Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 89

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: TITLE

SHEET
OF 4

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

iOF iii

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

FILE NAME: TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-007(R2) . DOC

REV.NO

R0

R1

R2

INITIALS

SIGN

INITIALS

SIGN

INITIALS

PPD.BY

VTK

Sd/-

KSS

Sd/-

KSS

CKD.BY

SNM

Sd/-

MSCN

Sd/-

BRR

APP.BY

MRR

Sd/-

MGK

Sd/-

SMP

DATE

1981-03-12

2000-02-15

ISSUE
SIGN

INITIALS

SIGN

R2

30-10-2009
TCE FORM NO. 020R3

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION:REV STAT

ii

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SHEET

OF iii

CONTENTS
SECTION

TITLE

SHEET NO

1.0

SCOPE

2.0

APPLICABLE CODES AND BOOKS

3.0

NOTATIONS

4.0

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

5.0

INPUT DATA

6.0

LOADS

7.0

LOAD COMBINATIONS

23

8.0

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES

24

9.0

DESIGN PROCEDURE

25

10.0

CHIMNEY PROGRAM

34

11.0

DESIGN EXAMPLE

34

12.0

DESIGN OF STRAKES

85

REVISION STATUS SHEET

ISSUE
R2
FORM NO.120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION:REV STAT

iii

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

REV.NO.
R1

DATE
2000-02-15

R2

30-10-2009

SHEET

OF iii

DESCRIPTION
DESIGN GUIDE REVISED TO
SATISFY IS:4998(PART 1)-1992
GENERALLY REVISED

ISSUE
R2
FORM NO.120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

1.0

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 1 OF 89

SCOPE
This guide sets out the procedure to be followed for the design of
reinforced concrete chimney shell, for single or multiflue chimneys. Method
of estimation of loads due to wind as per IS:4998 is also explained. Design
of corbels is covered in M6-CV-RC-P-015.

2.0

APPLICABLE CODES AND BOOKS


(a)

IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1975* :

Criteria for design of reinforced


concrete chimneys Design
Criteria

(b)

IS 4998 (Part 1 ) : 1992* :

Criteria for design of reinforced


concrete chimneys Assessment
of Loads

(c)

IS 456 : 1978

Code of practice for plain and


reinforced concrete

(d)

IS 1893 : 1984

Criteria for earthquake resistant


design of structures

(e)

IS 875 : 1987

Code of practice for design loads


(other than earthquake) for
buildings and structures

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

:
:
:

Dead loads
Imposed loads
Wind loads

(f)

ACI 307 : 1979**

Specification for the design and


construction of reinforced
concrete chimneys

(g)

Tall chimneys

Design & Construction


S.N.Manohar

(h)

Reinforced concrete chimneys & towers G.M.Pinfold

NOTE *

3.0

IS:4998-1992 gives procedure for Assessment of wind loading only. All


other requirements including design criteria is as per IS:4998-1975
**
ACI 307-1979 being followed even though 2008 issue for strength
method of design is available as IS still follows Working Stress Method
of design
NOTATIONS

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

FZ
pZ

=
=

CD
dz
Vcri
fi
d

=
=
=
=
=

Sn
oi

=
=

CL
H
zi

=
=
=

Ksi
s

=
=
=

mei

=
=

Fzoi
Mzoi
mz
Fzm

=
=
=
=

G
gf

=
=

r
B

=
=

S
VID

=
=

CL

=
=
=

ka
Moe / Moi
rm

=
=
=

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 2 OF 89

Along wind load or drag force per unit height.


Design wind pressure obtained in accordance with IS 875
(Part 3)
Height of any section of the chimney (mts) measured from
top of foundation
Drag co-efficient of the chimney
Diameter of chimney at height z in mts.
Critical wind speed for the ith mode of vibration
Modal frequency for ith mode of vibration.
Effective diameter of chimney i.e., the average diameter over
the top 1/3 height of chimney.
Strouhal number to be taken as 0.2.
Peak tip deflection due to vortex shedding in the I th mode of
vibration in m.
Peak oscillatary lift co-efficient to be taken as 0.16
Height of chimney in m above ground level
Mode shape function normalised with respect to the dynamic
amplitude at top of the chimney in the Ith mode of vibration.
Mass damping parameter for the Ith mode of vibration
Logarithmic decrement of structural damping = 2
Structural damping as a fraction of critical damping to be
taken as 0.016
Mass density of air to be taken as 1.2 kg/m3.
Equivalent mass per unit length in kg/m in the I th mode of
vibration.
Shear force at any height zo for the Ith mode of vibration
Bending moment at any height zo for Ith mode of vibration
Mass per unit length of the chimney at section z in kg/m.
Wind load in N/m height due to Hourly Mean Wind (HMW)
at height z.
Gust factor
Peak factor defined as the ratio of the expected peak value to
RMS value of fluctuating load
Twice the turbulance intensity
Background factor indicating the slowly varying component
of wind load fluctuation
A measure of the available energy in the wind at the natural
frequency of chimney
Size reduction factor
Hourly mean wind speed in m/sec. at 10 m above ground
level
RMS lift co-efficient to be taken as 0.12
Equivalent aspect ratio = H/d
Correlation length in diameters, which may be taken as 1.0 in
the absence of field data.
Aerodynamic damping co-efficient to be taken as 0.5
External and internal ring moments
Mean radius of the shell at the section under consideration in

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

Tx
t
tb
T
To

=
=
=
=
=

Cb

CC

CS

Db
Dbi
DC
DCi
DCO
DS
K1

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

K2

Kr

KS

rq

Mk
W
e

=
=
=

ts
cu

=
=

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 3 OF 89

m.
Temperature gradient
Thickness of concrete shell in m.
Thickness of lining in m.
Maximum temperature of gas inside chimney in 0C
Minimum temperature of outside air surrounding chimney in
0
C
Co-efficient of thermal conductivity of chimney lining in kilo
calories per metre per hour per degree centigrade difference
of temperature
Co-efficient of thermal conductivity of the concrete of
chimney shell in kilo calories per metre per hour per degree
centigrade difference of temperature
Co-efficient of thermal conductivity of insulation between
lining and shell in the kilo calories per metre per hour per
degree centigrade difference of temperature
Mean diameter of lining in m.
Inside diameter of lining in m.
Mean diameter of concrete chimney shell in m.
Inside diameter of concrete chimney shall be in m.
Outside diameter of concrete chimney shell in m.
Mean diameter of space between lining and shell in m.
Co-efficient of heat transmission from gas to inner surface of
chimney lining when chimney is lined or to inner surface of
chimney shell when chimney is unlined in kilo calories per
square metre per hour per degree centigrade difference of
temperature.
Co-efficient of heat transmission from outside surface of
chimney shell to surrounding air in kilo calories per square
metre per hour per degree centigrade difference of
temperature.
Co-efficient of heat transmission by radiation between
outside surface of lining & inside surface of concrete chimney
shell in kilo calories per square metre per hour per degree
centigrade difference of temperature
Co-efficient of heat transfer between outside surface of lining
and inside surface of wall for chimney with ventilated air
space in kilo calories per square metre per hour per degree
centigrade difference of temperature.
Ratio of heat transmission through chimney shell to heat
transmission through lining for chimneys with ventilated air
spaces.
Moment due to corbel in N-m.
Load due to corbel in N.
Distance between centre line of the shell and the centre of
gravity of the load in m.
Thickness of the shell at the section under consideration in m.
28 days ultimate cube strength of concrete in kg/cm2

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

sy
m
p
np
r
W
M
e
fc
fc(max)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

fs

fsh
fsc
Ft

=
=
=
=

Ec
k
a

=
=
=

t
ctc

=
=

P1

Z1

Es
STC

=
=

CWCT

CWCC

SWCT

WP
r

=
=

t1

f"CWC

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 4 OF 89

Yield or proof stress of steel in kg/cm2


Modular ratio
Ratio of area of steel to concrete
Mp/(1-p)
Mean radius of chimney shell in stress calculation
Axial load in stress calculation`
Moment in stress calculation
M/W
Vertical stress in concrete due to axial and moment
Maximum vertical stress in concrete due to axial load and
moment
Maximum vertical stress in steel due to axial load and
moment
Compressive stress in steel on hot face
Tensile stress in steel on cold face.
Fictitious stress = 0.5 x x Ec x Tx
Co-efficient of linear expansion for concrete and steel = 11 x
10-6 / 0C
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Ratio of steel area on hot face to total steel area
Ratio of steel cg distance from inner surface of chimney shell
to total shell thickness.
Total shell thickness
Maximum circumferential stress in concrete due to
temperature alone.
Co-efficient of linear expansion for concrete and steel = 11 x
10-6 / 0C
Ratio of circumferential steel area to total shell area per unit
height
Ratio of outside circumferential steel cg distance from inner
surface of chimney shell to total shell thickness
Modulus of elasticity of steel
Maximum circumferential tensile stress in steel due to
temperature alone
Maximum circumferential tensile stress in concrete due to
wind induced ring moment.
Maximum circumferential compressive stress in concrete due
to wind induced ring moment
Maximum circumferential tensile stress in steel due to wind
induced ring moment
Wind pressure in kg/cm2
Mean radius of chimney shell at section under consideration
in cm
Thickness of shell from compression face to centre line of
circumferential steel
Maximum circumferential compressive stress in concrete due
to wind induced ring moments

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

4.0

fswc

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 5 OF 89

Ratio of inside face circumferential reinforcing steel area to


the outside circumferential reinforcing steel area.
Maximum tensile stress in circumferential reinforcement due
to wind induced ring moments.

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
A reinforced concrete chimney is usually of two types
(a) Single flue - when one chimney serves one boiler
(b) Multi flue - when one chimney serves more than one boiler
Both single flue and multiflue chimneys can have either brick lining or steel
lining.
In case of single flue chimneys with brick lining, the lining is supported on
corbels or a grid work of beams at every 10 m intervals or less. If the lining
is of steel, then major portion of lining is supported from the top of
chimney (top hung) and a small portion of lining is supported at the bottom.
Lateral restraint is provided for the lining at certain intervals.
In case of multiflue chimneys with brick lining, the lining is supported on a
grid work of beams with platform at every 10 m intervals or less. If the
lining is of steel then again a major portion of lining is supported from the
top of chimney (top hung) and a small portion of lining is supported at the
bottom. Lateral restraint is provided for the lining at certain intervals.
Internal platforms with a grid work of beams are provided to access the
flues. A roof slab at top covers the chimney with provision to access it
through a manhole at roof level. There is also a provision to collect rain
water at roof level, bring it down through downtake pipes and collect it in a
sump.
Design of steel flue is covered in M6-CV-034

5.0

INPUT DATA
The following information is required before proceeding with the design of
chimney shell.

5.1

Data from Mechanical Department


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Height of the chimney


Location, number and sizes of flue duct openings
Internal diameter of the flue at top and at duct opening level
Maximum temperature and velocities of flue gases
Volume and density of ash to be collected

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

5.2

Location and number of Aviation warning lights


Location and number of openings for instrumentation
Requirement for Rack and Pinion type Lift

Project Data
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

6.0

SHEET 6 OF 89

Data from Electrical and Instrumentation Department


(i)
(ii)
(iii)

5.3

SECTION: WRITE-UP

Maximum and minimum ambient temperatures


Basic wind speed and terrain factor as per IS:875 (Part 3)
Seismic zone

LOADS
As per IS 4998 : 1992, the following loads shall be considered to act on the
chimney shell
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

6.1

Dead loads
Imposed loads
Wind loads
Earthquake loads
Temperature effects or Thermal loads
Moment due to corbel loads

Dead Loads
Dead loads shall include the weight of chimney shell, liners, liner supports,
other accessories and load of ash and soot as applicable. Unit weight of the
materials shall be taken in accordance with IS 875 (Part 1). Unit weight of
certain materials are listed below :
Concrete
Brick lining
Acid proof tiles
Mortar
Cellular concrete
Ash (Flue dust, dry)
Steel
Insulation around flue

6.2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

25 kN/m
20 kN/m
20 kN/m
20.4 kN/m
24 kN/m
7.05 kN/m
78.5 kN/m
0.80 kN/m3

Imposed Loads
Imposed loads shall be taken in accordance with IS 875 (Part 2). The
imposed loads on internal platform and roof of multiflue chimneys shall
include appropriate loads during construction. For the overall design of
chimney shell and foundation, imposed loads need not be considered.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 7 OF 89

However, for design of individual structural elements such as platforms,


etc. and for local strengthening of the shell, appropriate imposed loads shall
be considered. In the absence of data, the live load on platform can be
assumed as 5 kN/m2. Roof supporting steel framing beams, in the case of
steel flues shall be designed to support concentrated load transmitted by
flue erecting structures. In addition this slab shall also be designed to
support a live load of 15 kN/m2
6.3

Wind Loads
The method of estimating wind loads is given in Annex A of IS 4998 (Part
1) : 1992. In order to estimate the dynamic wind loads, the mode shapes
and frequencies of the chimney shell is necessary. Hence, prior to the
calculation of the wind loads, a free vibration analysis of the chimney shell
has to be done considering it to be a cantilever fixed at base. Any standard
method like STAAD-III, involving discretization of the structure and
assuming it to be made of a homogeneous material with a suitable value of
elastic modulus can be used. The following values of the modulus of
elasticity of concrete shall be considered for calculating the natural
frequencies.
Grade of Concrete
M25
M30
M35
M40

Modulus of Elasticity (N/m)


3.20 x 1010
3.35 x 1010
3.50 x 1010
3.60 x 1010

Wind effect on chimney shell are


(a)

Static or Along-wind load with or without aerodynamic interference


This load induces vibrations in chimneys in the direction of wind.

(b)

Unsteady force with or without aerodynamic interference This force


induces vibrations in chimneys in a direction perpendicular to the
direction of wind flow. The force induced in the direction of wind is
called Along-wind force and that perpendicular to the direction of
wind as Across wind force.

As per IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1992, both the along and across wind forces shall
be calculated by two methods
(i)
(ii)

Simplified method As indicated in clause A-4 and


Random response method As indicated in clause A-5.

The method which yields higher moments shall be considered for the design
of chimney shell.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 8 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

As the formulae given in the code are not fully explicit, they have been
listed here along with a brief explanation.
6.3.1

Simplified method

6.3.1.1

Along-wind load or drag force


The along wind load or drag force per unit height of the chimney at any
level shall be calculated from the equation
Fz = pz . CD . dz

---------(1)

pz = design wind pressure obtained in accordance with IS 875 (Part 3)


z = height of any section of the chimney in mts measured from top of
foundation
CD = drag coefficient of the chimney
dz = diameter of chimney at height z in mts
The design wind pressure (pz) shall be calculated using the 3 seconds gust
wind indicated in clause 5.3 and 5.4 of IS 875 (Part 3). Risk coefficient
factor (k1) is read from Table 1 of IS 875 (Part 3) with the following
condition : The mean probable design life of structure is taken as 25 years
for Shell only condition and as 100 years for shell & lining condition.
Terrain, height and structure size factor (k 2) is read from Table 2 of IS 875
(Part 3) and topography factor (k3) is generally taken equal to 1.
The drag coefficient (CD) of the chimney shell shall be taken as 0.8.
However, if strakes are mounted on the surface of chimney, the drag
coefficient shall be modified as indicated in Table 1 of IS 4998 (Part 1) :
1992.
The moments in the chimney shell shall be calculated treating the chimney
as a free standing structure. For this purpose, sections in the chimney shell
shall be taken at 10m intervals along the height of shell or at every corbel
level whichever distance is less. The load at any section shall be calculated
by suitably arranging the loads above and below it.
6.3.1.2

Across-wind loads
In order to calculate across-wind loads, the following procedure shall be
followed.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

(a)

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 9 OF 89

Calculate the effective diameter (d) of chimney shell This is taken as


average diameter over the top 1/3 height of chimney.
For ex. Case 1 For a 150 m high chimney with following
configuration for top 1/3 height (Refer fig.1)
Average dia is calculated as d =

5000 + 7000
--------------- = 6000 mm
2

Case 2 For a 150 m high chimney with following configuration for


top 1/3 height (Refer fig.2)
Average dia is calculated as d =

5000 + 7000
--------------- = 6000 mm
2

This is on the conservative side.


(b) Calculate the wind speed at 5/6 height of chimney using the factors k 1,
k2 and k3 as obtained in clause 6.3.1.1.
(c)

Calculate the critical wind speed (Vcri) for the ith mode of vibration
from the following equation

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 10 OF 89

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 11 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

fi x d
Vcri = ----Sn

----------(2)

Where fi is the modal frequency for ith mode of vibration


d is the effective diameter as calculated in (a) above and
Sn is strouhal number to be taken as 0.2.
All the modes which give a critical wind speed upto 10% more
than wind speed calculated in item (b) above shall be considered
for subsequent analysis.
(d) For the ith mode of vibration, calculate the amplitude of vortex excited
oscillation perpendicular to the direction of wind by the formula

dz zi dz
o

oi

-----------------

CL
-----------------

----------(3)

2zi dz

4 S2n Ksi

oi = peak tip deflection due to vortex shedding in the ith mode of


vibration in m.
CL = peak oscillatory lift coefficient to be taken as 0.16
H

= height of chimney in m

Sn

= Strouhal number to be taken as 0.2

zi = mode shape function normalized with respect to the dynamic


amplitude at top of the chimney in the ith mode of vibration
Ksi = mass damping parameter for the ith mode of vibration
2mei s /(d 2 )

----------

(4)
s

= logarithmic decrement of structural damping = 2

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 12 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

= structural damping as a fraction of critical damping to be


taken as 0.016

= mass density of air to be taken as 1.2 kg/m

= effective diameter as calculated in (a) above

mei = equivalent mass per unit length in kg/m in the ith mode of
vibration
H

mz zi dz
o

-----------------

----------(5)

zi dz
o

All the above parameters are calculated by integrating over the total
height of the chimney. In the actual case, the integration can be
achieved by dividing the chimney into large number of small segments
and calculating the value of the integrals at the middle of each
segment. The values so obtained are summed over the total height of
the chimney.
The above calculation of oi is acceptable upto 4 percent of the
effective diameter. If the so computed value of oi exceeds 4 percent
of the effective diameter, the amplitude of oscillation oi shall be
increased as follows :
Amplitude of oscillation oi (for computed value of oi 0.04d)
= (computed value of oi) / (0.4d)
(e)

----------(6)

For the ith mode of vibration, calculate the shear force Fzoi and bending
moment Mzoi at any height zo of the section from the equations
H

Fzoi = 4 fi oi mz zi dz
zo

----------(7)

Mzoi

= 4 fi oi mz zi (z zo) dz
zo

----------(8)

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

fi

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 13 OF 89

= natural frequency of the chimney in Hz in the ith mode of


vibration

mz = mass per unit length of the chimney at section z in kg/m


(f)

Repeat steps (d) and (e) for all the modes to be considered as per step
(c) above.

6.3.2

Random response method

6.3.2.1

Along-wind response
The along-wind response of a chimney shall be calculated by the Gust
Factor method. The use of Gust Factor method requires a knowledge of
Hourly Mean Wind Speed (HMW). Hourly mean wind speed at any height
(z), shall be obtained as per IS 875 (Part 3).
The along-wind load per unit height at any height z on a chimney shall be
calculated from the equation
Fz = Fzm + Fzf

----------(9)

Where, Fzm is the wind load in N/m height due to HMW at height z and is
given by
_
Fzm = pz . CD . dz
----------(10)

The design wind pressure (pz) shall be calculated using the HMW speed
indicated in clause 8.2 and 8.3 of IS 875 (Part 3). Factors k 1 and k3 will be
the same as calculated in clause 5.3.1.1. Terrain, height and structure size
factor (k2) shall be read from Table 33 of IS 875 (Part 3).
The drag coefficient (CD) of the chimney shell shall be taken as 0.8.
however, if strakes are mounted on the surface of chimney, the drag
coefficient shall be modified as indicated in Table 1 of IS 4998 (Part 1) :
1992.
Fzf is the wind load in N/m height due to the fluctuating component of wind
at height z and is given by
Fzf

3 (G-1) z H
= -------- --- Fzm . z . dz
H
H o

----------(11)

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 14 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

H is height of chimney above ground level


G is the Gust Factor which shall be calculated from the equation
G = 1 + gf . r

{B ( SE / )}

----------(12)

Where
gf = peak factor defined as the ratio of the expected peak value to RMS
value of the fluctuating load
=

0.577

(2 log e T

2 log e T

----------(13)

r = twice the turbulence intensity


= 0.622 0.178 log10 H

----------(14)

B = background factor indicating the slowly varying component of


wind load fluctuation
-0.88

1+

0.63

----265

----------(15)

E = a measure of the available energy in the wind at the natural


frequency of chimney
_
[ 123 ( f1 / v10 ) . H0.21 ]
= -------------------------------------------------(16)
_
[ 1 + ( 330 f1 / v10 ) . H0.42 ] 0.83

S = size reduction factor


_
= [ 1 + 5.78 (f1 / v10 )1.14 . H0.98 ]-0.88
3600 f1
T = ----------------1 + B 1/2
SE

----------(17)

----------(18)

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 15 OF 89

f1 = natural frequency of chimney in the first mode of vibration in Hz


_
v10 = hourly mean wind speed in m/sec at 10 m above ground level
_
= Vb . k2
----------(19)
6.3.2.2

Across-wind loads
In order to calculate across-wind loads, the following procedure shall be
followed
(a)

Calculate the effective diameter (d) of chimney shell as explained in


clause 6.3.1.2 (a).

(b)

Calculate the wind speed at 5/6 height of chimney using the factors
k1, k2 and k3 as given in clause 6.3.2.1.

(c)

Calculate the critical wind speed (Vcri) for the ith mode of vibration
as explained in clause 6.3.1.2 (c). All the modes which give a critical
wind speed upto 10% more than wind speed calculated in item (b)
above shall be considered for subsequent analysis.

(d)

Calculate the taper of chimney. Taper is defined as 2(d av dtop) / H


where dav is the average outer diameter over the top half of chimney,
dtop is the outer diameter at top and H is the height of chimney above
ground level.
(dtop + dmidheight)
dav is calculated as --------------------- irrespective of the
2
chimney profile between the two levels.

For example:
Case 1 For a 150 m high chimney with following configuration for
top half of chimney (Refer fig.3)
dav

5000 + 7000
= --------------- = 6000 mm
2

2 (6000 5000)
Taper = -------------------- = 0.01333 = 1 in 75

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 16 OF 89

150000
Case 2 For a 150 m high chimney with following configuration for
top half of chimney (Refer fig.4)

dav

5000 + 7000
= --------------- = 6000 mm
2

2 (6000 5000)
Taper = -------------------- = 0.01333 = 1 in 75
150000
(e)

If the taper of chimney is less than or equal to 1 in 50, calculate the


peak response amplitude (oi) for the ith mode of vibration by the
formula
_
1.25 CL . d . (Hi) x d
_ L _
2
S n
mei
2 ( +2)
oi = ----------------------------------------------------H

1 _ 2zi dz
H

1/2

------(20)

1/2

- ka d
mei

Where

_
CL

= equivalent aspect ratio = H/d


= RMS lift coefficient to be taken as 0.12

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 17 OF 89

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

(f)

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 18 OF 89

= correlation length in diameters, which may be taken as 1.0 in


the absence of field data

ka

= aerodynamic damping coefficient to be taken as 0.5

If the taper of chimney is greater than 1 in 50, calculate the peak


response amplitude (oi) for the ith mode of vibration by the formulae
_
CL(d4ze) zei (Hi)
L 1/2
2t
oi = ------------------------------------------------------(21)
H

2 S n mei 2zi . dz .
2

- ka d
mei

1/2

where
Zei = height in mt. at which d4z zi is maximum in the ith mode
t
of vibration
t =

- _ (dz) + . dz
z
z

----------(22)
z = zei

= Power law exponent and shall be taken as given below

Terrain category
1
2
3
4
3 km from sea shore

0.10
0.14
0.18
0.34
0.12

In the above equations both zei and t are unknowns. Hence initially
it is assumed that ze = H and the value of t is calculated. Then the
term d4z zi (say equal to x) is evaluated.
t
The value of z is progressively decreased and the value of x is
evaluated. The value of oi is calculated at height z where x is
maximum. The procedure is repeated for all significant modes.
For very tall chimneys oi may not show a maximum in any of the
modes. In such a case the value of ze shall be taken as that value
where Vcr for that mode equals the maximum expected wind
velocity Vz at ze.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SHEET 19 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

6.3.3

SECTION: WRITE-UP

(g)

Calculate the shear force Fzoi and bending moment Mzoi at any
height zo as explained in clause 6.3.1.2 (e).

(h)

Repeat steps (e) or (f) and (g) for all the modes to be considered as
per step (c) above.

Circumferential wind loads


The wind pressure distribution around a chimney is not uniform. This
induces circumferential ring moments. The circumferential moments due to
wind are calculated by the formula
Moe or Moi = 0.33 pz . rm in N-m/m height

----------(23)

Where
Moe and Moi = external and internal ring moments
pz

= design wind pressure at height z in N/m and

rm

= mean radius of the shell at the section under consideration


in mts

The design wind pressure (pz), for the circumferential ring moments, shall
be obtained in accordance with IS 875 (Part 3) clause 5.3 and 5.4, treating
the chimney as class A structure.
The hoop force and shear due to ovalling need not be considered.
6.3.4

Ovalling oscillations
Because of the relatively small thickness of the chimney at the top
compared to its diameter, possibilities of ovalling oscillations will have to
be examined only if the diameter of the chimney exceeds 75 times the wall
thickness at top.

6.3.5

Aerodynamic interference
All the above calculations for wind load are for isolated chimney. When a
cluster of chimneys is present, aerodynamic interference between them may
increase the total wind load. Aerodynamic interference shall be considered
for along-wind load only if the spacing between the centre lines of the
chimneys is less than 3 times the effective diameter of the largest chimney.
The enhancement in wind loads will be due to an increase in the value of
CD. The value of CD for each chimney located within a distance of 3 times
the effective diameter, may be calculated by assuming the value of CD to be
increasing linearly from 0.8 (for a spacing of 3 effective diameters) to a

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 20 OF 89

value of 2.0 (for a hypothetical spacing of 1 effective diameter which


implies that the two chimneys touch each other if they are cylindrical and
identical). These values of CD apply up to the height of the nearest
interfering chimney, if the chimneys are of unequal height. It is permissible
to obtain more accurate values of CD by carrying out properly conducted
model tests in wind tunnels.
When identical chimneys are spaced at less than 20 times the diameter at
2/3rd height, the amplitudes of oscillation of the downstream chimneys are
found to be magnified due to aerodynamic interference. The term
magnification is used to denote the ratio of the amplitude of across-wind
oscillation when there is periodic vortex induced aerodynamic interference
to the amplitude of across-wind oscillations when there is no aerodynamic
interference. For a given configuration of identical chimneys, the
magnification factor for the across-wind amplitude oi (calculated as per
clause 6.3.1.2 or 6.3.2.2) is indicated in Fig.1 of IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1992. In
case of dissimilar chimneys a model study is necessary to determine the
magnification factor.
6.3.6

Remedial measures for suppressing across wind oscillation


The across wind oscillations can be suppressed by providing discrete
strakes on the outer surface of the chimney. Clause A-7 of IS 4998 (Part1) : 1992 gives the details of strakes. The provision of strakes increases the
drag coefficient over the height where they are mounted. The incremental
drag coefficient is indicated in Table 1 of IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1992, and they
should be added to the basic drag coefficient CD = 0.8.
Discrete strakes can also be used to suppress or minimize large across-wind
amplitudes in single chimneys. In such cases, magnification in Table 1 shall
be taken as the ratio of the calculated across-wind amplitude to the alongwind amplitude.

6.4

Seismic Loads
The seismic loads on a chimney are estimated using the response spectrum
method. The mode shapes and natural frequencies obtained for dynamic
wind load analysis can also be used to conduct a seismic analysis for the
chimney. Usually the first five modes are considered for analysis. In the
absence of a site specific response spectrum, the spectrum indicated in IS
1893 shall be used for the estimation of earthquake loads.
In order to estimate the seismic loads, the chimney shall be considered as a
cantilever fixed at base and any standard method like STAAD III involving
discretization of the structure and lumping the mass at the nodes can be
used.

6.5

Thermal Loads

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 21 OF 89

Thermal loads are induced due to temperature gradients present in chimney


shell. The temperature gradients are significant for single flue chimneys with
or without ventilated air space. Those chimneys which enclose well
insulated flues situated some distance from the shell and in which the
intermediate space is sufficient to provide access for inspection, rarely have
temperature design problems.
6.5.1

Estimation of temperature gradient


Clause D-2.2.3 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1975 gives the formula for calculating
temperature gradient across chimney shell. Four cases have been considered
(a) Unlined chimneys
(b) Lined chimneys with insulation completely filling the space between
the lining and shell
(c) Lined chimneys with unventilated air space
(d) Lined chimneys with ventilated air space.
Case (a), (b) and (c) are now obsolete. Hence Case (d) has been dealt
further.
As per clause C-1 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1975, chimneys with ventilated air
space should satisfy the following conditions:
(i)

Air inlets shall be provided near the base with proper covering for the
openings so as to prevent any dirt or tiny creatures entering the air
gap.

(ii)

The number and size of openings in the chimney wall and each corbel
shall be such as to have a total area of not less than two-thirds of the
area of minimum air gap.

(iii) Such openings in shell may be distributed in more than one layer, if
required, to minimize the reduction in shell area which may otherwise
weaken the shell.
(iv) Adequate arrangement should be made at the top of chimney for
egress of the heated air.
As per equation 15 of IS 4998 (Part 1) 1975, temperature gradient
tDbi

Tx = -----(24)

CcDc

T - To

------------------------------------------------1_+

tb Dbi_ +

rqK1 rqCbDb

Dbi +

KsDs

tDbi +

CcDc

------

Dbi _

K2 Dco

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 22 OF 89

NOTE : The research data available to establish the coefficients of heat


transfer through chimney lining and wall, specially as they concern
the heat transfer from gases to the surfaces and through ventilated
air spaces between lining and wall, are somewhat meagre. Unless
complete heat balance studies are made for the particular chimney,
it is permissible to use constants as stated below. These constants
when entered into the equations for temperature differential
through the chimney shell,Tx, will give values of accuracy in
keeping with the basic design assumptions:
rq = 0.5
K1 = to be determined from curves in Fig.3 of
IS:4998(part1)-1975
Cc = 1.488
K2 = 58.59
Cs and Cb = to be obtained from the manufacturer of the
materials used
Kr = 0.0732 T + 1.3
Ks = 0.0586 T + 1.0
The value of rq = 0.5 shall apply only where the distance between
the lining and the chimney shell is not less than 100 mm
throughout the entire height of the lining and air inlet openings are
provided through the chimney shell at the bottom of the lining
having an area in square centimetres numerically equal to twenty
times the inside diameter in centimetres of the chimney shell at the
top of the lining. Local obstructions in the air space between the
lining and the chimney shell shall not restrict the area of the air
space at any horizontal section to less than that specified for air
inlet at the bottom of the lining.
6.6

Moment due to Corbel Loads


As per clause 5.5 of IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1992,
Moment due to loads on corbels, MK is
MK = . W.e

----------(25)

Where
MK = moment due to corbel in N-m
W = load due to corbel in N and
e = distance between centre line of the shell and the centre of gravity of
the load in m
whenever the corbel is above or below an opening, the moment M K shall be
taken = W.e

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 23 OF 89

In the above formula (+) and (-) refer to the tension on inner face of the
shell above the corbel and outer face of the shell below the corbel
respectively. The effect of this may be taken as distributed over a length
equivalent to the depths of the corbel at the junction with the shell or 0.76
(rmts), in m whichever is greater, where
rm = mean radius of the shell at section under consideration in m
ts
7.0

= thickness of the shell at the section under consideration in m

LOAD COMBINATIONS
As per clause 5.3 of IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1992, the various load combinations
to be considered for the design of chimney shell shall be :
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

Dead loads
Dead loads + Wind loads
Dead loads + Earthquake loads
Dead loads + Thermal loads
Dead loads + Wind loads + Thermal loads
Dead loads + Earthquake loads + Thermal loads
Circumferential effect due to wind
Circumferential effect due to temperature
Circumferential effect due to wind + temperature

NOTES

1. Across-wind loads shall be combined with the coexisting along-wind


loads. The combined design moment at any section shall be taken as the
root sum square of the moments due to the across-wind loads and the
co-existing along-wind loads.
2. Loading conditions (b) and (c) shall be considered for shell alone case
also.
3. Secondary effects due to deflection shall be considered for one cycle.
4. Design should also consider effects due to local loads, if any, on the
shell.
8.0

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
As per clause 7 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1975, the stresses in concrete and
steel shall not exceed the following limits for various combinations of loads.
TABLE- 1 Permissible stresses

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 24 OF 89

Load Combination

Stress limit in Stress limit


concrete
in steel

Dead load + wind load

0.275 cu

0.57 sy

Dead load + earthquake force

0.40 cu

0.60 sy

Dead load + temperature effect

0.33 cu

0.55 sy

Dead load + wind load + temperature 0.50 cu


effect

0.65 sy

Dead load + earthquake


temperature effect

+ 0.50 cu

0.65 sy

Circumferential stress due to temperature

0.30 cu

0.50 sy

Circumferential stress
induced ring moment

wind 0.07 cu
(tensile)

0.50 sy

Circumferential stress due to combined 0.40 cu


effect of wind induced ring moment and (compressive
temperature
)

due

force

to

0.65 sy

cu = 28 days ultimate cube strength of concrete in kg/cm


sy = yield or proof stress of steel in kg/cm
Stress limits has not been specified for dead load alone case. For this case,
the value specified in (a) above may be used. The stresses in concrete due
to wind induced ring moments shall be estimated neglecting the effect of
reinforcement. If the tensile stress in concrete are less than the value
specified in (g) above, then minimum circumferential reinforcement shall be
provided. If the stress exceeds the limit, then circumferential reinforcement
shall be provided treating the section as a cracked section.
9.0

DESIGN PROCEDURE

9.1

Proportioning
The height of the chimney as well as the diameter at the top are normally
chosen so that exit velocity and dispersion of gases are within the specified
limits. The bottom diameter is more frequently controlled by the structural
requirements of both the concrete shell and the foundation. A height to
outside base diameter ratio in the range of 10-15 will provide good
proportion for the design of both the chimney and the foundation.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 25 OF 89

In cases of multiflue chimneys, the internal diameter is usually kept constant


with only the shell thickness varying with height.
9.2

Minimum Requirements
The following requirements regarding the chimney shell shall be adopted

9.3

1)

The maximum width of the openings shall normally be limited to an


angle of not more than 60 subtended at the centre of the concrete
shell. Where the extent of shell left, between two openings, is limited
such that the subtended angle is less than 45, procedures as normally
adopted for column design, shall be adopted to check the adequacy of
the shell in this design.

2)

The minimum thickness of concrete shell shall be 200 mm for


chimneys with an internal diameter of 8500 mm or less. For portions
having an internal diameter exceeding 8500 mm, the minimum shell
thickness shall be increased by 5 mm for every 500 mm (or part
thereof) increase in diameter over 8500 mm. For multi-flue chimneys
with steel flues which are top hung, it is preferable to have a minimum
thickness of 300mm for the concrete shell.

3)

The grade of concrete in chimney shell shall be minimum M25 and


shall not be richer than M40 if slip forming is used.

Design Methodology
The chimney is designed as a cantilever beam of circular cross section.
Direct load is due to vertical load while moments are created by horizontal
wind or earthquake forces. The chimney is designed using working stress
method as explained in IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1975.
Stresses in the chimney shell are checked at various sections. Generally
these sections should be at 10 m intervals along the height of the shell or at
corbel levels whichever is less and in addition at the location of openings.

9.4

Formulae for stress calculation.


Appendix D of IS 4998 (Part I) 1975 gives the formulae for stress
calculation in chimney shell. But there is some difference in the formulae
when compared with ACI-307-1979. Text book Tall chimneys Design
and Construction by S. N. Manohar also gives a set of formulae for
calculating the stresses which match with the ACI code. Hence, the
formulae given in the text book have been reproduced below.(Refer fig.5 )

9.4.1

Vertical stress due to axial load and moment.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 26 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

1.0Neutral axis within section.


(a) For < < -

----------(26)

D = Sin - Sin - ( - ) Cos

----------(26a)

E = (-2--) Cos + Sin - Sin + 2Cos. Sin

----------(26b)

1 2
2

2
cos 3 sin 2 sin 2 2 cos sin

1
4

----(26c)

G=

1 2 cos 2 0.25 2 cos 2.sin 2 3sin 2 sin 2


2

2 cos sin - 2cos .sin

(b) For -<<+


D = sin(-)-sin-(--)cos.
E = (---)cos-sin+sin(+)

----------(26d)
----------(27)
----------(27a)
----------(27b)

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 27 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

F=

1 2
2

2
cos sin 2( ) sin 2 2 cos (sin( ) sin )

1
4

----------(27c)

1
1
( )(1 2 cos 2 ) sin 2 sin 2( )
2
4
2 cos sin sin( )
----------(27d)

G=

(c) For +<<-

---------(28)

D = cos(2+-)-2cossin-sin+sin

----------(28a)

E ( ) cos sin sin

----------(28b)

1
1
( 2 )(1 2 cos 2 ) 3 sin 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 .sin 2
2
4

F=

2 cos (sin 2 cos .sin )

G=

----------(28c)

1
1
2
( )(1 2 cos ) (sin 2 3 sin 2 ) 2 cos . sin
2
4
-------(28d)

For cases (a), (b) and (c) above


C

cos cos
1 np D npE

c(cos cos )
cos cos
e 1 np F npG

cos
r 1 np D npE

np

mp
1 - p

---------(29)

---------(30)
---------(31)

----------(32)

2. Neutral axis outside section.

I=

1
1
( 2 ) (2 cos 2 .sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 )
2
4

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 28 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

sin sin 2 cos . sin

---------(33)
x
sin sin 2 cos . sin
1
r
2

---------(34)

1
1
1 e
X
X
(
( 1 )(1 cos ))
2(1 np) 2 I r
r
r

----------(35)
Vertical stress in concrete due to axial load and moment
fc

C.W

---------(36)

r t(1 - p)

Maximum vertical stress in concrete due to axial load and moment when
neutral axis lies within the section.
fc(max) = fc

1 2rcos (cos cos )

----------(37)

Maximum vertical stress in steel due to axial load and moment


fs Sm

W
rt (1 p )

----------(38)

3. Location of Neutral Axis.


The neutral axis will lie within a section for such values of the ratio e/r
when the corresponding values are less than - . The e/r ratio at which
= - for different and opening half angles are given in table below.
For given opening half angles, if the actual e/r value is greater than the
corresponding value given in table below, then the neutral axis will lie
within the section.
TABLE 2 e/r Values for = -

00
150
200
250
300

00
0.500
0.515
0.525
0.537
0.551

150
0.403
0.419
0.430
0.443
0.458

200
0.365
0.381
0.392
0.406
0.421

250
0.324
0.340
0.352
0.365
0.381

300
0.280
0.297
0.308
0.323
0.339

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 29 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

From the above table, check whether the neutral axis at a given section
falls within or outside the section. If the neutral axis falls within the
section, then by trial and error, find the value of such that the ratio e/r
calculated using equation 26 or 27 or 28 is equal to the actual e/r for that
section (i.e., M/Pxr). With this value of obtained, calculate the stresses
in concrete and steel using equations 36, 37 and 38.
In case the neutral axis falls outside the section, then calculate the stress in
concrete using equations 33, 34, 35 and 36.
9.4.2

Vertical stresses due to temperature alone(Refer fig 6)


The vertical stresses in concrete and steel due to temperature alone can be
calculated using the formulae given below.
Maximum compressive stress in concrete
= fc = n x x Tx x Ec

----------(39)

Compressive stress in steel on hot face


fsh = x Tx x Es (a + n 1).

----------(40)

Tensile stress in steel on cold face


fsc = x Tx x Es (a n).

----------(41)

Where
n = -mp +
9.4.3

2 2
m p 2mp a(1 k) k(1 a)

----------(42)

Vertical stresses due to axial load, moment and temperature


The vertical stresses in concrete and steel due to combined effect of
load, moment and temperature can be calculated using the formulae given
below.
Fictitious Stress ft =

Ec T x
2

----------(43)

(a) Leeward Side


(i) Neutral axis within section (ft > fc).
Compressive stress in concrete fc = fcomb

---------(44)
----------(44a)

Compressive stress in steel on hot face

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 30 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

fsh = {fcomb 2ft (1-a)} x m

----------(44b)

Tensile stress in steel on cold face


fsc = {2aft fcomb} x m

----------(44c)

Where

2
fc

(1 mp)
mp mp 2mp k(1 a) a(1 k)
f'
t

fcomb = 2ft

----------(44d)
(ii)Neutral axis outside section (ft < fc)

----------(45)

Compressive stress in concrete fc = (fcomb ft).


Compressive stress in steel on hot face
fsh = (fcomb 2ft(1-a)) x m
Compressive stress in steel on cold face
fsc = (fcomb 2aft) x m

-------(45a)
----------(45b)

----------(45c)

Where
f' t1 2mp(k(1 a) a(1 k))

fcomb = fc +

1 mp

----------(45d)

(b) Windward side.


(i) Neutral axis within section (fs < mft).
Maximum tensile stress in steel
fsc = m(2aft fcomb).

----------(46)
----------(46a)

Where

pfs

2
fcomb = 2ft mp mp 2mp k (1 a) a(1 k )

f 't

(ii)Neutral axis outside section (mft < fs)


Maximum tensile stress in steel
fsc = fs + 2mk ft (2a-1).
9.4.4

---(46b)

----------(47)
----------(47a)

The maximum circumferential compressive stress in concrete due to


temperature alone, CTC, can be calculated by the formula

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 31 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

CTC = LK Tx Ec

----------(48)

where
K = -pm + pm (pm + 2Z)

----------(49)

p = ratio of cross sectional area of the circumferential reinforcing steel


per unit of height to the cross sectional area of the chimney shell per unit of
height and
Z = ratio of distance between the inner surface of the chimney shell and
the circumferential reinforcing steel to the total shell thickness t
9.4.5

The maximum circumferential tensile stress in steel due to temperature


alone STC can be calculated by the formula
STC = L (Z K) Tx Es

9.4.6

The maximum circumferential tensile stress in concrete due to wind induced


ring moment cwct can be calculated by formula
cwct = 2 x 10-4 Wp r/t

9.4.7

----------(51)

The maximum circumferential compressive stress in concrete due to wind


induced ring moment, cwcc can be calculated by formula
cwcc = 2 x 10-4 Wp r/t

9.4.8

----------(50)

----------(52)

The maximum circumferential tensile stress in steel due to wind induced


ring moment swct can be calculated by formula
swct = 4 x 10-3 Wpr/As t1

----------(53)

NOTE : In 9.4.9, 9.4.10 and 9.4.11 r, t and t 1 are in Cm, Wp in kg/m and
in kg/cm
9.4.9

Circumferential stresses in steel and concrete due to combined effect of


wind induced ring moments and that due to temperature can be calculated
by algebraic addition of stresses due to individual cause.

9.4.10

If the circumferential tensile stress in concrete, as calculated in clause 9.4.6,


exceeds the stress limits specified in clause 8.0, then design the shell as a
cracked section using the following formulae:
(a)

Maximum circumferential compressive stress in concrete due to wind


induced ring moments fcwc

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 32 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

M
1
fcwc = --- x K x t x ---------------------------------------------t
K + np [(K-1+Z) C + (Z-K) ]
3
----------(54)
where
M = circumferential ring moment calculated as per clause 5.3.3
t

= thickness of the shell at the section considered

K = -pn (C+1) + [pn (C+1)] + 2pn [Z+C(1-Z)]

--(55)

p = ratio of the cross sectional area of the circumferential


outside face reinforcing steel per unit of height to the
sectional area of the chimney shell per unit of

cross
height

C = ratio of inside face circumferential reinforcing steel area


the outside circumferential reinforcing steel area

to

Z = ratio of the distance between the inner surface of the


chimney shell and circumferential outside face
reinforcing steel to the total shell thickness, t
n = ratio of modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement to the
modulus of elasticity of the concrete
(b)

The maximum tensile stress in circumferential reinforcement due to


wind induced ring moments fswc
fswc = nfcwc [ Z 1 ]
K

9.5

----------(56)

Design Procedure
The following procedure may be followed for using the formulae:
(a) Compute the bending moment M due to wind or earthquake force
acting above the section under consideration.
(b) Compute the dead load W of the portions, of chimney, above the
section under consideration
(c) Determine e = M/W
(d) Determine e/r
(e) Assume p at the section under consideration
(f) Select the value of m for concrete grade to be used

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SHEET 33 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
9.6

SECTION: WRITE-UP

Determine
Determine stresses
Calculate temperature stress in steel and concrete
Calculate stress in steel and concrete due to wind induced moments
Check combined stresses
Check stresses due to corbel moments
If stresses exceed the corresponding permissible stress limits, increase
shell thickness or reinforcement or both and repeat the steps.

Deflection
As per clause 8 of IS 4998 (Part 1) 1975, permissible deflection shall not
exceed 1/500 of height above top of foundation subject to the provisions in
clause C-1.1.3 of the above code. In case of self supported linings, chimney
deflection due to wind should be checked to ensure that shell does not
come into contact or exert pressure on the lining.
For the 3 sec. wind load, static modulus of elasticity of concrete shall be
used for deflection check. For the HMW with gust, dynamic modulus of
elasticity of concrete shall be used.

9.7

Detailing Practice and Requirements


The clear concrete cover over the vertical reinforcement in the shell shall
not be less than 50 mm. For other detailing requirements refer the standard
specification.

10.0

CHIMNEY PROGRAM
An in-house program called CHMND (Program No. TCE.M6-CV-AMC400) has been developed for the analysis and design of chimney shell. This
program can be used for the complete analysis and design of chimney shell
for both single flue and multiflue chimney.

11.0

DESIGN EXAMPLE
Example: A 150m tall RC chimney (single brick flue) for Jojobera thermal
power plant has been analysed and designed. The details of the structure are
as follows:
i) Shell profile
E.L. of ground level
E.L. of chimney top
E.L. of chimney bottom
Shell thickness at E.L. 150.000
Inner diameter of chimney at E.L. 150.000
Outside taper of chimney from E.L.150.000

0.000m
150.000m
(-) 2.000m
0.3m
4.6m

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 34 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

to E.L.100.000
1 in 500
Shell thickness at E.L. 100.000
0.4m
Shell thickness varies linearly from E.L.150.000 to
E.L. 100.000
Outside taper of chimney from E.L.100.000
to E.L. (-) 2.000
1 in 40
Shell thickness at E.L. 10.000
0.55m
Shell thickness varies linearly from E.L.100.000 to E.L.10.000
Shell thickness at E.L. (-) 2.000
0.55m
Shell thickness is constant from E.L.10.000 to E.L. (-) 2.000
ii) Shell material properties
Density of concrete
Concrete grade from E.L.150.000 to E.L.50.000
Concrete grade from E.L.50.000 to E.L.10.000
Concrete grade from E.L.10.000 to E.L. (-) 2.000

25 kN/m3
M25
M30
M35

iii) Opening details


3.05m wide opening from E.L.5.150 to E.L.8.85 at 90 and 270
1.1m wide opening from E.L.0.000 to E.L.2.100 at 270
1.2m wide opening from E.L.148.850 to E.L.149.450 at 0, 90,
180, 270
iv) Additional concentrated loads
These are due to brick lining, external platforms, hopper, internal
platforms etc. and have been considered as 260, 345, 345, 335, 345,
455, 360, 370, 555, 575, 720, 885, 900, 910, 640 and 110kN at
E.L.147.000, 137.000, 127.000, 117.000, 107.000, 97.000, 87.000,
77.000, 67.000, 57.000, 47.000, 37.000, 27.000, 17.000, 12.000 and
5.000 respectively.
v)

Temperature data
A constant temperature gradient of 55C across shell thickness has been
considered for the entire chimney height.

vi)

Wind data
Basic wind speed
Mean probable design life for shell only condition
Mean probable design life for lined condition
Terrain category number
Topography factor

47 m/s
25 years
100 years
2
1

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 35 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

Damping as a percentage of critical damping


1.6
Strouhal number
0.2
Magnification factor due to closeness of two
1.75
chimneys
Drag coefficient for entire chimney height
0.8
(It is assumed that strakes are not provided. If strakes are provided C d
shall be modified as per Table 1 of IS:4998(Part 1)-1992)
vii) Seismic data
Damping as a percentage of critical damping
Seismic zone number
Structure importance factor
Soil-foundation system factor
Performance factor
viii)

5
2
1.75
1
1

Others
Exit diameter of brick flue
Grade of reinforcement
Effective cover to vertical reinforcement
Effective cover to circumferential reinforcement
Number of chimneys
Spacing between chimneys

3.6m
Fe 415D
72mm
56mm
2
67.5m

The following sheets give the geometry and the loads considered for the analysis and design of
chimney shell
UNITS FOLLOWED FOR VARIOUS ITEMS
---------------------------------------SL NO. ITEM
UNIT
---------------------------------------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

ELEVATION
m
THICKNESS/DIA
m
WIDTH/HEIGHT
m
AREA
Sq.m
MOMENT OF INERTIA
m^4
UNIT WEIGHT
kN/Cu.m
WEIGHT
kN
VOLUME
Cu.m
CONCRETE STRENGTH
N/Sq.mm
ELASTIC MODULUS
kN/Sq.m

---------------------------------------SHELL PROFILE
------------TOP LEVEL OF CHIMNEY
CLEAR INNER DIA. AT TOP
NO. OF SHELL GROUPS

= EL+ 150.000
= 4.600
= 14

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 36 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

ELEVATION

SHELL THICK

150.000

0.300 0.300

147.000

0.306 0.306

100.000

0.400 0.400

97.000

0.405 0.405

57.000

0.472 0.472

50.000

0.483 0.483

47.000

0.488 0.488

17.000

0.538 0.538

12.000

0.549 0.549

10.000

0.550 0.550

6.000

0.550 0.550

5.000

0.550 0.550

4.000

0.550 0.550

0.000

0.550 0.550

-2.000

0.550 0.550

SLOPE

INTERVAL

1 IN500.000

1.000

1 IN500.000

10.000

1 IN 40.000

3.000

1 IN 40.000

10.000

1 IN 40.000

7.000

1 IN 40.000

3.000

1 IN 40.000

10.000

1 IN 40.000

5.000

1 IN 40.000

2.000

1 IN 40.000

2.000

1 IN 40.000

1.000

1 IN 40.000

1.000

1 IN 40.000

2.000

1 IN 40.000

2.000

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
------------------UNIT WEIGHT OF SHELL = 25.000
NO.OF GRADES
= 3

ELEVATION TO ELEVATION
CONCRETE
RATIO
150.000
50.000
10.000

50.000
10.000
-2.000

DETAILS OF OPENINGS
------------------NO. OF OPENINGS =

MODULAR

M 25.

10.98
M 30.

M 35.

8.12

E-STATIC

E-DYNAMIC

0.19120E+08
0.32000E+08
9.33
0.22500E+08
0.33500E+08
0.25860E+08
0.35000E+08

------------------------------------------------------ELEVATION TO ELEVATION WIDTH ALPHA


------------------------------------------------------OPENING 1
5.150
8.850
3.05
90.00
OPENING 2
5.150
8.850
3.05
90.00
OPENING 3
0.000
2.100
1.10
90.00
OPENING 4
148.850
149.450
1.20
0.00
OPENING 5
148.850
149.450
1.20
90.00
OPENING 6
148.850
149.450
1.20
90.00
OPENING 7
148.850
149.450
1.20 180.00
-----------------------------------------------------------DETAIL OF CONCENTRATED LOADS
----------------------------

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 37 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

-----------------------------NO. ELEV
LOAD
-----------------------------1 147.000
260.0
2 137.000
345.0
3 127.000
345.0
4 117.000
335.0
5 107.000
345.0
6
97.000
455.0
7
87.000
360.0
8
77.000
370.0
9
67.000
555.0
10
57.000
575.0
11
47.000
720.0
12
37.000
885.0
13
27.000
900.0
14
17.000
910.0
15
12.000
640.0
16
5.000
110.0
-----------------------------------------------------------*********************************
* TABLE OF SECTIONAL PROPERTIES *
*********************************
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NODE ELEV

SHELL SHELL DIAMETER


THICK OUTER MEAN

AREA MOM OF BRICK LINING AREA


M of I
INERTIA THICK MEANDIA
AT MID_LEVELS

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 150.000

0.300

5.200

4.900

4.618

13.912

2 149.000

0.302

5.204

4.902

3.186

9.624

3 148.000

0.304

5.208

4.904

4.684

14.134

4 147.000

0.306

5.212

4.906

4.716

14.245

5 137.000

0.326

5.252

4.926

5.045

15.369

6 127.000

0.346

5.292

4.946

5.376

16.520

7 117.000

0.366

5.332

4.966

5.710

17.698

8 107.000

0.386

5.372

4.986

6.046

18.902

9 100.000

0.400

5.400

5.000

6.283

19.761

10

97.000

0.405

5.550

5.145

6.546

21.795

11

87.000

0.422

6.050

5.628

7.457

29.694

12

77.000

0.438

6.550

6.111

8.419

39.510

13

67.000

0.455

7.050

6.595

9.432

51.519

14

57.000

0.472

7.550

7.078

10.495

66.018

15

50.000

0.483

7.900

7.417

11.254

77.719

16

47.000

0.488

8.050

7.562

11.593

83.214

4.634

13.967

4.667

14.078

4.700

14.189

4.880

14.804

5.210

15.942

5.543

17.106

5.878

18.296

6.165

19.329

6.414

20.760

6.995

25.521

7.932

34.345

8.919

45.222

9.957

58.438

10.872

71.693

11.423

80.432

12.168

93.000

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 38 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

17

37.000

0.505

8.550

8.045

12.756

103.610

18

27.000

0.521

9.050

8.529

13.968

127.479

19

17.000

0.538

9.550

9.012

15.232

155.185

20

12.000

0.549

9.800

9.251

15.956

171.287

21

10.000

0.550

9.900

9.350

16.156

177.157

22

8.000

0.550

10.000

9.450

12.912

109.308

23

6.000

0.550

10.100

9.550

13.086

113.568

24

5.000

0.550

10.150

9.600

16.588

191.716

25

4.000

0.550

10.200

9.650

16.674

194.721

26

2.000

0.550

10.300

9.750

16.240

186.477

27

0.000

0.550

10.400

9.850

16.413

192.410

28

-2.000

0.550

10.500

9.950

17.192

213.411

13.356

115.088

14.594

140.829

15.592

163.088

16.056

174.205

16.242

180.007

12.999

111.425

13.130

114.650

16.631

193.215

16.760

197.757

16.327

189.428

17.106

210.216

==================================================================================

********************
* TABLE OF WEIGHTS *
********************
NOTE:THE CUM. WT. AT TOPMOST NODE IS FICTITIOUS-A WEIGHT OF 10 HAS BEEN PUT TO
AVOID ZERO LOAD CONDITION
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NODE ELEV

CORBEL GALLERY LANDING SLAB SHELL

LINING WT.
WITHOUT LINING WT.WITH LINING

NODAL CUM
NODAL CUM
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
115.9
2
116.7
3
117.5
4
1219.9
5
1302.4

150.000

0.0

0.0

0.0

57.9

10.0

149.000

0.0

0.0

0.0

116.3

115.9

148.000

0.0

0.0

0.0

117.1

232.5

147.000

0.0

0.0

0.0

668.7

350.0

137.000

0.0

0.0

0.0

1261.2

1570.0

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 39 OF 89

6 127.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
1344.0
2872.4
1385.6
7 117.000
0.0 0.0
0.0
1427.5
4258.0
1469.3
8 107.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
1274.1
5727.3
1078.8
9 100.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
779.9
6806.1
481.1
10 97.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
1115.1
7287.2
1749.2
11 87.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
1866.3
9036.3
1983.3
12 77.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
2106.8
11019.7
2230.2
13 67.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
2360.0
13249.9
2489.7
14 57.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
2196.2
15739.6 1902.7
15 50.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
1379.7
17642.3
856.8
16 47.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
1949.6
18499.1
3042.4
17 37.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
3190.9
21541.5
3339.3
18 27.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
3494.1
24880.9
3648.9
19 17.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
2799.0
28529.8
1949.0
20 12.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
1375.9
30478.8
802.8
21 10.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
807.4
31281.6
812.1
22 8.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
816.4
32093.7
820.7
23 6.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
617.2
32914.4
413.6
24 5.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
414.7
33328.0
415.8
25 4.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
626.9
33743.8
838.0
26 2.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
842.3
34581.8
846.7
27 0.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
851.0
35428.5
855.3
28 -2.000
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
36283.8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------===============================================================================
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------NODE ELEV CONCRETE MODULAR
E-STATIC
RATIO
-------------------------------------------------------------1
2
3
4
5
6

150.000
149.000
148.000
147.000
137.000
127.000

M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00

10.98
10.98
10.98
10.98
10.98
10.98

E-DYNAMIC

0.19120E+08
0.19120E+08
0.19120E+08
0.19120E+08
0.19120E+08
0.19120E+08

0.32000E+08
0.32000E+08
0.32000E+08
0.32000E+08
0.32000E+08
0.32000E+08

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

7 117.000
8 107.000
9 100.000
10 97.000
11 87.000
12 77.000
13 67.000
14 57.000
15 50.000
16 47.000
17 37.000
18 27.000
19 17.000
20 12.000
21 10.000
22 8.000
23 6.000
24 5.000
25 4.000
26 2.000
27 0.000
28 -2.000

M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 25.00
M 30.00
M 30.00
M 30.00
M 30.00
M 30.00
M 30.00
M 35.00
M 35.00
M 35.00
M 35.00
M 35.00
M 35.00
M 35.00

9.33
9.33
9.33
9.33
9.33

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 40 OF 89

10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08


10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
10.98 0.19120E+08 0.32000E+08
0.22500E+08 0.33500E+08
9.33 0.22500E+08 0.33500E+08
0.22500E+08 0.33500E+08
0.22500E+08 0.33500E+08
0.22500E+08 0.33500E+08
0.22500E+08 0.33500E+08
8.12 0.25860E+08 0.35000E+08
8.12 0.25860E+08 0.35000E+08
8.12 0.25860E+08 0.35000E+08
8.12 0.25860E+08 0.35000E+08
8.12 0.25860E+08 0.35000E+08
8.12 0.25860E+08 0.35000E+08
8.12 0.25860E+08 0.35000E+08

============================================================

QUANTITIES OF CONCRETE:MIXWISE
*******************************
---------------------------------NO. MIX WEIGHT VOLUME
---------------------------------In wind shield/outer shell :1
2
3

M 25.
M 30.
M 35.

17642.3
13639.3
5002.2

TOTAL 36283.8

705.7
545.6
200.1
1451.4

============================================================

AIR GAP AREA & SIZE OF AIR INLET OPENING


Refer fig. 7
Clause C 1.1.2 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1975 states that
Total area of air gap or air inlet openings should not be less than two-thirds
of the area of minimum air gap.
Minimum air gap is provided at EL 147.000
Outer dia of air space = Inner dia of shell = 4.6 m
Inner dia of air space

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 41 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

= Outer dia of flue = (1.8+0.115+0.025+0.115)x2

= 4.11 m

Mean dia of air space

= 4.6 + 4.11 = 4.355 m


2

Width of air space

= 4.6 4.11 = 0.245 m


2

Area of air gap

= x 4.355 x 0.245 = 3.352 m

2/3 area of air gap

= 2/3 x 3.352 = 2.235 m

Provide 300 mm dia air inlet openings at base.


Number of openings required = 2.235 x 4 = 31.62
x 0.3
Provide 32 nos. of 300 mm dia air inlet openings.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 42 OF 89

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 43 OF 89

AIR GAP AT CORBEL LEVELS


The critical level is at EL 147.000. From fig. 8
Inside dia of concrete shell = 4.6 m
a

= 2 x 2.3 x 30 _ - 0.012 0.175 x 2 = 0.8422 m


360

= 2 x 2.055 x 30 _ - 0.012 0.175 x 2 = 0.714 m


360

Area of hatched portion

= (0.8422 + 0.714) x 0.245


2
= 0.19063 m

Total opening area at EL 147.000


= 0.19063 x 12 = 2.2876 m > 2.235 m
Hence maximum width of corbel that can be provided = 175 mm
As per clause D-2.2.3.1 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1975 the value of rq can be
taken equal to 0.5 only when
a)

the distance between the lining and the chimney shell is not less than
100 mm and

b)

air inlet openings are provided at the bottom having an area in cm


equal to twenty times the inside diameter of chimney shell (in cm) at
the top.

The minimum distance provided between the lining and chimney shell is 245
mm > 100 mm
Twenty times inside dia of chimney shell = 20 x 460 = 9200 cm
Area of air inlet provided = 2.262 m = 22620 cm
> 9200 cm

Hence okay

AIR OUTLET AT TOP


Provide 8 nos. of 0.6 m x 0.6 m opening at top for air outlet
Area provided = 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 = 2.88 m
> 2.262 m provided for air inlet

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 44 OF 89

TEMPERATURE GRADIENT CALCULATION ACROSS


CONCRETE SHELL
As shown earlier, the number and size of openings in the chimney wall and
at each corbel satisfies clause C-1.1.2 and D-2.2.3.1 of IS:4998 (Part-1)
1975. Hence the chimney is treated as lined chimney with ventilated air
space between the lining and shell.
The temperature gradient for lined chimneys with ventilated air space is
given by equation 24
Calculation at a typical level (EL 97.000) is presented below. Similarly
calculation of temperature gradient at other levels are carried out.
At EL 97.000
Thickness of concrete shell
t = 0.405 m
Thickness of lining
tb = 0.115 m
Internal dia of brick flue
Dbi = 3.88 m
Coeff. of thermal conductivity of concrete
Cc = 1.488 kcal/mhC
Coeff. of thermal conductivity of lining
Cb = 1.25 kcal/mhC
Inner dia of chimney concrete shell
Dci = 4.74 m
Mean dia of shell
Dc = 4.74 + 0.405
= 5.145 m
Max. temp. of gas inside chimney
T = 145C
Min.temp. of air outside chimney
To = 3.9C
Ratio of heat transmission
rq = 0.50
Film coeff for T = 145C and V = 21 m/sec
K1C = 37 kcal/mhC
Film coeff for D = 388 cm and T = 145C
K1r = 10 kcal/mhC
Mean dia of lining Db = 3.88 + 0.115
= 3.995 m
Coeff. of heat transfer Ks = 0.0586 x 145 + 1.0 = 9.497
Coeff. of heat transfer
K2 = 58.590
K1 = K1c + K1r = 37 + 10 = 47 kcal/mhC
Air gap

Dci (Dbi + 2tb)


4.74 (3.88 + 2 x 0.115)
G = ---------------------- =
-----------------------------2
2
G = 0.315 m

Mean dia of air space Ds = Dci G = 4.74 0.315 = 4.425 m


Outside dia of chimney Dco = Dci + 2t = 4.74 + 2 x 0.405 = 5.55 m
1

Factor A1 = -------- = ------------

rq K1

0.5 x 47

= 0.0426 0.043

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

t b Dbi

Dbi

0.5 x 1.25 x 3.995

Ks Ds

9.497 x 4.425

tD bi

0.405 x 3.88

Factor A4 = -------- = ----------------------

Dbi

= 0.092

= 0.205

1.488 x 5.145
3.88

Factor A5 = -------- = ----------------------

K2 Dco

= 0.1787 0.179

3.88

Factor A3 = -------- = ----------------------

CcDc

SHEET 45 OF 89

0.115 x 3.88

Factor A2 = -------- = ----------------------

rq CbDb

SECTION: WRITE-UP

58.59 x 5.55

= 0.0119 0.012

A4 x (T To)
Tx = --------------------------------(A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5)
0.205 x (145 3.9)
Tx = ----------------------------------------------- = 54.5C
(0.043 + 0.179 + 0.092 + 0.205 + 0.012)
Similarly temperature gradient is calculated at other levels.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 46 OF 89

FREE VIBRATION AND SEISMIC ANALYSIS


The above analysis of the concrete shell has been done on STAAD-III. This
analysis is done for unlined condition (i.e. shell only condition). Similar
procedure shall be adopted for lined condition (shell + lining condition).
For the seismic analysis, the following parameters are considered
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

Seismic zone
% of critical damping
Structural importance factor
Soil foundation system factor
Performance factor
Number of modes considered

=
=
=
=
=
=

2
5
1.75
1.0
1.0
5

Seismic forces are computed by Response Spectrum method as per IS:1893


For the analysis, the shell is treated as a cantilever and the masses are
lumped at node points. The base is assumed to be fixed.

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF CHIMNEY

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 47 OF 89

**************************************************
*
*
*
S T A A D - III
*
*
Revision 22.0
*
*
Proprietary Program of
*
*
RESEARCH ENGINEERS, Inc.
*
*
Date= SEP 20, 1999
*
*
Time= 15:29:54
*
*
*
* USER ID: TCE, BANGALORE
*
**************************************************
1. STAAD PLANE - SHELL ONLY CONDITION
2. UNIT MET KNS
3. JOINT COORD
4. 1 0 -2 ; 2 0 0 ; 3 0 2 ; 4 0 4 ; 5 0 5
5. 6 0 6 ; 7 0 8 ; 8 0 10
6. 9 0 12
7. 10 0 17
8. REPEAT 3 0 10
9. 14 0 50
10. 15 0 57
11. REPEAT 4 0 10
12. 20 0 100
13. 21 0 107
14. REPEAT 4 0 10
15. 26 0 148 ; 27 0 149 ; 28 0 150
16. MEMBER INCI
17. 1 1 2 27 1 1
18. MEMBER PROP
19. 27 PRIS AX 4.634 IZ 13.967
20. 26 PRIS AX 4.667 IZ 14.078
21. 25 PRIS AX 4.700 IZ 14.189
22. 24 PRIS AX 4.880 IZ 14.804
23. 23 PRIS AX 5.210 IZ 15.942
24. 22 PRIS AX 5.543 IZ 17.106
25. 21 PRIS AX 5.878 IZ 18.296
26. 20 PRIS AX 6.165 IZ 19.329
27. 19 PRIS AX 6.414 IZ 20.76
28. 18 PRIS AX 6.995 IZ 25.521
29. 17 PRIS AX 7.932 IZ 34.345
30. 16 PRIS AX 8.919 IZ 45.222
31. 15 PRIS AX 9.957 IZ 58.438
32. 14 PRIS AX 10.872 IZ 71.693
33. 13 PRIS AX 11.423 IZ 80.432
34. 12 PRIS AX 12.168 IZ 93
35. 11 PRIS AX 13.356 IZ 115.088
36. 10 PRIS AX 14.594 IZ 140.829
37. 9 PRIS AX 15.592 IZ 163.088
38. 8 PRIS AX 16.056 IZ 174.205
39. 7 PRIS AX 16.242 IZ 180.007
40. 6 PRIS AX 12.999 IZ 111.425
41. 5 PRIS AX 13.130 IZ 114.650
42. 4 PRIS AX 16.631 IZ 193.215
43. 3 PRIS AX 16.760 IZ 197.757
44. 2 PRIS AX 16.327 IZ 189.428
45. 1 PRIS AX 17.106 IZ 210.216
46. CONSTANTS
47. E .32E8 MEM 14 TO 27
48. E .335E8 MEM 8 TO 13
49. E .35E8 MEM 1 TO 7
50. CUTOFF MODE SHAPE 5
51. SUPPORT
52. 1 FIXED
53. LOADING 1
54. JOINT LOAD
55. *1 FX 3.92
56. 2 FX 851
57. 3 FX 842.3
58. 4 FX 626.9
59. 5 FX 414.7
60. 6 FX 617.2
61. 7 FX 816.4

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 48 OF 89

62. 8 FX 807.4
63. 9 FX 1375.9
64. 10 FX 2799
65. 11 FX 3494.1
66. 12 FX 3190.9
67. 13 FX 1949.6
68. 14 FX 1379.7
69. 15 FX 2196.2
70. 16 FX 2360
71. 17 FX 2106.8
72. 18 FX 1866.3
73. 19 FX 1115.1
74. 20 FX 779.9
75. 21 FX 1274.1
76. 22 FX 1427.5
77. 23 FX 1344
78. 24 FX 1261.2
79. 25 FX 668.7
80. 26 FX 117.1
81. 27 FX 116.3
82. 28 FX 57.9
83. MODAL CALCULATION
84. SPECTRUM SRSS X 0.15 ACC DAMP 0.05 SCALE 9.81
85. 0 0.09; 0.04 0.16; 0.08 0.19; 0.12 0.20
86. 0.16 0.20; 0.20 0.20; 0.30 0.20
87. 0.40 0.185; 0.50 0.163; 0.60 0.147
88. 0.80 0.127; 1.0 0.107; 1.20 0.095
89. 1.40 0.08; 1.60 0.07; 1.80 0.06
90. 2.0 0.057; 2.3 0.05; 2.6 0.045; 3.0 0.04
91. PERFORM ANALYSIS

P R O B L E M S T AT I S T I C S
----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 28/ 27/ 1
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH = 1/ 1
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 81
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 486 DOUBLE PREC. WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.05/ 2096.6 MB, EXMEM = 2.0 MB
++ Processing Element Stiffness Matrix.
++ Processing Global Stiffness Matrix.
++ Processing Triangular Factorization.
++ Calculating Joint Displacements.
++ Calculating Eigensolution.

15:29:56
15:29:56
15:29:56
15:29:57
15:30: 0

CALCULATED FREQUENCIES FOR LOAD CASE 1


MODE

FREQUENCY(CYCLES/SEC)

1
2
3
4
5

0.368
1.413
3.550
6.829
11.037

PERIOD(SEC)

2.71470
0.70796
0.28172
0.14644
0.09061

++ Calculating Response Spectrum Displacements.

15:30:16

MASS PARTICIPATION FACTORS IN PERCENT


------------------------------------------------------MODE X

SUMM-X SUMM-Y SUMM-Z

BASE SHEAR IN KNS


X

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

1
2
3
4
5

40.59 0.00 0.00


22.13 0.00 0.00
10.60 0.00 0.00
5.71 0.00 0.00
3.83 0.00 0.00

40.591
62.726
73.321
79.026
82.857

0.000 0.000 634.17


0.000 0.000 1081.15
0.000 0.000 759.90
0.000 0.000 409.19
0.000 0.000 264.66
--------------------------TOTAL SHEAR 1544.66 0.00

++ Calculating Member Forces.

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 49 OF 89

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00

15:30:16

92. PRINT ANALYSIS RESULT

JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM RADIANS) STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE


-----------------JOINT LOAD X-TRANS Y-TRANS Z-TRANS X-ROTAN Y-ROTAN Z-ROTAN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0.0000
0.0003
0.0014
0.0032
0.0044
0.0057
0.0094
0.0139
0.0191
0.0354
0.0816
0.1458
0.2280
0.2560
0.3281
0.4476
0.5870
0.7477
0.9313
0.9910
1.1392
1.3705
1.6211
1.8855
2.1584
2.1860
2.2136
2.2412

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

SUPPORT REACTIONS -UNIT KNS MET


-----------------

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE

JOINT LOAD FORCE-X FORCE-Y FORCE-Z


1

231.70

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0001
0.0001
0.0001
0.0001
0.0001
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003

MOM-X

MOM-Y

MOM Z

0.00 12950.72

MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE


----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KNS MET
MEMBER LOAD JT
1 1
2 1

1
2

AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION

MOM-Y

MOM-Z

0.00 231.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 12950.72


0.00 231.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 12553.44
0.00 231.65

0.00

0.00

0.00 12553.44

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

3
3 1
4 1
5 1
6 1
7 1
8 1
9 1

4
5
6
7
8
9

0.00 231.65

0.00

0.00

0.00 231.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 12160.88


0.00 231.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 11773.62

0.00 231.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 11773.62


0.00 231.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 11582.20

0.00 230.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 11582.20


0.00 230.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 11392.36

0.00 230.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 11392.36


0.00 230.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 11017.77

0.00 229.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 11017.77


0.00 229.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 10650.67

0.00 227.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 10650.67


0.00 227.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 10291.87
0.00 224.00 0.00
0.00 224.00 0.00

0.00
0.00

SHEET 50 OF 89

0.00 12160.88

9
10

SECTION: WRITE-UP

0.00 10291.87
0.00 9435.39

10 1 10 0.00 212.24 0.00 0.00 0.00 9435.39


11 0.00 212.24 0.00 0.00 0.00 7926.03
11 1 11 0.00 187.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 7926.03
12 0.00 187.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 6713.24
12 1 12 0.00 162.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 6713.24
13 0.00 162.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 5764.07
13 1 13 0.00 145.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 5764.07
14 0.00 145.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 5522.17
14 1 14 0.00 135.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 5522.17
15 0.00 135.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 5015.66
15 1 15 0.00 119.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 5015.66
16 0.00 119.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 4395.37

MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE


----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KNS MET
MEMBER LOAD JT

AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION

MOM-Y

MOM-Z

16 1 16 0.00 104.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 4395.37


17 0.00 104.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 3843.61
17 1 17 0.00 94.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 3843.61
18 0.00 94.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 3321.11
18 1 18 0.00 84.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 3321.11
19 0.00 84.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 2799.76
19 1 19 0.00 78.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 2799.76
20 0.00 78.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 2639.99
20 1 20 0.00 75.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 2639.99
21 0.00 75.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 2251.07
21 1 21 0.00 73.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 2251.07
22 0.00 73.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 1654.22
22 1 22 0.00 68.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 1654.22
23 0.00 68.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 1027.03
23 1 23 0.00 61.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 1027.03
24 0.00 61.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 426.76

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 51 OF 89

24 1 24 0.00 40.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 426.76


25 0.00 40.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 24.23
25 1 25 0.00 13.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 24.23
26 0.00 13.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.00
26 1 26 0.00 8.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.00
27 0.00 8.18 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.83
27 1 27 0.00 2.83 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.83
28 0.00 2.83 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************
93. FINISH
*************** END OF STAAD-III ***************
**** DATE= SEP 20,1999 TIME= 15:30:19 ****

WIND LOAD CALCULATIONS AS PER IS 4998 (PART 1) 1992


Top 1/3 height of chimney is from EL 150.000 to EL 100.000
Outer diameter of chimney at EL 150.000

= 5.2 m

Outer diameter of chimney at EL 100.000

= 5.4 m

Av diameter from EL 150.000 to EL 100.000 = 5.2 + 5.4 = 5.3 m


2
Effective diameter d = Average diameter = 5.3 m
Aerodynamic Interference Cl A-1.1
Centreline distance between two chimneys

= 67.5 m

3 times the effective diameter

= 15.9 m

= 3 x 5.3

Since the centreline distance is greater than 3 times effective diameter, there
is no aerodynamic interference.
Unsteady forces on single chimney Cl. A-1.2.2

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 52 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

Diameter of chimney at top

= 5.2 m

Wall thickness at top

= 0.3 m

75 times wall thickness = 75 x 0.3

= 22.5 m

Since the diameter of chimney at top is less than 75 times wall thickness,
ovalling oscillation need not be examined.
From Clause A-1.2.4
Diameter of chimney at 2/3 height i.e. EL 100.000

= 5.4 m

20 times the diameter = 20 x 5.4

= 108 m

Centreline distance between chimneys

= 67.5 m

Since the spacing of the chimneys is less than 20 times the diameter, the
amplitudes of oscillation of the downstream chimney will be magnified. This
magnification can be suppressed by providing strakes. In this case, we
propose to design the chimneys for magnified amplitudes of oscillation
instead of providing strakes.
Critical diameter of shell at 2/3 height

= 5.4 m

Spacing factor = Spacing of chimney = 67.5 = 12.5


Diameter
5.4
From Clause A 5.3
dav = average diameter over top half of chimney
diameter at EL 150.000

= 5.2 m

diameter at EL 75.000

= 6.55 m

dav = 5.2 + 6.55 = 5.875 m


2
Taper of chimney = 2 (dav dtop) = 2 (5.875 5.2)
H
150
= 9 x 10-3 = 1 in 111
Chimney is considered as a straight cylinder
Magnification factor from Fig.1 of IS:4998(part 1)- 1992 = 1.75
Along wind load calculation by simplified method
(Cl. A-4.1 of IS 4998 (Part 1) 1992)

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 53 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

This calculation has been done for shell only condition. Similar procedure
shall be adopted for shell + lining condition also
Along wind load per mt. height

Fz = pz . Cd . dz

Basic wind speed

Vb = 47 m/sec

Return period for shell only condition (Table 1, IS 875 (Part 3)) = 25 years
Terrain category

= 2

Damping as per percentage of critical damping

= 1.6

Strouhal number

= 0.2

Class of structure

= C

Force at EL 150.000

(Refer fig 9)

Risk coefficient (Table 1, IS 875 (Part 3))

K1 = 0.907

{K1 = 0.907 has been calculated using the formula given in Table 1. K1 =
0.90 can also be used, as indicated in Table 1}
Height factor (Table 2, IS 875 (Part 3))

K2 = 1.210

Design wind speed Vz = K1 K2 K3 Vb = 0.907 x 1.210 x 1.00 x 47


= 51.55 m/sec
Design wind pressure pz = 0.6 x (51.55) = 1594.61 N/m
Along wind force = 1594.61 x 0.8 x 5.2 x 10-3 = 6.63 kN/m
Force at EL 149.000
Using the same procedure
K1 = 0.907 ; K2 = 1.209 ; Vz = 51.51 m/sec ; pz = 1591.97 N/m2
Along wind force = 1591.97 x 0.8 x 5.204 x 10-3 = 6.63 kN/m

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 54 OF 89

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 55 OF 89

Force at EL 148.000
Using the same procedure
K1 = 0.907 ; K2 = 1.208 ; Vz = 51.47 m/sec ; pz = 1589.34 N/m
Along wind force = 1589.34 x 0.8 x 5.208 x 10-3 = 6.62 kN/m
Refer fig.9
Force on element (1) = (6.63 + 6.63) x 1 = 6.63 kN
2
Force on element (2) = (6.63 + 6.62) x 1 = 6.625 kN
2
Nodal force at EL 150.000 = 6.63 / 2 = 3.315 kN
Nodal force at EL 149.000 = 6.63 + 6.625 = 6.63 kN
2
2
Shear force at EL 150.000 = 0 kN
Shear force at EL 149.000 = 3.315 kN
Shear force at EL 148.000 = 3.315 + 6.63 = 9.945 kN
Bending moment at EL 150.000 = 0 kNm
Bending moment at EL 149.000 = 3.315x1 = 3.315 kNm
Bending moment at EL 148.000 = 3.315x2+6.63x1 = 13.26 kNm
In a similar way, the element force, nodal force, shear force and bending
moment are calculated at other levels. (Refer table 2)

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 56 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

TABLE 2- Along wind load calculation as per IS : 4998 (Part 1) -1992, Cl : A-4.1

Shear Force and Bending Moment by SIMPLIFIED METHOD :


Shell only Condition
Height of chimney above G.L. =
Probability factor k1 =
Basic wind speed Vb (m/sec) =
Class of
Structure

150.0
0.907
47.00
C

Elev.

k2

Vz

Pz

Cd

dz

Element load

5.200

Nodal
Load
6.63

150.00

1.210

51.55

1594.61

0.80

149.00

1.209

51.51

1591.97

148.00

1.208

51.47

1589.34

147.00

1.208

51.47

137.00

1.200

51.13

127.00

1.192

Shear

Cum. Shear

Moment

3.32

3.3

0.0

0.80

5.204

6.63

6.631

6.63

9.9

3.3

0.80

5.208

6.62

6.625

6.62

16.6

13.3

1589.34

0.80

5.212

6.63

6.624

36.35

52.9

29.8

1568.36

0.80

5.252

6.59

66.083

65.89

118.8

559.0

50.79

1547.52

0.80

5.292

6.55

65.706

65.51

184.3

1747.2

117.00

1.184

50.44

1526.81

0.80

5.332

6.51

65.322

65.13

249.5

3590.5

107.00

1.176

50.10

1506.25

0.80

5.372

6.47

64.930

55.06

304.5

6085.0

100.00

1.170

49.85

1490.92

0.80

5.400

6.44

45.199

32.36

336.9

8216.7

97.00

1.166

49.68

1480.74

0.80

5.550

6.57

19.523

43.69

380.6

9227.3

87.00

1.152

49.08

1445.40

0.80

6.050

7.00

67.851

69.89

450.5

13033.0

77.00

1.138

48.49

1410.48

0.80

6.550

7.39

71.933

73.85

524.3

17537.6

67.00

1.124

47.89

1375.99

0.80

7.050

7.76

75.758

77.54

601.8

22780.6

57.00

1.110

47.29

1341.93

0.80

7.550

8.11

79.329

68.42

670.3

28799.1

50.00

1.100

46.87

1317.86

0.80

7.900

8.33

57.519

41.27

711.5

33491.0

47.00

1.091

46.48

1296.38

0.80

8.050

8.35

25.016

54.35

765.9

35625.7

37.00

1.061

45.20

1226.06

0.80

8.550

8.39

83.675

83.64

849.5

43284.5

27.00

1.028

43.80

1150.98

0.80

9.050

8.33

83.597

82.69

932.2

51779.7

17.00

0.982

41.84

1050.28

0.80

9.550

8.02

81.786

60.48

992.7

61101.9

12.00

0.946

40.30

974.69

0.80

9.800

7.64

39.164

27.13

1019.8

66065.3

10.00

0.930

39.62

941.99

0.80

9.900

7.46

15.102

15.05

1034.9

68105.0

8.00

0.930

39.62

941.99

0.80

10.000

7.54

14.997

15.07

1049.9

70174.7

6.00

0.930

39.62

941.99

0.80

10.100

7.61

15.147

11.39

1061.3

72274.6

5.00

0.930

39.62

941.99

0.80

10.150

7.65

7.630

7.65

1069.0

73335.9

4.00

0.930

39.62

941.99

0.80

10.200

7.69

7.668

11.56

1080.5

74404.9

2.00

0.930

39.62

941.99

0.80

10.300

7.76

15.449

15.52

1096.1

76566.0

0.00

0.930

39.62

941.99

0.80

10.400

7.84

15.599

11.72

1107.8

78758.1

-2.00

0.000

0.00

0.00

0.80

10.500

0.00

7.837

3.92

1111.7

80973.7

Along wind load calculation by Random Response method

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 57 OF 89

(Cl A-5.1 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1992)


This calculation has been done for shell only condition. Similar procedure
shall be adopted for shell + lining condition also.
(i) Force due to Hourly Mean Wind (HMW)
_
Along wind load per mt. height Fzm = pz . Cd . dz
Force at EL 150.000 (Refer fig 10)
Risk coefficient (Table 1, IS:875 (Part 3))
Height factor (Table 33, IS:875 (Part 3))
_
_
Design wind speed
Vz = k1 k2 k3 Vb

k1 = 0.907
_
k2 = 0.960

= 0.907 x 0.96 x 1 x 47 = 40.9 m/sec


_
_
Design wind pr
pz = 0.6 Vz = 0.6 x (40.9) = 1003.75 N/m
Along wind force = 1003.75 x 0.8 x 5.2 x 10-3 = 4.176 kN/m
Force at EL 149.000
Using the same procedure
_
_
_
k1 = 0.907 ; k2 = 0.959 ; Vz = 40.86 m/sec ; pz = 1001.66 N/m
Along wind force = 1001.66 x 0.8 x 5.204 x 10-3 = 4.17 kN/m
Force at EL 148.000
Using the same procedure
_
_
_
k1 = 0.907 ; k2 = 0.958 ; Vz = 40.82 m/sec ; pz = 999.57 N/m
Along wind force = 999.57 x 0.8 x 5.208 x 10-3 = 4.165 kN/m

(4.176 + 4.17)
Force on element (1) = ------------------- x 1 = 4.173 kN
2
(4.17 + 4.165)
Force on element (2) = ------------------- x 1 = 4.167 kN
2

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 58 OF 89

Nodal force at EL 150.000 = 4.173 / 2 = 2.087 kN


Nodal force at EL 149.000 = 4.173 + 4.167 = 4.17 kN
2
2
Shear force at EL 150.000

= 0 kN

Shear force at EL 149.000

= 2.087 kN

Shear force at EL 148.00 = 2.087 + 4.17

= 6.257 kN

Bending moment at EL 150.000

= 0 kNm

Bending moment at EL 149.000

= 2.087 x 1 = 2.087 kNm

Bending moment at EL 148.000 = 2.087x2+4.17x1 = 8.34 kNm


In a similar way, the element force, nodal force, shear force and bending
moment are calculated at other levels. (Refer table 3)
(ii) Calculation of gust factor as per clause A-5.2 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1992
This calculation is done for shell only condition. Similar procedure shall
be adopted for shell + lining condition also.
Refer equations (12) to (19)
f1
= natural frequency = 0.37
_
V10
= hourly mean wind speed in m/sec. at 10 m above
ground level
_
= Vb . k2 = 47 x 0.67 = 31.49 m/sec.
H

= height of chimney above G.L. = 150 m

= size reduction factor

-0.88
S =

1 + 5.78 0.37_
31.49

1.14

x 150

0.98

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 59 OF 89

S = 0.208
E

= measure of available energy


123 x 0.37_ x 150 0.21
31.49
E = -------------------------------1 + 330x0.37 x 150 0.42
31.49

= background factor

B = [ 1 + (150/265)0.63 ]0.88
r

= 0.076
0.83

= 0.627

= twice the turbulence intensity

r = 0.622 0.178 log10 150 = 0.2346


vT

gf

3600 x 0.37
= ----------------------1 + 0.627 x 0.016
0.208 x 0.076

= 1041.83
1/2

= peak factor
gf = (2 loge 1041.83) + _ 0.577_____ = 3.883
(2 loge 1041.83)

= 1 + 3.883 x 0.2346 x 0.627 + 0.208 x 0.076


0.016

= 2.158

(iii)

Forces due to fluctuating component of wind


From equation (11)
H

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 60 OF 89

Fzm . z. dz is the bending moment due to HMW at ground level


o

= 48251.65 kNm
Along wind force at EL 150.000
Fzf = 3 (2.158 1) x 150 x 48251.65
150

= 7.45 kN/m

Along wind force at EL 149.000


Fzf = 3 (2.158 1) x 149 x 48251.65
150

= 7.40 kN/m

Along wind force at EL 148.000


Fzf = 3 (2.158 1) x 148 x 48251.65
150

= 7.35 kN/m

The element force, nodal force, shear force and bending moment is then
calculated using the same procedure as done for forces due to HMW.
(Refer table 4)
The design along-wind force due to Random Response method will
than be Fz = Fzm + Fzf at each level.

TABLE 3 - Along wind load calculation as per IS : 4998 (Part 1) - 1992, Cl : A-5.1
Shear Force and Bending Moment due to Hourly Mean Wind by RANDOM RESPONSE
METHOD :
Shell only Condition
Height of chimney above G.L. =
Probability factor k1 =

150.0
0.907

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 61 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

Basic wind speed Vb (m/sec) =


Class of
Structure

47.00
C

Elev.

k2

Vz

Pz

Cd

dz

Nodal Load

150.00

0.960

40.90

1003.75

0.80

5.200

4.176

149.00

0.959

40.86

1001.66

0.80

5.204

4.170

148.00

0.958

40.82

999.57

0.80

5.208

4.165

147.00

0.958

40.82

999.57

0.80

5.212

137.00

0.950

40.48

982.95

0.80

5.252

127.00

0.942

40.13

966.46

0.80

117.00

0.934

39.79

950.12

0.80

107.00

0.926

39.45

933.91

100.00

0.920

39.20

97.00

0.916

39.03

87.00

0.902

77.00

Element load

Shear

Cum. Shear

Moment

2.09

2.09

0.00

4.173

4.17

6.26

2.09

4.167

4.17

10.42

8.34

4.168

4.166

22.83

33.25

18.77

4.130

41.489

41.30

74.55

351.27

5.292

4.092

41.108

40.91

115.46

1096.77

5.332

4.053

40.722

40.53

155.99

2251.41

0.80

5.372

4.014

40.332

34.16

190.15

3811.32

921.85

0.80

5.400

3.982

27.986

20.02

210.17

5142.37

913.85

0.80

5.550

4.057

12.060

26.90

237.07

5772.88

38.43

886.13

0.80

6.050

4.289

41.732

42.84

279.91

8143.57

0.888

37.83

858.83

0.80

6.550

4.500

43.946

44.95

324.86

10942.64

67.00

0.874

37.24

831.97

0.80

7.050

4.692

45.963

46.88

371.74

14191.25

57.00

0.860

36.64

805.53

0.80

7.550

4.865

47.788

41.11

412.85

17908.62

50.00

0.850

36.21

786.90

0.80

7.900

4.973

34.435

24.67

437.52

20798.56

47.00

0.841

35.83

770.33

0.80

8.050

4.961

14.901

32.10

469.62

22111.11

37.00

0.811

34.55

716.35

0.80

8.550

4.900

49.304

48.83

518.45

26807.30

27.00

0.778

33.15

659.24

0.80

9.050

4.773

48.364

47.26

565.71

31991.83

17.00

0.732

31.19

583.59

0.80

9.550

4.459

46.157

33.73

599.45

37648.96

12.00

0.690

29.40

518.54

0.80

9.800

4.065

21.310

14.62

614.07

40646.20

10.00

0.670

28.55

488.91

0.80

9.900

3.872

7.938

7.86

621.93

41874.34

8.00

0.670

28.55

488.91

0.80

10.000

3.911

7.784

7.82

629.75

43118.20

6.00

0.670

28.55

488.91

0.80

10.100

3.950

7.862

5.91

635.66

44377.70

5.00

0.670

28.55

488.91

0.80

10.150

3.970

3.960

3.97

639.63

45013.37

4.00

0.670

28.55

488.91

0.80

10.200

3.990

3.980

6.00

645.63

45653.00

2.00

0.670

28.55

488.91

0.80

10.300

4.029

8.018

8.06

653.69

46944.27

0.00

0.670

28.55

488.91

0.80

10.400

4.068

8.096

6.08

659.77

48251.65

-2.00

0.000

0.00

0.00

0.80

10.500

0.000

4.068

2.03

661.81

49571.20

TABLE 4 - Along wind load calculation as per IS : 4998 (Part 1) - 1992, Cl : A-5.1
Shear Force and Bending Moment due to Fluctuating Wind by RANDOM
RESPONSE METHOD :
Shell only Condition
Height of chimney above G.L. =
150.00
Gust factor
=
2.158
Basic wind speed Vb (m/sec) =
47.000
Mean moment at Ground Level =
48252

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

Elev.
150.00
149.00
148.00
147.00
137.00
127.00
117.00
107.00
100.00
97.00
87.00
77.00
67.00
57.00
50.00
47.00
37.00
27.00
17.00
12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00

Nodal
Load
7.45
7.40
7.35
7.30
6.80
6.31
5.81
5.31
4.97
4.82
4.32
3.82
3.33
2.83
2.48
2.33
1.84
1.34
0.84
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.10

Element
load
7.425
7.376
7.326
70.527
65.560
60.594
55.627
35.984
14.677
45.694
40.727
35.760
30.794
18.600
7.227
20.860
15.893
10.927
3.601
1.093
0.894
0.695
0.273
0.224
0.298
0.099
-0.099

Shear
3.71
7.40
7.35
38.93
68.04
63.08
58.11
45.81
25.33
30.19
43.21
38.24
33.28
24.70
12.91
14.04
18.38
13.41
7.26
2.35
0.99
0.79
0.48
0.25
0.26
0.20
0.00
-0.05

Cum.
Shear
3.7
11.1
18.5
57.4
125.4
188.5
246.6
292.4
317.8
347.9
391.2
429.4
462.7
487.4
500.3
514.3
532.7
546.1
553.4
555.7
556.7
557.5
558.0
558.2
558.5
558.7
558.7
558.7

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 62 OF 89

Moment
0.0
3.7
14.8
33.3
607.2
1861.5
3746.6
6212.9
8259.9
9213.1
12692.5
16604.1
20898.0
25524.8
28936.4
30437.2
35580.5
40907.5
46368.7
49135.5
50247.0
51360.4
52475.5
53033.5
53591.7
54708.7
55826.1
56943.5

Across-wind loads by Simplified method


(Cl. A-4.2 of IS:4998 (Part 1) : 1992)
Calculation of peak tip deflection has been done for shell only condition.
Similar procedure shall be adopted to calculate peak tip deflection for shell
+ lining condition also.
Effective diameter of chimney shell

= 5.3 m

Design velocity at 5/6 height = EL 125.000

= 50.7 m/sec

Limiting design wind speed = 50.7 x 1.1= 55.77 m/sec

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 63 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

For the first mode of vibration


0.37 x 5.3
Vcri = ------------ = 9.81 m/sec.
0.2

< 55.77 m/sec

For the second mode of vibration


1.41 x 5.3
Vcri = ------------ = 37.37 m/sec.
0.2

< 55.77 m/sec

For the third mode of vibration


3.55 x 5.3
Vcri = ------------ = 94.1 m/sec.
> 55.77 m/sec
0.2
Hence vortex shedding will occur in first and second mode only.
For first mode,
me1 = equivalent mass per unit length

= 14185 kg/m (refer table 5)

Ks1 = mass damping factor

= 84.61 (Refer table 5)

dz z dz

= 283.36 9Refer table 5)

z dz

= 30.641 (Refer table 5)

Peak tip deflection oi = 283.36 x


30.641

0.16 _ _ = 0.0348
4 (0.2) x 84.61

Magnified peak tip deflection oi = 1.75 x 0.0348 = 0.0609


Sectional force at (Refer table 5)
EL 150.000 = Fzoi = 4 x x 0.37 x 0.0609 x 5.91 x 1

= 1.94 kN

EL 149.000 = Fzoi = 4 x x 0.37 x 0.0609 x 11.85 x 0.9883= 3.86 kN


EL 148.000 = Fzoi = 4 x x 0.37 x 0.0609 x 11.94 x 0.9765= 3.84 kN

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 64 OF 89

Shear force at
EL 150.000

= 1.94 kN

EL 149.000 = 1.94 + 3.86 = 5.80 kN


EL 148.000 = 5.80 + 3.84 = 9.64 kN
Bending moment at
EL 150.000

= 0 kNm

EL 149.000 = 1.94 x 1

= 1.94 kNm

EL 148.000 = 1.94 x 2 + 3.86 x 1

= 7.74 kNm

Similarly sectional force, shear force and bending moment are calculated at
other sections.(Refer table 5)
Along wind velocity at 2/3 H = EL 100.000 = 49.85 m/sec.
Corresponding along wind moment at

9.81
EL 150.000 = ------49.85

x 0

= 0 kNm

9.81
EL 149.000 = ------49.85

x 3.3

= 0.13 kNm

9.81
EL 148.000 = ------49.85

x 13.3

= 0.52 kNm

Resultant moment at
EL 150.000 = ( 0 + 0 )

= 0 kNm

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

EL 149.000 = (1.94 + 0.13 )

= 1.95 kNm

EL 148.000 = (7.74 + 0.52 )

= 7.76 kNm

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 65 OF 89

Similarly the shear and bending moments are calculated at other loads.
(Refer table 6)
Across wind loads by Random Response method
Clause A-5.3 of IS:4998 (Part 1) 1992
Taper of chimney = 1 in 111 which is less than 1 in 50
Hence as per Clause A-5.3(a), peak tip deflection for first mode of vibration
1/2
x 1.0 _
x 150 1/2
2 (28.302+2)
2x0.04
oi = ------------------------------------------------------------------------14185 x [30.641 (0.016 0.5 x 1.2 x 5.32) ]
14185

1.25 x 0.12 x 5.3 x 1.0 x 1.2 x

= 0.01487
Magnified peak tip deflection = 1.75 x 0.01487 = 0.0260
Using the value of oi calculate the sectional force, shear force and bending
moment due to across wind at all sections.(Refer table 5)
Corresponding along wind velocity at 2/3 H = EL 100.000 = 39.20 m/sec.
Using this velocity, calculate the corresponding along wind moment
9.81 2
= ------- x (Fzm + Fzf)
39.20

and the resultant moment at all levels.

(Refer table 6)
Repeat all the above calculations for second mode of vibration also.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 66 OF 89

TABLE 5 - CALCULATION OF ACROSS WIND FORCES


SHELL ONLY CONDITION
Height of chimney =
Dia at 1/3 ht from top =
Natural frequency =

Elev.
150.00
149.00
148.00
147.00
137.00
127.00
117.00
107.00
100.00
97.00
87.00
77.00
67.00
57.00
50.00
47.00
37.00

150.000
5.300
0.3678

Shell
wt

Lining
Wt

57.9
116.3
117.1
668.7
1261.2
1344.0
1427.5
1274.1
779.9
1115.1
1866.3
2106.8
2360.0
2196.2
1379.7
1949.6
3190.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Modification factor =
Mode of vibration =
Vel at critical elevation=
Vel at critical elevation=

mz dz

dz

5.91
11.85
11.94
68.17
128.56
137.00
145.51
129.88
79.50
113.67
190.24
214.76
240.57
223.87
140.64
198.74
325.27

5.200
5.204
5.208
5.212
5.252
5.292
5.332
5.372
5.400
5.550
6.050
6.550
7.050
7.550
7.900
8.050
8.550

1.0000
0.9883
0.9765
0.9648
0.8478
0.7320
0.6194
0.5127
0.4432
0.4150
0.3281
0.2526
0.1882
0.1345
0.1031
0.0911
0.0568

d z dz

2.60
5.14
5.09
27.66
44.53
38.74
33.03
23.41
11.97
14.97
19.85
16.55
13.27
8.63
4.07
4.77
4.86

dz
0.5000
0.9767
0.9536
5.1196
7.1876
5.3582
3.8366
2.2343
0.9821
1.1195
1.0765
0.6381
0.3542
0.1538
0.0531
0.0539
0.0323

1.75
First
49.85
39.20

Critical Vel=
9.748

IS formula 2
Nodal
Shear Mom.
mz
Force
Fzoi Mzoi
dz
5.91
0.82
0.8
0.0
11.58
1.63
2.5
0.8
11.38
1.62
4.1
3.3
63.45
9.15
13.2
7.3
92.41
15.16
28.4
139.5
73.41
13.95
42.3
423.3
55.83
12.54
54.9
846.5
34.14
9.26
64.1
1395.1
15.62
4.90
69.0
1843.9
19.58
6.56
75.6
2051.0
20.48
8.68
84.3
2806.8
13.70
7.54
91.8
3649.4
8.52
6.30
98.1
4567.5
4.05
4.19
102.3
5548.5
1.49
2.02
104.3
6264.5
1.65
2.52
106.8
6577.5
1.05
2.57
109.4
7645.7

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SHEET 67 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

27.00
17.00
12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00

SECTION: WRITE-UP

3494.1
2799.0
1375.9
807.4
816.4
617.2
414.7
626.9
842.3
851.0
0.0
35856.2

me =
oi =
oi =

0.0 356.18
0.0 285.32
0.0 140.25
0.0
82.31
0.0
83.22
0.0
62.92
0.0
42.27
0.0
63.90
0.0
85.86
0.0
86.75
0.0
0.00
0.0 3655.07

9.050
9.550
9.800
9.900
10.000
10.100
10.150
10.200
10.300
10.400
10.500

0.0311
0.0132
0.0070
0.0051
0.0034
0.0021
0.0016
0.0012
0.0005
0.0001
0.0000

2.81
0.95
0.24
0.10
0.07
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00
283.36

0.0097
0.34
0.0013
0.05
0.0002
0.01
0.0001
0.00
0.0000
0.00
0.0000
0.00
0.0000
0.00
0.0000
0.00
0.0000
0.00
0.0000
0.00
0.0000
0.00
30.641 434.64

1.54
0.52
0.14
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00

110.9
111.5
111.6
111.7
111.7
111.7
111.7
111.7
111.7
111.7
111.7

8739.7
9849.0
10406.3
10629.5
10852.8
11076.2
11187.9
11299.6
11523.1
11746.5
11970.0

14185
Ksi =
84.61
0.0260 (by IS method formula 2)
0.0609 (by IS method formula 1)

TABLE 6 - CALCULATION OF ACROSS WIND FORCES

Formula 1

Nodal

IS formula 1
Shear
Mom

Force
1.9
3.8
3.8
21.4
35.4
32.6
29.3
21.7
11.5
15.3
20.3
17.6
14.7
9.8
4.7
5.9
6.0
3.6

Fzoi
1.9
5.7
9.5
30.9
66.4
99.0
128.3
149.9
161.4
176.7
197.0
214.7
229.4
239.2
243.9
249.8
255.8
259.4

Mzoi
0.0
1.9
7.7
17.2
326.3
989.8
1979.5
3262.4
4311.9
4796.1
6563.5
8533.9
10680.7
12974.8
14649.1
15380.9
17878.9
20437.0

Corres.
Al Wind Comb.
Mom
0.00
0.13
0.51
1.14
21.38
66.81
137.33
232.70
314.23
352.85
498.40
670.64
871.14
1101.32
1280.75
1362.36
1655.25
1980.11

Corres.
Al Wind Comb.

Formula 2

Corres.
Al Wind

Moment shear
Shear
Mom
0.00
0.13
1.92
0.00
1.92
0.38
5.74
0.36
7.67
0.63
9.54
1.43
17.21
2.02
30.97
3.22
326.96
4.54
66.51
59.29
992.07
7.05
99.22
182.98
1984.28
9.54
128.64
370.99
3270.64
11.64
150.39
620.00
4323.36 12.88
161.91
828.93
4809.08 14.55
177.34
926.88
6582.40 17.23
197.79 1288.71
8560.20 20.05
215.62 1703.75
10716.17
23.01
230.56 2170.25
13021.41
25.63
240.57 2686.32
14705.02
27.21
245.43 3076.06
15441.10
29.29
251.51 3250.07
17955.35
32.49
257.86 3858.63
20532.70
35.65
261.85 4508.76

Corres.
Al
Comb.
Comb.
Wind
shear
Moment Shear
0.36
0.00
0.90
1.07
0.90
2.68
1.79
3.57
4.45
5.61
8.02
14.36
12.37
151.60
30.96
18.80
461.14
46.31
24.90
924.25
60.25
29.85 1526.67
70.73
32.65 2021.70
76.35
36.18 2250.72
83.79
41.50 3088.52
93.93
46.65 4027.54 102.98
51.61 5056.87 110.85
55.68 6164.60 116.46
58.00 6979.01 119.35
60.86 7336.62 122.94
65.01 8564.22 127.26
68.77 9834.15 130.52

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

1.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

SHEET 68 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

260.6
261.0
261.1
261.2
261.2
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3

23031.1
24334.3
24856.2
25378.4
25900.8
26162.0
26423.3
26945.8
27468.4
27991.0

2336.60
2526.43
2604.44
2683.56
2763.87
2804.44
2845.32
2928.00
3011.83
3096.53

23149.35
24465.10
24992.29
25519.89
26047.83
26311.89
26576.01
27104.42
27633.01
28161.73

37.96
39.00
39.58
40.15
40.59
40.88
41.32
41.92
42.36
42.51

263.39
263.85
264.08
264.25
264.36
264.43
264.52
264.63
264.70
264.73

5196.42
5552.93
5697.64
5843.43
5990.30
6064.13
6138.21
6287.17
6437.14
6587.87

71.30
72.35
72.90
73.43
73.83
74.09
74.48
74.99
75.37
75.49

SECTION: WRITE-UP

11135.78
11795.17
12060.22
12325.94
12592.28
12725.66
12859.19
13126.68
13394.71
13663.15

132.31
133.00
133.34
133.67
133.90
134.05
134.28
134.57
134.78
134.85

DEFLECTION CALCULATION IN CHIMNEY SHELL FOR ALONG WIND FORCES


(SIMPLIFIED METHOD)
**************************************************
*
*
*
S T A A D - III
*
*
Revision 22.0
*
*
Proprietary Program of
*
*
RESEARCH ENGINEERS, Inc.
*
*
Date= OCT 7, 1999
*
*
Time= 11:12:22
*
*
*
* USER ID: TCE, BANGALORE
*
**************************************************
1. STAAD PLANE
2. UNIT MET KNS
3. JOINT COORD
4. 1 0 -2 ; 2 0 0 ; 3 0 2 ; 4 0 4 ; 5 0 5
5. 6 0 6 ; 7 0 8 ; 8 0 10
6. 9 0 12
7. 10 0 17
8. REPEAT 3 0 10
9. 14 0 50
10. 15 0 57
11. REPEAT 4 0 10
12. 20 0 100
13. 21 0 107
14. REPEAT 4 0 10
15. 26 0 148 ; 27 0 149 ; 28 0 150
16. MEMBER INCI
17. 1 1 2 27 1 1
18. MEMBER PROP

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 69 OF 89

19. 27 PRIS AX 1 IZ 13.967


20. 26 PRIS AX 1 IZ 14.078
21. 25 PRIS AX 1 IZ 14.189
22. 24 PRIS AX 1 IZ 14.804
23. 23 PRIS AX 1 IZ 15.942
24. 22 PRIS AX 1 IZ 17.106
25. 21 PRIS AX 1 IZ 18.296
26. 20 PRIS AX 1 IZ 19.329
27. 19 PRIS AX 1 IZ 20.76
28. 18 PRIS AX 1 IZ 25.521
29. 17 PRIS AX 1 IZ 34.345
30. 16 PRIS AX 1 IZ 45.222
31. 15 PRIS AX 1 IZ 58.438
32. 14 PRIS AX 1 IZ 71.693
33. 13 PRIS AX 1 IZ 80.432
34. 12 PRIS AX 1 IZ 93
35. 11 PRIS AX 1 IZ 115.088
36. 10 PRIS AX 1 IZ 140.829
37. 9 PRIS AX 1 IZ 163.088
38. 8 PRIS AX 1 IZ 174.205
39. 7 PRIS AX 1 IZ 180.007
40. 6 PRIS AX 1 IZ 111.425
41. 5 PRIS AX 1 IZ 114.650
42. 4 PRIS AX 1 IZ 193.215
43. 3 PRIS AX 1 IZ 197.757
44. 2 PRIS AX 1 IZ 189.428
45. 1 PRIS AX 1 IZ 210.216
46. CONSTANTS
47. E .1912E8 MEM 14 TO 27
48. E .225E8 MEM 8 TO 13
49. E .2586E8 MEM 1 TO 7
50. SUPPORT
51. 1 FIXED
52. LOADING 1 - SHELL ONLY
53. JOINT LOAD
54. 1 FX 3.92
55. 2 FX 11.72
56. 3 FX 15.52
57. 4 FX 11.56
58. 5 FX 7.65
59. 6 FX 11.39
60. 7 FX 15.07
61. 8 FX 15.05
62. 9 FX 27.13
63. 10 FX 60.48
64. 11 FX 82.69
65. 12 FX 83.64
66. 13 FX 54.35
67. 14 FX 41.27
68. 15 FX 68.42
69. 16 FX 77.54
70. 17 FX 73.85
71. 18 FX 69.89
72. 19 FX 43.69
73. 20 FX 32.36
74. 21 FX 55.06
75. 22 FX 65.13
76. 23 FX 65.51
77. 24 FX 65.89
78. 25 FX 36.35
79. 26 FX 6.62
80. 27 FX 6.63
81. 28 FX 3.32
82. LOADING 2 - SHELL + LINING
83. JOINT LOAD
84. 1 FX 5.50
85. 2 FX 16.45
86. 3 FX 21.79
87. 4 FX 16.22
88. 5 FX 10.74
89. 6 FX 15.99
90. 7 FX 21.16
91. 8 FX 21.12
92. 9 FX 38.09

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 70 OF 89

93. 10 FX 84.89
94. 11 FX 116.07
95. 12 FX 117.4
96. 13 FX 76.28
97. 14 FX 57.93
98. 15 FX 96.05
99. 16 FX 108.85
100. 17 FX 103.66
101. 18 FX 98.11
102. 19 FX 61.32
103. 20 FX 45.43
104. 21 FX 77.29
105. 22 FX 91.42
106. 23 FX 91.96
107. 24 FX 92.50
108. 25 FX 51.03
109. 26 FX 9.30
110. 27 FX 9.30
111. 28 FX 4.65
112. PERFORM ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M S T AT I S T I C S
----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 28/ 27/ 1
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH = 1/ 1
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 2, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 81
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 486 DOUBLE PREC. WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.04/ 2096.6 MB, EXMEM = 2.0 MB
++ Processing Element Stiffness Matrix.
++ Processing Global Stiffness Matrix.
++ Processing Triangular Factorization.
++ Calculating Joint Displacements.
++ Calculating Member Forces.

11:12:23
11:12:23
11:12:23
11:12:23
11:12:24

113. PRINT ANALYSIS RESULT


JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM RADIANS) STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE
-----------------JOINT LOAD X-TRANS Y-TRANS Z-TRANS X-ROTAN Y-ROTAN Z-ROTAN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

0.0000
0.0000
0.0030
0.0041
0.0120
0.0169
0.0272
0.0382
0.0370
0.0519
0.0488
0.0685
0.0797
0.1119
0.1186
0.1665
0.1639
0.2300
0.3075
0.4316
0.7289
1.0232
1.3315
1.8691
2.1205
2.9766
2.3932
3.3594
3.1065

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0005
0.0000 -0.0005
0.0000 -0.0007
0.0000 -0.0007
0.0000 -0.0010
0.0000 -0.0009
0.0000 -0.0012
0.0000 -0.0009
0.0000 -0.0013
0.0000 -0.0011

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 71 OF 89

4.3607 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0015


4.3229 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0013
6.0682 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0019
5.7719 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0016
8.1021 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0022
7.4544 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0018
10.4639 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0025
9.3682 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0020
13.1504 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0028
9.9847 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0021
14.0157 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0029
11.4955 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0022
16.1365 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0031
13.7932 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0024
19.3619 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0033
16.1997 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0024
22.7399 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0034
18.6644 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0025
26.1997 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0035

JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM RADIANS) STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE


-----------------JOINT LOAD X-TRANS Y-TRANS Z-TRANS X-ROTAN Y-ROTAN Z-ROTAN
25

1 21.1516
2 29.6910
26 1 21.4006
2 30.0406
27 1 21.6497
2 30.3903
28 1 21.8988
2 30.7399

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000 -0.0025
0.0000 -0.0035
0.0000 -0.0025
0.0000 -0.0035
0.0000 -0.0025
0.0000 -0.0035
0.0000 -0.0025
0.0000 -0.0035

DEFLECTION CALCULATION IN CHIMNEY SHELL FOR ALONG WIND FORCES


(RANDOM RESPONSE METHOD)
**************************************************
*
*
*
S T A A D - III
*
*
Revision 22.0
*
*
Proprietary Program of
*
*
RESEARCH ENGINEERS, Inc.
*
*
Date= OCT 7, 1999
*
*
Time= 11:12:59
*
*
*
* USER ID: TCE, BANGALORE
*
**************************************************
1. STAAD PLANE
2. UNIT MET KNS
3. JOINT COORD
4. 1 0 -2 ; 2 0 0 ; 3 0 2 ; 4 0 4 ; 5 0 5
5. 6 0 6 ; 7 0 8 ; 8 0 10
6. 9 0 12
7. 10 0 17
8. REPEAT 3 0 10
9. 14 0 50
10. 15 0 57
11. REPEAT 4 0 10
12. 20 0 100
13. 21 0 107
14. REPEAT 4 0 10
15. 26 0 148 ; 27 0 149 ; 28 0 150
16. MEMBER INCI

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 72 OF 89

17. 1 1 2 27 1 1
18. MEMBER PROP
19. 27 PRIS AX 1 IZ 13.967
20. 26 PRIS AX 1 IZ 14.078
21. 25 PRIS AX 1 IZ 14.189
22. 24 PRIS AX 1 IZ 14.804
23. 23 PRIS AX 1 IZ 15.942
24. 22 PRIS AX 1 IZ 17.106
25. 21 PRIS AX 1 IZ 18.296
26. 20 PRIS AX 1 IZ 19.329
27. 19 PRIS AX 1 IZ 20.76
28. 18 PRIS AX 1 IZ 25.521
29. 17 PRIS AX 1 IZ 34.345
30. 16 PRIS AX 1 IZ 45.222
31. 15 PRIS AX 1 IZ 58.438
32. 14 PRIS AX 1 IZ 71.693
33. 13 PRIS AX 1 IZ 80.432
34. 12 PRIS AX 1 IZ 93
35. 11 PRIS AX 1 IZ 115.088
36. 10 PRIS AX 1 IZ 140.829
37. 9 PRIS AX 1 IZ 163.088
38. 8 PRIS AX 1 IZ 174.205
39. 7 PRIS AX 1 IZ 180.007
40. 6 PRIS AX 1 IZ 111.425
41. 5 PRIS AX 1 IZ 114.650
42. 4 PRIS AX 1 IZ 193.215
43. 3 PRIS AX 1 IZ 197.757
44. 2 PRIS AX 1 IZ 189.428
45. 1 PRIS AX 1 IZ 210.216
46. CONSTANTS
47. E .3200E8 MEM 14 TO 27
48. E .335E8 MEM 8 TO 13
49. E .3500E8 MEM 1 TO 7
50. SUPPORT
51. 1 FIXED
52. LOADING 1 - SHELL ONLY
53. JOINT LOAD
54. 1 FX 2.03
55. 2 FX 6.08
56. 3 FX 8.26
57. 4 FX 6.26
58. 5 FX 4.22
59. 6 FX 6.39
60. 7 FX 8.61
61. 8 FX 8.85
62. 9 FX 16.97
63. 10 FX 40.99
64. 11 FX 60.67
65. 12 FX 67.21
66. 13 FX 46.14
67. 14 FX 37.58
68. 15 FX 65.81
69. 16 FX 80.16
70. 17 FX 83.19
71. 18 FX 86.05
72. 19 FX 57.09
73. 20 FX 45.35
74. 21 FX 79.97
75. 22 FX 98.64
76. 23 FX 103.99
77. 24 FX 109.34
78. 25 FX 61.76
79. 26 FX 11.52
80. 27 FX 11.57
81. 28 FX 5.80
82. LOADING 2 - SHELL + LINING
83. JOINT LOAD
84. 1 FX 2.85
85. 2 FX 8.53
86. 3 FX 11.59
87. 4 FX 8.80
88. 5 FX 5.94
89. 6 FX 9.00
90. 7 FX 12.14

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 73 OF 89

91. 8 FX 12.49
92. 9 FX 23.97
93. 10 FX 58.02
94. 11 FX 86.03
95. 12 FX 95.55
96. 13 FX 65.70
97. 14 FX 53.61
98. 15 FX 94.02
99. 16 FX 114.72
100. 17 FX 119.34
101. 18 FX 123.67
102. 19 FX 82.14
103. 20 FX 65.36
104. 21 FX 115.31
105. 22 FX 142.35
106. 23 FX 150.20
107. 24 FX 158.05
108. 25 FX 89.29
109. 26 FX 16.66
110. 27 FX 16.74
111. 28 FX 8.39
112. PERFORM ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M S T AT I S T I C S
----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 28/ 27/ 1
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH = 1/ 1
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 2, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 81
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 486 DOUBLE PREC. WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.04/ 2096.6 MB, EXMEM = 2.0 MB
++ Processing Element Stiffness Matrix.
++ Processing Global Stiffness Matrix.
++ Processing Triangular Factorization.
++ Calculating Joint Displacements.
++ Calculating Member Forces.

11:13: 0
11:13: 1
11:13: 1
11:13: 1
11:13: 1

113. PRINT ANALYSIS RESULT


JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM RADIANS) STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE
-----------------JOINT LOAD X-TRANS Y-TRANS Z-TRANS X-ROTAN Y-ROTAN Z-ROTAN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

0.0000
0.0000
0.0029
0.0041
0.0117
0.0169
0.0266
0.0382
0.0362
0.0521
0.0477
0.0687
0.0781
0.1125
0.1164
0.1676
0.1608
0.2315
0.2996
0.4314
0.7017
1.0104
1.2749
1.8362
2.0285
2.9219
2.2900

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0001
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0002
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0003
0.0000 -0.0005
0.0000 -0.0005
0.0000 -0.0007
0.0000 -0.0007
0.0000 -0.0009
0.0000 -0.0008
0.0000 -0.0012
0.0000 -0.0009

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 74 OF 89

3.2988 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0013


2.9710 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0010
4.2802 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0015
4.1219 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0013
5.9392 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0018
5.4867 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0015
7.9069 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0021
7.0704 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0017
10.1909 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0024
8.8748 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0019
12.7935 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0028
9.4570 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0020
13.6334 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0028
10.8861 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0021
15.6952 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0030
13.0650 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0022
18.8389 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0032
15.3521 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0023
22.1391 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0034
17.6980 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0024
25.5243 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0034

JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM RADIANS) STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE


-----------------JOINT LOAD X-TRANS Y-TRANS Z-TRANS X-ROTAN Y-ROTAN Z-ROTAN
25

1 20.0666
2 28.9425
26 1 20.3039
2 29.2848
27 1 20.5411
2 29.6272
28 1 20.7784
2 29.9696

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000 -0.0024
0.0000 -0.0034
0.0000 -0.0024
0.0000 -0.0034
0.0000 -0.0024
0.0000 -0.0034
0.0000 -0.0024
0.0000 -0.0034

Vertical stress calculation in chimney shell


The vertical stress calculation has been done at three levels, so that
different types of shell profile are covered.
(I)

Consider EL.137.000 of the shell where there is no opening. Let

(a)

Vertical load

2175 kN

(b)

Moment

2104 kNm.

(c)

Outer dia of shell OD

5.252 m

(d)

Shell thickness

0.326 m

(e)

Modular ratio

10.98

(f)

Percentage steel p

0.25%.

Eccentricity e = M/W = 2104 / 2175 = 0.967 m; ratio e/r =


0.967
2.463

0.392

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 75 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

From Table 2 for = = 0, actual e/r is less than 0.50. Hence, neutral axis
will lie outside the section and the whole section is under compression.
From equation 33, 34, 35 and 36,
I=

1
2

( 0 0 0)

1
4

( 2 x cos 0 x sin 0 sin 0 sin 0)

(sin0 sin0 2xcos0xsin0)2

000

I = /2 = 3.14/2 = 1.57.
x
r

np =
c=

sin0 sin0 2xcos0xsin0

000

10.98x0.00 25
(1 0.0025)

0.0275

2(1 0.0275)

000

1
1.57

(0.392 1 1)(1 cos0 1)

c = 0.2764
Compressive stress in concrete fv =

0.2764x217 5x10

2463x326(1 0.0025)

= 0.75 N/mm2
(ii)Consider El 67.00 of the shell, where there is no opening.
(a) Vertical load

16620 kW

(b) Moment

52196 kNm.

(c) Outer dia of shell

OD

7.050 m

0.455 m

(e) Modular ratio

10.98

(f) Percentage steel

0.30%.

(d) Shell thickness

Eccentricity e = m/W = 52196 / 16620 = 3.14 m.


Ratio = e/r = 3.14 / 3.2975 = 0.952.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 76 OF 89

From table 2 for = = 0, actual e/r is greater than 0.50. Hence, neutral
axis lies inside the section.
D = Cos 76.5 (0+0-1.335) 2Cos0 x sin0 sin0 + sin 76.5.
D = 0.6607.
E = ( - 0 1.335) cos 76.5 sin0 + sin 76.5.
E = 1.3941.
F = (1.335 0 0) (1+2 x cos 2 76.5) - {3 sin 153 + 0 + 0}. + 2 x cos
76.5 x (0+0).
F = 0.3997.
G = (-0-1.335)(1+2 x cos2 76.5) (0-3 sin 153) 2 x cos 76.5 x
0.
G = 1.3422.
np =

10.98x0.00 3
(1 0.003)

0.033

cos0 cos76.5

C = 2 1 0.033 x0.6607 0.033x1.3941


S=

0.6021x(cos76.5 cos0)
cos0 cos76.5

0.6021

0.9688

(1 0.033)x0.3 997 0.033x1.34 22


e

cos76.5
r
(1 0.033)x0.6 607 0.033x1.39 41

e/r = 0.952
This is equal to the actual value of e/r. Hence, the assumption that =
76.5 is correct.
Vertical

stress

in

concrete

fc

3
0.6021x166 20x 10
2
6.69N/ mm
3297.5x455 x(1 0.003)

Maximum vertical stress in concrete


fCmax =

455

2x3297.5xcos0(cos0 cos76.5)

6.69x 1

2
7.30 N / mm

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 77 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

Maximum vertical stress in steel


fs = 0.9688 x 10.98 x 16620 x 103/(3297.5 x 455 x (1-0.003))
= 118.2 N/mm2.
(iii)
Consider EL 8.000 of the shell, where there are two openings
diametrically opposite to each other.
(a) Vertical load

40094 kN

(b) Moment

138967 kNm

(c) Outer dia of shell

OD

10.00 m

0.55m

8.12

(d) Shell thickness

(e) Modular ratio


(f) Percentage steel
(g) Angular distance of opening

1.05%

= = 18.830

Eccentricity e = M/W = 138967 / 40094 = 3.466 m.


Ratio e/r = 3.466 / 4.725 = 0.7336.
From table 2 for = = 18.830, e/r ~ 0.392. Actual e/r is greater than
0.392. Hence, neutral axis lies inside the section.
From equation 28 and assuming = 970
D = cos97 (0+0.3286-1.693) 2 cos0sin0 sin18.83 + sin 97.
D = 0.8360
E = ( - 0.3286 1.693) cos 97 sin 18.83 + sin 97
E = 0.5333
F = (1.693 0 0.3286)(1+2cos297)- {3sin194 + sin37.66+0}
+ 2 cos97 (sin 18.83 + 0).
F = 0.6525

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 78 OF 89

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

G = ( -0.3286 1.693)(1+2cos297) (sin 37.66 3 sin 194)


cos97 sin 18.83.

-2

G = 0.3211.
np =
e
r

8.12x0.010 5
(1 0.0105)

0.0861

(1 0.0861)x0. 6525 0.0861x0.3 211


(1 0.0861)x0. 8360 0.0861x0.5 333

cos97

= 0.7322.
This is approximately equal to the actual e/r. Hence, the assumption that
= 970 is correct.
C =
S =

cos18.83 cos97

2 1 0.861 x0.8360 0.0861x0.5 333


0.6196(cos 97 cos18.83)
(cos18.83 cos97)

Vertical

stress

0.6196

0.4782

in

concrete

fc

3
0.6196x400 94x 10
2
9.66N/ mm
4725x550x(1 0.0105)

Maximum vertical stress in concrete.


fcmax =

550

2x4725xcos 18.83(cos1 8.83 cos97)

9.66 1

= 10.22 N/mm2.
Maximum vertical stress in steel
fs = 0.4782 x 8.12 x

3
40094x 10
4725x550x(1 0.0105)

6055N/ mm

(iv)
Vertical stress due to combined effect of axial load, moment and
temperature at EL 8.000.
(a) Effective cover to reinforcement

C=0.072 m

(b) Static modulus of elasticity

Ec=25860 N/mm2.

(c) Co-efficient of thermal expansion

=11 x 10-6 / 0C.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

(d) Temperature gradient

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 79 OF 89

Tx=550C.

a = t-c / t = 0.55 - 0.072 / 0.55 = 0.869.


k = percentage ratio = 0.50.
ft = 11 x 10-6 x 25860 x 55 / 2 = 7.82 N/mm2.
fc = Vertical stress in concrete = 9.66 N/mm2.
fst = Tensile stress in steel = 60.55 N/mm2.

On leeward side
As ft < fc, neutral axis is outside section.
7.821 2x8.12x0.0105(0.5(1 0.869) 0.869(1 0.5))

fcomb = 9.66 +

1 8.12x0.010 5

= 17.48 N/mm2.
Maximum compressive stress in concrete = fcomb = 17.48 N/mm2.
Stress on steel on hot face.
2
fsh = 17.48 2x7.82(1 0.869) x8.12 125.30N/
mm

Stress in steel on cold face.


fsc = (17.48-2x0.869x7.82)x8.12 = 31.58 N/mm2.
On Windward side
mft = 8.12 x 7.82 = 63.50 N/mm2.
As mft > fst, Neutral axis lies inside section.
Fcomb=2*7.82*{-8.12*0.0105+

(8.12x0.0105)

2x8.12x0.0105x 0.5 1 0.869 0.869(1 0.5) 0.0105x

60.55

7.82

= 0.32 N/mm2

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 80 OF 89

Maximum tensile stress in steel fsc = 8.12 x (2 x 0.869 x 7.82 0.32) =


107.76 N/mm2.
Calculation of circumferential stresses in chimney shell
At EL 150.000, the design wind speed, treating the chimney as Class A
structure will be
Vz = 1.07 x 1.28 x 1.00 x 47 = 64.37 m/sec.
Design wind pressure pz = 0.6 x 64.372 = 2486.2 N/m
From equation (23)
Ovalising moment M = 0.33 x 2486.2 x 2.45 = 4.93 kNm/m
Let percentage of steel provided p = 0.20 ; m = 10.98 and ratio of inside
face reinforcement to outside face reinforcement = 1.00
From equation (55)
300 - 56
Z = ---------- = 0.8133
300

k'

0.002
* 10.98 * (1.0 1)
2

0.002
* 10.98 * (1 1)) 2 2 * 0.002 * 10.98 * 0.5 * (0.8133
2

k = 0.1278
From equation (54)
Circumferential compressive stress in concrete
f ' ' cwc

4.93e6
1
* 0.1278 * 300(
3
3
0.1278
300
10.98 * 0.002((0.1278 1 0.8133 (0.8133
3

= 1187.8 kN/m = 1.19 N/mm


From equation 56
Circumferential tensile stress in steel
fswc = 10.98 x 1.19 x [ 0.8133 1 ] = 70 N/mm
0.1278

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 81 OF 89

Assuming a temperature gradient of 55C, circumferential temperature


stress in concrete
From equation (48) and (49)
-0.002
k = --------- x 10.98 + 0.002 x 10.98 x (0.002x10.98 + 2x0.8133)
2
2
2
= 0.1231
CTC = 11 x 10-6 x 0.1231 x 55 x 0.1912 x 108 = 1424 kN/mm
= 1.43 N/mm2

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

12.0

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 82 OF 89

DESIGN OF STRAKES
As mentioned earlier in section 6.3.6, the across wind oscillations can be
suppressed by providing discrete strakes on the outer surface of the
chimney. Clause A-7 of IS 4998 (Part I), 1992 gives the details of
strakes. Given below is example on the design of strakes.(Refr fig 11, 12
and 13)
The strake between stiffeners is a plate fixed along three edges and fourth
side free.
The forces in the plate are obtained using Moodys charts.
P =

4053 N/m2

a =

200 mm.

b =

1300 mm.

a/b =

0.154.

The charts are available for a/b = 0.125 and a/b = 0.25.
The values are interpolated for a/b = 0.154.
From figure 1, Sh 13
For a/b = 0.125.
Max. Mx = 0.0052 Pb2
Max. Rx = 0.125 Pb
For a/b = 0.25
Max. Mx = 0.0209 Pb2.
Interpolation for a/b = 0.154.
Max M

= 0.0088 Pb2
= 0.0088 x 4053 x 1.32
= 60.28 Nm/m = 60.28 Nmm/mm

Max. R

= 0.1545 pb
= 0.154 x 4053 x 1.3

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 83 OF 89

= 814 N/m = 0.814 N/mm.


Allowable bending stress in the plate = 165 N/mm2
Let t be the thickness of the plate.
165 x t2/6 = 60.28.

t = 1.48mm

However, 8 mm thick plate is provided considering corrosion allowance


shear stress = 0.814/1 x 2 = 0.407 N/mm2.
DESIGN OF BOLTS FOR STRAKES
(Refer fig 13)
Wind pressure on strake = 4053 N/m2
Max. contributing height for bolts (for extreme bolts) = 200 mm.
Shear force at the junction of strake and embedment = 4053 x 0.2 x 1.3 =
1054 N.
Moment at the junction of strake and embedment = 1054 x 1.3/2 = 685.1
Nm.
Shear force for each bolt = 1054 / 2 = 527 N.
Tension / Compression for bolt = 685.1 / 0.22 = 3114 N.
Assuming 16 dia bolts.
Shear stress on bolt = 527/201 = 2.62 N/mm2 < 80 N/mm2 O.K. Ref. Table
8.1 in IS 800
Tensile / compressive stress in bolt = 3114 / 157 = 19.83N/mm2
< 120 N/mm2 Refer Table 8.1
Combined shear and tension.
Tvf Cal tf .Cal

1.4
Tvf
tf
2.62
80

19.83
120

0.198

Refer cl.8.9.4.5 of IS 800


O.K.

Design of stiffener plate :


Wind load = 4053 x 0.4 = 1621.2 N/m.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 84 OF 89

Moment at the fixed end.


= 1621.2 x 1.32/2 = 1370 Nm.
1/6 x 300 x t2 x 165 = 1370 x 103.
t = 12.9 mm.
However 20 thick plate is provided taking corrosion into consideration.
Corrosion allowance = 5 mm. Min.

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 85 OF 89

FORM NO. 120R2

TCE Consulting Engineers Limited


TCE.M6-CV-RC-G-

DESIGN GUIDE FOR RC CHIMNEYS

SECTION: WRITE-UP

SHEET 86 OF 89

FORM NO. 120R2