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Example

1: Use Bode plot to nd maximum stabilizing gain


Example: Assume that L is asymptotically stable, and assume that the
leading coefficient in the numerator of L is positive. Use the Bode plot of
1
er (s) =
L to find k > 0 such that G
1+kL(s) is asymptotically stable for
all k 2 (0, k ).
Bode Diagram
0

10

Magnitude (dB)

20

System: L
Frequency (rad/sec): 9.55
Magnitude (dB): 37.1

30
40
50
60
70
80
0

Phase (deg)

45
90
System: L
Frequency (rad/sec): 9.56
Phase (deg): 180

135
180
225
2
10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

Example 1: Solu9on

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

Example 2: Find GM, PM, and stability boundary


Example: The Bode plot below is for kL(s) where k = 10. Find the
phase margin and gain margin when k = 100. Next, find the value of
er (s) becomes unstable.
k > 0 where the closed-loop G
Bode Diagram

40
20

Magnitude (dB)

Gain margin: GM = +24

20
40
60
80
100

Gain crossover
frequency:
g = 0.25 rad/sec

120
140
90

Phase (deg)

135

Phase crossover frequency:


!p = 2 rad/sec

Phase margin:
PM = +76

180

225

270
2
10

10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

Example 2: Solu9on

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

Example 3: Design a propor9onal controller


Example: Consider the Bode plot below for G. Design a proportional
yr (s) is asymptotically stable and Pos 25.
controller k such that G
Bode Diagram

20

System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 6.8
Magnitude (dB): 17

Magnitude (dB)

20

System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 0.738
Magnitude (dB): 0.02

40

System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 15.2
Magnitude (dB): 29

60
80
100
120
140
0

Phase (deg)

45
90

System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 0.739
Phase (deg): 42.8

135
180
System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 15.2
Phase (deg): 180

225
270
2
10

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System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 6.79
Phase (deg): 135

10

10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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Example 3: Solu9on

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

Example 3: Simula9on results

Step Response

Bode Diagram

1.4

50
System: untitled1
Frequency (rad/sec): 15.2
Magnitude (dB): 11.9

Magnitude (dB)

System: untitled1
Time (sec): 0.415
Amplitude: 1.17

1.2

System: untitled1
Frequency (rad/sec): 6.83
Magnitude (dB): 0.00968

50

System: untitled1
Time (sec): 2.49
Amplitude: 0.899

Amplitude

100

150
0

0.8

0.6

Phase (deg)

45
90

System: untitled1
Frequency (rad/sec): 6.81
Phase (deg): 135

180

0.4

System: untitled1
Frequency (rad/sec): 15.2
Phase (deg): 180

135

0.2

225
270
2
10

10

10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

Bode plot of kG(s) with k = 7.1


Gain crossover frequency is
6.8 rad/s and phase margin is 45
yr asymptotically stable?
Is G
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0.5

1.5

2.5

Time (sec)

yr shows
Step response of G
approximately 30% overshoot
If 30% overshoot is not acceptable,
then we could increase phase margin
What if the settling time is too long?

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

Example 4: Design a PD controller


Example: Consider the Bode plot below for G, which is the same as the
yr (s) is
previous example. Design a PD controller such that G
asymptotically stable, Pos 25, and Ts 0.75 s.
Bode Diagram

20
System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 11.9
Magnitude (dB): 24.8

Magnitude (dB)

20
40

System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 15.2
Magnitude (dB): 29

60
80
100
120
140
0

Phase (deg)

45
90

System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 11.9
Phase (deg): 166

135
180
System: H
Frequency (rad/sec): 15.2
Phase (deg): 180

225
270
2
10

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10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)

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ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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Example 4: Solu9on page 1 of 3

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

Example 4: Solu9on page 2 of 3

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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Example 4: Solu9on page 3 of 3

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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Example 4: Simula9on results

Step Response

1.4

System: untitled1
Time (sec): 0.233
Amplitude: 1.06

1.2

System: untitled1
Time (sec): 0.798
Amplitude: 0.94

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
Time (sec)

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

yr shows approximately 13% overshoot and


Step response of G
approximately 0.6 second settling time
What if the steady-state error is too large?
December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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Example 5: Design a PID controller


Example: Consider the transfer function G from the previous example.
yr (s) is asymptotically stable,
Design a PID controller such that G
Pos 25, Ts 0.75 s, and e(1) = 0.
Bode plot of
Bode Diagram

100

s zc
s
zc = 0.1

Magnitude (dB)

80

zc = 1
zc = 10

60
40
20

Phase (deg)

0
0

45

90
3
10

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10

10

10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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Example 5: Solu9on

December 2, 2016

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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Example 5: Simula9on results

Step Response

1.4
System: untitled1
Time (sec): 0.233
Amplitude: 1.14

1.2

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.3
0.4
Time (sec)

0.5

0.6

0.7

yr shows approximately 14% overshoot,


Step response of G
approximately 0.7 second settling time, and e(1) = 0
We completed this PID design using only a Bode plot of G
If you want to check the results, G(s) =
December 2, 2016

250
(s+1)(s+10)(s+20)

ME440 - Bode Plot and Controller Synthesis - J. B. Hoagg

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