coherent turned around ranging signal.
Step 1: Derive the high rate power spectral density (PSD).
For our case (Manchester data), the high rate PSD is
given by [9]
1061
Stepl2:
Stepl3:
Stepl4:
Go back to Step 2 and select a new f,, if the
condition in (37) is not satisfied. See Figure 5 for
selecting a new f,,.
Compute the ranging frequency component N which
corresponds to the selected f,, from (18).
Compute the maximum ranging power P,(dB) at the
ranging harmonic frequency found in Step 5,
using (1 9).
Calculate the required threshold S N R s for the carrier,
the ranging, the low rate and high rate data channels.
Also, calculate the required S N R for low rate data
channel from (34).
Using the results found in Step 7 calculate A,, B and
A,, from (26), (28) and (30), respectively.
Derive P,, P,, P,, and PD2. For our case, these are
found in (1 2)( 15).
Compute (PDl/Pc)= A, and solve form,, the high rate
modulation index. The solution for this equation is
the upper bound for the high rate modulation index
(m,,)
Compute (PD2/PDl)= B and plot m, versus m,, the
low rate modulation index. From the plot a specific
set of (m,,mJ can be obtained. The upper bound for
the low rate modulation index, m2up,can be obtained
using mlupfound in Step 10. Any set of (ml,m2>
below (mluprm2up)
will ensure adequate power in the
carrier.
Setting A,(dB) = A,(dB) and using the result found in
Step 6 to calculate the ranging suppression relative to
the low rate data channel, As(dB), from (33).
Calculate the design factor k using A, and A,(dB)
found in Steps 8 and 12, respectively from (31).
Check if k satisfies the condition expressed in (32).
If this condition is not satisfied, excess power is
either being allocated to the data (k > (PR/NJTor to
the ranging (k < l/AJ for the selected low rate bit
SNR degradation, AL(dB). When this condition is not
satisfied, we should go back to step 12 and select a
new value for AL(dB). The new value for A,(dB)
should be smaller than AH(dB),i.e., A,(dB) < AH(dB).
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2/3/4, FEBRUARY/MARCH/APRIL 1995
1062
SteplS: Compute (PD2/PR)= k.A, and plot the ranging
modulation index m, as a function of m2. Note that
the values of m, found in Step 11 are used in the
computation of mR. Using mZupwe can calculate the
upper bound for the ranging modulation index, mrzUp.
From the plot we obtain a specific set of modulation
indices ( m 2 , a .
Stepl6: Write down the boundary set of modulation indices
found from Steps 11 and 15, (mlup,mZup,mRup).
Stepl7: From steps 11 and 15 we obtain a specific set of
modulation indices (m,,m,,mJ. Calculate (PDI/PJ,
(P,/Pb and (P,/PJ for this specific set of modulation
indices.
Stepl8: Select a set of modulation indices (mlop,m20p,mrop)
that
corresponding to largest values of (PDl/P3,
(PD2/P2)
and (P,/p,) curves, constraining these values to within
the boundary set established in step 16.
Figure 5 illustrates the flowchart of the above procedure to
search for a set of optimum subcarrier frequency and
modulation indices for simultaneous range and multiple data
channels operations.
CALCULATE N
CALCUUTE P,
I
CHUIGE
J,
(,,,,,,>
FOR
CALCULATE THE UPPERBOUND F
M
PRINT A,
(,,,,,,>
FIGURE5b. AN ALGORITHM FOR DESIGNING THE RESIDUALCARRIER
COMMUNICATIONSYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLEDATA AND
TURNAROUND RANGINGCHANNELS(Cont'd))
CALCULATE
Y , AND Y;
WRITETME SELECTED SET
O F M O D U U T l o N iNDlCES
S E I O F MODULATION
WRITE I,.n,(a)
FlGURE5a AN ALGORITHM FOR DESlGhlkG THE RESIDUALCARRIER
COMMUNICATtONSSYSTEMS FOR MJLTIPLE DATA AND
TJRNAROUND RPNGlhG CHANhELS
FIGURE 5C. AN ALGORITHMFOR DESIGNINGTHE RESIDUAL CARRIER
COMMUNICATIONSYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLEDATA AND
TURNAROUND RANGING CHANNELS (Cont'd))
NGUYEN AND HINEDI: SELECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SUBCARRIER FREQUENCIES AND MODULATION INDICES
1063
LEGEm
READTHESELECTEDSETOF
MODUUTloN INDICES
READ THE REOUIRED PERFORMANCE
MARGINS. C M , OMnusq.
I
I
I
SATISFY C Y ,
CMRW
 REOUIRED CARRIER MARGIN
DM nM1 RW
 REOUIRED HIGH DATA RATE MARGIN
 REOUIRED LOW DATA RATE MARGIN
DM nM2
RW
RM R~
PI
Lt
GI
IP
CALCULATE
THE CARRIER
PEAFORMINCE
MAffiIN.CM
7
Ft
 TRANSMITTING FREOUENCY
 DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SATELLITE AND GROUND STATION (km)
La
 ATMOSPHERIC ATTENUATION (dE)
LP
 POIARIZATION LOSS BETWEEN TRANSMllTlNG AND RECEIVING
LP
G,
L,
T.9
Ldt
TO MEET CARRIER
MIffilNREO?
 TRANSMllTING ANTENNA GAIN (dE)
 TRANSMITTING ANTENNA POINTING LOSS (dE)
Lc
w YOU WANT
 REOUIRED RANGING MARGIN
 TRANSMITTED POWER AT ANTENNA TERMINAL ( d E W
 TRANSMllTlNG CIRCUIT LOSS (dE)
ANTENNAS (de)
 RECEIVING ANTENNA POINTING LOSS ( d o )
 RECEIVING ANTENNA GAIN (dE)
 RECEIVING ANTENNA CIRCUIT LOSS (de)
 SYSTEM EQUIVALENT NOISE TEMPERATURE ("K)
 OTHER LOSSES IN THE CARRIER TRACKING LOOP (dE)
 OTHER LOSSES IN THE HIGH RATE DATA CHANNEL AND DEGRADATION
DUE TO THE INTERFERENCES FROM THE LOW RATE AND THE
RANGING CHANNELS
CALCULATE THE HIGH
R I T E MARIN. MnU,
FIGURE 5d. AN ALGORITHM FOR DESIGNING THE RESIDUAL CARRIER
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE DATA AND
TURNAROUND RANGING CHANNELS (Cont'd))
CALCUUTE LOW RATE MARGIN.
CALCUUTE RUIOlffiMARGIN.
L
(STEPZ1)
WRITE THE OPTIMUM SET
OF MODULATION INMCES.
FIGURE 5e. AN ALGORITHM FOR DESIGNING THE RESIDUAL CARRIER
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE DATA AND
TURNAROUND RANGING CHANNELS (Cont'd))
OTHER LOSSES IN ThE LOW RATE DATA CHANNEL AND DEGRADATION
DUE TO THE INTERFERENCES FROM W E HlGd RATE AND THE
RANGING CHANNEL
FIGURE 5 f . AN ALGORITHM FOR DESIGNING THE RESIDUAL CARRIER
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR NULTIPLE DATA AND
TURNAROUND RANGING CHANNELS ( C o n t ' d )
V. NUMERICAL RESULTS
The algorithm described in Section 4 is now applied to a
specific illustrative example of a typical communications
system shown in Figure 1. Consider a hypothetical case where
an uplink carrier is phase modulated by a squarewave ranging
signal, and the received ranging S N R , U,, at the input to the
ranging transponder is assumed to be 10 dB. In practice,
can be found from the link budget calculation for the uplink.
The highest ranging clock frequency component and the
ranging transponder bandwidth are assumed to be 1 MHz and
1.5 MHZ, respectively. The downlink carrier signal is phase
modulated by (1) a 65 kbps Manchester coded data, (2) a
sinewave subcarrier data channel with a data rate of 15 Kbps,
and (3) the turned around ranging signal embedded in noise.
Assume that the required BERs, the ground station PLL noise
bandwidth and various S N R s are given as follows.
CARRIER
PLL noise bandwidth (2BLO) = 800 Hz
Required operating threshold in 2BL0 ((SNR)2BLo)
= 16 dB
HIGH RATE DATA CHANNEL
Required BER =
Required bit rate = 65 kbps
Signal degradation due to receiver hardware = 2 dB
Coding gain = 7.3 dB (rate 1/2, constraint length 6
convolutional code concatenated with (5 11, 9) ReedSolomon
code.)
IEEE TRANSACTIONS O N COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2/3/4, FEBRUARY/MARCH/APRIL
1064
LOW RATE DATA CHANNEL
Required BER = lo'
Required bit rate = 15 kbps
Signal degradation due to receiver hardware = 1 dB
Coding gain = 7.3 dB (rate 112, constraint length 6
convolutional code concatenated with (5 1 1, 9) ReedSolomon
code.)
RANGING
Desired ranging accuracy = 15 meters
Loss due to ranging receiver = 0.5 dB
For NASNJPLDSN ranging receiver the 15 m ranging
accuracy requirement translates to the required ranging SNR
of about 12 dB [8] at the integration time of 0.1 second.
Step 1: the high rate power spectral density PSD) for the
high data rate channel is given by (36).
Step 2: From (16), calculate A,(dB) for an estimated
subcarrier frequency fsc,using results in Step 1.
For fs, = 487.5 KHz, we obtain A,(dB) = 0.08 dB. The plot
of the low rate bit SNR degradation as a function of subcarrier
frequency is shown in Figure 6. The results presented in this
figure assume the ranging power is constant over the 450550
KHz band. For NASNJPLDSN ranging receiver this band
corresponds to the first ranging component, i.e., 500 KHz
component.
0 .3355
030 
0 22551
Low Rate Bit SNR Degradation due
to the High Rate Data Spectrum
$ 002200 $
: t
n
LT
N = 1.
Step 6: Compute the maximum ranging power P,(dB) at the
I@' ranging harmonic frequency found in Step 5.
From (19), we obtain P,(dB) = 0.91 dB.
Step 7: The threshold S N R requirements for the carrier, the
ranging, the low rate and high rate data channels are:
(PC/NJT = 45.03 dB
(PR/NJT = 22.50 dB
(PD2/NJT= 45.08 dB
(P,,/NJT = 52.45 dB
The required S N R for low rate data channel, from (34), is
(SNR)REQ
= 2.31 dB
Step 8: From Step 7, A,, B and A, can be calculated using
(26), (28) and (30), respectively. They are found to
be
A, = 7.42 dB
B = 7.37 dB
A , = 22.58 dB
Step 9: For our example, P,, P,, P,, and P,, are found in
(1 2)(15).
Step10: Compute (PD,PC)
= A, and solve for mlup,the upper
bound for high rate modulation index, we obtain mlup
= 1.18 rad.
Step1 1: Compute (PDz/PD,)
= B and plot m, versus m,, the
low rate modulation index. Figure 7 shows this plot
(the curve labeled low rate modulation index). The
upper bound for the low rate modulation index, mzupr
can be obtained from this curve. For mlup= 1.18 rad,
we obtain mZup= 1.19 rad. From the plot a specific
set of (m,,m,) can be obtained. Any set of (m,,mJ
below (m,,p,mzup)will ensure adequate power in the
carrier.
0 11 55 
a,
1995
201
12
14
010
Oo5
4 40E+005
Low Rate Bit SNR Degradation due
to the Ranging Signal Spectrum
15Low Rate Modulation Index, m 2
D
lil
4 50Et005
4 60E+005
4 70E+005
4 80E+005
4 90Et005
Subcarrier Frequency. H z
Figure 6 L o w Rate Bit SNR Degradation as a
Frequency of Subcarner Frequency
to
D
3
s
05
Step 3: Check if A,(dB) 20.1 dB. If not, repeat Step 2 until
A,(dB) I 0.1 dB for a selected f,,. For f,, = 487.5
KHz, we have A,(dB) = 0.08 dB < 0.1 dB.
Step 4: Check if the selected fs, is near the ranging clock
frequency fRo. Here we assume fRo= 1 MHz. The
distance between fs, and fRois
fRo fsc = 512.5 KHz > 3R,. Therefore, the
condition in (37) is satisfied.
Step 5 : Compute the ranging frequency component N which
corresponds to the selected f,,. From (18), we obtain
'
'
Ranging Modulation Index, m,?
00
00
02
04
06
08
10
High Rate Modulation Index, m , , rad
Figure I
Plot of L o w Data Rate and Ranging Modulation Indices
as a Function of high Data Rate Modulation Index
S t e ~ l 2 :Setting A,(dB) = 0.1 dB and using the result found in
Step 6 to calculate the ranging suppression relative to
NGUYEN AND HINEDI: SELECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SUBCARRIER FREQUENCIES AND MODULATION INDICES
the low rate data channel, As(dB). From (33), we
obtain A,(dB) = 17.73 dB.
Stepl3: Calculate the design factor k using A, and A,(dB)
found in Steps 8 and 12, respectively. From (31), we
obtain k = 4.85 dB.
Step14: The design factor, k, satisfies the condition expressed
in (32).
Stepl5: Compute (PDZ/PR)= k.A, and plot the ranging
modulation index m, as a function of m,. The plot is
shown in Figure 7 with the label "ranging modulation
index". Here, the values of m, found in Step 11 are
The upper bound for
used in the computation of q.
can be obtained
the ranging modulation index, qzUp
from this curve. For mzUp= 1.19 rad, we obtain
= 0.16 rad. From the plot we obtain a specific set of
modulation indices (m,,mR).
Stepl6: Write down the boundary set of modulation indices
found from Steps 11 and 15, (mlup,mzup,mnup)
= (1.18
rads,l.l9 rads,0.16 rads).
Stepl7: From steps 11 and 15 we obtain a specific set of
modulation indices (m,,m,,mfl). Calculate (PDl/PJ,
(PD2/PJand (PR/P3for this specific set of modulation
indices. Plot the power ratios as a function of high
rate modulation index. Figure 8 illustrates (P,,/PJ,
(P,/P,)
and (PR/P& as a function of high rate
modulation index, respectively. Note that for each
value of m, (high rate modulation index) found in
this plot we can obtain the corresponding values of
m, and m, using Figure 7. Figure 8 shows that all
the channels reached their maximum values at m, =
0.98 rad. It should be mentioned here that if this
technique is used then all channels always reach their
maximum values simultaneously. This is because of
the Criteria 3 and 4 described earlier. However, we
want to calculate all the power ratios for illustration
1065
of system efficiency and evaluation of performance
margins (when required)
Stepl8: Select a set of modulation indices ( m l o p r m Z o p ,that
~op
corresponding to largest values of (PD,/PJ, (PDz/PJ
and (P,/P3 curves, constraining these values to within
the boundary set established in step 16. From Figure
8, the optimum set of modulation indices is:
(m,,,m,,%d
= (0.98 rad,0.82 rad, 0.1 rad). And,
the corresponding optimum subcarrier frequency is: f,,
= 487.5 KHz.
VI. CONCLUSION
The criteria described in Section 3 show an optimum way to
suppress the ranging signal to achieve allowable bit S N R
degradations in the data channels due to the interference from
the ranging channel, for a specified ranging accuracy. In
addition, the proposed method also searches for the optimum
subcarrier frequency to reduce the interference between data
and ranging channels to an acceptable level.
The
communication link when optimized will provide maximum
available power to both the data (high and low data rate data
channels) and ranging channels for allowable degradations in
the data channels so that it will transmit at the required data
rates, and achieve the required bit error rates and ranging
accuracy over a maximum distance under a certain set of
conditions. Furthermore, the optimized link will provide
adequate power for carrier tracking without degrading the data
channel threshold, and both the data ranging channels will fall
below the threshold at the same point.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The work described in this paper was carried out at the Jet
Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology,
under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space
Carrier Channel
REFERENCES
[ 11
[2]
50
0.0
02
0.4
I
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
High Rate Modulation Index, m,. rad
Figure 8. Modulation Loss as a Function oi hlgh
Data Rate Modulation index
1.6
[3]
Tien M. Nguyen, "Sequential Ranging Integration
Times in the Presence of Interference in the Ranging
Channel, Revisited," JPLD 5032, Jet Propulsion
Laboratory, Sept 17, 1987.
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems,
Recommendations for Space Data Standards, Radio
Frequency and Modulation Systems, Part 1: Earth
Stations and Spacecraft, CCSDS 401.0 B1, Blue
Book, January
1987, CCSDS Secretariat
Communications and Data Systems Division Code
TS, NASA Washington, DC 20540.
W. C. Lindsey, M. K. Simon, "Telecommunication
Svstems ,Englewood Cliffs, PrenticeHall, 1973, Chapter 7.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 2/3/4, FEBRUARY/MARCH/APRIL 1995
T. K. Foley, B. J. Gaumond, J. T. Witherspoon,
"Optimum Power Division for Phase Modulated
Deep Space Communications Links", IEEE
Transaction on Aerospace and Electronic Systems,
Vol. AES3, No. 3, May 1967.
Tien M. Nguyen, "Technique to Select Optimal
Modulation Indices for suppression of Undesired
Signals for Simultaneous Range and Data
Operations", IEEE Transactions on EMC Vol. 32,
No. 1, February 1990.
Tien M. Nguyen, "MT's Algorithm: A new Algorithm
to Search for the Optimum Set of Modulation Indices
for Simultaneous Range/Command/Telemetry
Operation", JPL Publication 8900 , May 1989, Jet
Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
Technology.
Ani1 V. Kantak, Tien M. Nguyen, "The Impact of
Coherent Turn Around Satellite Link on the Selection
of Optimal Modulation Indices", Proceedings of the
1989 International Symposium on EMC, Nagoya,
Japan, September 810, 1989.
"Existing DSN capabilities, tracking system, ranging
(TRK30), in DeepSpace NetworkRlight Project
Interface Design Handbook, Vol. 1, Document 8105,
rev. D, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA,
May 1, 1986.
Joseph H. Yuen, "Deep Space Telecommunications
Systems Engineering," Chapter 2, Plenum Press, New
York, 1983.
Tien M. Nguyen, "Computational Technique for the
Mean and Variance of Modulation Losses," The
Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress
Report 42103, JulySeptember 1990, NASMJet
Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, California.
Tien Manh Nguyen (S178M'83SM93) received the B.S.E., M.S.E., and
M.S.E.E. degrees from the Califomia State University of Fullerton (CSUF),
and University of California at San Diego (UCSD) in 1979, 1980, and 1982,
respectively, and received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from
Columbia Pacific University, San Rafael, in 1986. He also received the M.A.
degree in Mathematics from the Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, C A
in 1993 and will recieve his second Ph.D. degree in Engingeering Mathematics
at the Claremont Graduate School and jointly with California State University
of Long Beach (CSULB) in May 1995.
He has been a Certified Manufacturing Technologist and certified EMC
Engineer since 1984 and 1990, respectively. In 1983 he joined the ITT
Educational Services, Inc, California, where he became chief ofthe Automated
Manufacturing Department. While at ITT, he also taught modern electronic
communication and microwaves courses. From 1985 to 1990, he was with the
Communications Systems Section, and since January 1991, he has been with
the Communications Systems Research Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL), Pasadena, CA. His current interests include integral transforms,
statistical decisions, digital communications systems, parameter estimation, and
digital signal processing. He organizes two sessions for the ICT95 in Bali,
Indonesia. He was a Vicechairman of IEEEEMC/TC6, 8793, and was
Session Chairman ofthe 1986 IEEEEMC International Symposium. Currently,
he serves as the NASNJPL delegate to the Consultative Committee for Space
Data Systems (CCSDS), and also serves as the Editor for the CCSDS Green
Book and Yellow Book on RF and Modulation in 1989 and 1994, respectively.
Dr. Nguyen is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences, a senior
member of AI&
and a member of Phi Kappa Phi.
Sami Hinedi (M83SMI94) was born in Aleppo, Syria, on May 27,1963. He
received the B.S.E.E., M.S.E.E., and Ph.D. degrees all from the University of
Southern California in 1983, 1984, and 1987, respectively.
Since 1987, he has been in the Communications Systems Reasearch Section
at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, where he is currently a group
supervisor. His current interests include spread spectrum communications,
parameter estimation in dynamic environments, and digital signal processing.
He has coauthored a book with M. K. Simon and W. C. Lindsey entitled
"Digital Communication Techniques. Vol. I: Signal Design and Detection,"
PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1995.
Dr.Hinedi a member of Eta Kappa Nu.
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