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VOCABULARY
NOUN
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

7.

DS 2011 MART
Psychologists say that there is a genetic ---- to
willpower, but that upbringing may also have an
effect.
A) description

B) attachment

D) reaction

E) selection

C) component

KPDS 2011 MAYIS


The central government has called for tighter
regulations on coastal development and is
launching an ---- to remove illegal beach homes
and hotels.
A) observation

B) initiative

D) entitlement

E) attachment

8.

C) investment

9.

2011 LYS-5
The successful ---- of developing countries into
world trade requires more than just open access
to export markets and international trade rules.
A) contribution

B) investment

D) reduction

E) resignation

C) integration

B) qualities

D) agreements

E) impressions

A) outcome

B) process

D) result

E) task

C) response

KPSS 2012
Despite the ---- of laws in society, its
manifestation in the form of general codes first
appears only around 3000 BC.
A) belief

B) separation

D) agreement

E) importance

C) engagement

2012 LYS-5
To a psychologist, personality consists of
persistent ---- of thought, emotion and
behaviour.
A) belongings

B) patterns

C) compliments

D) inventions

E) services

KPSS 2011
Using our own internal state as a basis for
judging other people may affect our ---- of them.
A) situations

DS 2012 MART
Insight into the ---- by which the human brain
came to exist and acquire its remarkable
abilities can be gained by studying animals that
are far simpler than us.

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


10. Forgery is the act of making, reproducing,
altering or signing a false document or other
instrument with the ---- of defrauding others.

C) personalities

A) development

B) exception

D) determination

E) prediction

C) intention

DS 2011 EKM
Pain is a highly subjective ---- that no two people
experience in exactly the same way.
A) regulation

B) sensation

C) reinforcement

D) coincidence

E) inquiry

6.

KPDS 2011 KASIM


In cases involving childrens injuries, the most
effective ---- are directed at parents.
A) benefits

B) exceptions

D) disturbances

E) interventions

C) purposes

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ADJECTIVE
1.

6.

DS 2011 MART
The lead from exhaust fumes enters the
atmosphere, mostly as simple lead compounds,
which are poisonous to children's ---- nervous
systems.
A) exclusive

B) increasing

D) developing

E) domestic

KPDS 2011
Classifying is a fundamental cognitive process
that refers to the sorting of objects, events,
living things, and phenomena into clusters
according to their ---- characteristics.
A) additional

B) relative

D) ultimate

E) necessary

2011 LYS 5
The printing press had a ---- effect on the
transformation of cultural and religious issues
in the Renaissance.
A) profound

B) redundant

D) spiritual

E) previous

5.

KPSS 2011
To meet expected demands, health authorities
must know what medical supplies are ---- and
how best to distribute them.
A) acceptable

B) exhaustive

D) available

E) urgent

B) accessible

D) durable

E) fertile

C) reserved

D) current

E) supplementary

DS 2012 MART
About 60 million people had to leave Europe
before World War II, which caused an ---migration to the US.
A) indifferent

B) explanatory

D) ambiguous

E) immense

C) intuitive

KPSS 2012
They certainly have a very ---- lifestyle: flying in
private jets and staying in 5-star hotels around
the world.
A) glamorous

B) challenging

D) enthusiastic

E) sustainable

C) defiant

2012 LYS-5
Both Malatya and Gaziantep have grown
economically in the past three decades and both
are now considerably ---- than they used to be.
A) weaker

B) stricter

C) simpler

D) riskier

E) wealthier

C) inspiring

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


10. The sense of smell, which has not been fully
understood yet, is much more ---- than the sense
of taste.

DS 2011 EKM
Even during its early phases, the French
Revolution aroused ---- conflict throughout
Europe.
A) ignorant

B) impartial

C) controversial

9.

4.

A) explicit

C) common

8.

3.

With a bit of adaptation, ---- technology could


help us to eventually establish a colony on
Mars.

C) repeating

7.

2.

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A) attainable

B) dedicated

D) sophisticated

E) endurable

C) suitable

C) significant

KPDS 2011 KASIM


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ADVERB
1.

6.

DS 2011 MART
Einstein's theory of relativity gives predictions
that differ very little from the older theories of
Galileo and Newton in ---- all everyday
situations.
A) flexibly

B) nearly

D) usefully

E) identically

3.

4.

KPDS 2011
In Spanish literature, a la divino is the recasting
of a secular work as a religious work, or more
----, a treatment of a secular theme in religious
terms through the use of allegory, symbolism,
and metaphor.
A) externally

B) respectively

D) decisively

E) generally

B) separately

D) commonly

E) rapidly

8.

C) frequently

B) vaguely

D) quietly

E) abruptly

B) substantially

D) pleasingly

E) incidentally

C) attentively

DS 2012 MART
One of the many individuals ---- fascinated by
reports of the early balloon flights was George
Cayley, who later made the first serious attempt
at heavier-than-air flight.
A) suspiciously

B) tremendously

C) confidentially

D) daringly

KPSS 2012
They reached their conclusion based ---- on
evidence found at the site of the murder.
A) occasionally

B) constantly

C) primarily

D) gradually

E) intentionally

KPSS 2011
Turkeys strategic importance is ---- due to its
geographical location.
A) evenly

A) reluctantly

E) reluctantly

C) primarily

2011 LYS 5
In the past 25 years, the number of childrens
museums has increased ----.
A) instantly

KPDS 2011 KASIM


Despite dramatic increases in trade worldwide,
countries still differ ---- in the extent to which
they engage in trade.

C) externally

7.
2.

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9.

C) partly

2012 LYS-5
Passing on knowledge to others was once
thought to be a ---- human ability, but several
species are proving otherwise.
A) uniquely

B) hazardously

C) rapidly

D) generously

E) steadily

5.

DS 2011 EKM
As a migraine develops, pain ---- worsens and
chemicals from the brain stems cause spasms
in the brains blood vessels.
A) recklessly

B) progressively

C) productively

D) confidentially

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


10. The full stop is probably the most used form of
punctuation, partly because almost everyone
knows how to use it ----.

E) synthetically

A) considerably

B) redundantly

D) appropriately

E) profoundly

C) dominantly

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VERB
1.

6.

DS 2011 MART
Expressionist artists in painting, sculpture, and
literature ---- to distort or exaggerate natural
appearance in order to create a reflection of the
inner world.
A) pretended

B) expected

D) offered

E) persuaded

KPDS 2011
Marie Elizabeth Zakrzewska is a German-born
American physician who founded the New
England Hospital for Women and Children and
---- greatly to the acceptance of women as
medical professionals.
A) pertained

B) attributed

D) contributed

E) applied

2011 LYS 5
Nobel Prizes are widely ---- as the worlds most
prestigious awards given for intellectual
achievement.
A) discovered

B) revealed

D) regarded

E) founded

5.

KPSS 2011
When China recently stopped exporting
materials essential to the manufacture of many
technologies, sudden shortages ---- to restrict
the growth of a wide range of industries.
A) witnessed

B) threatened

D) enabled

E) encouraged

B) reversed

D) magnified

E) acquired

C) spanned

B) revealed

D) created

E) experimented

A) attract

B) reflect

D) approve

E) evaluate

C) reduce

KPSS 2012
In a recent press conference, the company ---their plans to launch a new hybrid car in
autumn.
A) originated

B) revealed

D) advised

E) contributed

C) qualified

2012 LYS-5
Psychological factors influence our physical
health, because our emotions and thoughts are
always ---- by biochemical reactions in our
bodies.
A) pretended

B) rejected

C) appointed

D) accompanied

E) detected

C) deserved

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


10. The European System of Central Banks, which
---- a single monetary policy for the euro zone,
consists of the European Central Bank in
Frankfurt together with 15 national central
banks.

DS 2011 EKM
A study conducted by the University of
Cambridge ---- that 40 per cent of spam or junk
e-mail goes to addresses starting with an A, M,
S, R or P.
A) borrowed

DS 2012 MART
Anaesthetics are drugs given to patients before
undergoing surgery to ---- the sense of feeling
either in a localized area or across the whole
body.

C) competed

9.

4.

A) fetched

C) owed

8.

3.

KPDS 2011 KASIM


Generally considered to be the greatest
th
composer of the 20 century, Igor Stravinskys
long life ---- continents, cultures and eras.

C) tended

7.
2.

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C) remained

A) regulates

B) signifies

D) provokes

E) acquires

C) expresses

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PHRASAL VERB
1.

2.

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SYM 2011-2012

6.

DS 2011 MART
It takes great courage for adopted children to
their biological parents, as they do not know the
real reason why they were given up.
A) search for

B) put back

D) look out

E) confess to

C) run up

B) make up

D) cope with

E) hand in

A) suffered from

B) resulted in

C) put aside

D) shifted from

E) depended upon

DS 2011 MART
Some historians believe that human destiny is
mostly shaped by the efforts of people to ---climate change, migration, disease, etc.
A) go over

KPSS 2011
The use of seatbelts and airbags has ---- a
decline in the total number of deaths from motor
vehicle accidents.

7.

C) lay down

DS 2011 EKM
As people mature and gain experience in a
variety of situations, they learn strategies for ---their emotions.
A) sending out

B) clearing out

C) going off

D) dealing with

E) stepping down

3.

4.

KPDS 2011
European Union foreign ministers have urged
the Serb authorities to ---- the two fugitives by
the end of March.
A) set out

B) tidy up

D) take off

E) turn over

8.

C) step down

2011 LYS 5
In his calculations, Isaac Newton used the laws
of planetary motion ---- by Kepler about sixty
years previously.
A) given off

B) worked out

D) put off

E) built upon

9.

C) called for

DS 2011 EKM
Although mild symptoms such as social
withdrawal may persist, parents with minor
psychological problems may want to ---children.
A) pass out

B) sign off

D) come into

E) bring up

C) take off

KPDS 2011 KASIM


Geology, the science of the Earth, is ---- several
branches including mineralogy, petrology,
stratigraphy, palaeontology and tectonics.
A) divided into

B) designed for

C) troubled by

D) brought upon

E) settled into

5.

KPSS 2011
Tobacco contains several thousand
compounds, including nicotine, that ---- cardiac
diseases.
A) contribute to

B) keep away

D) put off

E) cope with

DS 2012 MART
10. Our skin is one of the most wonderful germproof surface layers in the world, thus very few
disease-germs can ---- its natural protection as
long as it remains unbroken.

C) object to

A) get through

B) take after

D) back up

E) carry on

C) call for

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35LK

KPSS 2012
11. About 14,500 years ago, hunter-gatherers in the
eastern Mediterranean ---- their migratory
lifestyle and settled in villages.
A) turned into

B) broke off

D) gave up

E) looked into

C) put off

KPSS 2012
12. In 1944, there was general acceptance and
support for the ---- of the first International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank to help
stabilize the world economy.
A) setting up

B) making up

C) taking up

D) holding up

E) bringing up

2012 LYS-5
13. During the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire
lost status as well as power, as it could not ---the scientific developments in Europe.
A) get rid of

B) cut down on

C) keep up with

D) look up to

E) run away from

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


14. Leaders with different political styles have
launched daring projects to take Japan out of
the economic recession, but in the long run,
they may ---- colliding with each other.
A) make out

B) give in

D) fight off

E) end up

C) act out

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GRAMMAR and STRUCTURE


TENSES, MODALS AND VERBALS
1.

DS 2011 MART
Investigators ---- various methods over the years
to search for genes that ---- to intelligence,
which is a so-called quantitative trait.

5.

A) are using / should contribute

KPDS 2011
In general, the body ---- nutrients best from
foods in which the nutrients are diluted and
dispersed among other ingredients that ---- their
absorption.
A) can absorb / would have facilitated

B) have used / might contribute

B) absorbs / may facilitate

C) use / will contribute

C) were to absorb / would facilitate

D) may use / contributed

D) has absorbed / used to facilitate

E) would use / are going to contribute

E) might absorb / must have facilitated

2.

DS 2011 MART
New animal trials ---- hope that a cure based on
transplanting stem cells ---- a reality for patients
with Parkinson's in the future.
A) gave / becomes

2011 LYS 5
The Sumerian civilization ---- the first alphabet,
which ---- it easier for older generations to pass
on their cultural heritage to younger
generations.

B) will give / have become

A) will have developed / has made

C) could have given / will become

B) would have developed / made

D) have given / became

C) developed / makes

E) give / could become

D) would develop / had made

6.

E) were developing / will make


3.

DS 2011 MART
Researchers in the 1890s ---- the atom as a
homogeneous sphere of positive charge inside
of which there ---- tiny negatively charged
electrons.

7.

A) visualized / were

2011 LYS 5
The first English immigrants to what is now the
United States ---- the Atlantic long after colonies
---- in Mexico and South America.

B) have visualized / had been

A) would be crossing / must have been


established

C) had visualized / have been

B) had crossed / were established

D) will visualize / are

C) will be crossing / have been established

E) were visualizing / would have been

D) cross / are established


E) crossed / had been established

4.

KPDS 2011
Conger eels, which ---- any large marine eels of
the family Congridae, ---- in shallow water,
hiding in crevices during the day and are active
by night, feeding on fish and crabs.

8.

2011 LYS 5
The Earth ---- more solar energy in one hour
than the whole world ---- in a year.
A) has received / will be consuming

A) were to be / used to live

B) is receiving / is consuming

B) used to be / will live

C) received / would consume

C) are to be / might have lived

D) receives / could consume

D) are / live

E) had received / consumed

E) could be / have lived

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9.

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KPSS 2011
When American independence ---- in 1776, twofifths of all settlers ---- of non-English origin.

DS 2011 EKM
13. Wasted energy from your body movements ---enough to power your house, but this energy ---your cell phone in the near future.

A) was declared / were

A) need not be / would have charged

B) had been declared / would be

B) should not be / will have been charging

C) has been declared / had been

C) could not have been / would charge

D) would be declared / could be

D) must not have been / will have charged

E) may have been declared / must have been

E) may not be / will be charging


KPDS 2011 KASIM
14. Modern humans, Homo sapiens, ---- in Africa
around 200,000 years ago and by about 30,000
years ago they ---- all other forms of early
humans, such as Neanderthals and Homo
erectus.

KPSS 2011
10. Infertility is a problem that ---- more and more
couples than ever before, as people ---- longer to
have children.
A) had affected / could wait
B) was affecting / waited

A) have been evolving / replaced

C) has affected / will wait

B) would evolve / are replacing

D) is affecting / wait

C) were evolving / have replaced

E) will be affecting / were waiting

D) evolved / had replaced


E) had evolved / had been replacing
KPDS 2011 KASIM
15. Tablet computers ---- some advantages for formfilling or updating your status on a social
network, but you ---- it hard to get any real work
done.

DS 2011 EKM
11. Cibyra is thought to ---- in the 3rd century B.C.
by Pisidion colonists who ---- from the Milas
region.
A) have been established / may have come

A) are offering / must find

B) have established / should have come

B) have been offering / should find

C) be established / would have come

C) can offer / will have to find

D) being established / might have come

D) had offered / would have found

E) establish / could have come

E) might offer / could find


DS 2012 MART
16. In the 2004 movie Eternal Sunshine of the
Spotless Mind, Clementine ---- a big fight with
her boyfriend, Joel, so she ---- him erased from
her mind by using a machine.

DS 2011 EKM
12. Chile ---- a state-funded national health service
for 30 years when it ---- to go for a mixed
approach allowing private health services to be
also offered.

A) had / is getting

A) will be running / was deciding

B) would have / had got

B) was running / had been decided

C) has had / would have got

C) has been running / is deciding

D) has / gets

D) had been running / decided

E) will have / is to get

E) is running / has decided

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DS 2012 MART
17. By the late 20th century, the patterns of disease
in the US ---- so dramatically that the major
causes of death ---- from infectious diseases to
chronic diseases.

KPSS 2012
21. Physical training ---- muscles in several ways
and ---- the functioning of the heart and the
respiratory system.
A) is altering / has improved

A) changed / will have shifted

B) alters / improves

B) change / were shifting

C) had altered / would improve

C) had changed / shifted

D) altered / must have improved

D) are changing / had shifted

E) has been altering / will improve

E) have changed / would have shifted


KPSS 2012
22. Since the 1990s we ---- more research on child
development that ---- the limitations of earlier
work in the field of developmental psychology.

DS 2012 MART
18. ---- a new 3.6 metre telescope, astronomers ---more than 50 new exoplanets, which are defined
as planets that orbit other stars.

A) have been seeing / would recognize

A) Being used / discovered

B) had seen / recognized

B) To be used / would discover

C) saw / could recognize

C) Having used / discover

D) see / will recognize

D) To use / had discovered

E) have seen / recognizes

E) Using / have discovered


2012 LYS 5
23. Tourists visiting China ---- Mount Lushan as a
magnificent mountain that ---- out of the water.

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


19. Unlike broadcast television, an interactive TV
service provider ---- customers to choose which
service to use at any given time, whether it ---shopping, watching a film or playing games.

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

A) has allowed / might have been

had described / should rise up


described / would have risen up
have described / rises up
would describe / will rise up
were describing / has been rising up

B) allows / is
C) allowed / would be

2012 LYS 5
24. The origins of Western cooking ---- to ideas
about diet and nutrition that ---- during the 17th
century.

D) would allow / should have been


E) is allowing / was

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


20. The tradition of sculpting in clay ---- as early as
AD 800, and ultimately it ---- as the point of
departure for related works that were cast in
metal.
A) should have developed / has served

might be traced / have appeared


must be traced / appear
have to be traced / were appearing
can be traced / appeared
could be traced / are appearing

2012 LYS 5
25. Bessie Smith, who ---- her stage career in the
1910s as a dancer and singer, ---- the most wellknown blues singer of the 1920s.

B) has developed / had served


C) may have developed / served
D) would have developed / will serve

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

E) could have developed / will have served

began / was
had begun / had been
has begun / has been
would begin / would be
was beginning / could be

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1.

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PREPOSITION
2011 LYS 5
DS 2011 MART
7.
Childrens first experiments with paint begin ---In the future, there will probably be so many
many rhythmic brushings back and forth ---- the
people with the power to send signals ---- space
paper.
that it will not be possible to control
communication ---- galaxies.
A) with / across
B) by / on
A) within / over

B) upon / through

C) within / over

C) into / between

D) along / for

E) off / from

D) through / for

E) in/by

2.

DS 2011 MART
The 2010 Nobel Prize ---- chemistry was awarded
---- three chemists all studying carbon
compounds.
A) of / among

B) for / to

D) about / from

E) on / for

8.

C) in / by

2011 LYS 5
One of the best fossil locations in the United
States is the Morrison formation area ---- the
Dinosaur National Monument, which covers the
border ---- the states of Colorado and Utah.
A) about / of

B) in / on

C) at / between

D) onto / through

E) over / towards
3.

DS 2011 MART
The exosphere, which is the uppermost layer of
the atmosphere, is an ill-defined zone beginning
somewhere ---- the thermosphere, and fading off
---- the vacuum of space.
A) between / from

B) on / away

2011 LYS 5
It is not good to store a watermelon ---- a
refrigerator as studies have shown that keeping
it ---- room temperature significantly increases
lycopene and beta-carotene levels.

C) under / between

D) above / into

A) inside / by

B) on / below

C) at / around

D) within / over

9.

E) about / by

E) in / at
4.

KPDS 2011
In feudal Japan , the za were any ---- the
mercantile or craft associations that flourished
---- 1100 and 1590.

KPSS 2011
10. Chinas middle class has developed ---- its
humble beginnings ---- where it is today.

A) in / up to

B) at / through

A) over / upon

C) of / between

D) over / before

C) through / within D) out of / over

E) under / from

5.

B) into / of

E) from / to

KPDS 2011
The Cirrus SR20 was an attractive plane ---people interested in learning to fly, and it could
also serve effectively as an air taxi ---- short-haul
routes.

KPSS 2011
11. Orchids are divided ---- two major categories,
based ---- where they grow.
A) between / to

B) among / upon
D) to / in

A) between / over

B) to / at

C) into / on

C) towards / in

D) among / under

E) within / at

E) for / on

6.

DS 2011 EKM
12. The separation of people ---- categories is one of
the most important ways in which one group
asserts and maintains its dominance ---another.

KPDS 2011
Geochronology is the branch ---- geology that
deals with the dating ---- the Earth by studying
its rocks and contained fossils.
A) in / from

B) of / of

C) within / through

D) among / in

A) from / by

B) into / over

D) on / through

E) at / for

C) to / with

E) about / inside
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DS 2011 EKM
13. Experts and officials believe that an outbreak ---epidemic diseases or severe climatic conditions
could have an adverse impact ---- the Anatolian
wild sheep population.
A) in / of

B) over / through

D) by / into

E) from / at

DS 2012 MART
19. Theatre is thought to have emerged ---- rituals
and ceremonies whose actions together with
their rehearsals and repetitions paved the way
---- theatre.

C) of / on

DS 2011 EKM
14. According to the hygiene hypothesis, living in
an environment that is too clean deprives the
immune system ---- the necessary exposure ---bacteria and germs which can serve to
strengthen it.
A) for / through

B) into / from

D) with / on

E) over / at

A) behind / to

B) along / at

D) within / by

E) from / for

C) across / on

DS 2012 MART
20. Much of the current concern ---- climate change
centres ---- the greenhouse effect, which is
causing global warming and making our planet
warmer year by year.

C) of / to

A) with / from

B) at / upon

D) over / around

E) by / towards

C) into / through

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


21. The degree ---- age-related wrinkling varies
considerably ---- person to person, partly due to
the amount of exposure to the sun.

KPDS 2011 KASIM


15. The official Lincoln Heritage Trail passes ---west-central and southern Illinois ---- about
1,100 miles, visiting many of the major sites in
Abraham Lincolns life along the way.

A) of / from

B) for / between
D) about / by

A) down / beneath

B) by / below

C) to / among

C) through / for

D) into / upon

E) towards / with

E) along / at
KPDS 2012 MAYIS
22. When Sarpsborg was burned down ---- the
Nordic Seven-Year War, Frederick II gave
permission for the inhabitants to move ---- a
place near the Glomma River.

KPDS 2011 KASIM


16. In addition to its preoccupation ---- the legacy of
neorealism, Italian cinema also shifted ---internationalism during the 1970s.
A) with / towards

B) to / over

D) of / in

E) about / by

C) for / at

A) after / away

B) at / by

C) in / over

D) during / to

E) through / from

KPSS 2012
KPDS 2011 KASIM
17. The food industry is vulnerable to the charge
that it contributes to mortality ---- actively
seeking to increase consumption of unhealthy
foods ---- which profits depend.
A) at / for

B) by / on

D) with / from

E) in / at

23. Deflation is a situation where the prices ---goods in an economy are, ---- average, falling
rather than rising.

C) against / into

A) at / from

B) for / in

D) of / on

E) from / of

C) in / within

KPSS 2012
24. He accepts some responsibility ---- being part of
an industry that designed devices he now
believes are hazardous ---- peoples health.

DS 2012 MART
18. The best way to lose weight ---- exercise is to do
high-intensity training combined with a general
increase ---- your overall level of activity.
A) by / from

B) on / to

D) through / in

E) over / of

C) with / into

A) from / on

B) of / in

D) in / about

E) for / to

C) on / by

11
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SYM 2011-2012

35LK

2012 LYS 5
25. ---- their brightly coloured beaks and feet,
Atlantic puffins are ---- the worlds most
distinctive seabirds.
A) On / from

B) Over / of

C) Beyond / within

D) For / about

E) With / among

2012 LYS 5
26. Nursing has evolved from an unstructured
method ---- caring for the ill ---- a scientific
profession.
A) of / to

B) in / for

C) under / from

D) with / over

E) between / on

2012 LYS 5
27. Traditionally, intelligence was considered stable
---- our adult years, but new research shows that
it can rise and fall ---- time.
A) into / by

B) along / of

C) within / towards

D) for / upon

E) during / over

12
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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

35LK

SYM 2011-2012

CONJUNCTION etc
KPDS 2011
DS 2011 MART
7. Highlights of the Great Wisconsin Cheese
---- electric cars are a welcome development,
Festival include cheesecake contests and
they are neither as useful nor as green as their
cheese-carving, ---- sculptors transform 18 kg
supporters claim.
blocks of cheddar cheese into objects of beauty.
A) Since
B) Just as
C) Before
A) from that
B) how
C) what
D) Because
E) Although
D) in which
E) whatever
KPDS 2011
Presumably they will find the terms acceptable,
but ---- they raise any objections, we need to
listen to them.
A) in case

B) as if

D) while

E) since

8.

C) until

DS 2011 MART
Our memory for emotions is highly selective,
and we tend to remember how good the good
times were, ---- the memories of the bad times
fade more quickly.
A) whenever

B) whereas

D) even

E) likewise

B) unless

D) as if

E) although

9.

C) as if

B) until

D) while

E) after

C) until

B) which

D) that

E) some

C) more than / which

D) other than / some of

DS 2011 MART
Having the support of a friend can change our
perception of ---- difficult an obstacle is to
overcome.
A) how

B) what

C) whatever

D) when

E) whichever

A) In place of

B) By means of

C) As opposed to

D) lnstead of

E) As in
2011 LYS 5
11. In Scandinavia, wildlife in many rivers has been
destroyed ---- the devastating power of acid rain.

C) because

DS 2011 MART
Ankara University was established in 1925, and
many faculties, institutes and schools have
since been set up within it, the first of ---- was
the Faculty of Law.
A) it

B) one of / that

KPDS 2011
10. ---- other areas of policy analysis, foreign policy
analysis also starts with a number of central
questions about the nature of what is to be
studied.

2011 LYS 5
The cause of Beethovens death remained a
great mystery ---- the year 2000, when a sample
of his hair was analyzed using sophisticated
technology.
A) since

A) such as / of which

E) between / where

DS 2011 MART
The assumption that mental functions are at
their sharpest ---- our brains mature in our early
20s has been questioned by a new research
study.
A) when

KPDS 2011
The Atatrk Dam, which is ---- the largest dams
in the world, is capable of generating 8.9 billion
kilowatt-hours of electricity annually from the
run-off of the vast lake ---- its construction
created.

A) in spite of

B) because of

C) as opposed to

D) in terms of

E) as regards
2011 LYS 5
12. Most vitamin and mineral products are legally
classified as food supplements, ---- some,
mainly herbal, are classified as licensed
medicines.

C) those

A) thus

B) so

D) so that

E) if

C) but

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SYM 2011-2012

2011 LYS 5
13. Musical performers can be classified into many
different categories ---- vocalists and
instrumentalists.
A) as well as

B) both

D) either

E) more than

KPSS 2011
20. The tsunami that hit Japan was ---- destructive
---- not much was left when search-and-rescue
teams finally reached there.

C) such as

A) as / as

B) rather / than

C) too / enough

D) so / that

E) such / as well
KPSS 2011
14. The production of a single calorie of meat,
depending on ---- it is beef or chicken, requires
four to ten calories in animal feed.
A) which

B) if

D) how

E) whether

KPSS 2011
21. Most developing countries do not have Chinas
bureaucratic depth and tradition, ---- do they
have the ability to control personnel in the way
that Chinas party structure allows.

C) whatever

DS 2011 EKM
15. Of the four cavities in the brain, two are found
inside each hemisphere, ---- the third and fourth
are found between them.
A) even

B) since

D) so that

E) while

B) otherwise

D) therefore

E) still

C) if

B) as if

D) with regard to

E) due to

DS 2011 EKM
18. The French sociologist Emile Durkheim argued
that human beings are ---- individuals ---- social
beings that exist in society.

C) such / that

D) as much / also

D) owing to

E) in terms of

C) at most

D) instead

A) even

B) because

D) so

E) besides

C) while

A) At least

B) In spite of

C) In comparison to

D) With regard to

KPDS 2011 KASIM


25. Lead was used for centuries to make the pipes
---- water flowed from reservoirs to houses and
public buildings such as baths.

DS 2011 EKM
19. Animals such as raccoons and foxes eat almost
anything edible that they come across ---specializing in one type of food.
B) as regards

B) as a consequence

E) Rather than

E) both / and

A) just as

A) from now on

KPDS 2011 KASIM


24. ---- the role of the school in developing students
civic values, most proponents of citizenship
education agree that it should involve a range of
democratic values such as the sense of public
responsibility.

C) much as

B) other / than

E) not only

KPDS 2011 KASIM


23. Little Caesar, often called the grandfather of the
gangster movie, was produced at the beginning
of the sound era, and ---- it shows its age in
some areas, it is still an effective thriller.

C) besides

A) not only / as well

D) the more

C) much as

E) sooner

DS 2011 EKM
17. Ear disorders prevent you from detecting certain
sounds from your environment ---- affecting
your sense of balance.
A) as well as

B) so

KPDS 2011 KASIM


22. Geopolitics provides various ways of looking at
the world and is highly visual, readily embracing
maps, tables, and photographs ----.

DS 2011 EKM
16. Inhabitants of a nation generally possess a
common history, geographical place and
language; ----, a nation-state may be thought of
as a place in which people follow the same
cultural and social patterns.
A) though

A) nor

A) through which

B) with which

C) on which

D) at which

E) of which

C) rather than

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DS 2012 MART
26. ---- the substance causing the allergy has been
identified, avoiding it and applying some simple
treatments will be enough to overcome skin
reactions such as itching and scaling.
A) As if

B) While

D) Whether

E) Once

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


33. Some popular diet books have misled
consumers with deceptive claims; ----, they fail
to provide an assessment of the results of their
treatment plans for obesity.

C) Even though

DS 2012 MART
27. Memory often works best when we have a visual
representation of past events, ---- this mental
picture will help us bring out many details.
A) as

B) although

D) otherwise

E) but

B) Until

D) Unless

E) Just as

C) whereas

B) neither / nor

D) less / than

E) even / more

C) When

D) due to

E) as well as

B) though

D) before

E) when

B) Whereas

D) However

E) Unless

D) how

E) when

C) that

A) both / and

B) more / than

C) just / like

D) so / that

A) so

B) since

D) as

E) but

C) if

A) but

B) while

D) so

E) before

C) although

C) so
KPSS 2012
38. The world is changing ---- rapidly now ---- there
is no guarantee you will have a job for life, nor
that the company you join will continue to exist.

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


32. ---- schools encourage children to read printed
books more often, the library, in its traditional
form, will eventually disappear.
A) Whenever

B) whose

KPSS 2012
37. Freuds favourite way of understanding his
patients was dream interpretation, ---- he
encouraged people to talk without restraint
about their dreams.

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


31. Crystals are created ---- cooling and
crystallization take place at an appropriate depth
and with sufficient time.
A) until

A) what

KPSS 2012
36. Buying books would be a good thing ---- one
could also buy the time to read them in.

DS 2012 MART
30. According to new research by US biologists, the
fearsome roars of lions and tigers are ---- the
unusual shape of their vocal chords.
B) rather than C) on behalf of

E) on the contrary

E) such / as

C) so / that

A) in terms of

D) otherwise

C) even so

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


35. Generally, social media platforms can be
thought of as virtual meeting places which
function to encourage the exchange of media
content among users who are ---- producers ---consumers.

DS 2012 MART
29. In social terms, ---- membership in a particular
society ---- behaviour such as crime is sufficient
to define a subculture.
A) both / also

B) nevertheless

KPDS 2012 MAYIS


34. The social sciences are a range of disciplines
within the arts and humanities ---- principal
concerns are the study of various aspects of
society.

DS 2012 MART
28. ---- compared to their butter-loving American
counterparts, Italians consume 24 times the
amount of olive oil per person.
A) As though

A) furthermore

C) Since

A) so / that

B) as / as

D) more / like

E) much / than

C) such / as

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2012 LYS 5
39. A running tap wastes up to nine litres of water
per minute, ---- turning it off while brushing your
teeth helps save plenty of water.
A) when

B) since

D) instead

E) otherwise

C) so

2012 LYS 5
40. It is impossible to make appropriate decisions
about how to solve a problem ---- you define it
and identify its root causes first.
A) in case

B) unless

D) because

E) whether

C) though

2012 LYS 5
41. Global demand for coal will continue to expand
over the next five years ---- governments
attempts to reduce reliance on this fuel.
A) in spite of

B) as a result of

C) as well as

D) due to

E) in case of

2012 LYS 5
42. ---- children see us read, ---- inclined they are to
want to read.
A) Neither / nor

B) Both / and

C) Either / or

D) The more / the more

E) Other / than

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SYM 2011-2012

VOCABULARY
NOUN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C
B
C
E
B
E
B
E
B
C

ADJECTIVE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

ADVERB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
C
A
D
C
D
E
A
E
D

B
E
E
C
B
B
B
C
A
D

VERB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

PHRASAL VERB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

C
D
D
B
B
C
C
B
D
A

A
D
E
B
A
B
D
E
A
A
D
A
C
E

GRAMMAR and STRUCTURE


TENSES, MODALS and VERBALS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

B
E
A
D
B
C
E
D
A
D
A
D
D
D
E
D
C
E
B
C
B
E
C
D
A

PREPOSITIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

CONJUNCTIONS etc.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.

C
B
D
C
E
B
A
C
E
E
C
B
C
C
C
A
B
D
E
D
A
D
D
E
E
A
E

E
A
B
A
B
B
D
B
A
E
B
C
C
E
E
D
A
E
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
E
A
C
B
D
E
E
A
B
A
C
D
A
C
B
A
D

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