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Statistics in our daily life

Ahli Kumpulan : 1. MUHAMMAD ASYRAF BIN


Guru Pembimbing : PN. ROSMAZAHRAH BT

Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Darul Ehsan

No. Contents Page
1 Introduction 3 - 4
2 Part 1 5 - 8
3 Part 2a 9 - 10
4 Part 2b 11 - 12
5 Part 3 13 - 16

We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry
out a project work while we are in Form 5.This year the
Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has
prepared four tasks for us.We are to choose and complete only
ONE task based on our area of interest.This project can be done in
groups or individually,but each of us are expected to submit an
individually written report.Upon completion of the Additional
Mathematics Project Work,we are to gain valuable experiences and
able to:

Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to

solve routine and non-routine problems;

Experience classroom environments which are challenging,

interesting and meaningful and hence improve their
thinking skills.

Experience classroom environments where knowledge and

skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life

Experience classroom environments where expressing ones

mathematical thinking,reasoning and communication are
highly encouraged and expected

Experience classroom environments that stimulates and

enhances effective learning.

Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral

and writing,and to use the language of mathematics to
express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely

Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills

through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and

Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings

and in workplace
Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in
solving real-life problems and hence develop positive
attitude towards mathematics.

Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also

to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an
engaging and healthy environment

Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and


Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of

mathematics and to become more creative and innovative

Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics

We are expected to submit the project work within three weeks

from the first day the task is being administered to us.Failure
to submit the written report will result in us not receiving

Alhamdullilah,thank you to Allah for giving the will to do

my additional mathehatics project. Secondly, I would like to
thank the principle of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Darul
Ehsan, Pn Siti Aisyah bt Ismail for giving the permission to do
my Additional Mathematics Project Work. I also like to thank
my Additional Mathematics teacher, Pn Rosmazahrah for the
guide and giving useful and important information for me to
complete this project work. Besides that, I would like to
thank my parents for their support and encouragement.
Lastly, a special thanks to all my friends for their help and
cooperation in searching for information and completing this
project work.
History of statistic

By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematic

collection of demographic and economic data by states. In the
early 19th century, the meaning of "statistics" broadened, then
including the discipline concerned with the collection, summary,
and analysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in
government, business, and all the sciences.
Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and
have allowed statisticians to develop "computer-intensive"
The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical
theories of probability and statistical inference, which are used
in statistical practice. The relation between statistics and
probability theory developed rather late, however. In the 19th
century, statistics increasingly used probability theory, whose
initial results were found in the17th and 18th centuries, particularly
in the analysis of games of chance (gambling). By 1800,
astronomy used probability models and statistical theories,
particularly the method of least squares, which was invented
by Legendre and Gauss. Early probability theory and statistics was
systematized and extended by Laplace; following Laplace,
probability and statistics have been in continual development. In
the 19th century, social scientists used statistical reasoning and
probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental
psychology and sociology; physical scientists used statistical
reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences
of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The development of
statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development
of inductive logic and the scientific method.
Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an
autonomous mathematical science, like computer science or
operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins
in public administration and maintains a special concern
with demography and economics. Being concerned with
the scientific method and inductive logic, statistical theory has
close association with the philosophy of science; with its emphasis
on learning from data and making best predictions, statistics has
great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics. With
its concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information
science and computer science.

Statistics today
During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments
for agricultural research, public health concerns
(epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality control,
and economic and social purposes
(unemployment rate, econometry, etc.) necessitated substantial
advances in statistical practices.
Today the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins.
Individuals and organizations use statistics to understand data
and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social
sciences, medicine, business, and other areas.
Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics
but rather as a distinct, albeit allied, field.
Many universities maintain separate mathematics and
statistics departments. Statistics is also taught in departments as
diverse as psychology, education, and public health.

(a) After surveying on four different items

Record the items and their prices systematically as in Table
1.Since items maybe differently packed,be sure to use
consistent measurements for each item selected so that
comparison can be done easily and accurately.


Category Item Price(RM)


1.Self-Raising 4.00 3.70 3.60

Food Flour(1000g)
2.Sugar(1000g 2.00 1.90 1.80
3.Butter(250g) 4.70 4.50 4.30
4.Eggs(Grade A) 5.90 5.50 5.00
1 dozen
Total 16.60 15.60 14.70
1.Soap(3 bars) 3.20 3.00 2.80
Detergen 2.Liquid 4.29 3.90 3.20
t dishwasher(1000ml)
3.Clothes 18.90 17.00 16.50
4.Toilet 5.50 5.50 5.50
Total 31.89 29.40 28.00
1.Sharpener 1.50 1.30 1.00
Stationery 2.Pencil 5.00 4.80 4.50
(2B-1 dozen)
3.Pen 1.30 1.20 1.00
4.Eraser 1.30 1.20 1.10
Total 9.10 8.50 7.60
Grand 57.59 53.50 50.30
(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the
use of ICT is encouraged) to compare and contrast the price of
the items chosen.



4 Self-raising flour
3 Butter
Eggs(Grade A)








Soap(3 bar)
10 Liquid dishwasher(1000ml)
Toilet cleaner(500ml)
8 Clothes detergent(3 kg)



3 Pencil 2B(1 Dozen)


Based on the graphical representation that you have
constructed in Part 1(c), interpret,discuss and draw
conclusions. Comments on your findings.

Based on the graphical representations that I have constructed in Part 1(c), it

is shown that there are large and small differences among the prices of items
in each category between the shops.In the food category, the smallest price
difference are of those of sugar, while the highest is the price of eggs.
Besides food, detergent also shows a large price difference between its
items. Among them is the price of liquid dishwasher and clothes detergent.
On the other hand, stationery items doesnt have any obvious price
difference. The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced
comes from the LG PERMAI Supermarket, while the lowest price items
come from the Discount Shop.The graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of
the difference among the shops based upon the shops grand total.







Grand total

Graph 1(d)
Identify an item that has a large price difference
among the shops. Calculate the mean and standard deviation
of that particular item. Hence, suggest and discuss possible
reasons for the price difference.

Liquid dishwasher:

Standard deviation
= ()/N ( )

= - (17.47)

The large price difference of clothes detergent among the shops maybe
because of the standard of the shop.A high standard shop or supermarket, the
items sold intend to be much more expensive than a regular shop or
supermarket.Also, the price difference of the items may also due to the
quality of the item. A better quality means a higher price.

Every year SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the
school. This year the school plans to install air conditioners in the
school library. Last year, during the carnival, your class made and sold
butter cakes. Because of the popularity of the butter cakes,your class
has decided to carry out the same project for this years carnival.

Suggest a shop from Part 1 which you would go to
purchase the ingredients for the butter cakes.State and
discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you


I will choose the Discount Shop.This is because the total price of

the ingredients from this shop is the lowest from the three shops.
Complete Table 2 with the prices of the items found in the
shop/supermarket that you have chosen.


Ingredient Quantity Price in the year Price in the

Per cake 2009(RM) year 2010(RM)
Self-raising flour 250g 0.90 0.90
Sugar 200g 0.35 0.36
Butter 250g 3.30 4.30
Eggs(Grade A) 5 eggs (300g) 1.25 2.10

(i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in Table 2 for the
year 2010 based on the year 2009.


Ingredient Quantity Price in the Price in the Price index

Per cake year year for the year
2009(RM) 2010(RM) 2010 based
on the year
2009 ()
Self-raising 250g 0.90 0.90 100
Sugar 200g 0.35 0.36 102.86
Butter 250g 3.30 4.30 130.30
Eggs(Grade 5 eggs 1.25 2.10 168
A) (300g)
1.Self-raising flour
= 0.9 0.9 100 = 100.00

= 0.36 0.35 100 = 102.86

= 4.30 3.30 100 = 130.30

4.Eggs(Grade A)
= 2.10 1.25 100 = 168.00

Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010
based on the year 2009. Discuss how you obtained your answers.


To calculate the composite index,weightage is needed (W),

Ingredients Weightage (W)

Self-raising flour
Eggs(Grade A)

Composite index


In the year 2009,the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each.Suggest a
suitable selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010.Give reasons for
your answer.


On 2009,RM 15.00

On 2010, price =

= 19.30

Composite index = 128.54, this means the food items increased by about

28.54% compared to the year 2009. This means the selling price of the

cake must also increased by the same margin to maintain competitive



Find out from reliable sources how to determine suitable capacity of air

conditioner to be installed based on the volume/size of a room.


For common usage,air conditioner is rated according to horse

power (1HP), which is approximately 700W to 1000W of electrical
power. It is suitable for a room size 1000ft which is around 27m
of volume.

Work in groups to estimate the volume of your school library. Explain how
you arrive at your answer. Hence, determine the number of air conditioners
with the appropriate capacity required for your library.


By using a measuring tape,the dimension for the library is:

Volume of the room=3.6 9.17 20.12
1 unit of air conditioner is for 27m
For 664.20m

That means our school library needs 25 unit of air conditioner.

If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the school library,
how many butter cakes must your class sell in order to buy the air


1 unit of 1HP air conditioner = RM700

Cost for a cake =0.9+0.36+4.3+2.1 = RM7.66
Selling price =RM19.30

Profit = 19.30-7.66
= RM11.64
Number of cakes to buy 1 unit of air conditioner =

= 60.13 = 60 cakes

As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an
estiated budget to organize this years carnival. The committee has to take
into the consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due
to inflation. The price of food, transportation and tents has increased by
15%. The cost of games, prizes and decorations remains the same, whereas
the cost of miscellaneous items has increase by 30%.

a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above.

Expenditure Amount in 2009 Amount in 2010

(RM) (RM)
Food 1200.00 1380.00
Games 500.00 500.00
Transportation 300.00 345.00
Decorations 200.00 200.00
Prizes 600.00 600.00
Tents 800.00 920.00
Miscellaneous 400.00 520.00

Table 3

b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival
in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. Comment on your answer.


Expenditure Amount Amount Price Index, Weightage,

in 2009 in 2010 I W
(RM) (RM)
Food 1200.00 1380.00 115 12
Games 500.00 500.00 100 5
Transportation 300.00 345.00 115 3
Decorations 200.00 200.00 100 2
Prizes 600.00 600.00 100 6
Tents 800.00 920.00 115 8
Miscellaneous 400.00 520.00 130 4

Composite Index

= =111.625
The total price for the year 2010 increase by 11.625%. This is
because some price in the year 2009 increased in the year 2010.

c) The change in the composite index for the estimate budget for the
carnival from the year 2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change
from the year 2010 to the year 2011. Determine the composite index
of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009.


Composite index for the year 2009 to the year 2010

Composite index for the year 2010 to the year 2011

I20112009 X 100 = I20102009 X I20112009

I20112009 = 111.625 X111.625 X 1100
I20112009 = 124.60
Further Exploration

Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations,

for example air pollution index, stock market index, gold index and
property index.
Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on
the importance of two different types of index number of your
choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index
numbers in daily life.


Air Pollution Index

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter,
or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or
other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into
the atmosphere.
The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that
is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone
depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat
to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution
Index (API) or Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) is a number used
by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a
given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large
percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly
severe adverse health effects. To compute the AQI requires an air
pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function
used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by
pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index
values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a
descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories
are associated with each AQI range. An agency might also
encourage members of the public to take public transportation or
work from home when AQI levels are high.

Limitations of the AQI

Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. Many
countries monitor ground-level ozone, particulates, sulphur
dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air
quality indices for these pollutants.
Causes of Poor Air Quality
The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air
emissions by fresh air. Stagnant air, often caused by
an anticyclone or temperature inversion, or other lack
of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area.

Indices by location
South Korea
The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the
Comprehensice Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the ambient air
quality based on health risk of air pollution. The index aims to help
the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health
of people from air pollution. - The CAI has values of 0 through
500, which are divided into six categories. The higher the CAI
value, the greater the level of air pollution. - Of values of the five
air pollutants, the highest is the CAI value.

CAI Description Health Implications

A level that will not impact patients

0-50 Good suffering from diseases related to air

51- A level which may have a meager impact on

100 patients in case of chronic exposure.
101- Unhealthy for A level that may have harmful impacts on
150 sensitive groups patients and members of sensitive groups.

A level that may have harmful impacts on

151- patients and members of sensitive groups
250 (children, aged or weak people), and also
cause the general public unpleasant feelings.

A level which may have a serious impact on

Very unhealthy patients and members of sensitive groups in
case of acute exposure.

A level which may need to take emergency

351- measures for patients and members of
500 sensitive groups and have harmful impacts
on the general public.

The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution
Index. Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., carbon
monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported
in PM10 particulate matter is reported in g/m.
Unlike the American AQI, the index number can exceed 500.
Above 500, a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area.
Usually, this means that non-essential government services are
suspended, and all ports in the affected area closed. There may also
be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial
activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector.
Stock Market Index

A comparison of three major U.S. stock indices: theNASDAQ

Composite, Dow Jones Industrial Average, andS&P 500. All three
have the same height at March 2007. Notice the large dot-
com spike on the NASDAQ, a result of the large number of tech.
companies on that index.
A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of
the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial
services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the
performance of portfolios such as mutual funds.
Types of indices
Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. A 'world' or
'global' stock market index includes (typically large) companies
without regard for where they are domiciled or traded. Two
examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100.
A national index represents the performance of the stock market of
a given nationand by proxy, reflects investor sentiment on the
state of its economy. The most regularly quoted market indices are
national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed
on a nation's largest stock exchanges, such as the American S&P
500, the Japanese Nikkei 225, and the British FTSE 100.
The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. The Dow
Jones Total Stock Market Index, as its name implies, represents the
stocks of nearly every publicly traded company in the United
States, including all U.S. stocks traded on the New York Stock
Exchange (but not ADRs) and most traded on
the NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange. Russell Investment
Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell
Global Index.
More specialised indices exist tracking the performance of specific
sectors of the market. The Morgan Stanley Biotech Index, for
example, consists of 36 American firms in
the biotechnology industry. Other indices may track companies of
a certain size, a certain type of management, or even more
specialized criteria one index published by Linux Weekly
News tracks stocks of companies that sell products and services
based on the Linux operating environment.

Index versions
Some indices, such as the S&P 500, have multiple versions.
These versions can differ based on how the index components
are weighted and on how dividends are accounted for. For
example, there are three versions of the S&P 500 index: price
return, which only considers the price of the components, total
return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment, and net total
return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment after the
deduction of a withholding tax. As another example, the Wilshire
4500 and Wilshire 5000 indices have five versions each: full
capitalization total return, full capitalization price, float-adjusted
total return, float-adjusted price, and equal weight. The difference
between the full capitalization, float-adjusted, and equal weight
versions is in how index components are weighted.

Uses and importance of air pollution index and stock market index

As everyone can see,the air pollution index is use by the

government to measure the air quality index and to detect any
pollutants in our countrys air.This is to ensure the air is clean and
safe for us to inhale.Besides that,an early warning can be given to
us if the air pollution is to high for us to get out of our homes. This
warning is given based upon readings and interpretations of the air
pollution index.
As for the stock market index, it is mainly for the business
entrepreneurs. This type of index is used to determine the outcome
of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock market. The
stock market index is important because a countrys economical
state sometimes depend on it.


After doing research,answering questions,drawing graphs

and some problem solving, I saw that the usage of statistics
is important in daily life. It is not just widely used in markets
but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like
air. Especially in conducting an air-pollution survey. In
coclusion,statistics is a daily life nessecities.Without it,
surveys cant be conducted, the stock market cant be interpret
and many more. So, we should be thankful of the people who
contribute in the idea of making statistics.


After spending countless hours, days and night to finish this

project and also sacrificing my time on playing video games
and reading mangas in this mid year holiday, there are
several things that I can say...

Additional Mathematics...
From the day I born...
From the day I was able to holding pencil...
From the day I start learning...
From the day I heard your name...
I always thought that you will be my greatest obstacle and
enemy in excelling in my life...
But after countless of hours...
Countless of days...
Countless of nights...
After sacrificing my precious time just for you...
Sacrificing my Computer Games...
Sacrificing my Video Games...
Sacrificing my Facebook...
Sacrificing my Internet...
Sacrifing my Anime...
Sacrificing my Manga...
I realized something really important for you...
I really love you...
You are my real friend...
You are my loyal partner...
You are my soulmate...
(And also the people who create you)!!!..