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CH-7

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M th

PROJECTILE MOTION

CHAPTER

ne
t

 projectile

s.

An object thrown into space with certain velocity, fired from a gun or dropped from a moving
plane is called projectile.

.h
on

 Trajectory of a Projectile

ey
n

ot
e

A projectile moves with a constant horizontal velocity and at the same time falls freely under
the action of gravity. The path of projectile is called trajectory.

Let a particle of mass m is projected from a point O with initial velocity v0 making an
angle with horizontal. Take O as origin and horizontal and vertical lines through O as
x-axis and y-axis respectively.

://

ht

tp

P(x, y)

v0

r

 mg j

x-axis

Suppose that after time t the particle is at point P(x, y) whose position vector is r . i.e.
r = xi + yj

dy
dr dx
j
= i +
dt dt
dt
dx
dy
j
v = i +
dt
dt

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2

dv d2 x
d2 y

=
i + 2 j
dt dt2
dt

d2 x
d2 y

a = 2 i + 2 j
dt
dt

________(i)

F =  mg j

________(ii)

The gravitational force F acting on the particle at point P(x, y) is

By Newtons 2nd law of motion


F = ma

d2 x
d2 y

= m  2 i + 2 j
dt
dt
From (ii) & (iii), we get
d2 x
d2 y

m  2 i + 2 j  mg j
dt
dt

s.
ot
e
ey
n

.h
on

d2 x
d2 y

i + 2 j 0.i  g j

dt2
dt
2
d x
d2 y

0 and
g
dt2
dt2
On integrating with respect to t, we get
dx
dy
= A and
=  gt + B
dt
dt

ne
t

________(iii)

_________(iv)

dy
= v0sin
dt

://
and

tp

dx
= v0cos
dt

Where A & B are constant of integration. To determine the value of these constant we apply
the initial conditions.
Initially at t = 0

ht

Using these values in (iv), we get


A = v0cos and B = v0sin
Using values of A & B in (iv), we get

dx
dy
= v0cos
= v0sin
and
 gt
dt
dt

________(v)

Eq(v) gives the horizontal and vertical components of velocity at any time t.
On integrating (v), with respect to t, we get

1
x =
v0cos t + C and y =
v0sin t  gt2 + D
________(vi)
2
Where C & D are constant of integration. To determine the value of these constant we apply
the initial conditions.
Initially at t = 0, x = 0 and y = 0

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3

C=D=0
Using value of C & D in (vi), we get
x =
v0cos
t

________(vii)

1
y =
v0sin
t  gt2
________(viii)
2
Equations (vii) and (viii) are parametric equations of trajectory. Now we find Cartesian
equation of trajectory.
From (vii)
x
t=
v0cos
and

Putting value of t in (viii), we get

ne
t

y = xtan


gx2
sec2
2v0 2

s.

2
1
x
x
 g

v0cos 2 v0cos

ot
e

y =
v0sin

ey
n

Which is Cartesian equation of trajectory of a projectile.

.h
on

 Vertex, Latus Rectum & Maximum Height of a Projectile

ht

tp

://

We know that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile is:


gx2
y = xtan 
sec2
2v0 2
gx2
sec2 = xtan  y

2v0 2
2v0 2
2v0 2
2

x = 
 xtan  y 

gsec2
gsec2
xv0 2 sincos 2yv0 2 cos2
2

x =

g
g
2
2yv0 2 cos2
xv0 sincos


x2 
g
g
v0 2 sincos
Adding 
 on both sides we get
g
2

2yv0 2 cos2
xv0 2 sincos
v0 2 sincos
v0 2 sincos
x 
+
 
 
g
g
g
g
2

2v0 2 cos2
v0 2 sin2
v0 2 sincos
 =
y 

x 
g
g
2g
Comparing with (x h)2 = 4a(y k), we get
2

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4

v0 2 sincos
2v0 2 cos2
v0 2 sin2
h
, 4a 
, k
g
g
2g

Thus, Vertex =
h, k 

v0 2 sincos v0 2 sin2
,

g
2g

Latus Rectum = |4a||

Height (H) = k

2v0 2 cos2
g

v0 2 sin2
2g

 Focus
v0 2 sincos
g

v0 2
sin2
2g

s.

ne
t

X-coordinate of focus = x-coordinate of vertex

ey
n

ot
e

v0 2 2sincos

2g

.h
on

1
Y-coordinate of focus = H  (Latus Rectum)
4

v0 2 sin2 1 2v0 2 cos2



 

2g
4
g

://

v0 2 sin2 v0 2 cos2


2g
2g

v0 2
v0 2

cos2  cos2 
cos2
2g
2g

ht

tp

Thus,

v0 2
v0 2
Focus =  sin2, 
cos2
2g
2g

 Equation of Directrix
Height of directrix above the x-axis is:
1
y = H + (Latus Rectum)
4
v0 2 sin2 1 2v0 2 cos2
+ 


4
g
2g

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5

v0 2 sin2 v0 2 cos2

+
2g
2g

v0 2

sin2 + cos2
2g

v0 2
2g

 Time of Flight

s.

ne
t

The time taken by the projectile in reaching the final point is called the time of flight of the
projectile. We know that parametric equation of trajectory of projectile are:
1
x =
v0cos t and
y =
v0sin t  gt2
2
To find the time of flight put y = 0

ey
n

t0

.h
on

1
v0sin  gt t = 0
2
1
v0sin  gt = 0
2
2v0sin
t=
g

ot
e

v0sin t  gt2 = 0
2

2v0sin
g

T.F =

tp

://

Thus,

ht

 Range of a Projectile
The range or horizontal range of the projectile is the horizontal distance covered by the
projectile during time of flight.
Range (R) = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Flight)
2v0sin
v2
 0 sin2
g
g


v0cos 

R will be maximum when sin2 is maximum.


i.e.

sin2 = 1

2 = sin 1(1)

2 = 900

= 450

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6

Which shows that if projectile is projected with an angle of 450 then it covers the maximum
horizontal distance.
v0 2
Thus
Rmax =
g

 Question 1
Determine the maximum possible range for a projectile fired from a cannon having muzzle
velocity v0 and prove that the height reached in this case is
v0 2
4g

ne
t

Solution
 Solution

ey
n

2v0sin
v0 2

v0cos 

sin2
g
g

ot
e

Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

s.

We know that

.h
on

R will be maximum when sin2 is maximum.


sin2 = 1 2 = sin 1(1)

2 = 900

= 450

i.e.

ht

tp

://

Which shows that if projectile is projected with an angle of 450 then it covers the maximum
horizontal distance.
v0 2
Thus Rmax =
g
v0 2 sin2
As
Height reached
2g
0
Put = 45
1 2
v0 2  
2
2
v0 sin 45
v0 2
2
Height reached


2g
2g
4g

 Question 2

What is the maximum range of possible for a projectile fired from a cannon having muzzle
velocity 1mile/sec. What is the height reached in this case.?

Solution

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7

We know that
Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)
2v0sin
v0 2

v0cos 

sin2
g
g
R will be maximum when sin2 is maximum.
i.e.

sin2 = 1

2 = sin 1(1)

2 = 900

= 450
v0 2
Rmax =
So
g
Given that
v0 = 1 mile/sec = 1760 yard/sec = 1760 3 ft/sec = 5280ft/sec
52802
Thus Rmax =
32
871200
871200 feet
mile 165 mile
5280
v0 2 sin2
As
Height reached
2g
0
Put = 45
v0 2 sin2 45
Height reached
2g
1 2
v0 2  
v0 2
2


2g
4g

://

.h
on

ey
n

ot
e

s.

ne
t

ht

tp

52802

4(32)

217800 feet

217800
mile 41.25 mile
5280

 Question 3
A cannon has its maximum range R. Prove that
(a)
(b)

the height reached is R4

the time of flight is 2Rg

Solution

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8

We know that
Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)
2v0sin
v0 2

v0cos 

sin2
g
g
R will be maximum when sin2 is maximum.

Time of Flight

ne
t

w
://

 Question 4

2Rgsin45 2Rg
2R
=
=
g
g
g2

2v0sin
g

= 450

s.

v0 2 sin2
2g

1 2
R 
Rg sin2 45
2 R


2
2g
4

We know that

ot
e

Height reached

2 = 900

ey
n

As

2 = sin 1(1)

.h
on

sin2 = 1
v0 2
Rmax =
So
g
Given that
Rmax = R
v0 2

R=
g
2

v0 = Rg

i.e.

ht

tp

A projectile having horizontal range T, reaches a maximum height H. Prove that it must
have been launched with
(a) an initial speed equal to
gR2 +16H2 

8H

(b) at an angle with horizontal given by


sin1 

4H

R2 +16H2

Solution
We know that
R = Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

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9

v0 2
v0 2 sin2
R +16H =  sin2 + 16 

g
2g
v0 4 sin4
v0 4
2
2
= 2 4sin cos + 4
g2
g
4v0 4
= 2 sin2 cos2 + sin2 
g
4v0 4 sin2
=
g2
R2 +16H2 4v0 4 sin2
g
=
8H
g2
4v0 2 sin2
2

v0 2
g
2
gR +16H2 
2
v0 =
8H

gR2 +16H2 

v0 =
8H
R2 +16H2 =

tp

://

2v0 2 sin
g
2
4H
2v0 sin2
g
=
2
g
2v0 sin
R2 +16H2
4H
4H
sin

sin1 

R2 +16H2
R2 +16H2

ht

From (i)

.h
on

ey
n

________(i)

ot
e

ne
t

Now

s.

and

2v0sin
v0 2

v0cos 

sin2
g
g
v0 2 sin2
H = Height reached
2g

 Question 5

Find the range of a rifle bullet when is the elevation of projection and v0 the speed. Show
that, if the rifle is fired with the same elevation and the speed from a car travelling with
speed V towards the target, and the range will be increased by
2v0Vsin

Solution

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10

We know that
Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

R
v0cos 

2v0sin
v0 2

sin2
g
g

When shell is fired from a car moving with velocity V towards the target then the horizontal
velocity increased by V.
i.e.

Horizontal velocity = v0cos + V

Let R be new range. Then


R = (New Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)
2v0sin

v0cos + V 

g

s.

2v0Vsin
g

v0 2
2v0Vsin v0 2
sin2 +

Vsin2
g
g
g

ey
n

ot
e

Increased in Range = R  R

.h
on

Now

ne
t

2v0Vsin
v0 2
sin2 +

g
g

 Question 6

Solution

ht

tp

://

The range of a rifle bullet is 1200yards when is the elevation of projection. Show that, if
the rifle is fired with the same elevation and the speed from a car travelling at 10 miles per
hour towards the target the range will be increased by 220tan
feet.
Given that
R = 1200yards = 1200 3 = 3600ft.
and

V = 10 mile /h
=

10 1760 3
3600

44
ft/sec
3

We know that
Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

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11

R
v0cos 
v0 2

2v0sin
v0 2

sin2
g
g

Rg
sin2

Rg
Rg
v0 

2sincos
sin2

When shell is fired from a car moving with velocity V towards the target then the horizontal
velocity increased by V.
i.e. Horizontal velocity = v0cos + V
Let R be new range. Then

ne
t

R = (New Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)

ey
n

ot
e

2v0Vsin
v0 2
sin2 +

g
g
Now

2Vsin
Rg

g
2sincos

tp

2v0Vsin
g

v0 2
2v0Vsin v0 2
sin2 +

Vsin2
g
g
g

://

.h
on

Increased in Range = R  R

s.

2v0sin

v0cos + V 

g

ht

2R
V tan
g

44 2 3600

tan
3
32
44
3

60
tan
4

220tan

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12

 Question 7
A battleship is steaming ahead with sped V and a gun is mounted on the battleship so as
the point straight backwards, and is set at an angle of elevation . If v0 is the speed of
projection (relative to the gun), show that the range is
2v0
sin

v0 cos
 V
g
Also prove that the angle of elevation for maximum range is

cos

1

4v0

$
#

ne
t

Solution

"

V +V2 + 8v0 2

Let R be the range. Then

ot
e

Horizontal velocity = v0cos  V

ey
n

i.e.

s.

When shell is fired from a battleship moving ahead with velocity V towards the target which
is behind the battleship then the horizontal velocity decreased by V.

R = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)


2v0sin

g

.h
on


v0cos  V 

2v0sin

v0cos  V
g
Differentiating w.r.t , we get
dR 2v0
%cos
v0cos  V & sin
v0sin '

g
d

tp

2v0
(v0cos2  Vcos  v0sin2 )
g

ht

://

2v0
(v0cos2 sin2   Vcos)
g

2v0
*v0 cos2 
1 cos2  Vcos+
g

2v0
%2v0cos2  Vcos  v0'
g

2v0
%v0
2cos2  1  Vcos'
g

Differentiating again w.r.t , we get


d2 R 2v0
%4v0cossin + Vsin'

g
d2

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13


Putting

2v0
sin%V  4v0cos'
g

dR
= 0, we get
d
2v0
%2v0cos2  Vcos  v0' 0
g

2v0cos2  Vcos  v0 0

cos =

At

V V2 + 8v02
4v0

cos =

V + V2 + 8v02
4v0

d2 R
V + V2 + 8v02
So
< 0 at cos =
4v0
d2

s.
ot
e

2v0
sin *V2 + 8v02 +
g

ey
n

ne
t

V + V2 + 8v02
d2 R 2v0

sin -V  4v0
.
g
d2
4v0

.h
on

V + V2 + 8v02
Which shows that R is maximum at cos =
.
4v0
Thus the angle of elevation for maximum range is given by

://

V + V2 + 8v02
1
0
4v0

tp

cos

1

ht

 Question 8

A shell bursts on contact with the ground and pieces from it fly in all directions with all
speeds up to 80feet per seconds. Prove that a man 100 feet away is in danger for 5
2
seconds.

Solution
We know that
Rage = (Horizontal Velocity)(Time of Fight)
2v0sin

v0cos 

g
v0 2
sin2

g

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14

Given that
R = 100ft, v0 = 80ft/sec and g = 32ft/sec2
So

802
100 =
sin2
32

100 =

sin2 =

6400
sin2
32
1
1
2 = sin1   2 = 30, 150 = 15, 75
2
2

For the range of 100ft. there are two angles of projection. Let T1 and T2 be the times of the
flights respectively. Then

ne
t

2v0sin15
2v0sin75
and T2 =
g
g

s.

T1 =

T2

750

T1

150
100ft.

ht

tp

://

.h
on

ey
n

2v0sin75 2v0sin15

g
g
2v0

sin75  sin15
=
g
75 + 15
75  15
2v0
=
2cos 
 sin 

g
2
2
2v0
2cos45sin30
=
g
5
4(80) 1 1
  =
sec
=
32 2 2
2
=

ot
e

Let T be the maximum time of danger for the man. Then


T = T2 T1

 Question 9

A number of particles are projected from the same point at the same instant in various
directions with speed v0. Prove that at any subsequent time t, they will be on a sphere of
radius v0t and determine the motion of the centre of the sphere.

Solution
Let a particle moving with velocity v0 makes an angle . Let after time t a particle is at a
point P(x, y, z). Then
x = (v0cos)t
y = (v0sin) t

1 2
1
gt y + gt2 = (v0sin) t
2
2

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15

z=0
Squaring and adding we get
1 2 2 2
x +  y + gt  + z =
(v0cos)t 2 +
(v0sin)t 2
2
2

= v0 2 t2 cos2 + sin2 
=
v0 t 2

Which is a sphere of a radius v0t centered at 0,  2 gt2, 0 . Since the centre lies on the
1

vertical axis and as t increases centre descends under gravity along vertical axes.

ne
t

 Question 10

ey
n

ot
e

g a2 + h2  h

s.

Prove that the speed required to project a particle from a height h to fall a horizontal
distance a from the point of projection is at least

.h
on

Solution

v0

://

ht

tp

P(a, h)

Let O be the point of the projection from where the projectile is projected. Let v0 be the
velocity making angle with horizontal. Let h be the height of the point of the projection O
and projectile fall a distance a from O. Let it falls at a point P, therefore the coordinates of P
are (a,  h).
We know that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile is:
gx2
y = xtan 
sec2
2v0 2

Since P(a,  h) lies on it, therefore


ga2
sec2
 h = atan 
2v0 2

 2v0 2 h = 2av0 2 tan  ga2 1 & tan2 

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16

ga2 tan2  2v0 2 xtan + ga2  2v0 2 h = 0

Since it is coodratic in tan and tan is real therefore discriminate is greater than zero.
i.e.
b2 4ac 0

4a2 v0 4g2 a4  8gha2 v0


4

v0 4 + 2ghv0 2 g2 a2

v0 2 + gh 3 g2 a2 & h2 

v0 4 g2 a2  2ghv0 2

v0 4 + 2ghv0 2 +
gh 2 g2 a2 +
gh 2

v0 2 + gh g2 a2 & h2 


v0 2 ga2 & h2  gh

ne
t

2av0 2 3 4
ga2
ga2  2v0 2 h

v0 g a2 & h2  h

s.

2av0 2 3  4
ga2
ga2  2v0 2 h 0

ot
e

ey
n

Hence the least velocity of projection is

.h
on

v0 = g a2 & h2  h

 Question 11

tp

://

A projectile is launched at an angle from a cliff of height H above the see level. if it falls
into the sea at a distance D from the base of the cliff, prove that the maximum height above
sea level is
D2 tan2
4
H + Dtan

ht

H+

Solution

v0

D
H

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P(D, H)

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17

Let O be the point of the projection from where the projectile is projected. Let v0 be the
velocity making angle with horizontal. Let H be the height of the point of the projection O
and projectile fall a distance D from O. Let it falls at a point P, therefore the coordinates of P
are (D,  H).
Let h be the height above the x-axis then
v0 2 sin2
2g
We know that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile is:
h=

y = xtan 

________(i)

gx2
sec2
2v0 2

Since P(D,  H) lies on it, therefore

v0

s.
ot
e

gD2
Dtan + H =
sec2
2v0 2
gD2
=
2
H + Dtan cos2

Using value of v0 2 in (i), we get

D2 tan2

= 
4
H + Dtan

.h
on

sin2
gD2

h= 
2
H + Dtan cos2 2g

ey
n

gD2
sec2
2v0 2

ne
t

 H = Dtan 

://

Height above sea level = H + h

ht

tp

D2 tan2
H+
4
H + Dtan

 Question 12
A ball is dropped from the top of a tower of height h. At the same moment, another ball is
thrown from a point of the ground at a distance k from the foot of tower so as to strike the
first ball at the depth d. Show that the initial speed and the direction of projection of the
speed ball are respectively
g h 2  k 2 
h

and tan 1  
2d
k

Solution

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18

I
P

hd

v0

II O

ne
t

Let the first ball is dropped from the height h and it strikes the second ball at the depth d at a
point P whose coordinates are (k, h d).

1 2
gt
2

ot
e

x = ut +

s.

We know that

ey
n

For 1st ball, x = d and u = 0


1 2
gt
2
For 2nd ball parametric equations are
x = (v0cos)t

y = (v0sin)t 

________(i)

.h
on

and

d=

So

://

tp

k = (v0cos)t

h  d = (v0sin)t 

ht

and

1 2
gt
2
Since P(k, h d) lies on it therefore

______(ii)

1 2
gt
2

______(iii)

Adding (i) and (iii), we get


h = (v0sin)t

______(iv)

Squaring (ii) and (iv) then adding, we get

h2 + k2 =
(v0sin)t 2 +
(v0cos)t 2

= v02 t
sin2 + cos2 = v02 t2
2

= v0 2

v0

2d
g

gh2 + k2 

2d

By(i)

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v0 

gh2 + k2 
2d

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19

From (ii) & (iv), we have


tan =

h
k

h
= tan1  
k

 Question 13

From a gun placed on a horizontal plane, which can fire a shell with speed 2gH, it is
required to thro a shell over a wall of height h, and the elevation of the gun cannot exceed
< 450. Show that this will be possible only when h < Hsin2, and that, if this condition
be satisfied, the gun must be fired from within a strip of the plane whose breadth is
4cos
H
Hsin2  h

Solution

ey
n

ot
e

s.

ne
t

.h
on

v0

://

O

Let AC be a wall of height h and particle be projected at O with speed v0 making an angle .

ht

tp

Then v0 = 2gH (given)


Now for a shell to cross the wall, the height of the wall is less than the height of vertex.
v0 2 sin2
2g

i.e.

h <

2gHsin2
h <
2g

h < Hsin2

 v0 = 2gH

Which is required.
We know that the Cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile is:
y = xtan 

gx2
sec2
2v0 2

Putting y = h and v0 = 2gH, we get

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20

x2
h = xtan 
sec2
4H

4hH = 4xHtan  x2 sec2

x2 sec2  4xHtan + 4hH 0

x2  4xHtancos2 + 4hHcos2 0

x2  4xHsincos + 4hHcos2 0

x=

4Hsincos 16H2 sin2 cos2  4


1 (4hHcos2 )
2

4Hsincos 16H2 sin2 cos2  16hHcos2


=
2

Thus

s.
ot
e

ey
n

= 2Hsincos 2cosH2 sin2  hH

ne
t

4Hsincos 4cosH2 sin2  hH


=
2

OB = 2Hsincos + 2cosH2 sin2  hH

Hence the breadth of the strip is:

.h
on

OA =2Hsincos  2cosH2 sin2  hH

ht

tp

://

OO = AB = OB OA = 4cosH2 sin2  hH

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21

 Question 14
A shell fired with speed V at an elevation , hits an airship at height H,, which is moving
horizontally away from the gun with speed v0. Show that, if

2Vcos
 v0 V2 sin2  2gH = v0 Vsin

The shell might also have hit the air ship if the latter had remained stationary in the position it
occupied when the gun was actually fired.

Solution

ot
e

s.

ne
t

.h
on

ey
n

We know that

://

by hell to reach height H.

Let A be the position of airship when shot was fired and it hit plane at B. If t is the time taken

1 2
gt
2

H = (Vsin)t 

1 2
gt
2

ht

tp

y = (v0sin)t 

Putting v0 = V, = and y = H, we get

2H = (Vsin)t  gt2

gt2  (Vsin)t & 2H = 0

t=

2Vsin 4V2 sin2  8Hg


2g

Vsin V2 sin2  2Hg


g

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22

Let t1 and t2 be the time taken by the shell to reach the point A and B respectively. Then

t1 =

Vsin  V2 sin2  2Hg

and t2 =

Vsin +V2 sin2  2Hg


g

Let T be the time taken by the shell from A to B. Then


T = t2 t1

2V2 sin2  2Hg

Vsin  V2 sin2  2Hg


g

g
|AB| = Distance covered by shell

ne
t

Now

Vsin +V2 sin2  2Hg

= (Horizontal Velocity)(Time)

s.
ot
e

2VcosV2 sin2  2Hg

______(i)

.h
on

Now

ey
n


Vcos

2V2 sin2  2Hg

|AB| = Distance covered by airship

= (Velocity)(Time) = v0t2

tp

From (i) and (ii), we get

ht

2VcosV2 sin2  2Hg


g

______(ii)

://

v0 Vsin +V2 sin2  2Hg

v0 Vsin +V2 sin2  2Hg


g

2VcosV2 sin2  2Hg v0 Vsin + v0 V2 sin2  2Hg

v0 Vsin = 2VcosV2 sin2  2Hg  v0 V2 sin2  2Hg


v0 Vsin =
2Vcos  v0 V2 sin2  2Hg

Which is required.

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23

 Question 15
An aeroplane is flying with constant speed v0 and at constant height h. Show that if, a gun
is fired point blank at the aeroplane after it has passed directly over the gun when its angle
of elevation as seen from the gun is , the shell will hit the aero plane provided that
2
Vcos
 v0 v0 tan2 = gh

Where V is the initial speed of the shot, the path being assumed parabolic.

Solution
B

ne
t

s.

ey
n

ot
e

Let A be the position of plane when shot was fired and it hit plane at B. Let v0 be the speed of
plane.
From fig.

Horizontal coordinate of B = OD

(  S = vt)

.h
on

AB = v0t

= OC + CD

://

= OC + AB

 AB = v0t

_____(i)

ht

In AOC

tp

= OC + v0t

 AB = CD

AC
= tan
OC
h
h
= tan OC
OC hcot
OC
tan

Using value of OC in (i), we get

Horizontal coordinate of B = hcot + v0t


Thus coordinates of B are (hcot + v0t, h)
The parametric equations are:
x = (v0cos)t

y = (v0sin)t 

1 2
gt
2

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24

Here v0 = V therefore
x = (Vcos)t

______(ii)

y = (Vsin)t 

1 2
gt
2

______(iii)

Since B lies on the trajectory therefore x = hcot + v0t and y = h


Using x = hcot + v0t in (ii), we get
hcot + v0t = (Vcos)t

hcot = (Vcos)t  v0t

t=

hcot = (Vcos  v0)t


hcot
Vcos  v0

ne
t

Using y = h in (iii), we get

= (Vsin) Vcos  v 
hcot

g Vcos
2
1

 v0

hcot

ot
e

s.

1 2
gt
2

ey
n

h = (Vsin)t 

ghcot2 = 2
Vcos
Vcos  v0  2
Vcos  v0 2

://

2
Vcos  v0 2 = 2
Vcos
Vcos  v0  hgcot2
ghcot2 = 2
Vcos  v0
Vcos  Vcos + v0

tp

2
Vcos
h
cot
  g

1 =
Vcos  v0
2 Vcos  v0

ht

.h
on

2
Vhcos
1
hcot
=
  g

Vcos  v0
2 Vcos  v0

gh = 2v0
Vcos  v0 tan2

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25

 Parabola of Safety
A parabola which touches the every trajectory of a projectile which is formed inward for
different value of angle of projection with same initial velocity v0 is called parabola of safety.
y

ey
n

ot
e

s.

ne
t

Parabola of safety

ht

tp

://

.h
on

Equation of trajectory of a parabola is:


gx2
sec2
y = xtan 
2v0 2
gx2

1 + tan2

y = xtan 
2v0 2
gx2
gx2

tan2

y = xtan 
2v0 2 2v0 2
gx2
gx2
2

tan  xtan +  2 + y = 0
2v0 2
2v0
This equation is quadratic in tan. For envelope put discriminate of equation equal to zero.
i.e.
b2 4ac = 0
gx2
gx2

x2  4  2   2 + y = 0
2v0
2v0
g
gx2 + 2v0 2 y

1  2  2 
=0
v0
2v0 2
gx2 + 2v0 2 y
=1

g
v0 4
v0 4
2
2

gx + 2v0 y =
g
v0 4

gx2 =  2v0 2 y +
g

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26

2v0 2 y 2v0 4

x = 
+
g
2g2
2v0 2
v0 2
2

x = 
y 

2g
g
Which is the equation of parabola of safety.
2

 Question 16
2ga of which the vertical component is V. Show that at time t = 2a/V the particle is on a
fixed parabola (parabola of safety), that its path touches the parabola, and that its direction of
motion is then perpendicular to its direction of projection.

A particle is projected at time t = 0 in a fixed vertical plane from a given point O with speed

ne
t

Solution

v0 2
2v0 2
y 

x = 
g
2g
2

2ga
22ga
x = 
7y 
8
g
2g
=  4a
y  a

.h
on

ey
n

We know that the equation of parabola of safety is:

ot
e

s.

Given that v0 = 2ga and V = v0sin

_______(i)

______(ii)
______(iii)

tp

Let P(x, y) be a point on trajectory then


x = (v0cos)t

ht

://

Which is the equation of the parabola of safety.

y = (v0sin)t 

At t =

2a

ii becomes
V

x = (v0cos)
= (v0cos)

1 2
gt
2

2a
V

2a
v0sin

x = 2acot

At t =

______(iv)

2a

iii becomes
V

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27

2a
1 2a 2
y = (v0sin)
 g 
V
2 V
= (v0sin)

2a
1
2a 2
 g

v0sin
2 v0sin

1
2a
= 2a  g 

2 2ga sin

= 2a  a cosec 2

______(v)

Thus the coordinates of P are (2acot, 2a  a cosec 2 )


Putting (iv) and (v) in (i), we get

ne
t
s.

a2 cot2 = a2
cosec 2  1
a2 cot2 = a2 cot2

ot
e

4a2 cot2 =  4a
a  acosec 2

L.H.S = R.H.S

ey
n

2acot 2 =  4a
2a  a cosec 2  a

.h
on

Thus P(x, y) lies on the parabola of safety. So at t = 2a/V this trajectory touches the parabola
of safety.
Differentiate (ii) & (iii) w.r.t t, we get

At t =

://

v0 sin  gt
v0 cos

ht

dy dy dx
= :
dx dt dt

tp

Now

dy
dx
= v0 cos and
= v0 sin  gt
dt
dt

2a
V

2a
dy v0 sin  g V
=
dx
v0 cos
=
=

Vv0 sin  2ag


Vv0 cos

v0 sin v0 sin  2ag

v0 sin v0 cos

 V = v0 sin

2gasin2gasin  2ag
2gasin2gacos

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 v0 = 2ga

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28

2agsin2  2ag
2agsincos

= 

1  sin2
sincos

cos2
= 
sincos
=  cot

This is the slope of the tangent at t = 2a/V


Since

dy
= tan
dx

Where is inclination of the tangent at P(x, y). Then

ne
t
s.

= 900 +

ot
e

tan =  cot tan(900 + )

ey
n

Thus at t = 2a/V, its direction of motion is perpendicular to the direction of projection.

.h
on

 Range of a Projectile on Inclined Plane

tp

://

P(x, y) = (rcos, rsin)

ht

So

Let a plane be inclined at an angle to the horizontal. Let a particle is projected from point O
with velocity v0 by making an angle to the horizontal with < . Let the projectile meet
the inclined plane at a point P(x, y). Then OP = r is called the range of projectile on inclined
plane.
Then x = rcos and y = rsin

P(x, y)
r

v0

rsin

rcos

Equation of the trajectory is:


gx2
sec2
y = xtan 
2v0 2

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29

Since P lies on it therefore

gr2 cos2 2
rsin = rcostan 
sec
2v0 2

grcos2
sincos  cossin
=
2v0 2 cos2
cos

grcos2
= sin

2v0 2 cos

r=

ne
t

sin
grcos2
=
cos
 sin
2v0 2 cos2
cos

2v0 2
cossin

gcos2

s.

Since sin( + )  sin(  ) = 2cossin


Replacing by  , we get

ot
e

grcos2
= costan  sin
2v0 2 cos2

.h
on

sin(2  )  sin() = 2cossin(  )

From (i) and (ii), we get

____________(i)

ey
n

grcos2
sin = costan 
2v0 2 cos2

___________(ii)

v0 2 sin(2  )  sin
r=
cos2
g

Which is the range of a projectile on an inclined plane.

tp

://

Range will maximum if sin(2  ) = 1

2  = sin 1(1)

ht

2 = + 900

= + 450
2

Thus,
r<=> =
=

v0 2 1  sin


g
cos2

v0 2 1  sin


g 1  sin2

1  sin
v0 2
v0 2

=
g
1 + sin
g
1  sin
1 + sin

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30

 Question 17
A fort and a ship are both armed with guns which give their projectiles a muzzle velocity
2gk, and the guns in the fort are at a height h above the guns in the ship. If d1 and d2 are
the greatest horizontal ranges at which the fort and ship, respectively, can engage, prove
that
d1
k+h
=
kh
d2

Solution

ot
e

s.

ne
t

ey
n

v0

.h
on

d2

://

Let S be ship and F be fort. Let fort makes angle with x-axis. i.e. ASF = . Let SF = r
Since d2 is greatest horizontal range for gun in the ship so r is the maximum range on inclined
plane with inclination . Then
v0 2
g
1 + sin

ht

Put v0 = 2gk

tp

r=

r=

2gk
g
1 + sin

2k r + rsin

From fig.

h = rsin

2k r + h

r 2k h

Also from fig.

r2 = h2 + d2 2

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31

2k h 2 = h2 + d2 2

4k2 + h2  4hk = h2 + d2 2

d2 2 4k2  4hk 4k
k  h

_______(i)

For a gun in fort, change h to h

d1 2 4k
k + h
From (i) and (ii), we get
d1 2
d2

4k
k + h
4k
k  h

ne
t

d1
k+h

d2
kh

s.

_______(ii)

ot
e

 Question 18

.h
on

ey
n

A shell of mass m1 + m2 is fired with a velocity whose horizontal and vertical components
are u, v and at the highest point in its path the shell explodes into two fragments m1, m2.
The explosion produces additional kinetic energy E, and the fragments separate in a
horizontal direction. Show that they strike the ground at a distance apart which is equal to

V
1
1
2E   
g
m1 m2

Solution

_______(i)

ht

tp

u = v0cos

://

Let v0 be the velocity of the projection. then by given conditions

v = v0sin

______(ii)

At the highest point, there is only horizontal velocity u. Let v1 and v2 be the velocities of m1
and m2 respectively at the time of explosion. Then by law of conservation of momentum.
m1v1 + m2v2 = (m1 + m2)u

u=

m 1 v1 + m 2 v2
m1 + m2

_______(iii)

Now
Increase in K.E. = K.E. after explosion K.E. before explosion

1
1
1
E =  m1 v1 2 + m2 v2 2   
m1 + m2 u2 
2
2
2

2E = m1 v1 2 + m2 v2 2 
m1 + m2 u2

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32

2E = m1 v1 + m2 v2

m 1 v1 + m 2 v2 2

m1 + m2 

m1 + m2

By (iii)

2
m1 + m2 E =
m1 + m2
m1 v1 2 + m2 v2 2 
m1v1 + m2v2 2

= m 1 2 v1 2 + m 1 m 2 v2 2 + m 2 m 1 v1 2 + m 2 2 v2 2  m 1 2 v1 2  m 2 2 v2 2

 2m1 m2 v1 v2

= m1 m2 v2 2 + m2 m1 v1 2  2m1 m2 v1 v2
= m1 m2
v2 2 + v1 2  2v1 v2
2
m1 + m2 E
m1 m2

1
1
v2  v1 2E   
m1 m2

ne
t

v2  v1 3

s.

= m1 m2
v2  v1 3

ot
e

Which is relative velocity of m1 + m2.


1
(Time of flight)
2
1 2v0 sin
v0 sin
= 
=
2
g
g
v
=
By (ii)
g

.h
on

Time =

ey
n

Now the time taken by pieces to touch the ground is given by:

tp

://

Distance Apart = (Relative velocity)(Time)


v

v2  v1
g

ht

v
1
1
2E   
g
m1 m2

Which is required.

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33

 Question 19 (Speed of projectile)


Show that least speed with which a particle must be projected so that it passes through two
points P and Q at height hP and hQ respectively is:
ghP + hQ + PQ

Solution
y

Directrix

s.

ne
t

y=

v0 2
2g

.h
on

ey
n

ot
e

hP

hQ

ht

From fig.

tp

Let S be the focus.

://

LM = LP + PM

v0 2
= hP + PM
2g

_________(i)

RN = RQ + QN

v0 2
= hQ + QN
2g

_________(ii)

Adding (i) and (ii), we get


v0 2
= hP + hQ + PM + QN
g

v0 2 = ghP + hQ + PM + QN
= ghP + hQ + PS + QS

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By focus-directrix property

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34

v0 = ghP + hQ + PS + QS

v0 is least when PS + QS is least, which is least when S lies on PQ. i.e. when
PS + QS = PQ
Hence

v0 min = ghP + hQ + PQ

ht

tp

://

.h
on

ey
n

ot
e

s.

ne
t

%%%%% End of The Chapter # 7 %%%%%

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