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Extended Essay
Mahatma Gandhi: The Nonviolence Freedom Fighter
Research Question: To what extent did Mahatma Gandhi and his
non-violence movements lead to the independence of India?

Name: Shivam Patel


Advisor Name: Mrs. Witt
Candidate Number: 0025010009
Subject: History
Word Count: 3988

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction.1
i. Philosophy of Satyagraha.....3
i. Philosophy of Ahimsa..4
i. British Rule Over India4
2. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) 5
3. Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1933) .7
4. Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931)..11
5. Poona Act..14
6. Quit India Movement (1940-1945)...15
7. Bibliography..18

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Abstract
In this essay I obtained to answer the question of to what extent did Mahatma Gandhi and
his non-violence movements lead to the independence of India? This was done to better
understand the political history of the nation of India and how it was shaped from a power nation
such as, Great Britain. To help prove this theory, many of Mohandas Gandhis non-violence
movements were explored through further research. Noticeably, Gandhis thinking was
influenced by his faith in Hinduism and through his philosophies of Satyagraha and Ahimsa.
These philosophies helped him guide his civil disobedience movements in the search for
Independence.
Prior to writing this paper, there was much research done to come to a valid conclusion.
The scope of this entire paper was very large, as the perspectives on this issues was very spread
out from the British, to the Indians, and to those outside of the issue looking in at the political
turmoil which was happening. For this paper I tried to look up a good amount of primary and
secondary documents as the scope was so big. This helped me answer the question, yet showed
me many points of counter arguments. Many of my key resources were found from online
research databases, such as EBSCO. I also explored the many books on Gandhi at my local
library and online with eBooks so I had extensive knowledge on the issue before coming to a
conclusion.

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The conclusion which was came up with was that Gandhis non-violence movements did
help India gain Independence, forcing Great Britain to leave India from the fear of perception of
the outside world. Though it was not all what Gandhi pictured as India was split into two nations
in the process divided by religion.

Introduction
The Gandhian era in India lasted from 1919 to 1933. This period was named so, because
of the leadership of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi during an important time in Indian History.
Personally, this era was very important to my family and I, as we come from and Indian heritage.
His civil acts shaped the future of our lives, and also inspired many other movements around the
world to occur with peace and nonviolence.
Gandhi was named Mahatma by many, which was an honoring name which meant:
1

great soul. This made it evident in Gandhis large role during the time period. He led during a
time of national struggle against Britain for Independence and self-sustenance. Although there
were many freedom fighters that advocated independence for India, Gandhis policies and tactics
stood out above others.
Born into an illustrious political family; Gandhis morals and ideals were not always awe
inspiring in his adulthood. In High School he met a friend named Sheikh Mehtab, who
2

introduced Gandhi to meat eating, skipping school, and sex. These experiments with rebellious

Gandhi, Rajmohan. Mohandas: A True Story of a Man, His People, and an Empire. New Delhi: Penguin, 2006: 172.
Print.
2
Guha, Ramachandra. Gandhi before India. Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2014: 27-28. Print.

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acts brought him great anguish and brought him great pride in truth and honesty thereafter. After
high school he went to England to study law upon approval of his mother. While there one of the
promises he made his mother was to practice strict abstinence and vegetarianism.
In 1893 Gandhi accepted a job in South Africa representing Dada Abdulla & Company.
While in South Africa he was exposed for the first time to civil right injustices and
discrimination. For example, Gandhi was kicked off of a train for not moving from first class for
3

a European. He was also beaten for the same reason. These events shone a light on the incidents
of racism and discrimination happening in South Africa, and back home in India. A turning point
in his life; he began to question the treatment of Indians by the British Empire back home. This
leads to the question trying to be answered in this essay which is: To what extent did Mahatma
Gandhi and his non-violence movements lead to the Independence of India. This essay attempts
to look at the many social and political stands which Gandhi took in search of Independence for
the nation of India.
Gandhi was a follower of the Hindu Religion. This was mainly, because of the area and
family he grew up in. He was not a very religious person growing up. While in England though,
Gandhi joined the Theosophical Society, which resulted him in reading and studying the
4

Bhagavad Gita and Mahabharata. These two Hindu writing made Gandhi interested in his

Gandhi, and Mahadev H. Desai. Gandhi, an Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth. Boston: Beacon,
1957: 58-61. Print.
4
Brown, Judith M. Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope. New Haven: Yale UP, 1989: 74. Print.
3

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theological ideas, and gave him a basis upon which his future policies and thinking would be
based off of.

Philosophy of Satyagraha
Gandhis policies were mainly based off of two ideological philosophies. His main way
of thinking, he called was Satyagraha. Gandhi devoted his life to and lived by Satyagraha. In
South Africa his first movement he called civil disobedience. He then noticed that this was a
false term, nothing he was doing was disobedient. Then he adopted Leo Tolstoys movements
name of passive resistance, but thought there was nothing passive about his ideas.

He then came up with the term Satyagraha through a competition. The term literally
means persistence to truth. Gandhi stated three rules for Satyagraha to be successful. First, the
satyagrahi should not approach opponents with hate, but instead with love. The problem at hand
must have true substance to it. Third the satyagrahi must be prepared to suffer till the end for his
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cause. A great phrase said by Gandhi to sum this up is, seek to eliminate antagonisms without
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harming the antagonists themselves. Without truth Satyagraha is without effect. In theory
Gandhi states that if you believe what is true, is against the law you should break the law. But
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unlike criminals you need to come forward with what you do and do it publicly. The concept of
5

Satyagraha: 100 Years of Nonviolence. Dir. Rob Graydon. 2006. YouTube.


Gandhi, Mohandas K. "Harijan." Bandu (1946). Web.
7
Semashko, Leo. The ABC of Harmony: For World Peace, Harmonious Civilization and Tetranet Thinking: Global
Textbook. New Delhi: Lulu Publication, 2012: 243. Print.
8
Gandhi, Mohandas. Hind Swaraj. Madras, S.E.: S. Ganesan and Triplicane, 1921: 80. Print.
6

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Satyagraha was a key concept with Gandhis fight for Indian independence. The theory also
influenced many other freedom fighters other than Gandhi such as, Nelson Mandela and Martin
Luther King.

Philosophy of Ahimsa
The other ideological philosophy of Gandhi was known as ahimsa. Ahimsa is known as
nonviolence working and thinking. Gandhi was not the creator of the thinking of nonviolence,
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but he was the first person to apply it directly to a political movement. In Gandhis definition of
ahimsa it did not only include physical pain, but also mental pain. This led to criticism by many
saying that the idea was unrealistic.
Yet Gandhi still believed in total non-violence go as far as saying, "There are many
10

causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for. The thinking
of Satyagraha and ahimsa intertwine so well that they might as well be the same thing. The two
ideologies work together in a way that there could not be another feasible alternative.

British Rule Over India


Great Britains rule of the country of India lasted from 1858 to 1947. Ultimately Britains
control was achieved by the presence of the East India Company in India. At first their sole
purpose was trade which was granted permission by the Mughal Empire at the time. As the

Asirvatham, Eddy. Political Theory. Lucknow: Upper India Pub. House, 1950. Print.
Gandhi, and Mahadev H. Desai. Gandhi, an Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth. Boston:
Beacon, 1957: 79. Print.
10

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Mughal Empire began to decline the Nawabs of provinces began to refuse concession of the
11

company. They then began to close British factories and warehouses. All these events built up
to the Battle of Plassey in 1757. This was eventually won by the British, and as a result of the
win, India and the East India Company were dissolved into the British Empire.
With the British Empire controlling India for a little less than 100 years, Gandhi saw that
it was time for change from the unjust British Empire. They were imposing fraudulent taxes,
unfair legislation, and the citizens were treated like they were second class in their own country.
There were three major movements that attempted to help the Indian nation gain independence.
The movements were the Non-Cooperation movement, then the Civil Disobedience movement,
and then the Quit India Movement in that respective order. When looking at movements led by
Gandhi there were a couple of characteristics that stood out about the movements. First all of
Gandhis movements followed a world event, such as a world war or economic fall. The Second
characteristic is that Gandhi would call off movements that did not go the way that he planned,
leading to people getting in trouble with the authority.

12

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922)


Gandhis first movement was called the non-cooperation movement and it lasted for little
over two years. The primary goal of this first Gandhian movement was to obtain Swaraj, or
self-government from Great Britain.

11

"British Raj - British Rule in India - History for Kids | Mocomi." Mocomi Kids. 2012. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.
Zachariah, Benjamin. "Gandhi, Non-Violence and Indian Independence." Gandhi, Non-Violence and Indian
Independence. Mar. 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2015.
12

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Such as with all of Gandhis movements, his first movement, the non-cooperation
movement, was following the great turmoil of World War I. Other reasons for the start of this
movement were the economic hardships which were happening in this time period. Wealth of the
common man was going straight to Britain instead of India, which weakened the Indian
economy.
On top of that as people were already at the edge of their seat, the Jallianwala Bagh
massacre occurred. Around three hundred and seventy people were killed. This event was the
focal point of Gandhis first movement. This event also showed the Indian people that they could
not trust to move on with the British government.
The movement was based on Gandhis popular idea of Ahimsa. The peaceful movement
would consist of the masses to resign from governmental offices, courts, and elections. Also
13

another peaceful tactic that the Indians took was to boycott foreign goods. Native forms of
education systems were favored over government run ones such as the various Vidyapiths and
colleges established during the movement. In the most peaceful way possible they were trying to
remove all influence that Britain had on India at the time. The movement was known to be quite
successful as it shocked the British and motivated the Indians, but it would not last for long.
Talk of such mass nonviolence cannot come without its flaws. On February 5, 1922 a
group of peasants burnt down a police station near Gorakhpur, and killed nearly 22 officers. This
made Gandhi fear that the movement was going to take a turn for the worse, so he called off the

13

"Noncooperation Movement | Indian History." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, Dec. 2006.
Web. 15 Feb. 2016.

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movement.

14

Gandhi reasoned and said, God has been abundantly kind to me. He has warned

me that there is not as yet in India that truthful and non-violent atmosphere which and which
15

alone can justify mass obedience. This angered many Indian officials, but the effect of the
movement had taken its toll. It was not a successful movement by any means from a win-loss
standpoint, but the awareness that the movement created was incomparable to any other of the
time period.
This movement eventually resulted in Gandhi being sentenced to prison for 6 years on the
basis of publishing seditious materials, though he was released in roughly in 22 months because
of an appendectomy. He justified his prison time by stating, In my opinion, noncooperation
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with evil is as much a duty as is cooperation with good. With Gandhi being imprisoned for a
couple of years partitions began to form in the groups in India. The Hindus together. Also splits
in the Indian National Congress began to occur at the same time.

Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1933)


Over the next decade Gandhi decided to stay out of the political independence world and
focus more on the social issues at hand in India during 1920s. He fought against issues on
untouchability, ignorance, poverty, and temperance during this time. While fighting these social
issues he was also urged by many, such as, Jawaharlal Nehru to try again, to obtain Swaraj.

Gandhi, and Mahadev H. Desai. Gandhi, an Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth. Boston:
Beacon, 1957: 105. Print.
15
McDermott, Rachel Fell, Leonard A. Gordon, Ainslie Thomas Embree, Frances W. Pritchett, and Dennis Dalton.
Sources of Indian Traditions. New York: Columbia UP, 2014: 335. Print.
16
Fischer, Louis. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950: 203. Print.
14

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Gandhi stated that they had to wait for the right time to start another movement. This time came
in March 1930.
Gandhi announced a new Satyagraha against the salt tax which the British had placed on
the Indians. The British had a monopoly on the salt at that time, and saw yet another way to
oppress the Indians. At first a salt protest was approached with laughter and ridicule, as not even
the British were scared of the Indians new Swaraj endeavors.

17

Gandhi justified the salt march

though by stating that it was used by nearly every Indian no matter the status. Even going as far
as to bringing the Hindus and Muslims together on the issue as it was a symbolic item of the salt
lost by sweat during their hard work by all in India. The salt tax was also a very important tax
towards British revenue accounting for 8.2 % of their tax revenue.

18

The new Satyagraha was first formally announced when Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy
Irwin of Great Britain pleading the stance of the Indian people on the salt tax. In the letter
Gandhi explained how the British were exploiting the Indian people and stated the effects of the
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salt tax. To end the letter Gandhi gave an ultimatum to the Viceroy to either repeal the salt tax
or a civil disobedience movement would ensue starting on March 11. Irwin had great respect for
Gandhi unlike his Viceroy predecessor, and respectfully declined Gandhis request seeing where
the course of his disobedient actions would take him.

17

Ackerman, Peter, and Jack Duvall. A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: St. Martin's,
2000: 84. Print.
18
Gandhi and Dennis Dalton. Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. 1996: 72. Print.
19
Gandhi, Mohandas K. Speeches and Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. Madras: G.A. Natesan, 1933: 744. Print.

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Along with his assertive demands in the letter Gandhi, he continues to follows his policy
of Ahimsa. In the same letter he says, I think the British rule to be a curse in India, but I cannot
intentionally hurt anything that lives, much less fellow human beings, even though they may do
20

the greatest wrong to me and mine. This leads to what some historians might consider the
greatest act of non-violence ever.
On March 12 he started his famous salt march to the coastal city of Dandi. The march
also garnered much public attention outside of India through media outlets from the United
States and Europe. People outside of India finally began to see tyrannical rule that the British had
on India. Along with the public outreach, Gandhi had successfully rallied India and its people
against the British injustices.
The act of the Salt March at the time seemed like a small, meaningless, defiant act to the
British at the time, but it had great effects in the Indian fight for independence.
With Gandhi in prison, the Dharasana Satyagraha could take either of two paths. Either
the Indian people could go back to hiding and being oppressed without the leadership of Gandhi,
or someone else could take the reigns of the leadership position which was vacated by Gandhi.
Thankfully, in Indias case they went with the second option. Abbas Tyabji, a retired judge,
along with the help from Kasturba Gandhi decided that they would finish the cause while Gandhi
remained in Prison. The British had other plans as both Tyabji and Kasturba were arrested upon
arrival at Dharasana.

20

Gandhi, Mohandas K. Speeches and Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. Madras: G.A. Natesan, 1933: 745. Print.

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Along with these revolutionary leaders, many members of the Indian National Congress
were arrested for the supposed instigating of events taking place, including Jawaharlal Nehru and
Sardar Patel.
From Gandhis jail cell he saw the dying cause, so he announced that women had to
begin to lead such marches, as it was the only way to keep the movement alive. Sarojini Naidu
had heard Gandhis message. She was a female poet and revolutionary, who urged the people to
keep Gandhis thinking in mind during the Dharasana Satyagraha. Right before the raid was
about to begin she reminded the group of Satyagrahis by saying, Indias prestige is in your
hands. You must not use any violence under any circumstance. You will be beaten but you must
not resist; you must not even raise a hand to ward off blows.

21

The Indian people were trying to

make an impression with the world's media watching them. Gandhis philosophy had media play
a very important role later on in his career; his tactic was to make the British look bad attacking
the non-violent Indians, which so happened to be the case again in the Dharasana Satyagraha.
What Gandhi wanted from the Dharasana raid is exactly what he got. As the satyagrahis
began to advance on the mine, the police officers began beat the peace protesters with large
clubs. American Journalist Webb Miller chronicled the entire event putting it in National
spotlight. Miller even published the news in British, fighting their censorship laws to expose the
tragedies occurring in India. If India and British had any small chance of reuniting it was

21

Gandhi, Mohandas K., and Homer A. Jack. The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings. New York:
Grove, 1989. Print.

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destroyed here at this event. Vithalbhai Patel tried to reason the event by saying, All hope of
reconciling India with the British Empire is lost forever.

22

These violent outbreaks, unlike before, did not force Gandhi to halt the movement. He
was unmoved by the action of the British and let the actions move on. The objective was
complete; the worlds eyes were on the Indian Independence movement. So much so that in 1930
Gandhi won the Man of the Year award for his inspirations.
Along with the salt movement, there were other non-violence movements based on:
forest laws, land revenue, and textiles

Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931)


At this point the British were infuriated and frustrated at the way the events were unraveling.
Lord Irwin was encouraged by his civil service and industrial cabinet members to dish out harsh
punishments to thwart the Indian national movement. Yet others in the British government saw
other ways to remedy the issues. Such people included, Premier Ramsay MacDonald and
Secretary of State Hilary Benn; they did not want to continue fighting the people of India, and
further weaken the government. In response, The Round Table Conferences were scheduled to
take place to discuss reform in India, between British and Indian leaders, and sign a new
constitution.

Richau, Matthias, and Moritz Wolpert. Moritz Wolpert - Kopfknallen Eines Taugenichts: "Rastlos Trumt Sich's Im
Gedankenschrank ... Berlin: Haus Am Ltzowplatz, 2002. 155. Print.
22

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This was practically impossible though, as most of the Indian Congress members were
imprisoned after the Dharasana Satyagraha including Gandhi and Nehru. Yet prior to the initial
meeting the Viceroy transported Jawaharlal Nehru to Yerawada Prison to talk with Gandhi, and
allow them to negotiate with the British. They came out of their discussions on August 15
announcing that they would take no less than poorna Swaraj, complete independence, as a viable
option.

23

Any legitimate negotiation was ended at this time and the Round Table Meetings went

on as planned.
The British Government knew that these meeting would have little substance without the
Indian leaders. Some minor result came from the first meeting such as, India was to become a
24

federation, and finances were finalized. Overall this first meeting was referred to as a failure by
most, while in Macdonalds closing statement he hoped that the congress could attend the next
25

Round Table Meeting. Therefore in response, Viceroy Irwin unconditionally released all
members of the Congress Working Committee including Gandhi. Gandhi was back in the
spotlight and the next move what his to determine. Recognizing Lord Irwins actions he agreed
to meet with him to discuss the future of India and reach some sort of compromise. Britains
perception from the outside world was hurting.
In February and March 1931 the duo had a combined 8 meetings over the timeframe of
24 hours. On March 5, 1931 the political pact was signed by Gandhi and Irwin called the
Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The agreements made in this pact were as follows for the Indians: the

23

Claybourne, Anna. Mahatma Gandhi. London: Hodder Wayland, 2002: 200. Print.
"Making Britain." Round Table Conferences, 1930-1932. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.
25
"Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography." Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography. Web. 8 Jan. 2016.
24

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National Congress would discontinue all civil disobedience movements, and India would
participate in the Second Round Table meetings with its congress. For the British government
they had to withdraw all the protest ordinances, release the protesters arrested from the
movement, and remove the salt tax.
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was met with displeasure from both sides. In the case of the
Indians they saw it as a partial failure because Gandhi had come out of the meetings with
something less than independence. On the flip side the British were outraged that even the
thought of negotiating with India was absurd, as they were trying to overthrow the British regime
from the country. Winston Churchill even went as far as to say, at the nauseating and
humiliating spectacle of this one-time Inner Temple lawyer, now seditious fakir, striding
half-naked up the steps of the Viceroys palace, there to negotiate and parley on equal terms with
26

the representative of the King Emperor. This showed the displeasure towards the pact by
mostly all besides, Gandhi and Irwin. Yet, this is what Gandhi wanted, and this was the objective
to an extent of Satyagraha to come to a consensus on an issue.
The Second Round Table Conference was held starting September 7, 1931 in London,
and the Indian National Congress sent Gandhi as its sole representative. During the short time
prior, Great Britain had elected a conservative government and Viceroy Irwin was replaced by
Viceroy Willingdon a more stern and strict man. He ignored many of the guidelines signed by
his former predecessor in the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. Gandhi came to the second meeting insisting

26

"Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography." Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography. Web. 25 Nov. 2016.

Patel | 17

that he was representing all of India, yet this might have been the reason why no results came out
of this meeting, it was a lost cause with disagreement between the national congresses

Poona Pact
Gandhi returned to India in turmoil, as Britain had broken any progress made by the last
regime by ignoring the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, and also placing strict ordinances. New Viceroy,
Willingdon, feared the revolutionary leaders, so again Nehru and Gandhi were arrested. This
caused civil disobedience to start again, and many to be arrested. The National Congress was
suspended in a time when it was needed the most.
With most of the Indian Congress members back in jail, the British made its new
constitution. In the plan it allowed for separate electorates different minority groups, yet left out
the untouchables. This caused Gandhi to pull out another peaceful tactic in way of a fast. It was a
political blackmail, yet it was more to influence people on the side of Gandhi and inspire them to
take action against untouchability. Later the government agreed to give electoral privileges to the
untouchables.
He had won a fight in India for something other than Independence. He was later released
from prison for health related reasons from his long fasts. After his release he continued full
force against the issue of untouchability, going on a tour to spread awareness. In May 1934
Gandhi discontinued civil disobedience recognizing the fatigue in the country and went for a

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more individualistic approach for the time being. Gandhi retired from his revolutionary work
again for a short period to focus more on social issues.

Quit India Movement (1940-1945)


Upon Gandhis arrival back into the political world he was thrusted into the Hindu and
Muslim conflict. In 1937 the All India Muslim League proposed that, to gain popularity, they
must verbally and mentally attack Gandhi and the congress. The best way they was this was to
come up with two separate nations, India and Pakistan. Gandhi was surprised by the proposition
and bewildered, because he thought they were throwing away the progress made in the past
half-decade. Yet the plan went through as the two nations separated.
Yet, Gandhi had to worry about his country and he saw the opportunity at the onset of
WWII. But Gandhi held on to his non-violence beliefs which led to the disagreement between
Gandhi and the National Congress. The Congress wanted to unite with Britain to fight the war
with the small chance that they would receive independence from it later on. Gandhi wanted no
part of and stepped down from his position for the time being. With the failure of such tactic
Gandhi came back realizing that the only chance India would have for independence needed to
happen immediately.
In August 1942, the All India Congress Committee passed the Quit India Resolution
launching another civil disobedience movement. The British government attacked back hard.
Congress leaders were again sent to jail. Still prior to being sent to jail Gandhi expressed his

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position to keep nonviolence at the forefront of the movement. Yet shortly after imprisoned
health began to deteriorate of the now aging congress member, many dying in their cells. This
led to the release of Gandhi in May 1944. Gandhi tried to progress the stagnant issue after his
release as the British were not willing to let go of their power.
In the summer of 1945 the Simla conference took place to break the deadlock which was
occurring, yet it couldnt. However it was announced that a new constitution was being looked
at, because of the thankfulness of the Cripps offer.
27

In 1947 Britain attempted to set up a three tier constitutional system to remedy the
different cultural backgrounds, but this plan failed without full cooperation. With a strong
government needed Lore Wavell asked Jawaharlal Nehru to form the government to the
displeasure the Muslim League. The Muslim League instigated violence in Bengal. Gandhi tried
to regain peace and went to Bengal. Lord Wavell alarmed by the violence and discontent added
the Muslim League to the government, yet they were not cooperative.
In February 1947 Clement Attlee announced that Great Britain had full intention to quit
in India by 1948. It was announced that a constitution India approved of needed to be written or
a central government would be formed. With the newly ordained leader Mountbatten and Gandhi
met to discuss future plans of India. They discussed the only way to escape this deadlock of issue
was to separate India. In spring 1947 to the displeasure of many, congress leaders agreed to the
split as it was better to keep three-fourths than none.

27

"Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography." Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography. Web. 15 Oct. 2015.

Patel | 20

In conclusion Gandhis non-violence movement accomplished something no other Indian


was able to do up until that point. Though he might not have gotten the exact results that he
wanted, as India was split into two nations, he still obtained Independence for India with the help
of his many non-violent movements and actions. His fight showed after the grueling realities of
World War I that violence wasnt always needed to solve issues.

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Bibliography
Works Cited:
Primary
Gandhi and Dennis Dalton. Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings.
Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. 1996. Print.
Gandhi, and Mahadev H. Desai. Gandhi, an Autobiography: The Story of My
Experiments with Truth. Boston: Beacon, 1957: Print.
Gandhi, Mohandas K., and Homer A. Jack. The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook
of His Life and Writings. New York: Grove, 1989. Prin
Gandhi, Mohandas K. "Harijan." Bandu (1946). Web.
Gandhi, Mohandas K. Hind Swaraj. Madras, S.E.: S. Ganesan and Triplicane,
1921. Print.
Gandhi, Mohandas K. Speeches and Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. Madras:
G.A. Natesan, 1933. Print.

Secondary
Ackerman, Peter, and Jack Duvall. A Force More Powerful: A Century of
Nonviolent Conflict. New York: St. Martin's, 2000. Print.
Asirvatham, Eddy. Political Theory. Lucknow: Upper India Pub. House, 1950.
Print.

Patel | 22

"British Raj - British Rule in India - History for Kids | Mocomi." Mocomi Kids.
2012. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.
Brown, Judith M. Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope. New Haven: Yale UP, 1989. Print
Claybourne, Anna. Mahatma Gandhi. London: Hodder Wayland, 2002. Print.
Fischer, Louis. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Harper & Brothers,
1950. Print.
Gandhi, Rajmohan. Mohandas: A True Story of a Man, His People, and an
Empire. New Delhi: Penguin, 2006: Print.
Guha, Ramachandra. Gandhi before India. Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2014.
Print.
"Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography." Mahatma Gandhi: Pictorial Biography.
Web. 25 Nov. 2016.
"Making Britain." Round Table Conferences, 1930-1932. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.
McDermott, Rachel Fell, Leonard A. Gordon, Ainslie Thomas Embree, Frances
W. Pritchett, and Dennis Dalton. Sources of Indian Traditions. New York:
Columbia UP, 2014. Print.
"Noncooperation Movement | Indian History." Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, Dec. 2006. Web. 15 Feb. 2016.
Richau, Matthias, and Moritz Wolpert. Moritz Wolpert - Kopfknallen Eines
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