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Definition of Protective Relay

An automatic device that senses a faulty condition in electrical circuit and closes its
contacts. These contacts in turns shut and complete the breaker trip coil
circuit thus create the circuit breaker tripped for disconnecting the faulty portion of
the electric circuit from remainder of the healthy circuit.
Now lets have a discussion on some terms related to protective relay.

Pickup Level of Actuating Signal:


It is the minimum value of electrical quantity (voltage or current)
that actuates the relay to be operated. If the value of actuating
quantity is increased, then electromagnetic effect of relay coil will
increase and after reaching above a certain level moving mechanism
of the relay starts move.
Reset Level: It is the value electrical quantity (Voltage or current)
below which a relay opens its contacts and resets.

Operating Time of Relay: It is the time which passes between the


instant when actuating quantity surpasses the pickup value to the
instant when the relay contacts close.

Reset Time of Relay: It is the time which passes between the


instant when the actuating quantity becomes less than the reset
value to the instant when the relay contacts returns to its normal
position.

Reach of Relay: The last/ farthest point between relay location


and reach point.

Relay Selection
Following factors are considered when selecting a relay:

Protection.
relay with all regulatory approvals.
Switching time
Ratings
Type of contact used
Select Make before Break or vice versa contacts wisely.
Isolation between coil contacts and circuits.

Relay terminologies:
There are some important terminologies which are used frequently in protective
system. In order to understand the working and function of various relays one must
be familiar with these terms.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pick up current.
Current setting.
Plug setting multiplier (PSM).
Time s0etting multiplier (TSM).

Pick-Up Current of Relay


It is the minimum current at which the relay starts to operate (at which
the relay sense the faults).
Pick up current constantly varies because our system is constantly varying so only
the settings of relays are changes. (Current setting is done)
Pickup current= Rated CT output Current settings

Current Setting of Relay:


It is used to adjust the pickup value up to any required settings. It can be done by
the use of tapping on the relay coil (when relays are mechanical or
electromechanical not numeric)

Plug Setting Multiplier of Relay


It is referred as ratio of fault current in the relay coil to the pick up current.

Time Setting Multiplier of Relay


Scaling factor to adjust the time of operation of relay is called time setting
multiplier.
Actual operating time=T.S.M Time from PSM/time curve
The time of operation of a relay largely depends upon the following factors:
1.

How much distance to be traveled by the moving parts of the relay for closing
relay contacts and
2.
How quickly the moving parts of the relay cover this distance.
To adjust operating time of a relay, both of the above mentioned factors must be
adjusted. The regulation of travelling distance of an electromechanical relay is
generally known as time setting. This regulation is known as time setting multiplier.
By regulating time setting multiplier only one cannot set the actual time of
operation of a relay. The operating time of relay also depends upon the speed of
operation. The speed of moving parts of relay depends on the force present due to
the current in relay coil. Thus, it is obvious that the speed of operation of a relay
depends upon the level of fault current. Therefore, operating time of relay depends
upon plug setting multiplier.

Time vs PSM Curve of Relay


The relation between time of operation and plug setting multiplier is plotted on a
graph paper and this is known as time / PSM graph. From this graph one can
determine, the total time taken by the moving parts of an electromechanical relay,
to complete its total travelling distance for different PSM. The horizontal axis of the
Time / PSM graph represents PSM and vertical axis represents operating time of the
relay.

Calculation of Relay Operation Time


For calculating actual relay operating time, we need to know these following
operation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Current setting.
Fault current level.
Ratio of current transformer.
Time / PSM curve.
Time setting.

Concept of Primary and Backup Protection:


Primary relay:
The zone/region where fault occur, relay of that zone is called
primary relay.
Under fault condition, primary relay should operate to isolate faulty
part but there are some occasions where primary relay d not
operate, like in case of battery failure.
Backup Relay:
In case of primary relay failure, the relay of the nearby regions
should operate, this is called backup protection but they should only
operate when primary relay fails.
There occur instances in power system where protection system
fails.it can be due to various reasons (CT saturation, battery failure)
so there should exist a back-up protection in order to isolate the
faulty area in case of failure of primary protection.
Operating time of back up protection must be greater than the sum
of operating relay and primary circuit breaker.

Types of protection:
following are the types of relay according to the characteristics,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Definite time relays


Inverse time relays with definite minimum time(IDMT)
Instantaneous relays.
IDMT with inst.
Stepped characteristic.
Programmed switches.
Voltage restraint OCR.

following are the types of relay according to the logic,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Differential.
Unbalance.
Neutral displacement.
Directional.
Restricted earth fault.
Over fluxing.
Distance schemes.
Bus bar protection.
Reverse power relays.
Loss of excitation.
Negative phase sequence relays etc.

following are the types of relay according to the actuating


parameters,
1.
2.
3.
4.

Current relays.
Voltage relays.
Frequency relays.
Power relays etc.

Now we discuss the various types of relay in detail,

OCR:
A relay in which the actuating quantity is only current is called OCR.
In this relay voltage coil is not present, but only current coil is
present.
The over current relay that works only on current magnitude are
called Non directional OCR while the relays that detect the fault by
sensing both the magnitude and phase angle of current are called
Directional OCR. These are used at (interconnections) in a power
system.
Working Principle of OCR
In this relay, only current coil is present. During normal operation
current flow through this coil, the magnetic effect produced by the

current coil is not enough to move the moving element of the relay
because in this condition the restraining force is more than
deflecting force. But during abnormal condition, the current through
the coil increases, thus the magnetic effect increases, and after
certain level of current, the deflecting force produced by the
magnetic effect, become greater than the restraining force so as a
result, the moving element start to move causing change in the
position of contact in the relay.
Even though there are various types of OCRs but basic working
principle of OCR is approximately same for all.
Types of OCR
With respect to time of operation, there are different types of
OCRs, such as,

1. Instantaneous OCR.
2. Definite time OCR.
3. Inverse time OCR.
Now lets discuss above mentioned types of OCR in detail,

Instantaneous OCR
A relay in which there is no intentional time delay provided and
ideally there is no time required for relay to operate. But there is
some time delay which cannot be avoided.Here usually a core is wound by current
coil. a chunk of iron is therefore fitted by hinge support and restraining spring within the relay,
that once there's not adequate current within the coil, the NO contacts stay open. once current within the coil
crosses a current value, the attractive force becomes adequate to tug the iron piece towards the core and
consequently the contacts are closed.
The preset value of current within the relay coil is referred as pick up setting current. This relay is referred
as instantaneous OCR, as ideally, the relay operates as soon as the current within the coil gets above pick
up setting current. there's no intentional time delay applied. however, there's continually an immanent time
delay which may not be avoided much. In routine the operative time of an instantaneous relay is of the order
of some milliseconds. Fig.

Definite Time OCR


This relay is made by applying intentional time delay once crossing pick up value of the current. a definite time

OCR is adjusted to issue a trip signal at definite amount of time once it picks up. Thus, it has both i.e. time setting
and pick up setting.

Inverse Time OCR


Inverse time could be a natural character of any induction sort rotating device. this implies the speed of rotation of
rotating art of the device is quicker if input current is raised. In different words, time of operation reciprocally varies
with input current. This natural characteristic of electromechanical induction disc relay is very much appropriate for
over current protection. this can be as a result of, in this relay, if fault is very severe, it'd be
cleared quicker. though time inverse characteristic is immanent to electromechanical induction disc
relay, however a similar characteristic are often achieved in microchip based relay conjointly by correct
programming.

Inverse time OCR are further divided into following,


Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT):
Up to a certain value, follow inverse time, after that it flow definite time.

Top=0.14(TMS)/PSM0.02-1
Very inverse OCR:
Its inverse time relation is less than extremely inverse OCR and greater than IDMT.

Top=13.5(TMS)/PSM-1
Extremely inverse OCR:
Its time characteristics are very high i.e. more than IDMT and Very inverse OCR.

Top=80(TMS)/PSM2-1

Differential Relay:
The relays used in protection are of various types. Among them
differential relay is very commonly used relay for protecting
transformers and generators from internal faults.
Differential relays are very sensitive to the faults occurred within
the zone of protection but they are least sensitive to the faults that
occur outside the zone of protection.
Definition of Differential Relay

A relay that operates when there is a difference between two or


more similar electrical quantities exceeds certain value. In
differential relay scheme, there are two currents, one entering and
other leaving the equipment.

It is based upon the principle that the current entering


and leaving the equipment will be same under load or
external fault conditions.
However, the fault within an equipment will cause the entering and leaving current
to be diff I magnitude and phase angle. When this diff exceeds the pickup value of
the relay, the trip signal is issued.
Differential protection is widely used in equipment where the two ends are
physically close to each other like, transformers, bus bars etc.

Problems associated with simple differential scheme:


A simple differential scheme does not behave ideally as the CTs
are subjected to errors in ratio and phase angles.
These errors are dependent upon the burden of the CTS
(impedance of loads and impedance of relays) and generally
increase with the increase in primary fault current.
Thus, in case of external faults as the primary current increases,
the current in the spill path is not zero and a heavy external fault
current can cause the current in the spill path to increase above

the pickup value of the relay, thus causing the mal-operation of


the relay.
In case of transformer, two CTS have different currents thus there
transformation ratios of the CTS are different and so is their
design.
Therefore, the external faults current causes the current to flow in
the spill path (due to mismatch of CTS).
The bus bars have the same CT ratio but are subjected to very
high faulty currents which tend to magnify the difference in CT
characteristics, thus leading to the flow of current in spill path.
Percent differential relay:
When current in the spill path becomes greater than a
defined percentage of circulating current, then tripping
occurs.
A simple differential relay can be made more reliable, if a
restraining torque is induced in it. This torque is directly
proportional to the external fault current.
The operating torque being still dependent upon the
current through the spill path.
Construction:
It consist of a restraining coil having N numbers of turns,
tapped at the center and connected to the current
circulating path thus receiving the eternal fault current.

As long as the restrain torque is greater, N/2 will attract


armature towards itself, so the contacts will be opened
and no tripping.
When current pass through No, then its magnetic field
and torque is produced, when this torque becomes greater
than the restoring torque and the torque in the spring
then No attracts the armature so circuit is closed and
trip signal is issued.
Condition for tripping:
The relay will issue trip signal only when operating torque
is more than the restraining torque.
The spill current must be greater than a definite
percentage of the external fault current to operate,
therefore this relay is called percentage differential relay.

Thermal Relay:

Coefficient of expansion is one of the premise properties of any


material. Two unique metals dependably have diverse level of linear
expansion. A bimetallic strip dependably twists when it warmed up,
because of this imbalance of linear expansion of two distinct metals.

Working Principle of Thermal Relay


A thermal relay works relying on the previously mentioned property
of metals. The essential working guideline of thermal relay is that,
when a bimetallic strip is warmed up by a heating coil that is
carrying over current of the system, it bends and makes open
contacts.

Distance Relay:
It is the type of a relay which works relying upon the distance of
fault in the line. More precisely, the relay that works depending
upon the impedance between the point where relay is placed and
the point of fault. Such relays are known as distance relay or
impedance relay.
Working principle:
Distance relay work on the basis of ratio between magnitude of voltage and current. Distance relay
has two coils; one energize by voltage and other by current. The current coil produces pick up or
positive torque and voltage coil produces negative or restoring torque. The relay activates only when
the V/I ratio drops below a preset value and when fault occurs on the transmission line, voltage at
fault point decreases while current increases.
At CT and PT location, the V/I ratio is measured. At the PT location, voltage depends upon the
distance between the fault and the PT. If the voltage measured is lesser, so the fault is closer and
vice versa, therefore this relay is known as distance relay.

General table showing various relays used for different


scenarios:
Relays for Transmission & Distribution Lines Protection
S No.

Lines to be protected

Relays to be used

400 KV
Transmission Line

Non switched or Numerical Distance


Scheme

220 KV
Transmission Line

I: Non switched distance scheme (Fed from Bus


PTs)
II: Switched distance scheme (Fed from line CVTs)

132 KV
Transmission Line

Primary Protection: Switched distance


scheme
Backup Protection: 3 Nos. directional
IDMT O/L Relays and
1 No. Directional IDMT E/L relay.

33 KV lines

11 KV lines

Non-directional IDMT 3 O/L and 1 E/L


relays.
Non-directional IDMT 2 O/L and 1 E/L
relays.

Relay for Transformer Protection:


S.no

Voltage Ratio and


Capacity of
Transformer

Relays on HV Side

Relays on LV
Side

Common Relays

11/132 KV
Generator
Transformer

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay
1 no Non-Directional E/L
Relay
and/or standby
E/F + REF Relay

13.8/220 KV
15.75/220 KV
18/400 KV
21/400 KV
Generator
Transformer

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay
1 no Non-Directional E/L
Relay
and/or standby
E/F + REF Relay

1) Differential
Relay
2)Over flux
Relay
3)Buchholz
Relay

1)Differential
Relay
2)Over flux
Relay
3)Buchholz
Relay
4)OT Trip
Relay

220 /6.6KV
Station
Transformer

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay
3 nos Non1 no NonDirectional
Directional E/L
O/L Relay
Relay
and/or standby
E/F + REF Relay

1)Differential
Relay
2)Over flux
Relay
3)Buchholz
Relay
4)OLTC Relay

Gen-volt/6.6KV
UAT

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay

3 nos NonDirectional
O/L Relay

132/33/11KV
upto 8 MVA

3 nos O/L Relay


1 no E/L Relay

2 nos O/L
Relays
1 no E/L
Relay

1)Differential
Relay
2)Over flux
Relay
3)Buchholz
Relay
4)PRV Relay
5)OT Trip
Relay

1)Buchholz
Relay
2)OLTC PRV
Relay
3)OT Trip
Relay
4)WT Trip
Relay

3 nos O/L Relay


132/33/11KV
above 8 MVA &
1 no Directional
below 31.5 MVA
E/L Relay

3 nos O/L
Relay
1 no E/L
Relay

1)Differential
Relay
2)Buchholz
Relay
3)OLTC
4)PRV Relay
5)OT Trip
Relay
6)WT Trip
Relay

3 nos O/L
Relay
1 no E/L
Relay

1)Differential
Relay
2)Over flux
Relay
3)Buchholz
Relay
4)OLTC
5)PRV Relay
6)OT Trip
Relay
7)WT Trip
Relay

3 nos O/L
Relay
1 no
Directional
E/L Relay

1)Differential
Relay
2)Over flux
Relay
3)Buchholz
Relay
4)OLTC
5)PRV Relay
6)OT Trip
Relay
7)WT Trip
Relay

3 nos O/L Relay


132/33KV, 31.5
MVA & above

1 no Directional
E/L Relay

220/33 KV,
3 nos O/L Relay
31.5MVA &
50MVA
1 no Directional
220/132KV, 100
E/L Relay
MVA