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# SCALRS AND VECTORS

1.

The diagram below shows a boat that is about to cross a river in a direction perpendicular to the
bank at a speed of 0.8 m s1. The current flows at 0.6 m s1 in the direction shown.
B ank

0 .6 m s

0 .8 m s

B oat
B ank

The magnitude of the displacement of the boat 5 seconds after leaving the bank is
A.

3 m.

B.

4 m.

C.

5 m.

D.

7 m.
(1)

2.

An object on the end of a light flexible string rotates in a circle as shown below.

o b je c t

The tension in the string is T when the string is at angle to the vertical. Which of the following
is true?
State
Resultant force
A.

not in equilibrium

B.

not in equilibrium

T sin

C.

in equilibrium

D.

in equilibrium

T sin
(1)

3.

Two forces of magnitudes 7 N and 5 N act at a point. Which one of the following is not a
possible value for the magnitude of the resultant force?
A.

1N

B.

3N

C.

5N

D.

7N
(1)

4.

## Which one of the following is a vector quantity?

A.

Electric power

B.

Electrical resistance

C.

D.

(1)

A.

Pressure

B.

Impulse

C.

## Magnetic field strength

D.

Weight
(1)

6.

A bird of weight W lands at the midpoint of a horizontal wire stretched between two poles. The
magnitude of the force exerted by each pole on the wire is F.
F

## The bird will be in equilibrium if

A.

2F > W.

B.

2F = W.

C.

2F < W.

D.

F = W.
(1)

7.

Which of the following is the best estimate, to one significant digit, of the quantity shown
below?
8.1

15.9

A.

1.5

B.

2.0

C.

5.8

D.

6.0

(1)
8.

Two objects X and Y are moving away from the point P. The diagram below shows the velocity
vectors of the two objects.

V e lo c ity v e c to r fo r o b je c t Y

V e lo c ity v e c to r fo r o b je c t X

Which of the following velocity vectors best represents the velocity of object X relative to
object Y?
A .

B.

C.

D .

(1)
9.

## This question is about power output of an outboard motor.

A small boat is powered by an outboard motor of variable power P. The graph below shows the
variation with speed v of P when the boat is carrying different loads.

5 .0
4 .5

350 kg

4 .0
3 .5
3 .0
P / kW

300 kg

2 .5
2 .0
1 .5

250 kg

1 .0

200 kg

0 .5
0 .0

0 .0

0 .5

1 .0

1 .5

2 .0
2 .5
v / m s1

3 .0

3 .5

4 .0

The masses shown are the total mass of the boat plus passengers,

(a)

For the boat having a steady speed of 2.0 m s1 and with a total mass of 350 kg
(i)

## use the graph to determine the power of the engine.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

## (ii) calculate the frictional (resistive) force acting on the boat.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
Consider the case of the boat moving with a speed of 2.5 m s1.
(b)

(i)

Use the axes below to construct a graph to show the variation of power P with the
total mass W.

200

250

300

350

400

450
W / kg

(6)

(ii) Use data from the graph that you have drawn to determine the output power of the
motor for a total mass of 330 kg.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)
10. A student moves between two points P and Q as shown below.
p o in t P

x d ire c tio n

p o in t Q
y d ire c tio n

The displacement from P in the x-direction is dX. The displacement from P in the y-direction is
dY. The resultant displacement from P is dR.
Which of the following diagrams shows the three displacements from point P?

A .

B .
P
d

P
d

dX

C .

D .
d

dX

dX

dX

(1)
11. This question is about trajectory motion.
Antonia stands at the edge of a vertical cliff and throws a stone upwards at an angle of 60 to the
horizontal.
v = 8 .0 m s

60

Sea

The stone leaves Antonias hand with a speed v = 8.0 m s1. The time between the stone leaving
Antonias hand and hitting the sea is 3.0 s.
The acceleration of free fall g is 10 m s2 and all distance measurements are taken from the
point where the stone leaves Antonias hand.
Ignoring air resistance calculate
(a)

## the maximum height reached by the stone.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

## the horizontal distance travelled by the stone.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

## 12. Which of the following represents two vector quantities?

A.

distance, acceleration

B.

C.

force, momentum

D.

## electric field strength, electric potential

(1)

13. A horse pulls a boat along a canal at constant speed in a straight-line as shown below.
h o rse

boat

## d ire c tio n o f tra v e l

The horse exerts a constant force F on the boat. The water exerts a constant drag force L and a
constant force P on the boat. The directions of F, L and P are as shown. Which one of the
following best represents a free-body diagram for the boat?

A .

B .
F
L

C .

D .

F
L

P
P

(1)
14. This question is about a balloon used to carry scientific equipment.
The diagram below represents a balloon just before take-off. The balloons basket is attached to
the ground by two fixing ropes.

b a llo o n

fix in g ro p e

50

fix in g ro p e

50

g ro u n d

There is a force F vertically upwards of 2.15 103 N on the balloon. The total mass of the
balloon and its basket is 1.95 102 kg.
(a)

State the magnitude of the resultant force on the balloon when it is attached to the ground.
...................................................................................................................................

(1)
(b)

## Calculate the tension in either of the fixing ropes.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The fixing ropes are released and the balloon accelerates upwards. Calculate the magnitude
of this initial acceleration.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

The balloon reaches a terminal speed 10 seconds after take-off. The upward force F
remains constant. Describe how the magnitude of air friction on the balloon varies during
the first 10 seconds of its flight.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

## 15. The diagram below shows two vectors, x and y.

y
x

Which of the vectors below best represents the vector c that would satisfy the relation
c = x + y?
A .

B .

C .

D .

(1)
16. Three equal point charges X, Y and Z are fixed in the positions shown.

1 .0 m

X
q

1 .0 m
1

90
q

Y
2

The distance between q1 and q2 and the distance between q2 and q3 is 1.0 m. The electric force
between the charges at X and Y is F. The electric force between the charges at X and Z is
A.

F
.
2

B.

C.

F.

D.

2F.

(1)
17. Which one of the following includes three vector quantities?
A.
velocity
weight
field strength
B.

weight

mass

field strength

C.

velocity

energy

weight

D.

mass

energy

field strength
(1)

18. A block rests on a rough surface. Two forces P and Q act on the block, parallel to the surface. A
friction force F between the block and the surface keeps the block in equilibrium. Which vector
diagram best represents the three forces?

A .

B.
Q

P
F
F
Q

C .

D .
Q
P

P
F

F
Q

(1)
19. Which one of the following quantities is a vector?
A.

Work

B.

Temperature

C.

Electric field

D.

Pressure
(1)

## 20. This question is about vectors.

A student sets up the apparatus shown below to investigate forces.

s p rin g
b a la n c e B

s p rin g
b a la n c e B

1 0 N w e ig h t

The weight of 10.0 N is suspended from spring balance A by means of a light string. Spring
balance B is also attached to the string. The spring balance B is pulled horizontally as shown.
(a)

Using the grid on the diagram, draw a scale diagram to determine the readings on each of
the spring balances.
Reading on spring balance A: ...................................................................................
Reading on spring balance B: ...................................................................................
(4)

(b)

Suggest why it is not possible for the whole length of the string joining spring balances A
and B to be horizontal with the weight still suspended.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

21. A uniform metal bar XY of weight W is hung from a horizontal support at point P by two wires
of negligible mass.

P
T

## Each wire makes an angle with the vertical.

Which of the following is equal to the tension T in one of the wires?
A.

W
cos

B.

W
2 cos

C.

W
sin

D.

W
2 sin

(1)
22. A picture is supported vertically by a wire that is looped over a horizontal light peg P. There is
no friction between the wire and the peg.
P
peg
w ire
X

Y
p ic tu re

## The mass of the picture is uniformly distributed and PX = PY.

Which of the following best represents the free body diagram of the forces acting on the peg?

B.

A .

C.

D .

(1)
23. Three forces F, T and W act at a point P as shown below.
T

A.

W = F tan

B.

W = F cos

C.

F = W tan

D.

F = W cos
(1)

## 24. This question is about circular motion.

A stone is attached to an inextensible string. The stone is made to rotate at constant speed v in a
horizontal circle. Diagram 1 below shows the stone in two positions A and B.

D ia g r a m 1

D ia g r a m 2
v

## Diagram 2 above shows the velocity vector of the stone at point A.

(a)

On diagram 2, draw vectors to show the change in velocity v of the stone from point A to
point B.
(3)

(b)

Use your completed diagram 2 to explain why a force, directed towards the centre of the
circle, is necessary to cause circular motion.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

A.
mass
charge
speed
B.

density

weight

mass

C.

speed

weight

charge

D.

charge

weight

density
(1)

X
Y

A .

B.

C .

D .
Z

(1)
MARKS
1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

C[1]
B[1]
A[1]
C[1]
(a)

5.
6.
7.
8.
(i)

A[1]
A[1]
D[1]
B[1]

## 2.0 kW; ( 0.10 kW)

P
F= v ;

(ii)
= 1000 N = ; ( 50 N)
(b)

4 .0

(i)

3 .5
3 .0
2 .5
P / kW

2 .0
1 .5
1 .0
0 .5
0 .0

200

250

300

350

400

W / kg

sensible use of grid and suitable P scale; (at least half of grid used)
labelled P axis with correct units;
data point (200, 0.65);
data point (250, 0.95);
data points (300, 1.9), (350, 3.1);
Allow 0.2 kW.
line of best fit;
6
(ii)
2.6 kW; (0.1 kW) (watch for ecf)
1
[10]
10.
D
[1]
11.
(a)
vV = 8.0 sin 60 = 6.9 m s1;
v2
h = 2g ;

to give h = 2.4 m ; 3
Award [1] if v = 8.0 m s1 to get h = 3.2 m is used.
(b)
vH = 8.0 cos 60;
range = vHt = 8.0 cos 60 3 = 12 m;
2
Award [1] if v = 8.0 m s1 to get R = 2.4 m is used.

[5]
12.
C
[1]
13.
B
[1]
14.
(a)
zero;
1
(b)
resultant vertical force from ropes = (2.15 103 weight) = 237N;
equating their result to 2T sin50;
ie 2T sin 50 = 237
calculation to give T = 154.7N 150N; 3
Accept any value of tension from 130 N to 160 N. Award [2] for missing
factor of 2 but otherwise correct ie 309 N.
(c)
correct substitution into F = ma;
a

237
1.21 ms 2 ;
2
1.95 10
2

to give
Watch for ecf.
NB Depending on value of g answer will vary from 1.0(3) ms2
to 1.2(3) ms2 all of which are acceptable.
(d)
statement that air friction increases with increased speed seen / implied;
in 10 seconds friction goes from 0 N to 237 N / force increases from zero
until it equals the net upward accelerating force;
2
[8]
15.
B
[1]
[1]
18.
C
16.
A
[1]
[1]
19.
C[1]
17.
A

## (scale must not be awkward or

give rise to short vectors

## suitable choice of scale e.g. 4cm represents 10N ;

20.
(a)
correct construction of triangle / parallelogram;
reading on spring balance A: 16.0 (0.5) N;
reading on spring balance B: 12.5 (0.5) N;
4
(b)
for equilibrium there must be an upward force and horizontal strings
provide no upward force;
1
[5]
21.
B
[1]
22.
B
[1]
23.
A
[1]
24.
(a)

## arrow drawn (from A) of about correct length;

arrow drawn (from A) at about correct angle;
vector v labelled clearly and in correct direction; 3
Award [1 max] if vectors are added and [1 max] if v is opposite to
correct direction.
(b)
v is directed towards the centre of the circle;

## force necessary to cause change in velocity / v;

2
Response must clearly refer to diagram and be consistent with it.
[5]
25.
A
[1]
26.
B
[1]