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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Computer Studies

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Bernardo M. Mane Jr.


November 22, 2016

Engr. Araceli C. Corpuz

Ms. Roanne De Guzman


The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that consists of
24 orbiting satellites, each of which makes two circuits around the Earth every 24 hours. These
satellites transmit three bits of information the satellite's number, its position in space,
and the time the information is sent. These signals are picked up by the GPS receiver, which
uses this information to calculate the distance between it and the GPS satellites.
Biography of Inventor.

Roger Lee Easton, Sr. (April 30, 1921) was an American scientist/physicist who was the
principal inventor and designer of the Global Positioning System (GPS), along with Ivan A.
Getting and Bradford Parkinson. He was born in Craftsbury, Vermont and graduated from
Middlebury College in 1943. He also attended the University of Michigan for 1 semester before
joining the Naval Research Laboratory in 1943. At the Naval Research Laboratory he worked
in the Radio Division on radar beacons and blind-landing systems. Easton also worked in the
laboratory's Rocket-Sonde Branch which was dealing with space related research. Easton
retired in 1980. In 1986, Easton ran for Governor and served 3 terms on the Board of the New

Hampshire Electric Cooperative. Easton died on May 8, 2014 at the age of 93. His
contributions to the Global Positioning System, or GPS, grew out of his earlier work and were
the source of his greatest fame. The system today involves two dozen orbiting satellites, called
Navstar, that send out precisely timed signals. The transmissions are detected by mobile
phones, aircraft, cars and ships at sea to enable accurate navigation.
Physics Principle Involved
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is made possible by 24 GPS satellites which are in high
orbit, about 20,000 km above the earth. Their signaling system enables positions on earth to be
calculated very accurately. Since the position calculations involve time information sent from
clocks on board these satellites, these clocks must be very accurate due to the sensitive numerical
nature of the calculations. The clocks used which satisfy this time accuracy requirement are
called atomic clocks. They are accurate to within one billionth of a second. In addition to being
very accurate these clocks also have to account for an important effect, which in physics is called
relativity. Relativity is a proven concept in physics in which time passes at a different rate
depending on how fast you are moving and on the strength of the gravitational field surrounding
To illustrate, imagine you are standing still and there is someone moving at a certain speed
relative to you. In addition, this person is wearing a watch that was synchronized with yours
(while both of you were standing still). If you could see this person's watch, you would notice
that (in your reference frame) the time ticks away more slowly than on your watch. For speeds
much less than the speed of light this difference is way too small to be of importance to us. But
for something like a satellite which moves at 14,000 km/h this effect must be accounted for when
calculating GPS positions.
Uses/ Application

Up until now, weve looked at how you can use GPS receivers to tell you where you are, to
navigate between points and to make digital maps of various features. But GPS isnt just used by
civilians; its also used by pilots, boat captains, farmers, surveyors, scientists and the military.
GPS systems are extremely versatile and can be found in almost any industry sector. They can be
used to map forests, help farmers harvest their fields, and navigate airplanes on the ground
or in the air. GPS systems are used in military applications and by emergency crews to locate
people in need of assistance. GPS technologies are often working in many areas that we do not
normally consider.
When high accuracy GPS is fitted to boats and ships, it allows captains to navigate through
unfamiliar harbours, shipping channels and waterways without running aground or hitting known

obstacles. GPS is also used to position and map dredging operations in rivers, wharfs and
sandbars, so other boats know precisely where it is deep enough for them to operate.
Both stand-alone GPS devices, and smartphones with GPS technology, work by detecting the
position and signals from a series of satellites set up by the US military. The devices calculate
their position by reference to these satellites.
Some of the applications that GPS systems are currently being used for around the world include
mining, agriculture and recreation. These days doctors, scientists, hikers, delivery drivers,
sailors, fishermen, dispatchers, athletes, and people from many other walks of life are using GPS
systems in ways that make their work more productive, safer, and easier.
Roger L. Easton is the principal inventor and designer of two operationally successful
Department of Defense (DoD) systems. GPS is now widely recognized as the most significant
development in the field of navigation since the introduction of radio navigation 50 years ago.
GPS is the ultimate navigation system currently in the world in terms of cost, performance and
reliabilities. It is useful for us students and to other people to locate their area and to navigate to
their places.