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- Additional Mathematics Project 4 2010
- additional mathematics project work 4 2010-Full version
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ABDULLAH

-Content-

No. Contents Page

1 Introduction 3 - 4

2 Part 1 5 - 8

3 Part 2a 9 - 10

4 Part 2b 11 - 12

5 Part 3 13 - 16

Introduction

We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry

out a project work while we are in Form 5.This year the

Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has

prepared four tasks for us.We are to choose and complete only

ONE task based on our area of interest.This project can be done in

groups or individually,but each of us are expected to submit an

individually written report.Upon completion of the Additional

Mathematics Project Work,we are to gain valuable experiences and

able to:

solve routine and non-routine problems;

interesting and meaningful and hence improve their

thinking skills.

skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life

problems

mathematical thinking,reasoning and communication are

highly encouraged and expected

enhances effective learning.

and writing,and to use the language of mathematics to

express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely

through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and

confidence

and in workplace

Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in

solving real-life problems and hence develop positive

attitude towards mathematics.

to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an

engaging and healthy environment

effectively

mathematics and to become more creative and innovative

from the first day the task is being administered to us.Failure

to submit the written report will result in us not receiving

certificate.

Appreciation

my additional mathehatics project. Secondly, I would like to

thank the principle of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Darul

Ehsan, Pn Siti Aisyah bt Ismail for giving the permission to do

my Additional Mathematics Project Work. I also like to thank

my Additional Mathematics teacher, Pn Rosmazahrah for the

guide and giving useful and important information for me to

complete this project work. Besides that, I would like to

thank my parents for their support and encouragement.

Lastly, a special thanks to all my friends for their help and

cooperation in searching for information and completing this

project work.

History of statistic

collection of demographic and economic data by states. In the

early 19th century, the meaning of "statistics" broadened, then

including the discipline concerned with the collection, summary,

and analysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in

government, business, and all the sciences.

Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and

have allowed statisticians to develop "computer-intensive"

methods.

The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical

theories of probability and statistical inference, which are used

in statistical practice. The relation between statistics and

probability theory developed rather late, however. In the 19th

century, statistics increasingly used probability theory, whose

initial results were found in the17th and 18th centuries, particularly

in the analysis of games of chance (gambling). By 1800,

astronomy used probability models and statistical theories,

particularly the method of least squares, which was invented

by Legendre and Gauss. Early probability theory and statistics was

systematized and extended by Laplace; following Laplace,

probability and statistics have been in continual development. In

the 19th century, social scientists used statistical reasoning and

probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental

psychology and sociology; physical scientists used statistical

reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences

of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The development of

statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development

of inductive logic and the scientific method.

Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an

autonomous mathematical science, like computer science or

operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins

in public administration and maintains a special concern

with demography and economics. Being concerned with

the scientific method and inductive logic, statistical theory has

close association with the philosophy of science; with its emphasis

on learning from data and making best predictions, statistics has

great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics. With

its concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information

science and computer science.

Statistics today

During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments

for agricultural research, public health concerns

(epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality control,

and economic and social purposes

(unemployment rate, econometry, etc.) necessitated substantial

advances in statistical practices.

Today the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins.

Individuals and organizations use statistics to understand data

and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social

sciences, medicine, business, and other areas.

Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics

but rather as a distinct, albeit allied, field.

Many universities maintain separate mathematics and

statistics departments. Statistics is also taught in departments as

diverse as psychology, education, and public health.

PART 1

(b)

Record the items and their prices systematically as in Table

1.Since items maybe differently packed,be sure to use

consistent measurements for each item selected so that

comparison can be done easily and accurately.

Question

LG PERMAI THIZ N DISCOUNT

THAT STORE

Food Flour(1000g)

2.Sugar(1000g 2.00 1.90 1.80

)

3.Butter(250g) 4.70 4.50 4.30

4.Eggs(Grade A) 5.90 5.50 5.00

1 dozen

Total 16.60 15.60 14.70

Price

1.Soap(3 bars) 3.20 3.00 2.80

Detergen 2.Liquid 4.29 3.90 3.20

t dishwasher(1000ml)

3.Clothes 18.90 17.00 16.50

detergent(3kg)

4.Toilet 5.50 5.50 5.50

cleaner(500ml)

Total 31.89 29.40 28.00

Price

1.Sharpener 1.50 1.30 1.00

Stationery 2.Pencil 5.00 4.80 4.50

(2B-1 dozen)

3.Pen 1.30 1.20 1.00

4.Eraser 1.30 1.20 1.10

Total 9.10 8.50 7.60

Price

Grand 57.59 53.50 50.30

Total

(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the

use of ICT is encouraged) to compare and contrast the price of

the items chosen.

Answer:

1)

FOOD

4 Self-raising flour

Sugar

3 Butter

Eggs(Grade A)

0

LGPERMAI THIZN THAT DISCOUNTSHOP

2)

DETERGENT

20

18

16

14

12

Soap(3 bar)

10 Liquid dishwasher(1000ml)

Toilet cleaner(500ml)

8 Clothes detergent(3 kg)

0

LG PERMAI THIZN THAT DISCOUNT SHOP

3)

STATIONERY

Sharpener

3 Pencil 2B(1 Dozen)

Pen

Eraser

0

LG PERMAI THIZN THAT DISCOUNT SHOP

Question

(d)

Based on the graphical representation that you have

constructed in Part 1(c), interpret,discuss and draw

conclusions. Comments on your findings.

Answer:

is shown that there are large and small differences among the prices of items

in each category between the shops.In the food category, the smallest price

difference are of those of sugar, while the highest is the price of eggs.

Besides food, detergent also shows a large price difference between its

items. Among them is the price of liquid dishwasher and clothes detergent.

On the other hand, stationery items doesnt have any obvious price

difference. The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced

comes from the LG PERMAI Supermarket, while the lowest price items

come from the Discount Shop.The graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of

the difference among the shops based upon the shops grand total.

60

58

56

54

LG PERMAI

THIZN THAT

52

DISCOUNT

SHOP

50

48

46

Grand total

Graph 1(d)

Question

(e)

Identify an item that has a large price difference

among the shops. Calculate the mean and standard deviation

of that particular item. Hence, suggest and discuss possible

reasons for the price difference.

Answer:

Liquid dishwasher:

Mean=

=17.47

Standard deviation

= ()/N ( )

= - (17.47)

=0.97

The large price difference of clothes detergent among the shops maybe

because of the standard of the shop.A high standard shop or supermarket, the

items sold intend to be much more expensive than a regular shop or

supermarket.Also, the price difference of the items may also due to the

quality of the item. A better quality means a higher price.

PART 2

Every year SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the

school. This year the school plans to install air conditioners in the

school library. Last year, during the carnival, your class made and sold

butter cakes. Because of the popularity of the butter cakes,your class

has decided to carry out the same project for this years carnival.

Question

(a)

Suggest a shop from Part 1 which you would go to

purchase the ingredients for the butter cakes.State and

discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you

suggested.

Answer:

the ingredients from this shop is the lowest from the three shops.

Question

(b)

Complete Table 2 with the prices of the items found in the

shop/supermarket that you have chosen.

Answer:

Per cake 2009(RM) year 2010(RM)

Self-raising flour 250g 0.90 0.90

Sugar 200g 0.35 0.36

Butter 250g 3.30 4.30

Eggs(Grade A) 5 eggs (300g) 1.25 2.10

Question

(i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in Table 2 for the

year 2010 based on the year 2009.

Answer:

Per cake year year for the year

2009(RM) 2010(RM) 2010 based

on the year

2009 ()

Self-raising 250g 0.90 0.90 100

flour

Sugar 200g 0.35 0.36 102.86

Butter 250g 3.30 4.30 130.30

Eggs(Grade 5 eggs 1.25 2.10 168

A) (300g)

1.Self-raising flour

= 0.9 0.9 100 = 100.00

2.Sugar

= 0.36 0.35 100 = 102.86

3.Butter

= 4.30 3.30 100 = 130.30

4.Eggs(Grade A)

= 2.10 1.25 100 = 168.00

Question

(ii)

Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010

based on the year 2009. Discuss how you obtained your answers.

Answer:

Self-raising flour

Sugar

Butter

Eggs(Grade A)

Composite index

=128.54

Question

(iii)

In the year 2009,the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each.Suggest a

suitable selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010.Give reasons for

your answer.

Answer:

On 2009,RM 15.00

On 2010, price =

= 19.30

Composite index = 128.54, this means the food items increased by about

28.54% compared to the year 2009. This means the selling price of the

pricing.

Question

(c)(i)

Find out from reliable sources how to determine suitable capacity of air

Answer:

power (1HP), which is approximately 700W to 1000W of electrical

power. It is suitable for a room size 1000ft which is around 27m

of volume.

Question

(ii)

Work in groups to estimate the volume of your school library. Explain how

you arrive at your answer. Hence, determine the number of air conditioners

with the appropriate capacity required for your library.

Answer:

Height=3.6m

Width=9.17m

Length=20.12m

Volume of the room=3.6 9.17 20.12

=664.20m

1 unit of air conditioner is for 27m

For 664.20m

=

=24.6

That means our school library needs 25 unit of air conditioner.

Question

(iii)

If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the school library,

how many butter cakes must your class sell in order to buy the air

conditioner?

Answer:

Cost for a cake =0.9+0.36+4.3+2.1 = RM7.66

Selling price =RM19.30

Profit = 19.30-7.66

= RM11.64

Number of cakes to buy 1 unit of air conditioner =

= 60.13 = 60 cakes

PART 3

As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an

estiated budget to organize this years carnival. The committee has to take

into the consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due

to inflation. The price of food, transportation and tents has increased by

15%. The cost of games, prizes and decorations remains the same, whereas

the cost of miscellaneous items has increase by 30%.

Question

a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above.

Answer:

(RM) (RM)

Food 1200.00 1380.00

Games 500.00 500.00

Transportation 300.00 345.00

Decorations 200.00 200.00

Prizes 600.00 600.00

Tents 800.00 920.00

Miscellaneous 400.00 520.00

Table 3

Question

b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival

in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. Comment on your answer.

Answer:

in 2009 in 2010 I W

(RM) (RM)

I=

Food 1200.00 1380.00 115 12

Games 500.00 500.00 100 5

Transportation 300.00 345.00 115 3

Decorations 200.00 200.00 100 2

Prizes 600.00 600.00 100 6

Tents 800.00 920.00 115 8

Miscellaneous 400.00 520.00 130 4

Composite Index

= =111.625

The total price for the year 2010 increase by 11.625%. This is

because some price in the year 2009 increased in the year 2010.

Question

c) The change in the composite index for the estimate budget for the

carnival from the year 2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change

from the year 2010 to the year 2011. Determine the composite index

of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009.

Answer:

=111.625

Composite index for the year 2010 to the year 2011

I20112009 = 111.625 X111.625 X 1100

I20112009 = 124.60

Further Exploration

for example air pollution index, stock market index, gold index and

property index.

Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on

the importance of two different types of index number of your

choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index

numbers in daily life.

Answer:

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter,

or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or

other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into

the atmosphere.

The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that

is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone

depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat

to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution

Index (API) or Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) is a number used

by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a

given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large

percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly

severe adverse health effects. To compute the AQI requires an air

pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function

used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by

pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index

values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a

descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories

are associated with each AQI range. An agency might also

encourage members of the public to take public transportation or

work from home when AQI levels are high.

Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. Many

countries monitor ground-level ozone, particulates, sulphur

dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air

quality indices for these pollutants.

Causes of Poor Air Quality

The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air

emissions by fresh air. Stagnant air, often caused by

an anticyclone or temperature inversion, or other lack

of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area.

Indices by location

South Korea

The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the

Comprehensice Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the ambient air

quality based on health risk of air pollution. The index aims to help

the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health

of people from air pollution. - The CAI has values of 0 through

500, which are divided into six categories. The higher the CAI

value, the greater the level of air pollution. - Of values of the five

air pollutants, the highest is the CAI value.

0-50 Good suffering from diseases related to air

pollution.

Moderate

100 patients in case of chronic exposure.

101- Unhealthy for A level that may have harmful impacts on

150 sensitive groups patients and members of sensitive groups.

151- patients and members of sensitive groups

Unhealthy

250 (children, aged or weak people), and also

cause the general public unpleasant feelings.

251-

Very unhealthy patients and members of sensitive groups in

350

case of acute exposure.

351- measures for patients and members of

Hazardous

500 sensitive groups and have harmful impacts

on the general public.

Malaysia

The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution

Index. Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., carbon

monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported

in PM10 particulate matter is reported in g/m.

Unlike the American AQI, the index number can exceed 500.

Above 500, a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area.

Usually, this means that non-essential government services are

suspended, and all ports in the affected area closed. There may also

be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial

activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector.

Stock Market Index

Composite, Dow Jones Industrial Average, andS&P 500. All three

have the same height at March 2007. Notice the large dot-

com spike on the NASDAQ, a result of the large number of tech.

companies on that index.

A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of

the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial

services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the

performance of portfolios such as mutual funds.

Types of indices

Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. A 'world' or

'global' stock market index includes (typically large) companies

without regard for where they are domiciled or traded. Two

examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100.

A national index represents the performance of the stock market of

a given nationand by proxy, reflects investor sentiment on the

state of its economy. The most regularly quoted market indices are

national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed

on a nation's largest stock exchanges, such as the American S&P

500, the Japanese Nikkei 225, and the British FTSE 100.

The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. The Dow

Jones Total Stock Market Index, as its name implies, represents the

stocks of nearly every publicly traded company in the United

States, including all U.S. stocks traded on the New York Stock

Exchange (but not ADRs) and most traded on

the NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange. Russell Investment

Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell

Global Index.

More specialised indices exist tracking the performance of specific

sectors of the market. The Morgan Stanley Biotech Index, for

example, consists of 36 American firms in

the biotechnology industry. Other indices may track companies of

a certain size, a certain type of management, or even more

specialized criteria one index published by Linux Weekly

News tracks stocks of companies that sell products and services

based on the Linux operating environment.

Index versions

Some indices, such as the S&P 500, have multiple versions.

[1]

These versions can differ based on how the index components

are weighted and on how dividends are accounted for. For

example, there are three versions of the S&P 500 index: price

return, which only considers the price of the components, total

return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment, and net total

return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment after the

deduction of a withholding tax. As another example, the Wilshire

4500 and Wilshire 5000 indices have five versions each: full

capitalization total return, full capitalization price, float-adjusted

total return, float-adjusted price, and equal weight. The difference

between the full capitalization, float-adjusted, and equal weight

versions is in how index components are weighted.

Uses and importance of air pollution index and stock market index

government to measure the air quality index and to detect any

pollutants in our countrys air.This is to ensure the air is clean and

safe for us to inhale.Besides that,an early warning can be given to

us if the air pollution is to high for us to get out of our homes. This

warning is given based upon readings and interpretations of the air

pollution index.

As for the stock market index, it is mainly for the business

entrepreneurs. This type of index is used to determine the outcome

of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock market. The

stock market index is important because a countrys economical

state sometimes depend on it.

Conclusion

and some problem solving, I saw that the usage of statistics

is important in daily life. It is not just widely used in markets

but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like

air. Especially in conducting an air-pollution survey. In

coclusion,statistics is a daily life nessecities.Without it,

surveys cant be conducted, the stock market cant be interpret

and many more. So, we should be thankful of the people who

contribute in the idea of making statistics.

Reflection

project and also sacrificing my time on playing video games

and reading mangas in this mid year holiday, there are

several things that I can say...

Additional Mathematics...

From the day I born...

From the day I was able to holding pencil...

From the day I start learning...

And...

From the day I heard your name...

I always thought that you will be my greatest obstacle and

enemy in excelling in my life...

But after countless of hours...

Countless of days...

Countless of nights...

After sacrificing my precious time just for you...

Sacrificing my Computer Games...

Sacrificing my Video Games...

Sacrificing my Facebook...

Sacrificing my Internet...

Sacrifing my Anime...

Sacrificing my Manga...

I realized something really important for you...

I really love you...

You are my real friend...

You are my loyal partner...

You are my soulmate...

I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS!!...

(And also the people who create you)!!!..

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