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Principii vegetale antiinflamatoare

Salicilai

Salicis cortex (coaj de salcie)


Populi gemmae (muguri de plop)
Ulmariae/ Spiraeae flores (herba) (creuc)

Flavonoide
Ginkgo biloba

Naftodiantrone
Hyperici herba (suntoare)

Saponozide steroidice
Tami rhizoma (untul pmntului)

Saponozide triterpenice
Liquiritiae/ Glycyrrhizae radix (lemn dulce)
Hippocastani semen (castan)
Calendulae flores (glbenele)

Sesquiterpene
Chamomillae flores (mueel)
Millefolii flores (coada oricelului)

Iridoide
Harpagophyti tuber (gheara diavolului)
Euphrasiae herba (silur)
Galii herba (snziene)

Principii antiinflamatoare - salicilai

Salicina din Salix alba (glucozida


alcoolului salicilic).
Populina (benzoil salicin) din
Populus spp.
Spireina (glicozid a aldehidei
salicilice) din Filipendula/
Spiraea ulmaria

Salicilai Salix alba, Salicaceae, salcie - scoar (Salicis cortex)

Salcia este util pentru individul


care i face din suferin o
profesiune de credin; l ajut
s se desprind din complacerea
n durere i n suferin.

Salicilai Salix alba, Salicaceae, salcie - scoar (Salicis cortex)


Chrubasik S, Eisenberg E, Balan E, Weinberger T, Luzzati R, Conradt C. - Treatment of low back
pain exacerbations with willow bark extract: a randomized double-blind study. - Am J Med.
2000;109:9-14.

210 patients with an exacerbation of chronic low back were randomly


assigned to receive an oral willow bark extract with either 120 mg (low dose)
or 240 mg (high dose) of salicin, or placebo, with tramadol as the sole rescue
medication, in a 4-week blinded trial. The principal outcome measure was
the proportion of patients who were pain-free without tramadol for at least 5
days during the final week of the study.
RESULTS: The treatment and placebo groups were similar at baseline in 114
of 120 clinical features. A total of 191 patients completed the study. The
numbers of pain-free patients in the last week of treatment were 27 (39%) of
65 in the group receiving high-dose extract, 15 (21%) of 67 in the group
receiving low-dose extract, and 4 (6%) of 59 in the placebo group (P <0.001).
The response in the high-dose group was evident after only 1 week of
treatment. Significantly more patients in the placebo group required
tramadol (P <0.001) during each week of the study. One patient suffered a
severe allergic reaction, perhaps to the extract.

Salicilai Salix alba, Salicaceae, salcie - scoar (Salicis cortex)


Schmid B, Ldtke R, Selbmann HK, Ktter I, Tschirdewahn B, Schaffner W, Heide L. - Efficacy and tolerability
of a standardized willow bark extract in patients with osteoarthritis: randomized placebo-controlled,
double blind clinical trial. - Phytother Res. 2001 Jun;15(4):344-50.

Willow bark extract, in a dose corresponding to 240 mg salicin/day,


was compared with placebo in a 2-week, double-blind, randomized
controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the pain
dimension of the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index. A total of 78 patients
(39 willow bark extract, 39 placebo) participated in the trial. A
statistically significant difference between the active treatment and
the placebo group was observed in the WOMAC pain dimension (d =
6.5 mm, 95% C.I. = 0.2-12.7 mm, p = 0.047); the WOMAC pain score
was reduced by 14% from the baseline level after 2 weeks of active
treatment, compared with an increase of 2% in the placebo group. The
patient diary VAS confirmed this result, and likewise the final overall
assessments showed superiority of the willow bark extract over the
placebo (patients' assessment, p = 0.0002; investigators' assessment, p
= 0.0073). Conclusion: willow bark extract showed a moderate
analgesic effect in osteoarthritis and appeared to be well tolerated.

Salicilai Salix alba, Salicaceae, salcie - scoar (Salicis cortex)


Uehleke B1, Mller J, Stange R, Kelber O, Melzer J. - Willow bark extract STW 33-I in the longterm treatment of outpatients with rheumatic pain mainly osteoarthritis or back pain. Phytomedicine. 2013 Aug 15;20(11):980-4.

Efficacy and safety of aqueous willow bark extract for pain reduction
in patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) has been shown in
clinical short term trials. Here is an observational study over 6 months.
436 patients with rheumatic pain mainly due to osteoarthritis and back
pain. During the study the mean reductions from baseline value
58.422.6-31.822.5 after 24 weeks in the pain intensity scale (VAS 0100mm) were significant even after 3 weeks with a reduction by 26
mm (45.6% of the baseline value) at the end of the study. The relative
reductions of the weekly means of the daily patient self-rated scores
of the pain (6-point Likert-scales) were between 33% and 44% of the
baseline values during the course of the study. The distribution and
specification of the main adverse events and the ratings of the
treatment showed a good tolerability. No relevant drug interactions
were reported.

Salicilai Salix alba, Salicaceae, salcie - scoar (Salicis cortex)

Vlachojannis J, Magora F, Chrubasik S. - Willow species and aspirin:


different mechanism of actions. - Phytother Res. 2011;25(7):1102-4.
Many believe that willow is the natural source of aspirin. However,
willow species contain only a low quantity of the prodrug salicin
which is metabolized during absorption into various salicylate
derivatives. If calculated as salicylic acid, the daily salicin dose is
insufficient to produce analgesia. Salicylic acid concentrations
following an analgesic dose of aspirin are an order of magnitude
higher. Flavonoids and polyphenols contribute to the potent willow
bark analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. The multi-component
active principle of willow bark provides a broader mechanism of
action than aspirin and is devoid of serious adverse events. In contrast
to synthetic aspirin, willow bark does not damage the gastrointestinal
mucosa. An extract dose with 240mg salicin had no major impact on
blood clotting. In patients with known aspirin allergy willow bark
products are contraindicated.

Salicilai Populus spp, Salicaceae, plop - muguri foliari, scoar (Populi gemmae, Populi cortex)

Ajutat de plop, individul se insereaz armonios n urzeala


comunitii/ societii, nelegnd c fora izvorte din coeziune.

Salicilai Populus spp, Salicaceae, plop - muguri foliari, scoar (Populi gemmae, Populi cortex)

Wang K, Zhang J, Ping S, Ma Q, Chen X, Xuan H, Shi J, Zhang C, Hu F. - Anti-inflammatory effects


of ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis and buds from poplar (Populuscanadensis). - J
Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Aug 8;155(1):300-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.037. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of ethanol extracts from


Chinese propolis (EECP) and poplar buds (EEPB) from
Populuscanadensis Moench (Salicaceae family).
EECP and EEPB exhibited strong free-radical scavenging activity and
significant in vitro anti-inflammatory effects by modulating key
inflammatory mediators of mRNA transcription, inhibiting the
production of specific inflammatory cytokines, and blocking the
activation of nuclear factor (NF)-B. The administration of EECP and
EEPB (25 and 100 mg/kg) provided significant protective effects by
attenuating lung histopathological changes and suppressing the
secretion of LPS-stimulated inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10,
MCP-1, TNF- and IL-12p70 production in endotoxemic mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The results presented here reveal the potent antiinflammatory properties of Chinese propolis and poplar buds.

Salicilai Filipendula/Spiraea ulmaria, Rosaceae, creuc - somitile florale (Ulmariae/Spiraeae flores/herba

Ajutat de creuc, individul iese


din carapacea rigid a resentimentelor, a ineriei i a fricii,
deschizndu-se ctre exterior.

Salicilai Filipendula/Spiraea ulmaria, Rosaceae, creuc - somitile florale (Ulmariae/Spiraeae flores/herba

Churin AA, Masnaia NV, Sherstoboev EIu, Shilova IV. - [Effect of Filipendula ulmaria extract on
immune system of CBA/CaLac and C57Bl/6 mice]. - Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2008 Sep-Oct;71(5):32-6.
[Article in Russian]

Extract of Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim administered intragastrically in


doses 10, 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg stimulated both inductive and
productive phases of the humoral immunity response in CBA/CaLac and
C57BL/6 mice. The extract also exhibited pronounced antiinflammatory
effect, which was manifested by a decrease in the synthesis of
interleukin-2 by splenocytes and by suppression of proinflammatory
cytokines production in delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. At the
same time, Filipendula ulmaria extract did not influence the functional
activity of peritoneal macrophages.

Principii antiinflamatoare derivai de


floroglucinol

Hiperforina (derivat prenilat de floroglucinol)


din Hypericum perforatum

Naftodiantrone Hypericum perforatum, Hypericaceae, suntoare, pri aeriene uscate


(Hyperici herba)

Suntoarea este
indicat cnd
ataamentul i
implicarea n
evenimentele
exterioare devin
nrobitoare,
genernd
dezamgire i
suferin, care,
mpinse la
extrem, se
transform n
dezndejdea
unei depresii
hiperalgice,
cnd chiar i o
mngiere
devine
dureroas.

Naftodiantrone Hypericum perforatum, Hypericaceae, suntoare, pri


aeriene uscate (Hyperici herba)

Hipericina
(naftodiantron)
din Hypericum
perforatum

Naftodiantrone Hypericum perforatum, Hypericaceae, suntoare, pri aeriene uscate (Hyperici herba)

Pharmacological basis for the use of Hypericum oblongifolium as a medicinal plant in the
management of pain, inflammation and pyrexia. - Raziq N, Saeed M, Shahid M, Muhammad N,
Khan H, Gul F. - BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):41. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1018-z.

The present study investigates the anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and


antipyretic activities of crude methanol extract of Hypericum oblongifolium.
In vivo acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests were used for
antinociceptive effects at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg i.p. The anti-inflammatory
and antipyretic potential of methanol extract were tested in carrageenan
induced paw edema in mice and yeast induced hyperthermia respectively.
RESULTS: The extract doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg i.p. revealed significant
inhibitory effect (P<0.001) in acetic acid induced writhing test. Pretreatment
of extract at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg i.p. produced significant antiinflammatory effect (P<0.001) in the carrageenan induced paw edema. The
methanol extract also showed significant antipyretic effect in yeast induced
hyperthermia in mice during various assessment times.
CONCLUSIONS: The methanol extract of H. oblongifolium showed significant
anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects in various animal
models and thus validates the traditional uses of the plant in said conditions.

Naftodiantrone Hypericum perforatum, Hypericaceae, suntoare, pri aeriene uscate (Hyperici herba)

Galeotti N, Maidecchi A, Mattoli L, Burico M, Ghelardini C. - St. John's Wort seed and feverfew
flower extracts relieve painful diabetic neuropathy in a rat model of diabetes. Fitoterapia
2014;92:23-33. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.10.003. Epub 2013.

Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). we investigated the


antihyperalgesic properties of St. John's Wort (SJW) and feverfew
(Tanacetum parthenium) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Acute
administration of a SJW seed extract reversed mechanical hyperalgesia
with a prolonged effect. A SJW extract obtained from the aerial portion
of the plant and a feverfew flower extract partially relieved neuropathic
pain whereas a feverfew leaf extract was ineffective. The
antihyperalgesic efficacy of these herbal drugs was comparable to that
of clinically used antihyperalgesic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, lacetyl-levocarnitine). Further examinations revealed that hyperforin and
hypericin might be responsible for the antihyperalgesic properties of
SJW whereas the efficacy of feverfew seems to be related to the
presence of parthenolide. Rats undergoing treatment with SJW and
feverfew did not show any behavioral side effect or sign of altered
locomotor activity. Our results suggest that SJW and feverfew extracts
may become new therapeutic perspectives for painful DPN.

Naftodiantrone Hypericum perforatum, Hypericaceae, suntoare, pri aeriene uscate (Hyperici herba)

Galeotti N, Ghelardini C. - St. John's wort reversal of meningeal nociception: a natural


therapeutic perspective for migraine pain. - Phytomedicine. 2013 Jul 15;20(10):930-8. doi:
10.1016/j.phymed.2013.03.007. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

We here demonstrated the capability of Hypericum perforatum, St. John's wort


(SJW), to relieve meningeal nociception in an animal model induced by
administration of the nitric oxide (NO) donors glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and sodium
nitroprusside (SNP). GTN and SNP produced a delayed meningeal inflammation, as
showed by the upregulation of interleukin (IL)-1 and inducible NO synthase
(iNOS), and a prolonged cold allodynia and heat hyperalgesia with a time-course
consistent with NO-induced migraine attacks. A single oral administration of a SJW
dried extract (5mg/kg p.o.) counteracted the nociceptive behaviour and the
overexpression of IL-1 and iNOS. To clarify the cellular pathways involved, the
expression of protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream effectors was detected. NO
donors increased expression and phosphorylation of PKC, PKC and transcription
factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-B, cyclic AMP response element binding
protein (CREB), Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-1. All these
molecular events were prevented by SJW and hypericin, a SJW main component.
Conclusion: SJW counteracted the NO donor-induced pain hypersensitivity and
meningeal activation by blocking PKC-mediated pathways involving NF-B, CREB,
STAT1. These results might suggest SJW as an innovative and safe perspective for
migraine pain.

Principii antiinflamatoare - saponozide steroidice

Gracilina din Tamus communis

Saponozide steroidice Tamus/ Dioscorea communis communis,


Dioscoreaceae, untul pmntului rizom (Tami rhizoma)

Saponozide steroidice Tamus/ Dioscorea communis communis, Dioscoreaceae, untul pmntului rizom
(Tami rhizoma)

Mascolo N, Autore G, Capasso F. - Local anti-inflammatory activity of


Tamus communis. - J Ethnopharmacol. 1987 Jan-Feb;19(1):81-4.
The effects of an ethanol root extract of Tamus communis were
documented on cotton pellet granuloma in rats. The inhibitory effect of
the solvent-free extract (5-20 mg/pellet) on granuloma formation was
comparable to that of reference drugs benzydamine HCl (5-20
mg/pellet) and hydrocortisone (5 mg/pellet). The local antiinflammatory activity of T. communis was not accompanied by a
decrease in body weight.

Principii antiinflamatoare saponozide triterpenice

Acidul gliciretic din Glycyrrhiza glabra

Ajutat de
lemnul dulce,
individul nva
s fie el nsui,
depindu-i
nchistrile,
reinerile,
inhibiiile i
ruinea.

Saponozide
triterpenice

Glycyrrhiza glabra,
Fabaceae,
lemn dulce

rdcin, stoloni,
rizomi (Liquiritiae/
Glycyrrhizae radix)

Saponozide triterpenice Glycyrrhiza glabra, Fabaceae, lemn dulce rdcin, stoloni, rizomi

Fu Y, Zhou E, Wei Z, Liang D, Wang W, Wang T, Guo M, Zhang N, Yang Z. - Glycyrrhizin inhibits the
inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mouse mastitis model.

Glycyrrhizin, a triterpene glycoside isolated from licorice root, is known to have


anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of glycyrrhizin on mastitis has
not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiinflammatory effect and mechanism of action of glycyrrhizin on
lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mouse. In vivo, glycyrrhizin
significantly attenuated the mammary gland histopathological changes,
myeloperoxidase activity and infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes and
downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin (IL)-1
and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, glycyrrhizin dose-dependently inhibited the
LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-, IL-6, and RANTES. Western
blot analysis showed that glycyrrhizin suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factorB and interferon regulatory factor 3 activation. Finally, we showed that
glycyrrhizin decreased the levels of cholesterol of lipid rafts and inhibited the
translocation of Toll-like receptor 4 to lipid rafts. Moreover, glycyrrhizin
activated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, which could induce cholesterol
efflux from lipid rafts. In conclusion, we find that the anti-inflammatory
effects of glycyrrhizin may be attributable to its ability to activate ATP-binding
cassette transporter A1.

Principii antiinflamatoare saponozide triterpenice

Escina din Aesculus hippocastanum

Castanul este util pentru individul


care prefer o stare de ru cu care
s-a acomodat, dect o stare de
bine brodat cu incertitudini.

Saponozide
triterpenice

Aesculus
hippocastanum,
Hippocastanaceae,
castan
semine i
pericarp
(Hippocastani
semen)

Saponozide triterpenice Aesculus hippocastanum, Hippocastanaceae, castan, semine i pericarp

Pittler MH, Ernst E. - Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. - Cochrane
Database Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 14;11:CD003230. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003230.pub4.

To review the efficacy and safety of oral horse chestnut seed extract
(HCSE) versus placebo, or reference therapy, for the treatment of CVI.
Overall, there appeared to be an improvement in CVI related signs and
symptoms with HCSE compared with placebo. Leg pain was assessed in
seven placebo-controlled trials. Six reported a significant reduction of
leg pain in the HCSE groups compared with the placebo groups, while
another reported a statistically significant improvement compared with
baseline. One trial suggested a weighted mean difference (WMD) of 42.4
mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 34.9 to 49.9) measured on a 100 mm
visual analogue scale. Leg volume was assessed in seven placebocontrolled trials. Six trials (n = 502) suggested a WMD of 32.1ml (95% CI
13.49 to 50.72) in favour of HCSE compared with placebo. One trial
indicated that HCSE may be as effective as treatment with compression
stockings. Adverse events were usually mild and infrequent.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence presented suggests that HCSE is
an efficacious and safe short-term treatment for CVI.

Principii antiinflamatoare saponozide triterpenice


Calendulozide
(B, D, F) din
Calendula
officinalis

Saponozide
triterpenice

Calendula
officinalis,
Asteraceae,
glbenele - flori
(Calendulae flores)

Glbenele sunt utile pentru


cei nesbuii i tensionai,
pripii i nerbdtori,
inflamabili i agitai

Saponozide triterpenice Calendula officinalis, Asteraceae, glbenele - flori (Calendulae flores)

Ukiya M, Akihisa T, Yasukawa K, Tokuda H, Suzuki T, Kimura Y. - Anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorpromoting, and cytotoxic activities of constituents of marigold (Calendula officinalis) flowers. - J
Nat Prod. 2006 Dec;69(12):1692-6.

Ten oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, 1-10, including four new compounds,


calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-methyl ester (2), calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-n-butyl
ester (3), calendulaglycoside B 6'-O-n-butyl ester (5), and calendulaglycoside C
6'-O-n-butyl ester (8), along with five known flavonol glycosides, 11-15, were
isolated from the flowers of marigold (Calendula officinalis). Upon evaluation
of compounds 1-9 for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the
compounds, except for 1, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with
ID50 values of 0.05-0.20 mg per ear. In addition, when 1-15 were evaluated
against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by
TPA, compounds 1-10 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects (IC50 values of
471-487 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). Furthermore, upon evaluation of the
cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines in vitro in the NCI
Developmental Therapeutics Program, two triterpene glycosides, 9 and 10,
exhibited their most potent cytotoxic effects against colon cancer, leukemia,
and melanoma cells.

Saponozide triterpenice Calendula officinalis, Asteraceae, glbenele - flori (Calendulae flores)

Dinda M, Dasgupta U, Singh N, Bhattacharyya D, Karmakar P. - PI3K-mediated proliferation of


fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing. - Phytother Res. 2015
Apr;29(4):607-16. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5293. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

We investigated the role of Calendula officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell


viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both
proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant
manner in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathway. The
increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was
detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by
wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell
migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as
the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that
CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and
migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified
compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity.

Principii antiinflamatoare lactone sesquiterpenice


Matricina din Matricaria chamomilla

Ahilicina din Achillea millefolium

Lactone sesquiterpenice

Matricaria chamomilla/
Matricaria recutita/
Chamomilla recutita,
Asteraceae, mueel - flori
(Chamomillae flores)

Mueelul este indicat


pentru individul
hipersensibil, cruia frica i
amplific mnia; simindu-se
privat afectiv, el revendic
protecia i atenia exclusiv
a celor din jur

Lactone sesquiterpenice Matricaria chamomilla/ Matricaria recutita/ Chamomilla recutita, Asteraceae


mueel - flori (Chamomillae flores)

Chamomile flowers are rich in flavonoids. The primary flavonoids are


apigenin with smaller amounts of luteolin and quercetin. Chamomile
extracts inhibit both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase in vitro. [Ammon
HPT, Kaul R. Pharmakologie der Kamille und ihrer Inhalftsstoffe. Dtsch
Apoth Ztg. 1992; 132(suppl 27):3-26. ]
In one (Germany) trial, chamomile was found to have an effect that was
60% as active as 0.25% hydrocortisone when applied topically. [Albring
M, Albrecht H, Alcorn G, Lucker PV. The mesauring of the antiinflamatory
effect of a compound on the skin of volunteers. Methods Find Exp Clin
Pharmacol. 1983;5:75-77.]
Chamomile ointment is effective in reducing dermatitis. [Nissen HP, Blitz
H, Kreyel HW. Prolifometrie, eine Methode zur beurteilung der
therapeutischen wirksamkeit von Kamillosan-Salbe. Z Hautkr.
1988;63:184-190.]

Lactone sesquiterpenice Matricaria chamomilla/ Matricaria recutita/ Chamomilla recutita, Asteraceae


mueel - flori (Chamomillae flores)

McKay DL, Blumberg JB. - A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile
tea (Matricaria recutita L.). - Phytother Res. 2006 Jul;20(7):519-30.

The main constituents of the flowers include several phenolic


compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin,
luteolin and their glucosides. The principal components of the essential
oil extracted from the flowers are the terpenoids alpha-bisabolol and its
oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene.
Chamomile has moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and
significant antiplatelet activity in vitro.
Animal model studies indicate potent antiinflammatory action, some
antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering activities, as well as
antispasmotic and anxiolytic effects.
However, human studies are limited, and clinical trials examining the
purported sedative properties of chamomile tea are absent.
Adverse reactions to chamomile, consumed as a tisane or applied
topically, have been reported among those with allergies to other plants
in the daisy family, i.e. Asteraceae or Compositae.

Lactone sesquiterpenice Matricaria chamomilla/ Matricaria recutita/ Chamomilla recutita, Asteraceae


mueel - flori (Chamomillae flores)

Moura Rocha NF, Venncio ET, Moura BA, Gomes Silva MI, Aquino Neto MR, Vasconcelos Rios ER,
de Sousa DP, Mendes Vasconcelos SM, de Frana Fonteles MM, de Sousa FC. - Gastroprotection
of (-)-alpha-bisabolol on acute gastric mucosal lesions in mice: the possible involved
pharmacological mechanisms. - Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;24(1):63-71. doi:
10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00726.x. Epub 2009 Jul 3.
(-)-Alpha-Bisabolol is an unsaturated, optically active sesquiterpene alcohol obtained by the
direct distillation essential oil from plants such as Vanillosmopsis erythropappa and Matricaria
chamomilla. (-)-Alpha-Bisabolol has generated considerable economic interest, since it
possesses a delicate floral odor and has been shown to have anti-septic and anti-inflammatory
activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gastroprotective action of (-)-alpha-bisabolol
on ethanol and indomethacin-induced ulcer models in mice, and further investigate the
pharmacological mechanisms involved in this action. The oral administration of (-)-alphabisabolol 100 and 200 mg/kg was able to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol (0.2
mL/animal p.o.) and indomethacin-induced ulcer (20 mg/kg p.o.). Administration of L-NAME (10
mg/kg i.p.), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg i.p.) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.) was not able to
revert the gastroprotection promoted by (-)-alpha-bisabolol 200 mg/kg on the ethanol-induced
ulcer. Dosage of gastric reduced glutathione (GSH) levels showed that ethanol and indomethacin
reduced the content of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups, while (-)-alpha-bisabolol
significantly decreased the reduction of these levels on ulcer-induced mice, but not in mice
without ulcer. In conclusion, gastroprotective effect on ethanol and indomethacin-induced ulcer
promoted by (-)-alpha-bisabolol may be associated with an increase of gastric sulfhydryl groups
bioavailability leading to a reduction of gastric oxidative injury induced by ethanol and
indomethacin.

Lactone sesquiterpenice Achillea millefolium, Asteraceae,


coada oricelului somitile florale (Millefolii flores)

Coada oricelului este util pentru cel care, ncrncenat sub impactul
evenimentelor dureroase repetate, se nveruneaz n revolt l
nva demnitatea neleapt a gustului amar.

Lactone sesquiterpenice Achillea millefolium, Asteraceae,


coada oricelului somitile florale (Millefolii flores)

Elmann A, Mordechay S, Erlank H, Telerman A, Rindner M, Ofir R. - Anti-neuroinflammatory


effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima. - BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Oct
21;11:98. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-98.

The ethanolic extract prepared from Achillea fragrantissima (Af) was


tested for its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. The levels of the
proinflammatory cytokines interleukin1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis
factor- (TNF) secreted by the cells. NO levels secreted by the activate
cells, ROS levels, MMP-9, and the levels of the proinflammatory
enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase
(iNOS) were measured. Cell viability was assessed.
We have found that the extract of Af inhibited ~70% of the NO
produced by the LPS-activated microglial cells, without affecting cell
viability. In addition, this extract inhibited the LPS - elicited expression
of the proinflammatory mediators IL-1, TNF, MMP-9, COX-2 and iNOS
in these cells.

Lactone sesquiterpenice Achillea millefolium, Asteraceae,


coada oricelului somitile florale (Millefolii flores)

Benedek B, Kopp B. - Achillea millefolium L. s.l. revisited: recent findings confirm the traditional
use. - Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):312-4.

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) is traditionally used in the treatment


of inflammatory and spasmodic gastro-intestinal disorders, hepatobiliary complaints and inflammation.
Now we could show that the flavonoids mediated the antispasmodic
properties of yarrow, whereas the dicaffeoylquinic acids caused the
choleretic effects.

Moreover, we observed an in vitro-inhibition of human neutrophil


elastase, a protease involved in the inflammatory process, by extracts
and fractions from yarrow, which suggests additional mechanisms of
antiphlogistic action.
The presented results confirm the traditional use of yarrow.

Lactone sesquiterpenice Achillea millefolium, Asteraceae,


coada oricelului somitile florale (Millefolii flores)

Maswadeh HM, Semreen MH, Naddaf AR. - Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus
topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. - Acta Pol Pharm. 2006 JulAug;63(4):277-80.

The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was


studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal
Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino
rats.
The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of
edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%,
respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.

Lactone sesquiterpenice Achillea millefolium, Asteraceae,


coada oricelului somitile florale (Millefolii flores)

Sosa S, Tubaro A, Kastner U, Glasl S, Jurenitsch J, Della Loggia R. - Topical anti-inflammatory


activity of a new germacrane derivative from Achillea pannonica. - Planta Med. 2001
Oct;67(7):654-8.

The topical anti-inflammatory activity of a germacrane derivative [1,4dihydroxy-germacra-5E-10(14)-diene; DHGD] isolated from Achillea
pannonica Scheele (Asteraceae) was investigated employing the Croton
oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear. Its effects on the oedematous
response and on leukocytes infiltration are described. The germacrane
derivative significantly inhibited ear oedema in a dose-dependent
manner, with an ID(50) of 0.40 micromol/cm(2). DHGD (0.75
micromol/cm(2)) provoked a global inhibition of the oedematous
response (61 %) higher than that induced by an equimolar dose of
indomethacin (43 %) within 24 hours; the reduction induced by
hydrocortisone (0.10 micromol/cm(2)) was 68 %.
The effect of DHGD (61 % inhibition) was higher than that of the
equimolar dose of indomethacin (51 % inhibition) also on granulocytes
recruitment at the site of inflammation. Hydrocortisone (0.10
micromol/cm(2)) reduced the cellular infiltrate by 44 %.

Principii antiinflamatoare iridoide


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3873812/ - pentru mecanism de aciune

Harpagozida din Harpagophytum


procumbens , Verbascum spp.

Lamiozida din Lamium album

Aucubozida din Scrophularia nodosa,


Euphrasia rostokowiana/ E.officinalis,
Ajuga reptans, Plantago spp,
Asperulozida din Galium spp, Plantago spp
Verbascum spp,

Iridioide
Harpagophytum
procumbens, Pedaliaceae,
gheara diavolului tuberculii rdcinilor
secundare (Harpagophyti
tuber)

Iridioide Harpagophytum procumbens, Pedaliaceae, gheara diavolului - tuberculii


rdcinilor secundare (Harpagophyti tuber)
Gagnier JJ, van Tulder MW, Berman B, Bombardier C. - Herbal medicine for low back pain: a
Cochrane review. - Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 Jan 1;32(1):82-92. - A systematic review of
randomized controlled trials.

Two high-quality trials utilizing Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's


claw) found strong evidence for short-term improvements in pain and
rescue medication for daily doses standardized to 50 mg or 100 mg
harpagoside.
Another high-quality trial demonstrated relative equivalence to 12.5
mg per day of rofecoxib.

Setty AR, Sigal LH. - Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology:
mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. - Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005;34(6):773-84.

A review of the literature on herbal preparations commonly utilized in


the treatment of rheumatic indications. The antiinflammatory actions
of Harpagophytum procumbens is due to its action on eicosanoid
biosynthesis.

Iridoide Scrophularia nodosa, Scrophulariaceae , bubernic, buberic


pri aeriene nflorite (Scrophulariae herba)

Bubericul este util pentru


cei care i triesc viaa de
la o criz (bub) la alta: i
ajut s parcurg contient
aceste momente de criz.

Iridoide Scrophularia nodosa, Scrophulariaceae , bubernic pri aeriene nflorite (Scrophulariae herba)

Stevenson PC1, Simmonds MS, Sampson J, Houghton PJ, Grice P. - Wound healing activity of
acylated iridoid glycosides from Scrophularia nodosa. - Phytother Res. 2002 Feb;16(1):33-5.

Three acylated iridoid glycosides (E)-6-O-(2", 4"-diacetyl-3" -O-pmethoxycinnamoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (scopolioside A)


(1), (E)-6-O-(2"-acetyl-3", 4"-di-O,O-p-methoxycinnamoyl)-alpha-Lrhamnopyranosyl catalpol (scrophuloside A(4)) (2) and (E)-6-O-(2",3"diacetyl-4"-O-p-methoxycinnamoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl catalpol
(scrovalentinoside) (3) have been isolated from the dried seed pods of
Scrophularia nodosa by HPLC. Their structures were determined by 1D
and 2D NMR, UV/Vis and mass spectroscopy and by comparison with
published data. All three compounds were shown in vitro to stimulate
the growth of human dermal fibroblasts. The effect was negatively
dose-dependent for 2 and 3 for which fibroblast growth stimulation was
highest at 0.78 microg/mL but was not significantly different from the
control at 100 microg/mL. The presence of these compounds in the
mature seed pods may explain the ethnobotanical use of this plant in
Europe for healing wounds.

Iridoide Euphrasia rostokowiana/ E.officinalis, Scrophulariaceae,


silur - partea aerian uscat (Euphrasiae herba)

Silurul este util pentru


individul care, frustrat i
ncrncenat n urma
traumelor, privete realitatea
cu mnie i prtinire l
nva valoarea mpcrii i a
recunotinei i c doar prin
toleran reciproc, lucrurile
se pot clarifica.

Iridoide Euphrasia rostokowiana/ E.officinalis, Scrophulariaceae, silur - partea aerian


uscat (Euphrasiae herba)
Paduch R, Woniak A, Niedziela P, Rejdak R. - Assessment of eyebright (euphrasia officinalis L.)
extract activity in relation to human corneal cells using in vitro tests. - Balkan Med J. 2014
Mar;31(1):29-36. doi: 10.5152/balkanmedj.2014.8377. Epub 2014 Mar 1.

In vitro study of the activity of three extracts of E. officinalis (ethanol,


ethyl acetate and heptane) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells
Toxicity, free radical scavenging activity and the immunomodulatory
effects of the extracts were tested. Nitric oxide levels and cytoskeleton
architecture were analyzed after corneal cell incubation with the plant
extracts.
All tested extracts decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression
(IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-) and also anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression by
human corneal cells when the extracts were added to the cell culture
medium for 24 h.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we show that the promising effects of the
application of E. officinalis L. preparations as a supplementary therapy
for eye disorders are associated with the ethanol and ethyl acetate
extracts, not the heptane extract (which is toxic).

Iridoide Euphrasia rostokowiana/ E.officinalis, Scrophulariaceae, silur - partea aerian


uscat (Euphrasiae herba)
Stoss M, Michels C, Peter E, Beutke R, Gorter RW. - Prospective cohort trial of Euphrasia singledose eye drops in conjunctivitis. - J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Dec;6(6):499-508.

Prospective, open label, one-armed, multicentered, multinational


cohort trial aimed at describing the efficacy and tolerability of eye
drops made from Euphrasia rostkoviana.
Patients with inflammatory or catarrhal conjunctivitis, treated with
Euphrasia single-dose eye drops 1-5 times a day.
Efficacy variables were: redness, swelling, secretion, burning of the
conjunctiva, and foreign body sensation. Tolerability variables were:
conjunctival reddening, burning of the conjunctiva, foreign body
sensation, and veiled vision.
A complete recovery was seen in 53/ 65 patients (81.5%) and a clear
improvement in 11 patients (17.0%). A slight worsening could only be
determined in 1 patient in the second week of treatment (1.5%). No
serious adverse events were observed during the entire trial. The
efficacy and tolerability were evaluated by the patients and doctors as
"good" to "very good" in more than 85%.

Iridoide Lamium album, Lamiaceae, urzic moart alb - somitile


florale (Lamii herba et flores )

ndrumat de urzica moart alb, individul i d


seama c nelegndu-i pe alii, se poate
nelege pe sine. Ostilitatea fa de ceilali este
o reflectare a dumniei fa de sine

Iridoide Lamium album, Lamiaceae, urzic moart alb


somitile florale (Lamii herba et flores)
Paduch R, Wjciak-Kosior M, Matysik G. - Investigation of biological activity of Lamii albi flos
extracts. - J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar 1;110(1):69-75. Epub 2006 Sep 17.

Methanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of Lamium album L. (Lamiaceae) were
tested for the toxicity or ability to stimulate growth of human skin fibroblasts (HSF)
in vitro. The biological effect depended on the HSF cells density and on the kind and
concentration of extract that was used. At a density of 1x10(5) HSF cells/mL no
cytotoxicity of extracts was observed during 24 h of incubation. During 24-72 h of
incubation with a low (2x10(4) HSF cells/mL) density of cells, significant cytotoxicity
was observed for methanol and ethyl acetate extracts at concentrations greater than
125 microg/mL. At concentration of 25 microg/mL the cells remained intact.
However, when the cells were incubated with the heptane extract, there was
observed relative high viability (>60%) of cells and significant, gradually increasing in
time, cellular mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, measured by MTT assay.
Stimulation of human skin fibroblasts proliferation by the heptane extract of Lamii
albi flos may indicate for its usefulness of wound healing in vivo and probability of
perspectives its use in designing new medicinal plant preparations. In order to
determine the biologically active compounds, the plant extracts were separated by
high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) on silica gel Si 60 F(254)
combined with densitometry. Phenolic acids were investigated by high performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Iridoide Galium mollugo,


Rubiaceae, snziene pri
aeriene nflorite (Galii herba)

Ajutat de snziene, individul aflat ntr-un moment de rscruce, i


evalueaz forele, i contempl experienele, extrgnd din ele
esena, i i cristalizeaz inteniile, pregtindu-se pentru o nou etap.

Iridoide Galium mollugo, Rubiaceae, snziene pri aeriene nflorite (Galii herba)
Chaher N, Krisa S, Delaunay JC, Bernillon S, Pedrot E, Mrillon JM, Atmani D, Richard T. Unusual compounds from Galium mollugo and their inhibitory activities against ROS
generation in human fibroblasts. - J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016 Jan 5;117:79-84.

Three unusual dioxatricyclodecenone compounds, mollugoside A, E-mollugoside B


and Z-mollugoside B and, together with known flavonoids, were isolated from the
aerial parts of Galium mollugo collected in north-eastern Algeria. Their structures
were elucidated [iridoid glucosides] by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 1D
and 2D NMR. Flavonoids and mollugoside A significantly reduced reactive oxygen
species (ROS) generation in human fibroblasts.

Iridoide

Ajuga reptans, Lamiaceae,


vineri

planta ntreag
(Ajugae herba)

Ajutat de vineri, pesimistul


nelege c amarul este doar o
prism prin care cerceteaz
realitatea, c amarul pe care l
percepe este n el, nu n
univers.

Iridoide Ajuga reptans, Lamiaceae, vineri planta ntreag (Ajugae herba)


Di Paola R1, Esposito E, Mazzon E, Riccardi L, Caminiti R, Dal Toso R, Pressi G, Cuzzocrea S. Teupolioside, a phenylpropanoid glycosides of Ajuga reptans, biotechnologically produced by
IRBN22 plant cell line, exerts beneficial effects on a rodent model of colitis. - Biochem
Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 1;77(5):845-57.

Teupolioside was administered daily orally . [] Four days after dinitrobenzene


sulfonic acid (DNBS) administration, colon TNF-alpha and IL-1beta productions were
increased, associated with colon damage. Neutrophil infiltration, by myeloperoxidase
activity, in the mucosa was associated with up-regulation of ICAM-1 and P-selectin
[cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on the surfaces of activated endothelial cells] and
high levels of malondialdehyde. Immunohistochemistry for nitrotyrosine and poly
(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) showed an intense staining in the inflamed colon.
[] Treatment with teupolioside significantly reduced the appearance of diarrhoea
and the loss of body weight. This was associated with a remarkable amelioration in
the disruption of the colonic architecture and a significant reduction in colonic
myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde [marker for oxidative stress, results
from lipid peroxidation] levels. Teupolioside also reduced the pro-inflammatory
cytokines release, the appearance of nitrotyrosine and PARP immunoreactivity in the
colon and reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and the expression of P-selectin.
Therefore, teupolioside also reduced proMMP-9 and -2 activity induced in the colon
by DNBS administration. The results of this study suggested that administration of
teupolioside may be beneficial for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Iridoide Ajuga reptans, Lamiaceae, vineri planta ntreag (Ajugae herba)


Korkina LG1, Mikhal'chik E, Suprun MV, Pastore S, Dal Toso R. - Molecular mechanisms
underlying wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties of naturally occurring
biotechnologically produced phenylpropanoid glycosides. - Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand).
2007 May 30;53(5):84-91.

Two phenylpropanoid glycosides, verbascoside (VB) and teupolioside (TP), produced


biotechnologically by Syringa vulgaris and Ajuga reptans plant cell cultures, were
studied in vitro and in vivo for their anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities.
It was shown that TP- and VB-containing extracts significantly accelerated wound
healing and possessed remarkable anti-inflammatory action in the excision wound
model. These effects correlated with the inhibition of reactive oxygen species
release from the whole blood leukocytes and with the ferrous ion chelating capacity.
On the other hand, they don't correlate either with free radical scavenging or with
the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the cell-free systems. Furthermore, both VBand TP-containing extracts were extremely effective inhibitors of chemokine and
growth factor expression by cultured human keratinocytes treated with proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma.

Iridoide Plantago lanceolata, Plantaginaceae, ptlagin frunze (Plantaginis folium)

Ajutat de ptlagin, individul i oblojete rnile sufletului prin interiorizare lucid.

Iridoide Plantago lanceolata, Plantaginaceae, ptlagin frunze (Plantaginis folium)


Zhou Q, Lu W, Niu Y, Liu J, Zhang X, Gao B, Akoh CC, Shi H, Yu LL. - Identification and
quantification of phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory, cellular antioxidant, and
radical scavenging activities of 12 Plantago species. - J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Jul
10;61(27):6693-702. doi: 10.1021/jf401191q. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

Twenty-eight seed samples of 12 Plantago species were investigated for their


chemical compositions and anti-inflammatory, cellular antioxidant, and
radical scavenging properties. A new UPLC-UV procedure was developed and
applied to quantify acteoside and geniposidic acid, the characteristic
constituents of the genus Plantago. The amounts of acteoside and
geniposidic acid ranged from 0.07 to 15.96 mg/g and from 0.05 to 10.04
mg/g in the tested samples, respectively. Furthermore, 26 compounds were
tentatively identified by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis. The Plantago samples
significantly differed in their phytochemical compositions. The extracts of
Plantago seeds also showed inhibitory effects on LPS-induced IL-1, IL-6, and
COX-2 mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells.
Additionally, significant variations were observed among different samples on
cellular antioxidant activities in HepG2 cells, as well as DPPH and hydroxyl
radical scavenging capacities. The results from this study may be used to
promote the use of the genus Plantago in improving human health.

Iridoide Verbascum spp,


Scrophulariaceae, lumnric
flori (Verbasci flores)

Ajutat de lumnric, individul i


vindec rnile provocate de
dispersarea n exterior, din
suferin distilnd luciditatea

Iridoide Verbascum spp, Scrophulariaceae, lumnric flori (Verbasci flores)


Speranza L, Franceschelli S, Pesce M, Menghini L, Patruno A, Vinciguerra I, De Lutiis MA, Felaco
M, Felaco P, Grilli A. - Anti-inflammatory properties of the plant Verbascum mallophorum. - J
Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2009 Jul-Sep;23(3):189-95.

Verbascum mallophorums contains diverse polysaccharides, iridoid glycosides,


flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and phenylentanoids. Verbascum has been used in
popular medicine for treating wounds, chilblains, respiratory ailments, acne and
arthritic disturbances. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) represents one of the
three isoforms that produce nitric oxide using L-arginine as a substrate in response to
an increase in superoxide anion activated by NF-kappaB. It is implicated in different
pathophysiological events and its expression increases greatly during an
inflammatory process due to oxidative stress. In our study we reproduced an
inflammatory state by treating THP-1 cells (human myelomonocytic leukaemia) with
pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-gamma, obtaining an up-regulation
both in the expression and in the activity of iNOS. The aim of our work is to
investigate the possible antiinflammatory action of verbascoside extract from
Verbascum mallophorum using a concentration of 100 muM. Our results show a
significant decrease in the expression and activity of iNOS and extracellular O2when cells were treated with verbascoside. Based on these results we hypothesize
that verbascoside extract from Verbascum mallophorum has anti-inflammatory
properties since it reduces the production of superoxide radicals and consequently
reduces the activity of iNOS.

Iridoide - katuki, Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, Scrophulariaceae

Iridoide - katuki, Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, Scrophulariaceae


Kumar R, Gupta YK, Singh S, Raj A. - Anti-inflammatory Effect of Picrorhiza kurroa in
Experimental Models of Inflammation. - Planta Med. 2016 Nov;82(16):1403-1409..

Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic system of


medicine. The root and rhizome of this plant are used for the treatment of various
liver and inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we sought to investigate the
anti-inflammatory activity of P. kurroa rhizome extract against carrageenan-induced
paw edema and cotton pellet implantation-induced granuloma formation in rats. In
addition, its immunomodulatory activity was evaluated in Complete Freund's
Adjuvant-induced stimulation of a peritoneal macrophage model and
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Pretreatment with P.
kurroa rhizome extract inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pelletinduced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with
reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, IL-6) accompanied with
increased anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the serum and peritoneal
macrophages. Additionally, P. kurroa rhizome extract inhibited inflammatory TNFreceptor 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced activated
peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, P. kurroa rhizome extract treatment
significantly inhibited iNOS and suppressed the activation of NF-B through
inhibition of its phosphorylation and by blocking the activation of IB kinase alpha in
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. [] P. kurroa has antiinflammatory activity that is mediated through the suppression of macrophagederived cytokine and mediators via suppression of NF-B signaling.

Iridoide - katuki, Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, Scrophulariaceae


Kumar R, Gupta YK, Singh S, Arunraja S. - Picrorhiza kurroa Inhibits Experimental Arthritis
Through Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines, Angiogenesis and MMPs. - Phytother Res.
2016 Jan;30(1):112-9.

The present study investigates the anti-arthritic activity of Picrorhiza kurroa (PK), on
formaldehyde and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat. Administration of Picrorhiza
kurroa rhizome extract (PKRE) significantly inhibited joint inflammation in both
animal models. In AIA-induced arthritic rat, treatment with PKRE considerably
decreased synovial expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor
necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNF-R1) and vascular endothelial growth factor as
compared with control. The anti-arthritic activity was found to be well substantiated
with significant suppression of oxidative and inflammatory markers as there was
decreased malonaldehyde, Nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha levels
accompanied with increased glutathione and superoxide dismutase, catalase
activities. Additionally, PKRE significantly inhibited the expression of degrading
enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases-3 and matrix metalloproteinases-9 in AIAinduced arthritic rat. Histopathology of paw tissue displayed decreased
inflammatory cell infiltration as compared with control. Taken together, these
results demonstrated the anti-arthritic activity of PKRE against experimental
arthritis, and the underlying mechanism behind this efficacy might be mediated by
inhibition of inflammatory mediators and angiogenesis, improvement of the
synovium redox status and decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases.

Remedii antiinflamatoare arbore de decizie 1


Inflamaie efect analgezic-antiinflamator salicilai: Salicis cortex (salcie), Populi
gemmae (plop), Ulmariae/ Spiraeae flores/ herba (creuc).
Nevralgie, mai ales dac este asociat cu depresie, labilitate emoional (reacie
excesiv la durere, dezndejde) Hyperici herba (suntoare).
Aparat locomotor (tendoane/ ligamente/ articulaii/ muchi) Tami rhizoma (untul
pmntului) sau Harpagophyti tuber (gheara diavolului) n aplicaii externe.
Asociere cu oboseal, scdere n greutate, depresie, stres cronic, sindrom de
oboseal cronic Liquiritiae radix (lemn dulce).
Asociere cu afeciuni venoase Hippocastani semen (castan).
Afeciuni respiratorii:
predomin inflamaia Plantaginis folium (ptlagin), Verbasci flores
(lumnric);
predomin iritaia, durerea inflamatoare Althaeae radix et folium, Malvae
folium et flores (nalb);
asociere cu anxietate/ ngrijorare, insomnie: Tiliae flores (tei);
Leziuni inflamatoare/ ulcerative digestive sau cutanate Calendulae flores
(glbenele) intern i/sau extern, de asemenea Plantaginis folium (ptlagin).

Remedii antiinflamatoare arbore de decizie 2

Reacie emoional de anxietate/ ngrijorare irascibil (susceptibil,


ultrasensibil, solicit atenie) la boal, cel mai adesea n infecii respiratorii
superioare i afeciuni digestive asociate cu simptome intense (crampe,
balonare, eructaii, flatulen) Chamomillae flores (mueel).
Tendin hemoragic:
tendin ulcerativ Millefolii flores (coada oricelului).
mai ales n afeciuni genitale feminine Lamii herba et flores (urzic
moart alb).
mai ales n inflamaii respiratorii inferioare n particular cele nsoite de
tuse i hemoptizie (bronit, pneumonie) Ajugae herba (vineri) (de
asemenea pentru hemoroizi, diaree).
Anorexie, afeciuni hepatobiliare Harpagophyti tuber (gheara diavolului).
Afeciuni cutanate:
arsuri, arsuri solare, erupii Scrophulariae herba (bubernic)(de
asemenea pentru amigdalit, hemoroizi, artrit).
rni, arsuri, ulcere i inflamaii cutanate (erizipel etc.) Ajugae herba
(vineri).
Afeciuni oculare Euphrasiae herba (silur).
Afeciuni urinare (infecii, calculi), articulare (gut, artrit), edematoase,
insomnie, funcie sexual diminuat, libido sczut Galii herba (snziene).

Principii vegetale antiinfecioase


Uleiuri eseniale (UE)
UE - Hidrocarburi monoterpenice

UE - Alcooli, fenoli i esteri terpenoidici

Citri aetheroleum (lmie)


Pini aetheroleum (pin)
Terebinthinae aetheroleum (terebentin)
Juniperi aetheroleum (ienupr)
Lavandulae aetheroleum (lavand)
Coriandri aetheroleum (coriandru)
Bergamotae aetheroleum (bergamot)
Neroli aetheroleum (Naphae aetheroleum)
(floare de portocal)
Rosae aetheroleum (trandafir)
Menthae aetheroleum (ment)
Majoranae aetheroleum (mghiran)
Thymi aetheroleum (cimbru)
Serpylli aetheroleum (cimbrior)
Origani aetheroleum (ovrv , origan)

UE - Cetone monoterpenice
Salviae aetheroleum (salvie)
Hyssopi aetheroleum (isop)
Rosmarini aetheroleum (rozmarin)

UE - Oxizi monoterpenici

Inulae aetheroleum (iarb mare)

UE - Metil-eteri aromatici

Eucalypti aetheroleum (eucalipt)


Niaouli aetheroleum (gomenol)
Cardamomi aetheroleum (cardamom)
Myrti aetheroleum (mirt)

UE - Lactone sesquiterpenice

Caryophylli aetheroleum (cuioare)


Anisi aetheroleum (anason)
Anisi stellati aetheroleum (anason stelat)
Basilici aetheroleum (busuioc)

UE - Aldehide aromatice

Cinnamomi aetheroleum (scorioar)

Alte principii vegetale antiinfecioase


Poliine

Vitis idaeae folium (merior)


Uvae ursi folium (strugurii ursului)

Compui cu sulf

Bardanae radix et folium (brusture)


Graminis rhizoma (pir)

Heterozide ale hidrochinonei

UE - Aldehide monoterpenice
Citronellae aetheroleum (citronel)

Allii sativi bulbus (usturoi)


Allii cepae bulbus (ceap)

Rini

Propolis

Principii antiinfecioase poliine aceae


Arctinona din Arctium lappa

Agropirenul din Agropyron repens

Poliine Arctium lappa,


Asteraceae, brusture - rdcin
i frunz (Bardanae radix et
folium)

infecii cutanate

Brusturele este util pentru cei care acioneaz fie excesiv, fie derizoriu:
le red stabilitatea i cumptarea, bunul sim n hotrri i n fapte.

Poliine Arctium lappa, Asteraceae, brusture Bardanae radix et folium infecii cutanate
Lou Z, Li C, Kou X, Yu F, Wang H, Smith GM, Zhu S. - Antibacterial, Antibiofilm Effect of Burdock
(Arctium lappa L.) Leaf Fraction and Its Efficiency in Meat Preservation. - J Food Prot. 2016
Aug;79(8):1404-9.

First, the antibacterial, antibiofilm effect and chemical composition of burdock


(Arctium lappa L.) leaf fractions were studied. Then, the efficiency of burdock leaf
fractions in pork preservation was evaluated. The results showed that burdock leaf
fraction significantly inhibited the growth and biofilm development of Escherichia coli
and Salmonella Typhimurium. MICs of burdock leaf fractions on E. coli and Salmonella
Typhimurium were both 2 mg/ml. At a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, the inhibition rates
of the fraction on growth and development of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium
biofilms were 78.7 and 69.9%, respectively. During storage, the log CFU per gram of
meat samples treated with burdock leaf fractions decreased 2.15, compared with the
samples without treatment. The shelf life of pork treated with burdock leaf fractions
was extended 6 days compared with the pork without treatment, and the sensory
property was obviously improved. Compared with the control group, burdock leaf
fraction treatment significantly decreased the total volatile basic nitrogen value and
pH of the meat samples. Chemical composition analysis showed that the burdock leaf
fraction consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, cynarin,
crocin, luteolin, arctiin, and quercetin. As a vegetable with an abundant source,
burdock leaf is safe, affordable, and efficient in meat preservation, indicating that
burdock leaf fraction is a promising natural preservative for pork.

Poliine Arctium lappa, Asteraceae, brusture Bardanae radix et folium infecii cutanate
Rajasekharan SK, Ramesh S, Bakkiyaraj D, Elangomathavan R, Kamalanathan C. - Burdock root
extracts limit quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes and biofilm architecture in major urinary
tract pathogens. - Urolithiasis. 2015 Feb;43(1):29-40.

Bacterial biofilms are serious concern in patients with UTI, complicated UTI and other
device-associated infections. Microbes within the biofilms are effectively shielded
from antibiotics and host immune cells, hence can be treated only with agents which
has the potential to disassemble the biofilms. The study is focused on the root extracts
of Arctium lappa Linn. as a source for complementary medicine against three major
biofilm forming clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia
marcescens. Methanol extracts of burdock roots (BR) showed no bactericidal activity
(p > 0.05) against the uropathogens, whereas restrained the biofilms (p < 0.05) on
polystyrene and glass surfaces at a biofilm inhibitory concentration of 100 g/mL. []
the biofilm [] showed significant reduction in the surface area. [] substantial
reduction in the biofilm thickness (E. coli-50.79%, P. mirabilis-69.49%, and S.
marcescens-75.84%). Further, BR extracts also inhibited quorum-sensing (QS)controlled cellular phenotypes such as violacein, prodigiosin, swarming motility, and
cell surface hydrophobicity. [] two major quercetin derivatives (miquelianin and
peltatoside) along with few other constituent components. Exploring such
phytocompounds will provide potential agents to treat infections caused by biofilm
forming uropathogens. The antibiofilm and anti-QS agents will ultimately serve as
armor, facilitating the host immune system to fight infections.

Poliine Agropyron/ Triticum/ Elytrygia/ Elymus repens, Poaceae, pir


rizom, rdcin i stem (Graminis rhizoma) infecii urogenitale

Ajutat de pir, individul istovit de friciunea cu mediul, revine la nucleul


originar, redobndindu-i contiina identitii i a vitalitii primare.

Poliine Agropyron/ Triticum/ Elytrygia/ Elymus repens, Poaceae, pir rizom, rdcin i stem
(Graminis rhizoma) infecii urogenitale
Rafsanjany N, Lechtenberg M, Petereit F, Hensel A. - Antiadhesion as a functional concept for
protection against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC): in vitro studies with traditionally used
plants with antiadhesive activity against uropathognic Escherichia coli. - J Ethnopharmacol. 2013
Jan 30;145(2):591-7.

[] While direct cytotoxicity of the extracts (1-2000 g/mL) against UPEC and T24 (a
bladder cell line) cells was excluded significant antiadhesive effects were monitored
for five plant extracts. Two of them, prepared from the rhizome of Agropyron repens
L. and the stigmata of Zea mays L. decreased bacterial adhesion (IC(25) 630 g/mL,
IC(50) 1040 g/mL, resp.) by interacting with bacterial outer membrane proteins,
which was shown by pretreatment of UPEC. Preparations of three plant extracts from
the leaves of Betula spp. [], Orthosiphon stamineus BENTH. and Urtica spp. showed
antiadhesive effects by interacting with T24 [bladder] cells (IC(50) 415, 1330 g/mL,
resp. IC(25) 580 g/mL). Combination of two extracts, one interacting with the
bacterial surface (Zea mays L., Agropyron repens L.) and one with the eukaryotic target
(Orthosiphon stamineus BENTH.) revealed synergistic effects, as shown by strongly
decreased IC(50) values (131 g/mL, 511 g/mL, resp.). CONCLUSIONS: Different plant
extracts, traditionally used for UTI, exhibit antiadhesive effects against UPEC under in
vitro conditions. Molecular targets can be different, either on the bacterial or on the
host cell surface. Combination of these medicinal plants with different targets, as
observed often in phytotherapy, results in synergistic effects.

Principii antiinfecioase heterozide ale hidrochinonei

Arbutozida din Vaccinium vitis idaea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Arbutozid Vaccinium vitis idaea, Ericaceae, merior - frunze (Vitis


idaeae folium) infecii urinare

Ajutat de merior, individul i cristalizeaz voina i


inteniile, i contureaz distinct personalitatea i
interacioneaz cu semenii de pe o poziie strict delimitat.

Arbutozid Vaccinium vitis idaea, Ericaceae, merior - frunze infecii urinare


Wojnicz D, Kucharska AZ, Sok-towska A, Kicia M, Tichaczek-Goska D. - Medicinal plants
extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic
Escherichia coli. - Urol Res. 2012 Dec;40(6):683-97.

The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum
arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea
extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and
biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. [] Antimicrobial assay
relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells
was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to
move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P
screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with
congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter
plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate
significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities.
The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory
effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed
after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula
and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05).
All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity.

Arbutozid Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Ericaceae, strugurii ursului frunze (Uvae ursi folium) infecii urinare

Ajutat de strugurii ursului, individul nva


s lupte pentru a-i afirma drepturile.

Arbutozid Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Ericaceae, strugurii ursului - infecii urinare


Tolmacheva AA, Rogozhin EA, Deryabin DG. - Antibacterial and quorum sensing regulatory
activities of some traditional Eastern-European medicinal plants. - Acta Pharm. 2014
Jun;64(2):173-86.

The objective of this study was to screen extracts of twenty Eastern European
medicinal plants, using wild-type and reporter Chromobacterium violaceum
bioassays, for novel components that target bacterial cells and their quorum sensing
(QS) communication systems. Three types of activity and their combinations were
revealed: (i) direct antimicrobial growth-inhibitory activity, (ii) non-specific and
specific pro-QS activities, (iii) anti-QS activity. Among seven plant extracts showing
direct growth-inhibitory activity, the strongest effect was shown by Arctostaphylos
uva-ursi (bearberry) leaves. Many plants stimulated violacein production by wildtype C. violaceum ATCC 31532 in a non-specific manner, and only the herb Bidens
tripartita (three-lobe beggarticks) contained compounds that mimic acyl-homoserine
lactone and operated as a QS agonist. Anti-QS activity was found in eleven plants
including Quercus robur (oak) cortex, Betula verrucosa (birch) buds and Eucalyptus
viminalis (Manna Gum) leaves. Subsequent statistical analysis showed differences
between antimicrobial and anti-QS activities, whereas both activities were defined
by phylogenetic position of medical resource plant. Finally, extract from Quercus
robur cortex revealed at least two fractions, showing different anti-QS mechanisms.
These data confirm that multicomponent anti-infectious mechanisms are used by
plants, which may be useful for drug development.

Arbutozid Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Ericaceae, strugurii ursului - infecii urinare


Snowden R, Harrington H, Morrill K, Jeane L, Garrity J, Orian M, Lopez E, Rezaie S, Hassberger
K, Familoni D, Moore J, Virdee K, Albornoz-Sanchez L, Walker M, Cavins J, Russell T, Guse E,
Reker M, Tschudy O, Wolf J, True T, Ukaegbu O, Ahaghotu E, Jones A, Polanco S, Rochon Y,
Waters R, Langland J. - A comparison of the anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of extracts
from commonly used medicinal plants. - J Altern Complement Med. 2014 May;20(5):375-82.

The antimicrobial activity observed for the botanical extracts [] included both
bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against S. aureus. Highly effective botanicals
including Salvia officinalis, Eucalyptus globulus, Coleus forskohlii, Coptis chinensis,
Turnera diffusa, and Larrea tridentata exhibited MIC values ranging from 60 to
300g/mL and a 10(6)-fold reduction in bacterial replication. Arctostaphylos uvaursi and Allium sativum were slightly less effective, exhibiting MIC values ranging
from 90 to 400g/mL and a 10(5)-fold reduction [] Our data demonstrate that S.
officinalis, E. globulus, C. forskohlii, A. uva-ursi, C. chinensis, T. diffusa, A. californica,
A. sativum, and L. tridentata all show promising direct antimicrobial activity against
S. aureus. For many of these botanicals, strong bactericidal activity was observed at
higher concentrations, but even at lower concentrations, bacteriostatic activity was
evident. Other botanicals including B. vulgaris, Baptisia tinctoria, and Glycyrrhiza
glabra showed moderate activity against S. aureus, while Schisandra chinensis,
Echinacea angustifolia, and Polygonum multiflorum were shown to be ineffective.

Principii antiinfecioase hidrocarburi monoterpenice

Principii antiinfecioase aldehide i cetone monoterpenice

Principii antiinfecioase componente ale uleiurilor eseniale


Lmie
Ment
Citronel

Camfor
Eucalipt
Lcrmioar

Hidrocarburi monoterpenice Citrus limonum, Rutaceae, lmi - UE


extras din pericarpul lmilor (UE de lmie) infecii respiratorii

Hidrocarburi monoterpenice Citrus limonum, Rutaceae, lmi - UE extras din pericarpul


lmilor (UE de lmie) infecii respiratorii
Therapeutic activity shows antifungal potential against three Candida species (C. albicans,
Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata). Lemon EO is suggested to be used as an effective
remedy against candidiasis caused by C. albicans.
Trombetta D, Castelli F, Sarpietro MG, Venuti V, Cristani M, Daniele C, et al. Mechanisms of
antibacterial action of three monoterpenes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:24748.

Biao M, Krzyko-upicka T, Koszakowska M, Wieczorek PP. The influence of chemical


composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains.
Mycopathologia. 2014;177:2939.

Hidrocarburi monoterpenice UE de pin Pinus silvestris,


Pinaceae, pin - UE extras din frunze infecii respiratorii

Ajutat de pin, individul se descotorosete de tendina


de a se autonvinovi i i recapt demnitatea.

Hidrocarburi monoterpenice UE de pin Pinus silvestris, Pinaceae, pin, frunze infecii respiratorii

Ulukanli Z, Karabrkl S, Bozok F, Ates B, Erdogan S, Cenet M, Karaaslan MG Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of
Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.- Chin J Nat Med. 2014
Dec;12(12):901-10.

Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their
biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in
vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried
out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical
profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), -pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12%
and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial
activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on
Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum,
and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological
activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and
biocompatible pharmaceuticals.

Hidrocarburi monoterpenice UE de pin Pinus silvestris, Pinaceae, pin, frunze infecii respiratorii

Karapandzova M, Stefkova G, Cvetkovikj I, Trajkovska-Dokik E, Kaftandzieva A, Kulevanova S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus peuce (Pinaceae)
growing wild in R. Macedonia. - Nat Prod Commun. 2014 Nov;9(11):1623-8.

The major components in twigs with needles (T+N) and twigs without needles (T-N)
oils were monoterpenes: -pinene (23.8-39.9%, 21.2-23.3%), camphene (2.2-5.5%,
0.7-2.0%), -pinene (10.1-17.1%, 8.2-16.4%), myrcene (1.2-1.41%, 1.6-2.5%),
limonene+-phellandrene (6.8-14.0%, 8.8-23.6%) and bornyl acetate (2.3-6.9%, 1.13.4%), followed by the sesquiterpenes: trans-(E)-caryophyllene (3.6-4.3%, 3.2-7.3%),
germacrene D (7.1-9.5%, 5.0-10.3%) and -cadinene (2.1-3.1%, 3.3-4.2%,
respectively). [] T-N essential oils showed antimicrobial activity toward
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Candida
albicans as well as Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Haemophilus
influenzae. The antimicrobial activity of T+N essential oils was greater, especially
against Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus and Candida albicans,
followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella
enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Minimal inhibitory
concentrations (MICs) of all tested essential oils ranged from 15-125 L/mL. [] the
antimicrobial activity of Pinus peuce T+N and T-N essential oils [] varied
considerably. [] attributed to the differences in the quantitative composition and
percentage amounts of the components [], although [] there were no differences
in the qualitative composition of the essential oils, regardless of the locality of
collection, or the type of plant material (T+N or T-N).

Hidrocarburi monoterpenice Juniperus communis, Cupresaceae, ienupr - UE extras din


fructe (UE de ienupr) infecii respiratorii, digestive, urinare

Ienuprul strnete puterea focului armonizator,


prin care sunt sublimate, deopotriv, apatia ineriei,
nverunarea orgolioas i dispersarea anxietii.

Hidrocarburi monoterpenice Juniperus communis, Cupresaceae, ienupr - UE extras din fructe (UE de
ienupr) infecii respiratorii, digestive, urinare

Meng X, Li D, Zhou D, Wang D, Liu Q, Fan S. - Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and
related mechanism of the essential oil from the leaves of Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc against
Klebsiella pneumoniae. - J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Oct 18. pii: S0378-8741(16)31394-0.

61 components were identified from the essential oil. Caryophyllene (13.11%) and Caryophyllene (11.72%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial
activities of the essential oil were screened and compared against 10 bacteria. The
essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae, with the
biggest diameters of inhibition zones (DIZ) (16.000.25 mm) and the lowest MIC and
MBC values of 3.125mg/mL. The increase in proteins, 260nm absorbing materials of
bacterial cells suspension indicated that the cytoplasmic membranes were broken
by the essential oil. The SDS-PAGE [sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis ] of bacterial proteins demonstrated that the essential oil could
damage bacterial cells through the destruction of cellular proteins. Scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the essential oil damaged the morphology of
cell wall and membrane. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oil of J. rigida has potential
antibacterial activities against K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial mechanism is the
essential oil causing the irreversible damage to the cell wall and membrane, leading
to the leakage of proteins and 260nm absorbing materials (DNA and RNA). []

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de levnic, Lavandula spp, Lamiaceae UE


extras din somitile florale proaspt recoltate infecii respiratorii, digestive

Ajutat de lavand, individul


deprinde discernmntul
emoional, care-i permite s
disting influxurile emoionale
folositoare de cele nocive,
prelundu-le doar pe cele
concordante cu forul su intim

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de levnic, Lavandula spp, Lamiaceae UE extras din somitile


florale proaspt recoltate infecii respiratorii, digestive

Antimicrobial activity: EOs extracted from Lavandula stoechas L. exhibit good


antimicrobial activities against most of the bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts. In
the study of Benabdelkader et al., minimum inhibitory concentrations were found to
be ranging from 0.16 to 11.90 mg/ml. [Benabdelkader T, Zitouni A, Guitton Y, Jullien F,
Maitre D, Casabianca H, et al. Essential oils from wild populations of Algerian Lavandula
stoechas L.: Composition, chemical variability, and in vitro biological properties. Chem Biodivers.
2011;8:93753.]
It also shows antipseudomonal activity [Vgh A, Bencsik T, Molnr P, Bszrmnyi A,
Lemberkovics E, Kovcs K, et al. Composition and antipseudomonal effect of essential oils
isolated from different lavender species. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:13936.]

In vitro study on the antibacterial activity of the EO of Lavandula coronopifolia against


antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggested its bactericidal effect [Ait Said L, Zahlane K,
Ghalbane I, El Messoussi S, Romane A, Cavaleiro C, et al. Chemical composition and antibacterial
activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Nat Prod
Res. 2015;29:5825.]

Antifungal: EOs of Lavandula luisieri show an inhibitory effect on yeast, dermatophyte,


and Aspergillus strains. [Zuzarte M, Gonalves MJ, Cruz MT, Cavaleiro C, Canhoto J, Vaz S, et
al. Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugs. Food Chem. 2012;135:1505
10.]

Lavandula viridis is reported to have fungicidal effect. Cryptococcus neoformans is the


most sensitive fungus, followed by Candida species.

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de levnic, Lavandula spp, Lamiaceae


Hawrelak JA, Cattley T, Myers SP. - Essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: A
preliminary in vitro study. - Altern Med Rev. 2009 Dec;14(4):380-4

Dysbiosis is associated with a number of gastrointestinal and systemic disorders. There


is a need for selectively acting antimicrobial agents capable of inhibiting the growth of
potentially pathogenic microorganisms, or those found to be out of balance, while not
negatively impacting the bulk gastrointestinal tract microflora. OBJECTIVE: The
purpose of this in vitro study is to examine the potential of a selection of essential oils
as agents to treat dysbiosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight essential oils were
examined using the agar dilution method, including Carum carvi, Citrus aurantium var.
amara, Foeniculum vulgare dulce, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha
arvensis, Mentha x piperita, and Trachyspermum copticum. Doubling dilutions of the
essential oils were tested against 12 species of intestinal bacteria, which represent the
major genera found in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). RESULTS: Carum carvi,
Lavandula angustifolia, Trachyspermum copticum, and Citrus aurantium var. amara
essential oils displayed the greatest degree of selectivity, inhibiting the growth of
potential pathogens at concentrations that had no effect on the beneficial bacteria
examined. CONCLUSION: The most promising essential oils for the treatment of
intestinal dysbiosis are Carum carvi, Lavandula angustifolia, Trachyspermum copticum,
and Citrus aurantium var. amara. The herbs from which these oils are derived have
long been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms and the in vitro results
of this study suggest that their ingestion will have little detrimental impact on
beneficial members of the GIT microflora. []

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de coriandru, Coriandrum sativum, Apiaceae


UE extras din fructe infecii digestive, urinare

Ajutat de coriandru, individul i


sublimeaz mnia n drzenia temeritii

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de coriandru, Coriandrum sativum, Apiaceae UE extras din


fructe infecii digestive, urinare

Alves S, Duarte A, Sousa S, Domingues FC. - Study of the major essential oil
compounds of Coriandrum sativum against Acinetobacter baumannii and the effect
of linalool on adhesion, biofilms and quorum sensing. - Biofouling. 2016
Feb;32(2):155-65.

Acinetobacter baumannii is a pathogen that has the ability to adhere to


surfaces in the hospital environment and to form biofilms which are
increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. The aim of this work was to
study the antimicrobial activity of the major oil compounds of Coriandrum
sativum against A. baumannii. The effect of linalool on planktonic cells and
biofilms of A. baumannii on different surfaces, as well as its effect on adhesion
and quorum sensing was evaluated. From all the compounds evaluated,
linalool was the compound with the best antibacterial activity, with minimum
inhibitory concentration values between 2 and 8 l ml(-1). Linalool also
inhibited biofilm formation and dispersed established biofilms of A.
baumannii, changed the adhesion of A. baumannii to surfaces and interfered
with the quorum- sensing system. Thus, linalool could be a promising
antimicrobial agent for controlling planktonic cells and biofilms of A.
baumannii.

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de coriandru, Coriandrum sativum, Apiaceae


Aiysha Thompson, Dilruba Meah, Nadia Ahmed, Rebecca Conniff-Jenkins, Emma Chileshe, Chris
O Phillips, Tim C Claypole, Dan W Forman and Paula E Row - Comparison of the antibacterial
activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential
new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine;
2013; 13:338; DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-338

Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion
assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of
coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial
activity in the disc diffusion assay. Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all
three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most
potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic
rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were
identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of
spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were
tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coliin the disc diffusion assay. In each
case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial
activity. Conclusions: Many of the essential oils had antibacterial activity in the three
assays, suggesting that they would be good candidates for testing in clinical trials. The
observed antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of coriander, lemon balm and
spearmint leaves suggests a mechanistic explanation for the efficacy of a mixture of
coriander, lemon balm and mint extracts against IBS in a published clinical trial.

Esteri i alcooli monoterpenici UE de bergamote, Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia,


Rutaceae UE extras din pericarpul fructelor tulburri funcionale digestive

Esteri i alcooli monoterpenici UE de bergamote, Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia, Rutaceae


UE extras din pericarpul fructelor tulburri funcionale digestive
Mannucci C, Navarra M, Calapai F, Squeri R, Gangemi S, Calapai G. - Clinical Pharmacology of
Citrus bergamia: A Systematic Review. - Phytother Res. 2016 Oct 17.

Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau ("Bergamot") originated from the Mediterranean


ecoregion (southern Italy, Calabria). Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is used in perfumes,
cosmetics, and for stress reduction. Juice from C.bergamia has been used for
hyperlipidemia. We evaluated literature published on C.bergamia clinical applications.
Clinical trials on C.bergamia not combined with other substances, published in English,
were searched. We selected ten articles, six describing BEO effects on stress, three
reporting effects of polyphenolic fraction of C.bergamia juice in hyperlipidemia and
the last describing BEO effects in chronic psoriasis. Clinical studies were analyzed
following Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials for herbal therapy. Studies were
conducted on small sample sizes and not have high quality level. Analysis indicates
that BEO aromatherapy could be safe and useful to reduce stress symptoms. One
study suggests its potential supportive role in ultraviolet B therapy against psoriasis.
Supplementation with polyphenols from bergamot juice reduces plasma lipids and
improves lipoprotein profile in moderate hyperlipidemia. Effectiveness and safety of
C.bergamia cannot be definitively drawn because of publication bias and low quality
level of the majority of studies. Further large-scale trials with rigorous design are
required to define the role of C.bergamia in clinical practice.

Esteri i alcooli monoterpenici UE de bergamote, Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia, Rutaceae


UE extras din pericarpul fructelor tulburri funcionale digestive
Cirmi S, Bisignano C, Mandalari G, Navarra M. - Anti-infective potential of Citrus bergamia Risso
et Poiteau (bergamot) derivatives: a systematic review. - Phytother Res. 2016 Sep;30(9):1404-11.

Infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality
worldwide, mainly because of the increase of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.
Nature is the major source of anti-infective drugs and could represent a font of
medicines that may help overcome antibiotic resistance. Recently, the potential
antimicrobial effect of certain plant extracts has attracted attention within the
scientific community as alternatives to synthetic drugs. Here, we present a systematic
review on the anti-infective properties of bergamot derivatives that highlight the
activity of bergamot essential oil against bacteria, mycetes and larvae, as well as the
anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of bergamot juice and the antimicrobial properties of
extracts from bergamot peel. Findings presented herein could be used to develop
novel and alternative preventive and therapeutic strategies aimed to overcome
antibiotic resistance.

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de floare de portocal (neroli), Citrus aurantium ssp


aurantium, Rutaceae UE extras din bobocii florali infecii respiratorii, digestive

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de floare de portocal (neroli), Citrus aurantium ssp aurantium,


Rutaceae UE extras din bobocii florali infecii respiratorii, digestive
Ammar AH1, Bouajila J, Lebrihi A, Mathieu F, Romdhane M, Zagrouba F. - Chemical composition
and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil
(Neroli oil). - Pak J Biol Sci. 2012 Nov 1;15(21):1034-40.

Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree. It
is one of the most widely used floral oils in perfumery. In this study chemical
composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of neroli oil are
investigated. The essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. Flowers (Neroli oil)
cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.
About 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene
(27.5%) was the main component followed by (E)-nerolidol (17.5%), alpha-terpineol
(14%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and (E, E)-farnesol (8%). Antimicrobial activity
was determined by Agar-well-diffusion method against 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and
3 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. Neroli oil exhibited a marked antibacterial
activity especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Neroli oil exhibited a
very strong antifungal activity compared with the standard antibiotic (Nystatin) as
evidenced by their inhibition zones. Antioxidant activity determined by ABTS assay
showed IC50 values of 672 mg L(-1). Finally, this study may be considered as the first
report on the biological properties of this essential oil. The results of this study have
provided a starting point for the investigations to exploit new natural substances
present in the essential oil of C. aurantium L. flowers.

Alcooli monoterpenici (geraniol etc.) UE de trandafir, Rosa damascena,


R.rugosa, Rosaceae UE extras din petale infecii respiratorii

Ajutat de
trandafir,
individul
nelege c
loviturile
sorii sunt
ineluctabile,
dar reuete
ca, n mijlocul
patimilor, s
perceap
bucuria vieii.

Alcooli monoterpenici (geraniol etc.) UE de trandafir, Rosa damascena, R.rugosa, Rosaceae


UE extras din petale infecii respiratorii
Mahboubi M., Kazempour N., Khamechian T., Fallah M.H., Kermani M.M. Chemical composition
and antimicrobial activity of Rosa damascena Mill essential oil.
J Biol Act Prod Nat. 2011;1:1926.

Rosa damascena Mill. a plant from Rosaceae family is traditionally used for treatment
of many disorders especially against infectious diseases. The antimicrobial activity of R.
damascena oil was determined against a large number of microorganisms including
Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeast and filamentous by micro broth
dilution assay. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Chemical composition of oil
revealed the presence of -citronellol (48.2 %), geraniol (17.0 %), -phenylethyl
benzoate (5.4 %) and phenyl ethyl alcohol (5.1 %) as the main components. The MIC
values of oil were in the ranges of 0.1251 l/ml. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus
faecium, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were less sensitive to
R. damascena oil. The oil exhibited the antimicrobial activity against a large number of
microorganisms especially against Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia. This oil
could be used as a natural antimicrobial agent in treatment of infectious diseases; more
clinical studies should be done for demonstration of its efficacy.

Alcooli monoterpenici (mentol etc.) UE de ment, Mentha piperita, Lamiaceae UE


extras din frunzele i somitile florale proaspt recoltate infecii respiratorii
superioare, digestive, genitourinare

Ajutat de ment,
individul nelege
c detaarea nu
se construiete
prin izolarea de
lume, ci prin
totala cufundare
n clocotitorul ei
tumult, urmat
de sublimare i
transcendere

Alcooli monoterpenici (mentol etc.) UE de ment, Mentha piperita, Lamiaceae UE extras


din frunzele i somitile florale proaspt recoltate infecii respiratorii superioare, digestive,
genitourinare

Antibacterial: Peppermint oil shows an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of


staphylococci
[The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial
contamination in broiler houses. Poult Sci. 2013;92:283443.]

Antifungal: Studies show that EOs exhibit fungistatic and fungicidal activities against
both the standard and clinical strains of Candida species at concentrations ranging
from 0.5 to 8 L/mL. EOs exhibit similar antifungal effect against the azole-resistant
and azole-susceptible strains
Antibiofilm: Biofilm inhibition in fungal strains helps to decrease pathogenesis and
drug resistance. Studies show that EO inhibits the biofilm formation of Candida
albicans completely up to 2 l/ml in a dose-dependent manner.
[Saharkhiz MJ, Motamedi M, Zomorodian K, Pakshir K, Miri R, Hemyari K. Chemical composition,
antifungal and antibiofilm activities of the essential oil of Mentha piperita L. ISRN Pharm 2012.
2012 718645.]

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de mghiran, Majorana hortensis, Lamiaceae


UE extras din somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive

Ajutat de mghiran, individul nelege


valoarea prieteniei, a sprijinului compasiv i
totodat nvigorant.

Alcooli monoterpenici UE de mghiran, Majorana hortensis, Lamiaceae UE extras din


somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive
Hajlaoui H, Mighri H, Aouni M, Gharsallah N, Kadri A. - Chemical composition and in vitro
evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of
Tunisian Origanum majorana L. essential oil. - Microb Pathog. 2016 Jun;95:86-94.

This study investigated the chemical composition and evaluated the antioxidant,
antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum
majorana essential oil. The findings showed that the oil exhibited high activity,
particularly in terms of reducing power and -Carotene bleaching, inducing higher
IC50 values than BHT. The oil showed an important antimicrobial activity against 25
bacterial and fungal strains. In fact, the IZ, MIC and MBC values recorded for the
bacterial strains were in the range of 8 0-18.33 0.57 mm, 0.097-3.125 and 0.396.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IZ, MIC and MFC values of the fungal strains varied
between 110-28 0 mm, 0.058-0.468 mg/mL and 0.234-1.875 mg/mL, respectively. A
low cytotoxic effect was observed against cancer (Hep-2 and HT29) and continuous cell
lineage (Vero), with CC50 values ranging from 13.73 to 85.63 mg/mL. The oil was also
evaluated for anti-acetylcholinesterase effects, which showed that it exhibited
significant activity with IC50 values reaching 150.33 2.02 g/mL

Alcooli i fenoli monoterpenici UE de cimbru, Thymus vulgaris, Lamiaceae UE


extras din prile aeriene nflorite infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Cimbrul este util pentru individul care este pe punctul


de a ceda; i d capacitatea de a rezista pn la capt.

Alcooli i fenoli monoterpenici UE de cimbru, Thymus vulgaris, Lamiaceae

[Monika Sienkiewicz, Monika ysakowska, Pawe Denys, and Edward Kowalczyk. Microbial Drug
Resistance. April 2012, 18(2): 137-148. doi:10.1089/mdr.2011.0080.]

Aim: The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of thyme
essential oil against clinical multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus,
Enterococcus, Escherichia, and Pseudomonas genus.
Materials: The antibacterial activity of oil was tested against standard strains
of bacteria and 120 clinical strains isolated from patients with infections of the
oral cavity, abdominal cavity, respiratory and genitourinary tracts, skin, and
from the hospital environment.
Methods: Agar diffusion was used to determine the microbial growth
inhibition of bacterial growth at various concentrations of oil from Thymus
vulgaris. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disk
diffusion.
Results: Thyme essential oil strongly inhibited the growth of the clinical strains
of bacteria tested.
Conclusions: The use of phytopharmaceuticals based on an investigated
essential oil from thyme in the prevention and treatment of various human
infections may be reasonable.

Alcooli i fenoli monoterpenici UE de cimbru, Thymus vulgaris, Lamiaceae

The result of the present study showed that Thymus vulgaris has
antibacterial activities against Gram positive and negative pathogenic
bacteria. "Our results supported the results of advanced studies that
used Thymus spp. extracts as antimicrobial agents depend on presence
of both thyme essential oil and thymol. Also, these studies suggested
use of thyme as an antibiotic. Thymol is 25 times as effective as phenol,
but less toxic." [The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness 2007 : Volume 4 Number 1]
The antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the lamiaceae
family against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2 in vitro.
"Both types of Herpes virus including ACVres were considerably
neutralized after treatment with the extracts prior to infection. At
maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts, plaque
formation was significantly reduced by > 90% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and >
85 % for ACVres. Therefore, the extracts exert their antiviral effect on
free HSV and offer a chance to use them for topical therapeutic
application against recurrent Herpes infections." [Journal Title: Planta medica,
ISSN 0032-0943 CODEN PLMEAA 2006, vol. 72, no15, pp. 1378-1382]

Alcooli i fenoli monoterpenici UE de cimbru, Thymus vulgaris, Lamiaceae


Chaftar N, Girardot M, Labanowski J, Ghrairi T, Hani K, Frre J, Imbert C. - Comparative
evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils. - Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;901:1-15

[] Five essential oils were obtained from Tunisian plants (EOtun): Artemisia
herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta
graveolens L. and Thymus vulgaris L., whereas others were commercial
products (EOcom). Overall, T. vulgaris EOtun was the most efficient EO against
both bacteria (Gram negative: MIC0.34 mg/mL; Gram positive: MIC0.70
mg/mL) and fungi (yeasts: MIC0.55 mg/mL; mould: MIC=0.30 mg/mL;
dermatophytes: MIC0.07 mg/mL). Two EOcom displayed both acceptable
antibacterial and antifungal potency, although weaker than T. vulgaris EOtun
activity: Origanum vulgare EOcom (bacteria: MIC1.13 mg/mL, fungi:
MIC1.80 mg/mL), and Cymbopogon martinii var. motia EOcom (bacteria:
MIC1.00 mg/mL, fungi: MIC0.80 mg/mL). Bacillus megaterium, Legionella
pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Trichophyton spp. were the most
sensitive species to both EOcom and EOtun. This study demonstrated the
noteworthy antimicrobial activity of two commercial EOs and points out the
remarkable efficiency of T. vulgaris EOtun on all tested bacterial and fungal
species, certainly associated with its high content in carvacrol (85 %). These
three oils could thus represent promising candidates for applications in water
and food protections.

Alcooli i fenoli monoterpenici UE de cimbrior, Thymus serpyllum, Lamiaceae UE


extras din prile aeriene nflorite infecii respiratorii, digestive, urinare

Alcooli i fenoli monoterpenici UE de cimbrior, Thymus serpyllum, Lamiaceae UE extras


din prile aeriene nflorite infecii respiratorii, digestive, urinare

Jari S, Mitrovi M, Pavlovi P. - Review of Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological


Study of Thymus serpyllum L. - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:101978

Thymus serpyllum L. (wild thyme) is a perennial shrub, native to areas of


northern and central Europe. Its aerial parts are most frequently used in
ethnomedicine (mainly for treating illnesses and problems related to the
respiratory and gastrointestinal systems), although recently its essential oils
are becoming more popular as an important plant-derived product. [] Wild
thyme essential oil has an ever-growing number of uses in contemporary
medicine due to its pharmacological properties: antioxidative, antimicrobial,
and anticancerogenic activities. The antioxidative and antimicrobial properties
of the essential oil are related to the synergistic and cumulative effect of its
components. In terms of antitumor and cytotoxic activity, further research into
the effects of essential oil is necessary, aimed at improving its cytotoxic effects,
on the basis of which appropriate medicines can be formulated. Due to its
pharmacological properties, the essential oil of wild thyme, [] represents an
important natural resource for the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, it can
be a source of natural antioxidants, nutritional supplements, or components of
functional foods in the food industry.

Alcooli i fenoli monoterpenici UE de cimbrior, Thymus serpyllum, Lamiaceae UE extras


din prile aeriene nflorite infecii respiratorii, digestive, urinare
Kavita G., Santosh K., Reeta S. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of aerial parts of Thymus
serpyllum L. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011;4(3):641642

Thymus serpyllum, known by the common names of Wild Thyme or Creeping


Thyme is a species of thyme native to most of Europe and North Africa. It is
one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. It has
antifungal, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, strongly antiseptic,
antispasmodic, carminative, deodorant, diaphoretic, disinfectant,
expectorant, sedative activities. Thymus serpyllum L. was studied for its
antimicrobial activity. The aerial parts of this plant were dried, powdered and
ethanolic and aqueous extract was prepared by hot percolation method. Four
microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia
coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for investigation. The
antibacterial activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Thymus serpyllum L.
was conducted using agar disc diffusion method and then the zone of
inhibition for both extract was measured. The results of our antimicrobial assay
revealed that plant extracts showed inhibitory activity against the tested
organisms.

Fenoli monoterpenici UE de ovrv/ origan, Origanum vulgaris, Lamiaceae


UE extras din somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, urinare

ndrumat de ovrv individul nelege c domin ambiana cel care se


domin pe sine; pentru a se controla ns, trebuie s se preuiasc drept
ceea ce este. n sintonan cu sine, un adevrat conductor i ajut
semenii s intre n comuniune cu ei nii i cu rnduielile naturii.

Fenoli monoterpenici UE de ovrv/ origan, Origanum vulgaris, Lamiaceae UE extras din


somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, urinare
Pesavento G, Maggini V, Maida I, Lo Nostro A, Calonico C, Sassoli C, Perrin E, Fondi M, Mengoni
A, Chiellini C, Vannacci A, Gallo E, Gori L, Bogani P, Bilia AR, Campana S, Ravenni N, Dolce D,
Firenzuoli F, Fani R. - Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of
Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens. - Nat Prod Commun. 2016 Jun;11(6):861-4.

Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms.
Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic
fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in
vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens
responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter
xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the
standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and
could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O.
vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and
MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was
effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of
OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans
strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia
strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO
might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections.

Aldehide monoterpenice UE de citronel, Cymbopogon spp, Poaceae


UE extras din frunze infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Aldehide monoterpenice UE de citronel, Cymbopogon spp, Poaceae UE extras din frunze


infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Minami M, Kita M, Nakaya T, Yamamoto T, Kuriyama H, Imanishi J. 2003. The inhibitory effect of
essential oils on herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. Microbiol Immunol 47: 681
684.

Of these [essential oils], lemongrass essential oil possessed the


most potent anti-HSV-1 activity and
completely inhibited viral replication after incubation for 24 h, even at
a concentration of 0.1%."

Cetone monoterpenice UE de salvie, Salvia officinalis, Lamiaceae UE extras


din frunze i din somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitale

Ajutat de salvie,
individul nva si tempereze
emoiie excesive,
s le dea glasul
nobil al luciditii
i s le exprime
resorbite n
nelepciunea
creativitii.

Cetone monoterpenice UE de salvie, Salvia officinalis, Lamiaceae UE extras din frunze i


din somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitale
Stojanovi-Radi Z, Pejci M, Stojanovi N, Sharifi-Rad J, Stankovi N. - Potential of Ocimum
basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical
isolates. - Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016 Aug 29;62(9):27-33.

Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60%
of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in
medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes
numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L.
(basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for
the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to
investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm
producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming
ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from
different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak
biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm
producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm
producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil,
while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil
treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment
of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

Cetone monoterpenice UE de salvie (iarba Sf. Ioan), Salvia Sclarea, Lamiaceae UE


extras din frunze i din somitile florale

Cetone monoterpenice UE de salvie (iarba Sf. Ioan), Salvia Sclarea, Lamiaceae UE extras
din frunze i din somitile florale
Sienkiewicz M, Gowacka A, Poznaska-Kurowska K, Kaszuba A, Urbaniak A, Kowalczyk E. - The
effect of clary sage oil on staphylococci responsible for wound infections. - Postepy Dermatol
Alergol. 2015 Feb;32(1):21-6.

AIM: To determine the antibacterial activity of clary sage oil (Salvia


sclarea L.) against Staphylococcus clinical strains which were isolated
from patients with wound infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A
comprehensive evaluation of Staphylococcus clinical strain resistance to
antibiotics was performed. The constituents of clary sage oil were
assayed by GC-FID-MS analysis. The minimal inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of the tested essential oil against staphylococci by the microdilution broth method was determined. RESULTS: The clary sage oil was
active against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and S. xylosus
with MIC values ranging from 3.75 to 7.00 l/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The
results of the in vitro tests encourage to use formulations containing
sage oil as the active natural antimicrobial agent. Because of its
antimicrobial properties clary sage oil may be applied to treat wounds
and skin infections.

Cetone monoterpenice UE de isop, Hyssopus officinalis, Lamiaceae


UE extras din somitile florale infecii respiratorii, urinare

Isopul este util pentru


cei care nu-i dau
drumul s triasc,
temndu-se s-i afle
identitatea i
potenialul ascuns;
curndu-se ns de
obsesii i de fobii, ei
i descoper esena.

Cetone monoterpenice UE de isop, Hyssopus officinalis, Lamiaceae UE extras din


somitile florale infecii respiratorii, urinare
Stankovi N, Mihajilov-Krstev T, Zlatkovi B, Mateji J, Stankov Jovanovi V, Koci B, omi L. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of
Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula. - Planta Med. 2016 May;82(7):650-61.

The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the


chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential
oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea
crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia
absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. [] Monoterpenes were dominant among
the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and
A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4%, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H.
officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8%,
respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and
21.5%). []. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic
bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth
microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum
bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2mg/mL. Therefore,
the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered
to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may
contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance.

Cetone monoterpenice UE de rozmarin, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae UE


extras din somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Ajutat de rozmarin, individul dobndete


inteligena discernmntului afectiv, nelegnd c
iubirea nu trebuie trimis acolo unde nu are ecou
i nici oferit celor care nu tiu s o aprecieze.

Cetone monoterpenice UE de rozmarin, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae UE extras din


somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Barbosa LN, Probst Ida S, Andrade BF, Alves FC, Albano M, da Cunha Mde L, Doyama JT, Rall VL,
Fernandes Jnior A. - In vitro antibacterial and chemical properties of essential oils including
native plants from Brazil against pathogenic and resistant bacteria. - J Oleo Sci. 2015;64(3):28998.

Therefore, we aimed to examine the chemical characterisation (GC-MS) of essential


oils (EO) from seven plants and measure antibacterial activities against bacterial
strains isolated from clinical human specimens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Salmonella Typhimurium) and foods (Salmonella Enteritidis). Assays were performed
using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90%) (mg/mL) by agar
dilution and time kill curve methods (log CFU/mL) to aiming synergism between EO.
[] predominance of terpenes and its derivatives. The highest antibacterial activities
were with Cinnamomun zeylanicum (0.25 mg/mL on almost bacteria tested) and
Caryophyllus aromaticus EO (2.40 mg/mL on Salmonella Enteritidis) []. The time kill
curve assays revealed the occurrence of bactericide synergism in combinations of C.
aromaticus and C. zeylanicum with Rosmarinus. officinalis. Thus, the antibacterial
activities of the EO were large and this can also be explained by complex chemical
composition of the oils tested in this study and the synergistic effect of these EO, yet
requires further investigation because these interactions between the various
chemical compounds can increase or reduce (antagonism effect) the inhibitory effect
of essential oils against bacterial strains.

Oxizi monoterpenici UE de eucalipt, Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtaceae


UE extras din frunze infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Oxizi monoterpenici UE de eucalipt, Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtaceae UE extras din frunze


infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Antimicrobial effect: Antimicrobial activity was found to be related to


the synergic effects between major and minor components rather than
the concentration of a single component. [Posadzki P, Alotaibi A, Ernst E. Adverse
effects of aromatherapy: A systematic review of case reports and case series. Int J Risk Saf Med.
2012;24:14761.]

EO of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus has antimicrobial activity


against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) as well as Grampositive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). [Bachir RG, Benali M. Antibacterial
activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli and
Staphylococcus aureus. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2:73942.]

Studies done on eight eucalyptus species show that Eucalyptus odorata


oil possesses strong cytotoxic effect and also antibacterial effect against
S. aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus pyogenes, and
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eucalyptus bicostata and Eucalyptus
astringens showed antibacterial effects. [Posadzki P, Alotaibi A, Ernst E. Adverse
effects of aromatherapy: A systematic review of case reports and case series. Int J Risk Saf Med.
2012;24:14761.]

Oxizi monoterpenici UE de niaouli (Gomenol), Melaleuca viridiflora, Myrtaceae UE extras din frunze (Gomenol) infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Oxizi monoterpenici tea-tree EO, Melaleuca alternifolia, Myrtaceae - UE extras din


frunze infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Oxizi monoterpenici tea-tree EO, Melaleuca alternifolia, Myrtaceae - UE extras din frunze
infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Study population Study type Treatment groups (no. of evaluable patients) Administration
of treatment Outcomes Adverse events Reference
124 patients with mild to moderate acne RCT, investigator blinded 5% TTO gel (58), 5%
benzoyl peroxide (61) 3 mo Both significantly reduced inflamed lesions (P < 0.001) but BP
better than TTO (P < 0.05); BP better at reducing oiliness (P < 0.02); less scaling (P < 0.02),
pruritis (P < 0.05), dryness (P < 0.001) with TTO; treatments equivalent for noninflamed lesions,
erythema 27 (44%) in TTO group, 50 (79%) in BP group (e.g., dryness, stinging, burning,
redness); significantly fewer events in TTO group (P < 0.001) [Bassett, I. B., D. L. Pannowitz,
and R. S. Barnetson. 1990. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the
treatment of acne. Med. J. Aust. 153:455-458. ]
18 patients with recurrent herpes labialis (cold sores) RCT, investigator blinded 6% TTO gel
(9), placebo gel (9) 5 times daily Median time to reepithelization of 9 days for TTO vs 12.5
days for placebo (not significant) 1 in TTO group (event not stated) [ Carson, C. F., L. Ashton,
L. Dry, D. W. Smith, and T. V. Riley. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil gel (6%) for the treatment
of recurrent herpes labialis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2001;48:450-451.]
126 patients with mild to moderate dandruff RCT, investigator blinded 5% TTO shampoo
(63), placebo shampoo (62) Daily for 4 wk Whole scalp lesion score significantly improved in
TTO group (41.2%) compared to placebo group (11.2%) (P < 0.001) 3 (5%) in TTO group, 8
(13%) in placebo group (e.g., mild burning, stinging, itching) [Satchell, A. C., A. Saurajen, C.
Bell, and R. S. Barnetson. 2002. Treatment of dandruff with 5% tea tree oil shampoo. J. Am.
Acad. Dermatol. 47:852-855.]

Oxizi monoterpenici tea-tree EO, Melaleuca alternifolia, Myrtaceae - UE extras din frunze
infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Study population Study type Treatment groups (no. of evaluable patients) Administration
of treatment Outcomes Adverse events Reference
30 hospital inpatients colonized or infected with MRSA Randomized, controlled pilot study
4% TTO nasal ointment + 5% TTO body wash (15), 2% mupirocin nasal ointment + Triclosan
body wash (15) Frequency not stated, minimum of 3 days
For TTO, 33% cleared, 20% chronic, 47% incomplete; for routine treatment, 3% cleared, 53%
chronic, 33% incomplete (no significant differences)
With TTO nasal ointment (no. not stated), mild swelling of nasal mucosa to acute burning
[Caelli, M., J. Porteous, C. F. Carson, R. Heller, and T. V. Riley.2000. Tea tree oil as an alternative
topical decolonization agent for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Hosp. Infect.
46:236-237.]
236 hospital patients colonized with MRSA RCT
10% TTO cream + 5% TTO body wash (110), 2% mupirocin nasal ointment + 4% Triclosan body
wash + 1% silver sulfadiazine cream (114) Once daily for 5 days
For TTO, 41% cleared; for routine treatment, 49% cleared; treatment regimens did not differ
significantly (P = 0.0286); mupirocin significantly better than TTO at clearing nasal carriage (P=
0.0001)
None
[Dryden, M. S., S. Dailly, and M. Crouch. 2004. A randomized, controlled trial of tea tree
topical preparations versus a standard topical regimen for the clearance of MRSA colonization. J.
Hosp. Infect.56:283-286.]

Oxizi monoterpenici tea-tree EO, Melaleuca alternifolia, Myrtaceae - UE extras din frunze
infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Study population Study type Treatment groups (no. of evaluable patients) Administration
of treatment Outcomes Adverse events Reference
117 patients with culture-positive onychomycosis RCT, double blind
100% TTO (64), 1% clotrimazole (53) Twice daily for 6 mo
Full or partial resolution for 60% of TTO and 61% of clotrimazole patients after 6 months of
therapy (not significant; P > 0.05)
5 (7.8%) in TTO group, 3 (5.7%) in clotrimazole group (erythema, irritation, edema)
[Buck, D. S., D. M. Nidorf, and J. G. Addino. 1994. Comparison of two topical preparations for
the treatment of onychomycosis: Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and clotrimazole. J. Fam.
Pract. 38:601-605.]
60 outpatients with a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis RCT, double blind
2% butenafine hydrochloride with 5% TTO cream (40), 5% TTO cream (20) 3 times daily for 8
wk
Cure in 80% of butenafine/TTO group and 0% of TTO group (P < 0.0001)
4 (10%) in butenafine/TTO group (mild inflammation)
[Syed, T. A., Z. A. Qureshi, S. M. Ali, S. Ahmad, and S. A. Ahmad. 1999. Treatment of toenail
onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream. Trop.
Med. Int. Health 4:284-287. ]

Oxizi monoterpenici tea-tree EO, Melaleuca alternifolia, Myrtaceae - UE extras din frunze
infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Study population Study type Treatment groups (no. of evaluable patients) Administration
of treatment Outcomes Adverse events Reference
13 patients with AIDS and fluconazole-refractory oral candidiasis Case series
Melaleuca oral solution (15 ml) (12) 4 times daily for 2-4 wk
Clinical response rate of 67% after 4 weeks (cure in 2 patients, improvement in 6 patients, no
response in 4 patients, 1 deterioration)
None
[Jandourek, A., J. K. Vaishampayan, and J. A. Vazquez. 1998. Efficacy of melaleuca oral solution
for the treatment of fluconazole refractory oral candidiasis in AIDS patients. AIDS 12:1033-1037.]
27 patients with AIDS and fluconazole-refractory oral candidiasis Open-label trial
Melaleuca oral solution (15 ml) (12), alcohol-free melaleuca oral solution (5 ml)c(13) 4 times
daily for 2-4 wk
Mycological and clinical response in 58% (alcohol-based solution) and 54% (alcohol-free
solution) of patients after 4 wk
8 (66.7%) in alcohol-based solution group, 2 (15.4%) in alcohol-free solution group (mild to
moderate burning)
[ Vazquez, J. A., and A. A. Zawawi. 2002. Efficacy of alcohol-based and alcohol-free melaleuca
oral solution for the treatment of fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients
with AIDS.HIV Clin. Trials 3:379-385.]

Oxizi monoterpenici UE de mirt, Myrtus communis, Myrtaceae UE


extras din frunze infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Oxizi monoterpenici UE de mirt, Myrtus communis, Myrtaceae UE extras din frunze


infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Ebrahimabadi EH, Ghoreishi SM, Masoum S, Ebrahimabadi AH. - Combination of GC/FID/Mass
spectrometry fingerprints and multivariate calibration techniques for recognition of
antimicrobial constituents of Myrtus communis L. essential oil. - J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol
Biomed Life Sci. 2016 Jan 1;1008:50-7.

Myrtus communis L. is an aromatic evergreen shrub and its essential oil


possesses known powerful antimicrobial activity. However, the contribution
of each component of the plant essential oil in observed antimicrobial ability is
unclear. In this study, chemical components of the essential oil samples of the
plant were identified qualitatively and quantitatively [], antimicrobial activity
of these samples against three microbial strains were evaluated []. Three
chemometric methods including principal component regression (PCR), partial
least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) were
applied for the study. These methods showed similar results, but, OPLS was
selected as preferred method due to its predictive and interpretational ability,
facility, repeatability and low time-consuming. The results showed that pinene, 1,8 cineole, -pinene and limonene are the highest contributors in
antimicrobial properties of M. communis essential oil. Other researches have
reported high antimicrobial activities for the plant essential oils rich in these
compounds confirming our findings.

Oxizi monoterpenici UE de cardamom,


Elletaria cardamomum, Zingiberaceae
UE extras din fructe infecii
respiratorii, digestive

Ajutat de cardamom, individul


nva s-i pun n valoare
farmecul aparte i s se
exprime cu deschiderea
fireasc a flexibilitii.

Oxizi monoterpenici UE de cardamom, Elletaria cardamomum, Zingiberaceae UE extras din


fructe infecii respiratorii, digestive
Lawrence HA1, Palombo EA. - Activity of essential oils against Bacillus subtilis spores. - J
Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009 Dec;19(12):1590-5

Alternative methods for controlling bacterial endospore contamination are desired in


a range of industries and applications. Attention has recently turned to natural
products, such as essential oils, which have sporicidal activity. In this study, a selection
of essential oils was investigated to identify those with activity against Bacillus subtilis
spores. Spores were exposed to thirteen essential oils, and surviving spores were
enumerated. Cardamom, tea tree, and juniper leaf oils were the most effective,
reducing the number of viable spores by 3 logs at concentrations above 1%. Sporicidal
activity was enhanced at high temperatures (60 degrees C) or longer exposure times
(up to one week). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified the
components of the active essential oils. However, none of the major oil components
exhibited equivalent activity to the whole oils. The fact that oil components, either
alone or in combination, did not show the same level of sporicidal activity as the
complete oils suggested that minor components may be involved, or that these act
synergistically with major components. Scanning electron microscopy was used to
examine spores after exposure to essential oils and suggested that leakage of spore
contents was the likely mode of sporicidal action. Our data have shown that essential
oils exert sporicidal activity and may be useful in applications where bacterial spore
reduction is desired.

Lactone sesquiterpenice UE de iarb mare, Inula helenium, Asteraceae UE extras


din rdcini i rizomi infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Iarba mare insufl elanul ardent al dinamismului focalizat ferm i


constant, fr ocoliuri, ezitri sau deturnri, spre un scop bine definit.

Lactone sesquiterpenice UE de iarb mare, Inula helenium, Asteraceae UE extras din


rdcini i rizomi infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Blagojevi PD, Radulovi NS. - Conformational analysis of antistaphylococcal sesquiterpene
lactones from Inula helenium essential oil. - Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Nov;7(11):1407-10

Isomeric eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones: alantolactone (1),


isoalantolactone (2) and diplophyllin (3), the main constituents of Inula helenium L.
root essential oil, are strong antistaphylococcal agents. Energetically favorable
conformations of these were calculated (MM+ and MMFF94 molecular mechanics and
AM1 and PM3 semi-empirical methods) and mutually compared. The compounds
were additionally described in terms of selected 2D and 3D molecular descriptors.
Alantolactone and isoalantolactone mainly adopt "U"-shaped conformations (>99%,
calculated at 298 K; "closed" geometries), with the carbonyl moiety being rather
sterically hindered by the axial methyl group. In contrast, the cyclohexene and lactone
rings of diplophyllin are mutually oriented in such a way to give the overall "S"-shape
to the molecule ("open" geometry). These conformational differences, inherently
influencing the optimal interaction of lactones 1-3 with the binding region of target
biomolecules, could be, at least partially, responsible for the higher observed
antistaphylococcal activity of diplophyllin in comparison with the other two isomeric
lactones.

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de cuioare, Eugenia caryophyllus, Myrtaceae UE extras


din bobocii florali infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Ajutat de cuioare, individul ptrunde dincolo


de aparene i sondeaz profunzimile pentru
a descoperi adevrul i esena.

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de cuioare, Eugenia caryophyllus, Myrtaceae UE extras din


bobocii florali infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare
Antifungal: It possesses antifungal activity.
[Chaieb K, Zmantar T, Ksouri R, Hajlaoui H, Mahdouani K, Abdelly C, et al. Antioxidant properties
of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of
clinical Candida species. Mycoses. 2007;50:4036.]

Clove oil and its main content eugenol also reduce the quantity of ergosterol, which is a specific
component of fungal cell membrane. Germ tube formation by C. albicans is also inhibited
[into E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from
Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol.
2009;58:145462.]
Antibacterial: It was found to possess inhibitory effect on multi-resistant Staphylococcus spp.
[Chaieb K, Hajlaoui H, Zmantar T, Kahla-Nakbi AB, Rouabhia M, Mahdouani K, et al. The chemical
composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium
aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): A short review. Phytother Res. 2007;21:5016.]

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de anason, Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae


UE extras din fructe parazitoze intestinale, tulburri funcionale
digestive, respiratorii, endocrine, neurologice

Ajutat de anason, individul deprinde


atracia dezarmant a dezinvolturii.

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de anason, Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae UE extras din fructe


Akdemir Evrendilek G. - Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of
various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria. - Int J Food Microbiol. 2015 Jun
2;202:35-41

In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic


substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves
(Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata),
fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum
vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita),
myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis),
thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related
to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four
Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci,
Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of
Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus
mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds
with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial
properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models
indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon,
and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had
consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene
(Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most
inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested.

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de anason, Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae UE extras din fructe


Ghoshegir SA, Mazaheri M, Ghannadi A, Feizi A, Babaeian M, Tanhaee M, Karimi M, Adibi P. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical
trial. - J Res Med Sci. 2015 Jan;20(1):13-21

We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise) from Apiaceae family
on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) in this doubleblind randomized clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally, 107 patients
attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according
to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were
randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group
included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day).
Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch), 3
gafter each meal (3 times/day). The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms
was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end
of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency
distribution of patients across the study period were compared. RESULTS: The age, sex,
body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and
control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation) total scores
of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6
(4.1) and 10.96 (4.1), respectively (P = 0.6). They were 7.04 (4.1) and 12.30 (4.3) by
week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001), 2.44 (4.2) and 13.05 (5.2) by week 4, respectively (P
= 0.0001), and 1.08 (3.8) and 13.30 (6.2) by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001).

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de anason, Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae UE extras din fructe


Koch C, Reichling J, Schneele J, Schnitzler P. - Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes
simplex virus type 2. - Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):71-8

Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were
screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro
on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent
infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the
population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus
infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50)
were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise
oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A
clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all
essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential
oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum
noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly
reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or
ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils
were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period.
These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption
probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high
selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic
application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis.

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de anason stelat, Illicium verum, Schizandraceae = Illiciaceae


UE extras din fructe

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de busuioc, Ocimum basilicum, Lamiaceae UE extras din


somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Busuiocul
aduce
elevare,
mpcare,
imunitate,
transcendere

Metil-eteri aromatici UE de busuioc, Ocimum basilicum, Lamiaceae UE extras din


somitile florale infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Chiang Lien-Chai; Ng Lean-Teik; Cheng Pei-Win; Chiang Win; Lin Chun-Ching Antiviral activities
of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum. Clinical and experimental
pharmacology & physiology 2005;32(10):811-6.

Extracts and purified components of OB were used to identify possible


antiviral activities against DNA viruses (herpes viruses (HSV),
adenoviruses (ADV) and hepatitis B virus) and RNA viruses
(coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and enterovirus 71 (EV71)).
The results show that crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of OB and
selected purified components, namely apigenin, linalool and ursolic
acid, exhibit a broad spectrum of antiviral activity.
Of these compounds:
ursolic acid showed the strongest activity against HSV-1, whereas
apigenin showed the highest activity against HSV-2, hepatitis B surface
antigen and hepatitis B e antigen, and
linalool showed strongest activity against ADV-II."

Aldehide aromatice UE de scorioar, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Lauraceae UE


extras din scoar infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

ndrumat de
scorioar,
individul i
dezvolt
capacitatea de
a nelege
lucrurile i
evenimentele
prin asimilarea
lor empatic.

Aldehide aromatice UE de scorioar, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Lauraceae UE extras din


scoar infecii respiratorii, digestive, genitourinare

Antimicrobial effect: Inhibitory effect on the growth of various isolates


of bacteria (including Gram-positive, Gram-negative) and fungi.
[Ooi LS, Li Y, Kam SL, Wang H, Wong EY, Ooi VE. Antimicrobial activities
of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb
Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:51122.]

Neem, Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae frunze

Tetranortriterpenoide - Neem, Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae frunze


azadirachtin
(limonoid,
tetranortriterpenoid)

Tetranortriterpenoide - Neem, Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae frunze


Mustafa M. - Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus
faecalis: An in vitro Study. - J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 Oct 1;17(10):791-794

The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial


efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus
faecalis. Neem leaf extract, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite
were used to assess the antimicrobial efficiency. []
All the three medicaments showed well-defined and comparable zones
of inhibition around their respective wells. All values were significantly
higher than the control group. Analysis of variance showed significant
difference between zone diameters of chlorhexidine, neem leaf extract,
and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: [] neem leaf extract shows comparable zones of
inhibition with that of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Neem leaf extract has significant antimicrobial
activity against E. faecalis and thus opens the perspectives for the use of
neem extract as an intracanal medication.

Tetranortriterpenoide - Neem, Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae frunze


Mahfuzul Hoque MD1, Bari ML, Inatsu Y, Juneja VK, Kawamoto S. - Antibacterial activity of
guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne
pathogens and spoilage bacteria. - Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2007 Winter;4(4):481-8

The antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica)
extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--Listeria
monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7
(6 strains), Salmonella Enteritidis (4 strains), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus
cereus, and five food spoilage bacteria: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, P. putida,
Alcaligenes faecalis, and Aeromonas hydrophila (2 strains). Guava and neem extracts
showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to
Gram-negative bacteria except for V. parahaemolyticus, P. aeroginosa, and A.
hydrophila. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7
and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanol
extracts of guava showed the highest inhibition for L. monocytogenes [], S. aureus
[], and V. parahaemolyticus [](0.1 mg/mL) and the lowest inhibition for Alcaligenes
faecalis [], Aeromonas hydrophila [], and A. hydrophila [](4.0 mg/mL). The MIC of
chloroform extracts of neem showed inhibition for L. monocytogenes [] (4.0-5.0
mg/mL). However, ethanol extracts of neem showed higher inhibition for S. aureus []
(4.5 mg/mL) and the lower inhibition for other microorganisms (6.5 mg/mL). [] guava
and neem extracts possess compounds containing antibacterial properties that can
potentially be useful to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms.

Tetranortriterpenoide - Neem, Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae frunze


Yerima M. B., Jodi S. M., Oyinbo K., Maishanu H. M., Farouq A. A., Junaidu A. U. Effect of neem
extracts (Azadirachta indica) on bacteria isolated from adult mouth. Journal of Basic and
Applied Sciences. 2012;20:6467

The antibacterial activity of the bark, leaf, seed and fruit extracts of Azadirachta indica
(neem) on bacteria isolated from adult mouth was carried out using agar- well
diffusion method. The test bacteria were isolated from patients attending Usmanu
Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The bark and leaf
extracts showed antibacterial activity against all the test bacteria used. The zone of
inhibition increased with increase in concentrations of the extracts. The seed and fruit
extracts showed antibacterial activity only at higher concentrations. The results,
therefore, confirm the traditional use of neem in maintaining oral hygiene.

Lignani Phyllanthus niruri,


Euphorbiaceae, bhumyamalaki
herba
hepatite virale

Lignani Phyllanthus niruri, Euphorbiaceae, bhumyamalaki herba


Liu S, Wei W, Li Y, Lin X, Shi K, Cao X, Zhou M. - In vitro and in vivo anti-hepatitis B virus activities
of the lignan nirtetralin B isolated from Phyllanthus niruri L. - J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Nov
18;157:62-8

Nirtetralin B, a new lignan [], is isolated from Phyllanthus niruri L. This plant has long
been used in folk medicine for liver protection and antihepatitis B in many Asian
countries. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-hepatitis B virus activity of
nirtetralin B using HepG2.2.15 cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducks as
in vitro and in vivo models. M&M: [] the anti-hepatitis B virus activity was evaluated
both in vitro and in vivo. The human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2.2.15 was
used in vitro assay. And the in vivo anti-hepatitis B virus activity was evaluated on the
expression of HBV replication, HBsAg, HBeAg, ALT and AST on day 0, 7, 14, 17 after
nirtetralin B was dosed intragastricly (i.g.) once a day for 14 days at the dosages of 25,
50 and 100mg/kg/day in the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducks. RESULTS: In
the human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2.2.15, nirtetralin B effectively
suppressed the secretion of the HBV antigens in a dose-dependent manner with IC50
values for HBsAg of 17.4M, IC50 values for HBeAg of 63.9M. In DHBV-infected
ducklings, nirtetralin B significantly reduced the serum DHBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, ALT
and AST. An analysis of the liver pathological changes confirmed the hepatoprotective
effect of nirtetralin B. CONCLUSION: The experimental data demonstrated that
nirtetralin B exhibits anti-hepatitis B virus activity both in vitro and in vivo.

Principii antiinfecioase compui cu sulf

Compui cu sulf Allium


sativum, Alliaceae, usturoi
bulbul infecii respiratorii,
gardioz

Compui cu sulf Allium sativum, Alliaceae, usturoi bulbul infecii respiratorii, gardioz
Ponmurugan Karuppiah, and Shyamkumar Rajaram - Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum
cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Aug; 2(8): 597601

Objective. To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves


and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical
pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes
of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected
to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results. Anti-bacterial
potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested
against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria
isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants
extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible
when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone
was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.
aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 g/mL against
P. aeruginosa. Conclusions. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective antibacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention
of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

Compui cu sulf Allium sativum, Alliaceae, usturoi bulbul infecii respiratorii, gardioz
Xiaonan Lu, Barbara A. Rasco, Dong-Hyun Kang, Jamie M.F. Jabal, D. Eric Aston, and Michael E.
Konkel - Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of the Antimicrobial Effects of Garlic
Concentrates and Diallyl Constituents on Foodborne Pathogens - Anal Chem. 2011 Jun 1; 83(11):
41374146

The antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 200
l/ml) and diallyl sulfide (5, 10 and 20 M) on Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia
coli O157:H7 cultivated in tryptic soy broth at 4, 22 and 35C for up to 7 days were
investigated. L. monocytogenes was more resistant to garlic extract and diallyl
compounds treatment than E. coli O157:H7. Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR)
spectroscopy indicated that diallyl constituents contributed more to the antimicrobial
effect than phenolic compounds. This effect was verified by Raman spectroscopy and
Raman mapping on single bacteria. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and
transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed cell membrane damage consistent
with spectroscopic observation. The degree of bacterial cell injury could be quantified
using chemometric methods.

Compui cu sulf Allium cepa, Alliaceae, ceap bulbul infecii respiratorii, infecii
supurative

Compui cu sulf Allium cepa, Alliaceae, ceap bulbul


Yamina Benmalek, Ouahiba Ait Yahia, Aicha Belkebir, and Marie-Laure Fardeau - Anti-microbial
and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium
cepa red and white varieties - Bioengineered. 2013 Jul 1; 4(4): 244248

Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna


(hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants
in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with
contents of 103 7.90 g/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 0.69 g/gDW (white variety).
We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 0.21 g/g 1.65 0.61 g/g for
Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 0.10 g/g for
Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in
Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and
outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 0.003mg/g and 0.077
0.001 mg/g respectively. Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as
compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin).
Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective
antimicrobial activity.

Rini propolis = amestec rinos colectat de albine din mugurii foliari ai unor arbori
(pin, brad, plop, salcie etc.), folosit pentru sigilarea spaiilor deschise (crpturi, orificii
etc.) nedorite din pereii stupului, ca i pentru izolarea cadavrelor duntorilor intrui.

Propolis
J M Grange and R W Davey - Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue). - J R Soc Med. 1990
Mar; 83(3): 159160

Propolis (bee glue) was found to have antibacterial activity against a range of
commonly encountered cocci and Gram-positive rods, including the human tubercle
bacillus, but only limited activity against Gram-negative bacilli. These findings confirm
previous reports of antimicrobial properties of this material, possibly attributable to
its high flavonoid content.

Propolis
Silvana Alves de Carvalho Duailibe, Azizedite Guedes Gonalves, and Fernando Jorge Mendes
Ahid - EFFECT OF A PROPOLIS EXTRACT ON STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS COUNTS IN VIVO - J Appl
Oral Sci. 2007 Oct; 15(5): 420423

Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial action of an extract of geopropolis produced


by the bee Melipona compressipes fasciculata on the concentration of Streptococcus
mutans colonizing the oral cavity of young patients. Forty-one young volunteers
performed 21 mouth rinses divided into three rinses per day for 7 days, with no other
changes in their oral hygiene and dietary habits. Saliva was collected at three time
points: before the first rinse, and one hour and 7 days after the first rinse. A reduction
in the concentration of S. mutans was observed in 49% of all samples collected after
use of the extract, 26% showed no alterations, and an increasing in S. mutans was
observed in 25%. Was performed with the Statistica for Windows 5.9 program using
the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney U test, with the
level of significance set at 5%. The propolis extract possesses in vivo antimicrobial
activity against S. mutans present in the oral cavity and might be used as an
alternative measure to prevent dental caries.

Remedii pentru infecii urinare 1

Cele mai importante antiseptice urinare sunt remediile coninnd


arbutozid (Vitis idaeae folium, Uvae ursi folium) i cele cu uleiuri
eseniale antimicrobiene.
Remediile fitoterapice cu arbutozid [Vitis idaeae folium (merior),
Uvae ursi folium (strugurii ursului)] ar trebui luate:
de 3 ori pe zi n timpul infeciilor acute; ar trebui, de asemenea, luate
albastru de metilen i/sau metenamin pot vindeca infecia, evitnd
necesitatea de a lua antibiotice; totui dac nu se produce nicio
ameliorare sau apare febr, ar trebui luate antibiotice, preferabil pe baza
unei antibiograme (n mod ideal, la primele semne de infecie ar trebui
luat o urocultur);
o dat pe zi la culcare timp de sptmni i chiar luni pentru a preveni
recidiva;

Pentru prevenie se poate folosi i extractul de Vaccinium


macrocarpon (coacze roii) (produsul Urisan), care conine
antocianozide capabile s mpiedice adeziunea bacteriilor la
uroteliu.

Remedii pentru infecii urinare 2

Uleiurile eseniale:
pot fi folosite n timpul infeciei acute pentru a evita antibioticele;

mai important: pentru a preveni recidivele, cnd metode mai puin agresive (precum
plantele cu arbutozid, albastru de metilen, metenamin) au euat.
Ar trebui folosite prin rotaie cteva uleiuri eseniale, de exemplu UE de ienupr, UE de
coriandru i UE de cimbru fiecare ar trebui administrat timp de 10 zile totaliznd un
interval de 30 de zile. Aceast schem de 30 de zile ar trebui repetat timp de cteva luni,
verificnd periodic eficiena prin uroculturi:
nti 10 zile UE de ienupr 10-15 picturi de 3 ori pe zi;
ulterior 10 zile UE de coriandru 10-15 picturi de 3 ori pe zi;
ulterior 10 zile UE de cimbru 5-10 picturi de 3 ori pe zi),.
Doza pe administrare stabilit n funcie de tolerana individual: administrarea de doze
crescute progresiv:
ncepnd cu o pictur pe administrare i crescnd cu o pictur pe administrare;
oprindu-ne la doza maxim tolerat confortabil de pacient, dar:
15 picturi pe administrare pentru UE de ienupr i pentru UE de coriandru;
10 picturi pe administrare pentru UE de cimbru;
aceast doz maxim ar trebui meninut pentru restul perioadei de 10 zile;
aceasta ar trebui s fie i doza folosit nc de la nceput n urmtoarele perioade de 30
de zile. La relurile ulterioare ale curei de 30 de zile de UE nu mai este necesar s fie
testat din nou tolerana pacientului.

UE pentru infecii urinare

Exemplu de testare a toleranei la un anumit UE ((doz de


diminea | prnz | sear)):

ziua 1: 1 pictur | 2 picturi | 3 picturi


ziua 2: 4 picturi | 5 picturi | 6 picturi
ziua 3: 7 picturi | 8 picturi | 9 picturi
ziua 4: 10 picturi (care se dovedete a fi doza maxim tolerat
confortabil) | 10 picturi | 10 picturi
ziua 5: 10 picturi | 10 picturi | 10 picturi
ziua 6: 10 picturi | 10 picturi | 10 picturi
etc.

UE ar trebui luat pe stomacul gol pe puin zahr sau miere (o


linguri) sau n ap (aproximativ jumtate de pahar).
Imediat dup ar trebui ingerat ceva blnd (ap, lapte, pine,
orez fiert, piure de cartofi, etc.) pentru a ndeprta UE i a
preveni efectul iritant asupra cavitii bucale, a faringelui i a
esofagului.
Dup 15-30 minute pacientul poate mnca (dac dorete).

Remedii pentru infecii urinare arbore de decizie 1

asociere cu astenie, epuizare, oboseal general, slbiciune:


Coriandri aetheroleum (coriandru) tonic, neurotonic, stimulant,
stomahic, antiinflamator, analgezic;
Thymi aetheroleum (cimbru) tonic general, neurotonic, cardiotonic,
uterotonic, tonic sexual;
Origani aetheroleum (origan/ ovrv) imunostimulator;
asociere cu agitaie, ngrijorare: Basilici aetheroleum (busuioc)
antiinflamator, analgezic, imunomodulator, hipotensiv, neuroreglator.
se dorete efect afrodisiac:
Cinnamomi aetheroleum (scorioar);
asociere cu tendin la lipotimie/ hipotensiune arterial: Caryophylli
aetheroleum (cuioare) antiinflamator, analgezic;
asociere cu grea, dureri, indigestie, gust amar, senzaie de cldur: Menthae
aetheroleum (ment) antiinflamator, analgezic, anestezic, stimulant digestiv,
carminativ, antiemetic, stomahic, colagog-coleretic, mucolitic, expectorant;
Citronellae aetheroleum (citronel) unele chemotipuri sunt sedative (i
vasodilatatoare), alte sunt tonice (general, cardiotonic, neurotonic,
uterotonic);
Inulae aetheroleum (iarb mare) (asociere cu spasme intestinale, afeciuni
biliare) nu este disponibil pe scar larg;

Remedii pentru infecii urinare arbore de decizie 2

Se dorete efect antibiotic:


Graminis rhizoma (pir) diuretic, sudorific, laxativ,
demulcent;

Se dorete efect antiinflamator:


Millefolii flores (coada oricelului) vulnerar, stomahic,
stimuleaz digestia, colagog, antispastic, hemostatic,
imunomodulator, bactericid;

Se dorete efect sedativ, diuretic i depurativ:


astringent, antidiareic i hemostatic/ stiptic,
vasoconstrictor: Lamii herba et flores (urzic moart
alb) demulcent, vulnerar, expectorant;
laxativ, afrodisiac: Galii herba (snziene) antispastic;

Remedii pentru infecii respiratorii arbore de decizie 1

Cele mai multe sunt virale antibioticele sunt inutile, dar pot fi folosite
uleiuri eseniale. Prima alegere ar trebui s fie Eucalypti aetheroleum (UE de
eucalipt) (este antibacterian i antiviral, antiinflamator, expectorant,
mucolitic) 10 picturi de 3 ori pe zi. Doze mai mici pot fi folosite dac acesta
nu este bine tolerat. UE poate fi luat pe miere sau zahr, dar nc i mai bine
este s fie luat ntr-un pahar de infuzie de plante expectorante i
antiinflamatoare. UE de eucalipt este cea mai bun alegere dac pacientul
i simte mintea ceoas/ tulbure;
Dac senzaia preponderent este de slbiciune, oboseal:
Pini aetheroleum (pin) poate fi o alegere mai bun (mai ales la diabetici);
Thymi aetheroleum (cimbru) dac este dorit un efect antiinfecios mai
puternic;
Rosmarini aetheroleum (rozmarin) tonic general i cardiotonic;
Cardamomi aetheroleum (cardamom) tonic, stimulant, stomahic,
carminativ, antispastic, antiinflamator, expectorant;
asociere cu agitaie, ngrijorare Basilici aetheroleum (busuioc)
antiinflamator, analgezic, imunomodulator, hipotensiv, neuroreglator.
se dorete efect afrodisiac: Cinnamomi aetheroleum (scorioar);

Remedii pentru infecii respiratorii arbore de decizie 2

Dac senzaia preponderent este de astenie, depresie:


Hyssopi aetheroleum (isop) tonic, stimulant;
Dac tusea este proeminent i expectoraia este dificil, ar trebui alese
uleiuri eseniale cu efecte mucolitice i expectorante:
Menthae aetheroleum (ment) (febr nalt, senzaie de cldur, diaree
asociate);
Juniperi aetheroleum (ienupr) (simptome urinare asociate);
Lavandulae aetheroleum (lavand) (asociere cu agitaie, cefalee);
Salviae aetheroleum (salvie) (asociere cu tulburri menstruale);
Inulae aetheroleum (iarb mare) (asociere cu simptome digestive:
spasme intestinale, tulburri biliare) nu este larg disponibil;
Myrti aetheroleum (mirt) antiinflamator;

Remedii pentru infecii intestinale (enterocolit) arbore de decizie 1

Simptomul predominant este diareea, dar adesea se asociaz dureri


intestinale i flatulen. O bun prim alegere este UE de coriandru.
Lavandulae aetheroleum (lavand) (asociere agitaie, cefalee);
Juniperi aetheroleum (ienupr) (asociere cu simptome urinare);
Neroli aetheroleum (floare de portocal) (asociere cu depresie,
oboseal);
Menthae aetheroleum (ment) (febr nalt, senzaie de cldur);
Majoranae aetheroleum (mghiran) asociere cu simptome
psihologice/ neurologice/ reumatismale, n special funcionale (stres,
anxietate, agitaie, insomnie, obsesie, convulsii, palpitaii,
hipertensiune arterial, dureri funcionale toracice i/sau
abdominale, dispnee funcional, nevralgie, dureri articulare, dureri
musculare)

Remedii pentru infecii intestinale (enterocolit) arbore de decizie 2

Asociere cu astenie, epuizare, oboseal general, slbiciune:


Rosmarini aetheroleum (rozmarin);
Thymi aetheroleum (cimbru) dac se dorete un efect antibiotic mai
puternic;
Origani aetheroleum (origan/ovrv) dac sunt dorite un efect
antibiotic nc i mai puternic i un efect imunostimulator;
dac este dorit un efect afrodisiac:
Cinnamomi aetheroleum (scorioar);
asociere cu tendin la lipotimie/ hipotensiune arterial: Caryophylli
aetheroleum (cuioare) antiinflamator, analgezic;
asociere cu agitaie, ngrijorare Basilici aetheroleum (busuioc)
antiinflamator, analgezic, imunomodulator, hipotensiv, neuroreglator.
Eucalypti aetheroleum (eucalipt) simptome respiratorii asociate;
Niaouli aetheroleum (gomenol) antiinflamator, imunostimulator;
Myrti aetheroleum (mirt) se dorete efect antibacterian puternic;
Inulae aetheroleum (iarb mare) (spasme intestinale, afeciuni biliare) nu
este larg disponibil;

Remedii pentru infecii cutanate arbore de decizie

Administrare intern de remedii depurative i antiinfecioase, printre cele mai


frecvent folosite fiind brusturele (Bardanae radix et folium) infecii cutanate
(dermatit, furunculoz, acnee, panariii, ulcer varicos).
Administrare extern (local) de remedii antiinflamatoare, emoliente.
Calendulae flores (glbenele) leziuni cutanate (ulcere, inclusiv ulcer
varicos, rni, crpturi/ fisuri, arsuri, mucturi de insecte, erupii,
degerturi);
Chamomillae flores (mueel) vindecarea rnilor (promoveaz granulaia i
regenerarea tisular n arsuri i ulcere), eczem/ dermatit, crpturi/ fisuri,
echimoze, degerturi, mucturi de insecte.
Millefolii flores (coada oricelului) leziuni cutanate (rni, dermatit,
arsuri);
Plantaginis folium (ptlagin) afeciuni cutanate inflamatoare/ ulcerative
(furuncule, rni, ulcere, ulcer varicos),
Propolis infecii/ inflamaii cutanate;
Scrophulariae herba (bubernic) arsuri, arsuri solare, erupii
Ajugae herba (vineri) rni, arsuri, ulcere i inflamaii cutanate (erizipel
etc.).
Populi gemmae (muguri de plop) afeciuni cutanate uscate.

Remedii imunomodulatoare, imunostimulatoare

Echinacea conine dou polizaharide imunostimulatoare:


- PSI este un 4-O-metil glucurono-arabinoxilan ;
- PSII este un arabinoramnogalactan acid.

Poliholozide Echinacea angustifolia, E.pallida, E.purpurea, Asteraceae, echinacea


rdcin i pri aeriene

Ajutat de echinacea, individul


nva c imunitatea se
bazeaz pe abilitatea de a
recunoate ceea ce poate si altereze integritatea i
puritatea, ndeprtndu-l de
sine i de idealurile sale.

Poliholozide Echinacea angustifolia, E.pallida, E.purpurea, Asteraceae, echinacea rdcin


i pri aeriene
Dall'Acqua S, Perissutti B, Grabnar I, Farra R, Comar M, Agostinis C, Caristi G, Golob S, Voinovich
D. - Pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory effect of lipophilic Echinacea extract formulated
in softgel capsules. - Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015 Nov;97(Pt A):8-14. doi:
10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.09.021. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Echinacea angustifolia lipophilic extract, was given in a single oral


administration to 10 human volunteers to perform a pharmacokinetic
and immunological study. The plasmatic levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10
and TNF-a in samples collected before and 24 h after drug
administration were analyzed. The total RNA was extracted from
limpho-monocyte isolated from the same blood samples and the same
cytokines in terms of gene expression were evaluated. Dodeca-2E,4Edienoic acid isobutylamide exerts immunomodulatory effects downregulating the gene expression and reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF- and IL-8, and up-regulating
the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules such as IL-10.

Poliholozide Echinacea angustifolia, E.pallida, E.purpurea, Asteraceae, echinacea rdcin


i pri aeriene
Dapas B, Dall'Acqua S, Bulla R, Agostinis C, Perissutti B, Invernizzi S, Grassi G, Voinovich D. Immunomodulation mediated by a herbal syrup containing a standardized Echinacea root
extract: a pilot study in healthy human subjects on cytokine gene expression. Phytomedicine.
2014 Sep 25;21(11):1406-10. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.04.034. Epub 2014 May 28.
In this study, the immunomodulatory effect of a triply standardized Echinacea angustifolia root
extract was evaluated in 10 healthy subjects. Ten ml of syrup containing one hundred mg of
extract (corresponding to 4.7 mg of Echinacoside and 8.0mg of a high molecular weight-20,000
Da- polysaccharide) were administered as a herbal syrup once a day for one month. The
immunomodulatory effect was evaluated before and after herbal syrup administration
evaluating the expression levels of the cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-. Cytokine expression
was studied in lympho-monocytes and in plasma samples measuring the mRNA and protein
levels, respectively. In lympho-monocytes our data indicate the up-regulation of the mRNA
levels of IL-2 and IL-8 and the down regulation of the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory
cytokines TNF- and IL6. The differential regulation was maximal after 14 days of treatment. IL2 up-regulation and IL-6 down-regulation were also confirmed at the protein level in plasma.
Finally, the up-regulation of the mRNA of IL-2/IL-8 and the down-regulation of IL-6 positively
correlated with the protein levels detected in the plasma. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests
a relevant role for the standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract in the control of cytokine
expression. This first demonstration of the immuno-modulating activity of Echinacea
angustifolia root extract in the healthy subject, supports at least in part the common use of such
products as health promoting supplement.

Poliholozide Eleutherococcus senticosus, Araliaceae, ginseng siberian rdcin

Poliholozide Solidago virga-aurea, Asteraceae, splinu - somitile florale


(Solidaginis flores/herba)

Splinua este o
invitaie la a fi

Poliholozide Carthamus tinctorius, Asteraceae, ofrnel - flori tubulare (Carthami flores

ofrnelul eleveaz capacitatea de a savura


plcerile, nlesnind acomodarea la mediul
nconjurtor; ne nva c hotrrea poate izvor
din curgerea ocrotitoare a unei domoale iubiri.

Poliholozide Malva silvestris, M.glabra, M.neglecta, Malvaceae, nalb - frunze i


flori (Malvae folium et flores)

Ajutat de nalb, individul deprinde


nobleea umil a ngduinei i a empatiei,
prin care se ridic deasupra tumultului
pasiunilor, al ambiiilor i al elogiilor.

Poliholozide Althaea officinalis, Malvaceae, nalb mare - rdcin i frunze (Althaeae


radix et folium)

Poliholozide Tilium tomentosa, T.cordata, T.platiphyllos, Tiliaceae, tei - inflorescen


i bractee (Tiliae flores)

Teiul exercit o aciune de oblojire


psihoemoional; celor prea nchii, le
deschide inima spre iubire; celor prea
deschii, le protejeaz inima pentru a
nu cdea prad celor hrprei.

Withanolide Withania somnifera, Solanaceae, ashwagandha rdcin

Withanolide Withania somnifera, Solanaceae, ashwagandha rdcin


White PT, Subramanian C, Motiwala HF, Cohen MS. - Natural Withanolides in the Treatment of
Chronic Diseases. - Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;928:329-373.
Withanolides, and in particular extracts from Withania somnifera, have been used for over
3,000 years in traditional Ayurvedic and Unani Indian medical systems as well as within several
other Asian countries. Traditionally, the extracts were ascribed a wide range of pharmacologic
properties with corresponding medical uses, including adaptogenic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory,
sedative/anxiolytic, cytotoxic, antitussive, and immunomodulatory. Since the discovery of the
archetype withaferin A in 1965, approximately 900 of these naturally occurring, polyoxygenated
steroidal lactones with 28-carbon ergostane skeletons have been discovered across 24 diverse
structural types. Subsequently, extensive pharmacologic research has identified multiple
mechanisms of action across key inflammatory pathways. In this chapter we identify and
describe the major withanolides with anti-inflammatory properties, illustrate their role within
essential and supportive inflammatory pathways (including NF-B, JAK/STAT, AP-1, PPAR,
Hsp90 Nrf2, and HIF-1), and then discuss the clinical application of these withanolides in
inflammation-mediated chronic diseases (including arthritis, autoimmune, cancer,
neurodegenerative, and neurobehavioral). These naturally derived compounds exhibit
remarkable biologic activity across these complex disease processes, while showing minimal
adverse effects. As novel compounds and analogs continue to be discovered, characterized, and
clinically evaluated, the interest in withanolides as a novel therapeutic only continues to grow.

Withanolide Withania somnifera, Solanaceae, ashwagandha rdcin


Chandran U, Patwardhan B. - Network ethnopharmacological evaluation of the
immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera. - J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Jul 31. pii: S03788741(16)30509-8.
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha, WS) is one of the extensively explored Ayurvedic
botanicals. Several properties including immunomodulation, anti-cancer and neuro-protection
of the botanical have been reported. Even though, in indigenous medicine, WS is well known for
its immunomodulatory activity, the molecular mechanism of immunomodulation has not been
elucidated. AIM: [] evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of WS using network
ethnopharmacology technique to elucidate the in silico molecular mechanism. M&M:
Databases- DPED, UNPD, PubChem, Binding DB, ChEMBL, KEGG and STRING were used to gather
information to develop the networks. The networks were constructed using Cytoscape 3.2.1.
Data analysis was performed with the help of Excel pivot table and Cytoscape network analyzer
tool. RESULTS: Investigation for WS immune modulation mechanism identified five bioactives
that are capable of regulating 15 immune system pathways through 16 target proteins by
bioactive-target and protein-protein interactions. The study also unveils the potential of
withanolide-phytosterol combination to achieve effective immunomodulation and seven novel
bioactive-immune target combinations. CONCLUSION: The study elucidated an in silico
molecular mechanism of immunomodulation of WS. It unveils the potential of withanolidephytosterol combination to achieve a better immunomodulation. Experimental validation of the
network findings would aid in understanding the rationale behind WS immunomodulation as
well as aid in bioactive formulation based drug discovery.

Metil-eteri aromatici, triterpene pentaciclice Ocimum sanctum,


Lamiaceae, tulsi frunze

Metil-eteri aromatici, triterpene pentaciclice Ocimum sanctum, Lamiaceae, tulsi frunze


Mondal S, Varma S, Bamola VD, Naik SN, Mirdha BR, Padhi MM, Mehta N, Mahapatra SC. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum
sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers. - J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul 14;136(3):452-6.
Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is considered as a sacred herb and traditionally it is believed that
consumption of Tulsi leaf on empty stomach increases immunity. Experimental studies have
shown that alcoholic extract of Tulsi modulates immunity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was designed to evaluate the
immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Tulsi leaves through a double-blinded
randomized controlled cross-over trial on healthy volunteers. Three hundred milligrams capsules
of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Tulsi or placebo were administered to 24 healthy volunteers on
empty stomach and the results of 22 subjects who completed the study were analyzed. The
primary objective was to study the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (interferon- and interleukin4) during both pre and post intervention period in blood culture supernatants following
stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and phytohaemagglutinin. Other immunological parameters
such as T-helper and T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells and NK-cells also were analyzed using
Flowcytometry.
RESULTS: Statistically significant increase in the levels of IFN- (p=0.039), IL-4 (p=0.001) and
percentages of T-helper cells (p=0.001) and NK-cells (p=0.017) were observed after 4 weeks in
the Tulsi extract intervention group in contrast to the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: These observations clearly ascertain the immunomodulatory role of Tulsi leaves
extract on healthy volunteers.

Metil-eteri aromatici, triterpene pentaciclice Ocimum sanctum, Lamiaceae, tulsi frunze


Jothie Richard E, Illuri R, Bethapudi B, Anandhakumar S, Bhaskar A, Chinampudur Velusami C,
Mundkinajeddu D, Agarwal A. - Anti-stress Activity of Ocimum sanctum: Possible Effects on
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. - Phytother Res. 2016 May;30(5):805-14.
The present study investigated anti-stress potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic variable
stress (CVS) paradigm. Further, the possible mechanism of anti-stress was explored in vitro using
cell and cell-free assays. Rats were administered O.sanctum followed by CVS regimen for a
period of 16days. On days 4, 8, 12, and 16, body weight and immobility time in forced swim test
were measured. In addition, the possible inhibitory effect of O.sanctum and ursolic acid on
cortisol release and CRHR1 receptor activity were studied in cell-based assays, while inhibitory
effects on 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11-HSD1) and catechol-Omethyltransferase (COMT) were studied in cell-free assays. CVS group demonstrated less body
weight gain and higher immobility time than O.sanctum administered groups, while oral
administration of O.sanctum significantly increased body weight gain and decreased the
immobility time. Further, O.sanctum and its constituents inhibited cortisol release and
exhibited a significant CRHR1 receptor antagonist activity. Also, they had specific inhibitory
activity towards 11-HSD1 and COMT activity. Thus, O.sanctum was found to be effective in the
management of stress effects, and anti-stress activity could be due to inhibition of cortisol
release, blocking CRHR1 receptor, and inhibiting 11-HSD1 and COMT activities.

Remedii imunomodulatoare, imunostimulatoare


poliholozide:
Echinaceae radix et herba (echinacea) imunostimulator prin poliholozide i acid
cicoric (activeaz fagocitoz);
Liquiritiae/Glycyrrhizae radix (lemn dulce) imunostimulator prin poliholozide;
Calendulae flores (glbenele) imunostimulator prin poliholozide;
Chamomillae flores (mueel) imunomodulator prin poliholozide i ulei esenial
care stimuleaz fagocitoz;
Eleutherococci radix (ginseng siberian) imunomodulator;
Solidaginis flores/herba (splinu) imunomodulator;
Carthami flores (ofrnel) poliholozide acide imunostimulatoare;
Althaeae radix et folium (nalb mare), Malvae folium et flores (nalb)
imunostimulator prin poliholozide acide;
Tiliae flores (tei) imunostimulator prin poliholozide;
lectine:
Millefolii flores (coada oricelului) imunomodulator;
componente din uleiurile eseniale:
Origani aetheroleum (origan/ovrv) imunostimulator;
Niaouli aetheroleum (gomenol) imunostimulator;
Basilici aetheroleum (busuioc) imunomodulator prin timol;