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curriculum development

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

DepED Order on Curriculum: Learning hours
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 1:21 PM 1 comment:

Sunday, February 22, 2009

Curriculum Implementation
Curriculum implementation is expected to occur between component 4 (educational plan) and
component 5 (evaluation and revision) of Kellough and Kellough's curriculum development
Principals need to implement the curriculum with the help of teachers in an actual school setting
and find out if the curriculum achieved its goal. Implementation refers to the actual use of the
curriculum or syllabus or what it consists of in practice. Implementation is a critical phase in the
cycles of planning and teaching a curriculum.
Implementing the curriculum does not focus on the actual use but also on the attitudes of those
who implement it. These attitudinal dispositions are particularly important in educational
systems where teachers and principals have the opportunity to choose among competing
curriculum packages.
How should curriculum be implemented?
There are two extreme views about curriculum implementation:
a. laissez-faire approach or the "let-alone" approach. This gives teachers absolute power to
determine what they see best to implement in the classroom. In effect, this allows teachers to
teach lessons they believe are appropriate for their classes and in whatever way the want to teach
such lessons. There is no firm of control or monitoring whatsoever.
b. authoritarian control. In this view, teachers are directed by authority figures through a
memorandum, to follow a curriculum. Teachers have no control or leeway over the subjects the
are teaching. The school head exercise absolute power in directing teachers to teach certain
subjects in specified ways. In other words, this approach is dictatorial way of imposing curricular
implementation in the classroom.
A realistic view o curriculum implementation should be between the two extremes. Teachers are
expected to follow the prescribed syllabus exactly and make sure that they do not miss any

topic/component. When teachers diligently follow a prescribed syllabus in teaching a lesson,

then they are considered to have fidelity of use or fidelity of implementation.
To promote fidelity of use, one need to identify the topics or subjects that need more focus.
These subjects are are those that are more technical or more difficult. A structured approach to
implementation is then followed, one on which teachers are provided clear instructions early on.
On the other hand, some topics allow or encourage teachers to be creative ad unique in teaching
these topics. Teachers implement personalized variations of the prescribed curriculum, but still
be guided by it. This is referred to as adaptation to the curriculum or process orientation. process
orientation came as a response to the need to acknowledge different organizational concepts and
varying teachers' needs and abilities that would require on-site modification..
(Activity: If you are a teacher tasked by your school head to implement a new curriculum, what
could be your questions on the new curriculum? What would be your concerns?)
Source: Module 2: Lead Curriculum Implementation and Enrichment. EXCELS Flexible Course,
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 4:10 AM 7 comments:
Labels: Curriculum Implementaton, olga alonsabe, SEAMEO

Curriculum Leadership
Leadership refers to the role or process that enables systems and individuals to achieve their
goals. Curriculum refers to all the experiences that learners have to go through in a program of
education. Curriculum leadership therefore is the act of exercising functions that enables the
achievement of a school's goal of providing quality education.
The definition of curriculum leadership involves functions and goals. A curriculum leader has to
take charge of making sure that the curriculum goals are achieved. That ultimate goal is to
maximize student learning by providing quality in the content of learning. Curriculum leadership
focuses on what is learned (the curriculum) and how it is taught (the instruction).
Being a school head, the principal is responsible for making sure that the school has a quality
curriculum and that the curriculum is implemented effectively. Achieving educational excellence
is the goal. To attain such goal, the principal need to manifest curriculum leadership.
The Roles and Functions of a Curriculum Leader
Glatthorn (1997) was an educator interested in how curriculum development could be used to
make teaching effective. He provides the list of the essential functions of curriculum leadership
carried out at the school and classroom levels:
Curriculum leadership functions at the school-level:
a. develop the school's vision of a quality curriculum

b. supplement the state's or district's educational goals

c. develop the school's own program of studies
d. develop a learning-centered schedule
e. determine the nature and extent of curriculum integration
f. align the curriculum
g. monitor and assist in curriculum implementation
Curriculum leadership functions at the classroom-level:
a. develop yearly planning calendars for operationalizing the curriculum
b. develop units of study
c. enrich the curriculum and remediate learning
d. evaluate the curriculum
The roles and functions show that regardless of whether these are at the school level or
classroom level, curriculum leadership involves tasks that guarantee quality education. The tasks
and functions may further be specified into four major tasks:
a. ensuring curriculum quality and applicability
b. integrating and aligning the curriculum
c. implementing the curriculum efficiently
d. regularly evaluating, enriching, and updating the curriculum
Exhibiting curriculum leadership means that the principal have to be vigilant in overseeing the
many instructional activities in one's school so that educational goals will be achieved. This
implies that curriculum leadership is also a component of instructional leadership.
(Activity: Given the four major tasks of curriculum leadership, write some specific ways in
which these tasks can be manifested).
Source: Module: Lead Curriculum Implementation and Enrichment. EXCELS Flexible Course
on Leading Curricular and Instructional Processes. SEAMEO INNOTECH, C 2005.
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 3:40 AM 2 comments:

Labels: Curriculum leadership, EXCELS, olga alonsabe

Curriculum Approaches
Curriculum practitioners and implementers may use one or more approaches in planning,
implementing and evaluating the curriculum. Even textbook writers or instructional material
producers have different curricular approaches.
The following are the five curriculum approaches:
1. Behavioral Approach. This is based on a blueprint, where goals and objectives are specified,
contents and activities are also arranged to match with the learning objectives. The learning
outcomes are evaluated in terms of goals and objectives set at the beginning. This approach
started with the idea of Frederick Taylor which is aimed to achieve efficiency. In education,
behavioral approach begins with educational plans that start with the setting of goals or
objectives. These are the important ingredients in curriculum implementation as evaluating the
learning outcomes as a change of behavior. The change of behavior indicates the measure of the
2. Managerial Approach. In this approach, the principal is the curriculum leader and at the same
time instructional leader who is supposed to be the general manager. The general manager sets
the policies and priorities, establishes the direction of change and innovation, and planning and
organizing curriculum and instruction. School administrators are less concerned about the
content than about organization and implementation. They are less concerned about subject
matter, methods and materials than improving the curriculum. Curriculum managers look at
curriculum changes and innovations as they administer the resources and restructure the schools.
Some of the roles of the Curriculum Supervisors are the following:
a. help develop the school's education goals
b. plan curriculum with students, parents, teachers and other stakeholders
c. design programs of study by grade levels
d. plan or schedule classes or school calendar
e. prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject area
f. help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks
g. observe teachers
h. assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum
i. encourage curriculum innovation and change
j. develop standards for curriculum and instructional evaluation
3. Systems Approach. This was influenced by systems theory, where the parts of the total school
district or school are examined in terms of how they relate to each other. The organizational chart
of the school represents a systems approach. It shows the line-staff relationships of personnel and
how decisions are made. The following are of equal importance: a) administration b) counseling
c) curriculum d) instruction e) evaluation.

4. Humanistic Approach. This approach is rooted in the progressive philosophy and childcentered movement. It considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden
curriculum. It considers the whole child and believes that in curriculum the total development of
the individual is the prime consideration. The learner s at the center of the curriculum.
(Question: Does a principal with humanistic approach to curriculum emphasize most
memorization of subject matter? Does the systems approach to curriculum consider only each
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita P. Bilbao, et. al. LoreMar Pub., 2008
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 2:56 AM 13 comments:
Labels: curriculum approaches, olga alonsabe

Friday, February 20, 2009

Elements/Components of the Curriculum
The nature of the elements and the manner in which they are organized may comprise which we
call a curriculum design.
Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives
Aims: Elementary, Secondary, and Tertiary
Goals: School Vision and Mission
Objectives: educational objectives
1. Cognitive knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation
2. Affective receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization
3. psychomotor perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response,
adaptation, origination
Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter
Information to be learned in school, another term for knowledge ( a compendium of facts,
concepts, generalization, principles, theories.
1. Subject-centered view of curriculum: The Fund of human knowledge represents the repository
of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centuries, due to mans exploration
of his world
2. Learner-centered view of curriculum: Relates knowledge to the individuals personal and
social world and how he or she defines reality.
Gerome Bruner: Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to
regularities in experience
Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum:
1. self-sufficiency less teaching effort and educational resources, less learners effort but more
results and effective learning outcomes most economical manner (Scheffler, 1970)

2. significance contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum, develop learning
3. validity meaningful to the learner based on maturity, prior experience, educational and social
4. utility usefulness of the content either for the present or the future
5. learnability within the range of the experience of the learners
6. feasibility can be learned within the tile allowed, resources available, expertise of the
teacher, nature of learner
Principles to follow in organizing the learning contents (Palma, 1992)
1. BALANCE . Content curriculum should be fairly distributed in depth and breath of the
particular learning are or discipline. This will ensure that the level or area will not be
overcrowded or less crowded.
2. ARTICULATION. Each level of subject matter should be smoothly connected to the next,
glaring gaps or wasteful overlaps in the subject matter will be avoided.
3. SEQUENCE. This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. It refers to the deepening
and broadening of content as it is taken up in the higher levels.
The horizontal connections are needed in subject areas that are similar so that learning will be
elated to one another. This is INTEGRATION.
Learning requires a continuing application of the new knowledge, skills, attitudes or values so
that these will be used in daily living. The constant repetition, review and reinforcement of
learning is what is referred to as CONTINUITY.
Component 3 Curriculum Experience
Instructional strategies and methods will link to curriculum experiences, the core and heart of the
curriculum. The instructional strategies and methods will put into action the goals and use of the
content in order to produce an outcome.
Teaching strategies convert the written curriculum to instruction. Among these are time-tested
methods, inquiry approaches, constructivist and other emerging strategies that complement new
theories in teaching and learning. Educational activities like field trips, conducting experiments,
interacting with computer programs and other experiential learning will also form par of the
repertoire of teaching.
Whatever methods the teacher utilizes to implement the curriculum, there will be some guide for
the selection and use, Here are some of them:
1. teaching methods are means to achieve the end
2. there is no single best teaching method

3. teaching methods should stimulate the learners desire to develop the cognitive, affective,
psychomotor, social and spiritual domain of the individual
4. in the choice of teaching methods, learning styles of the students should be considered
5. every method should lead to the development of the learning outcome in three domains
6. flexibility should be a consideration in the use of teaching methods
Component 4 Curriculum Evaluation
To be effective, all curricula must have an element of evaluation. Curriculum evaluation refer to
the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, and
product of the curriculum. Several methods of evaluation came up. The most widely used is
Stufflebeam's CIPP Model. The process in CIPP model is continuous and very important to
curriculum managers.
CIPP Model Context (environment of curriculum), Input (ingredients of curriculum), Process
(ways and means of implementing), Product accomplishment of goals)- process is continuous.
Regardless of the methods and materials evaluation will utilize, a suggested plan of action for the
process of curriculum evaluation is introduced. These are the steps:
1. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum. Will it be subject area, the grade level,
the course, or the degree program? Specify objectives of evaluation.
2. Collect or gather the information. Information is made up of data needed regarding the object
of evaluation.
3. Organize the information. This step will require coding, organizing, storing and retrieving data
for interpretation.
4. Analyze information. An appropriate way of analyzing will be utilized.
5. Report the information. The report of evaluation should be reported to specific audiences. It
can be done formally in conferences with stakeholders, or informally through round table
discussion and conversations.
6. Recycle the information for continuous feedback, modifications and adjustments to be made.
(Activity: "Is Philippine education really deteriorating?" This is a big question raised by many
sectors of our society. Reflect and research (gather enough data/proof in your particular
school/district/division) on this issue. Choose a particular level and a specific subject area as a
point o reference).
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al. LoreMar Pub., 2008)
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 1:28 PM 19 comments:
Labels: curriculum development, olga alonsabe

Major Foundations of Curriculum

Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum:

Philosophy provides educators, teachers and curriculum makers with framework for planning,
implementing and evaluating curriculum in school.I helps in answering what schools are for,
what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should
be used. In decision-making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the
succeeding decision-making.
The following four educational philosophies relate to curriculum:
1. Perennialism. The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects, literary analysis and considers
curriculum as constant.
2. Essentialism. The essential skills of the 3 R's and essential subjects of English, Science,
History, Math and Foreign Language is the focus of the curriculum.
3. Progressivism. The curriculum is focused on students' interest, human problems and affairs.
The subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive.
4. Reconstructionism. The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trends and issues of
national and international interests.
Educational philosophy lays the strong foundation of any curriculum. A curriculum planner or
specialist, implementer or the teacher, school heads, evaluator anchors his/her decision making
process on a sound philosophy.
(Activity: Compare the four Philosophies of Education based on the aim of education, role of
education and curriculum trends. How does a strong belief or philosophy influence curriculum?
Historical Foundations of Curriculum.
Curriculum is not an old field. Majority of scholars would place its beginning in 1918 with the
publication of Franklin Bobbit's book."The Curriculum"
Philippine education came about from various foreign influences. This can be traced back to the
glorious history. Of all foreign educational systems, the American educational system has the
greatest influence on our educational system.
The following six curriculum theorists contributed their views on curriculum:
1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956)- presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students'
2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) - considered curriculum also as a science which is based on
students' need, and the teachers plan the activities.
3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) - viewed curriculum as purposeful activities which are child-

4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - emphasized social studies in the curriculum and the teacher plans
the lesson in advance.
5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) - sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes,
organized knowledge and earner's interests.
6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school's
philosophy. based on students' need and interests.
The historical development shows the different changes in the purposes, principles and content
of the curriculum.
(Question: What are the implications of ever-changing curriculum top teachers?)
Psychological Foundations
Psychology provides basis for the teaching and learning process. It unifies elements of the
learning process and some of the some of questions which can be addressed by psychological
The following are the three major groups f learning theories:
1. Behaviorists Psychology - consider that learning should be organized in order that students can
experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter, and thus, method of teaching
should be introduced in a step by step manner with proper sequencing of task.
(Activity: Discuss the contributions of Edward L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov and Robert Gagne to
the present views on curriculum)
2. Cognitive Psychology - focus their attention on how individuals process information and how
the monitor and manage thinking. For the cognitive theorists, learning constitutes a logical
method for organizing and interpreting learning. Learning is rooted in the tradition of subject
matter where teachers use a lot of problem and thinking skills in teaching learning. These are
exemplified by practices like reflective thinking, creative thinking, intuitive thinking, discovery
learning, etc.
(Activity: Discuss the contributions of Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Howard Gardner, Felder and
Silverman and Daniel Goleman to curriculum development.
3. Humanistic Psychology - concerned with how learners can develop their human potential.
Based on Gestalt psychology where learning can be explained in terms of the wholeness of the
problem and where the environment is changing and the learner is continuously reorganizing
his/her perceptions. Curriculum is concerned with the process not the products, personal needs
not subject matter; psychological meaning and environmental situations.

(Activity: Give the contributions of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers to the present field of
curriculum development.
4. Social Foundations of Education.
Schools exists within the social context.Societal culture affects and shapes schools and their
The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing. Hence, to be relevant,
the curricula should reflect and preserve the culture of society and its aspirations. At the same
time, society should also imbibe the changes brought about by the formal institutions called
(Question: A school has been using the same old curriculum it has had for the past ten years. Do
you think this is a good practice? Why? Why not?)
Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao, et. al, Loremar Pub., 2008)
Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 12:08 PM 25 comments:
Labels: foundations of education, olga alonsabe

Types of Curriculum Operating in Schools

Allan Glatthorn (2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the schools:
1. recommended curriculum - proposed by scholars and professional organizations
2. written curriculum - appears in school, district, division or country documents
3. taught curriculum - what teachers implement or deliver in the classroom and schools
4. supported curriculum - resources-textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials which support
and help in the implementation of the curriculum
5. assessed curriculum - that which is tested and evaluated
6. learned curriculum - what the students actually learn and what is measured
7. hidden curriculum - the unintended curriculum
(Activity: Visit a school of your choice. Observe and interview the appropriate persons (teachers,
students, principals)and identify the existence of the different curricula. Write specific