Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Technical Paper

BR-1868

B&W PGG IR-CFB: Operating


Experience and New Developments

Authors:
M. Maryamchik
D.L. Wietzke
Babcock & Wilcox
Power Generation Group , Inc.
Barberton, Ohio, USA
Presented to:
21st International Fluid Bed
Combustion Conference
Date:
June 3-6, 2012
Location:
Naples, Italy

B&W PGG IR-CFB: Operating Experience and New


Developments
M. Maryamchik
D.L. Wietzke
Babcock & Wilcox
Power Generation Group
Barberton, Ohio, USA

BR-1868

Presented at:
21st International Fluid Bed Combustion Conference
Naples, Italy
June 3-6, 2012

Abstract
The paper provides an update on B&W PGG Internal
Recirculation Circulating Fluidized Bed (IR-CFB) boiler
operating experience, new commercial projects and developments in boiler design and process.

Background
This paper presents Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation
Group, Inc. (B&W PGG) experience on subcritical pressure
IR-CFB boilers with typical steam/water circuitry. The
circuit begins with an economizer that exits to the steam
drum. Water from the drum feeds the natural circulation
furnace enclosure and division wall circuits. Steam from the
drum exits to the horizontal convection pass enclosure. The
steam then flows to in-furnace wing walls, exits to pendant
superheater surface, then exits the boiler. In IR-CFB designs
with reheat, pendant reheat surface will also be located in
the horizontal convection pass.
On the flue gas side of B&W PGG IR-CFB boilers, a
two-stage solids separator is featured. The primary stage is
an impact solids separator located at the furnace exit collecting the bulk of the solids (95 to 97%) that are then returned
to the furnace by gravity. The primary separator is arranged
as an array of U-shaped vertical elements (U-beams). The
secondary separation stage, typically a multi-cyclone dust
collector (MDC), is located in the lower gas temperature
region of the boiler convection pass, i.e., 480 to 950F (250
to 510C).
The U-beam separator design has evolved through
several generations (Fig. 1), starting with 11 rows installed
externally to the furnace with solids recycle through nonmechanical, controllable L-valves, to the current design
Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group

featuring a total of 4 rows, two of which are located in the


furnace. While each U-beam in earlier designs was made as
a single piece hung from the top, the current design consists
of segments, each being supported independently from a
water-cooled tube (Fig. 2).
During the same period, the design of the MDC separator has been improved for better efficiency, reliability and
maintainability. The MDC solids recycle system has evolved
from dense-phase pneumatic transport to gravity conveying.

Fig. 1 U-beam separator design generations.


1

High solids collection efficiency


The collection efficiency of the two-stage solids separator is intrinsically high due to the greater efficiency of the
MDC. Higher solids collection efficiency helps to achieve
greater inventory of fine circulating particles in the furnace
that provides: a) higher furnace heat transfer rate, b) better
control of furnace temperature, and c) better carbon and
sorbent utilization due to the increased residence time of
fine particles.

Controlled furnace temperature


The furnace temperature is controlled in response to load
changes and variations of fuel and/or sorbent properties
by controlling the solids recycle rate from the MDC. The
recycle rate at high boiler loads is set to achieve the upper
furnace density required to maintain the target furnace temperature. At low loads, the recycle rate directly controls the
dense bed temperature.

Low auxiliary power


The auxiliary power requirement is lower for impact
separator-type boilers since the total pressure drop across the
two-stage separator (U-beams + MDC) is only 4 in. wc. (1
kPa). In addition, high-pressure air blowers for fluidization
of returning solids are not needed.

Uniform gas flow


The gases exiting from the furnace to the U-beam
separators positioned across the furnace width provide for
a uniform two-dimensional gas flow pattern. This allows
placement of in-furnace heat transfer surfaces as needed
over the entire furnace height and width, including the region
adjacent to the rear wall in the upper furnace. Selection of
the furnace height can be based on combustion and sulfur
capture considerations rather than heating surface requirements. Combined with high collection efficiency of the twostage solids separator, this allows reduced furnace height.
Fig. 2 Segmented U-beam particle separators.

Operating experience of IR-CFB boilers has clearly


confirmed their efficient performance and high reliability
and availability.

Design Features
The design of a solids separator is the core of CFB
combustion technology since it has a major impact on the
boiler layout, cost, fuel and sorbent utilization, operational
flexibility and reliability. B&W PGG CFB boilers with twostage solids separation provide the following design features
that positively benefit each of these key parameters.

High solids separator reliability


U-beams and MDC have high reliability and low maintenance since they do not include any maintenance-intensive
components such as refractory, solids return seal, expansion
joints, vortex finders, etc. The U-beam design has evolved
through 25 years of operating experience with updates and
improvements. The current designs have proven to require
essentially no maintenance, with the u-beams typically lasting for 20 years or longer. Throughout this time, U-beams
do not indicate any erosion. This is attributed to low gas
velocity, not exceeding 26 ft/sec (7.8 m/sec), along with
downward falling ash particles within the u-beam channel
serving to capture incoming particles. Thus, solids collection occurs primarily as ash contacting other ash particles,

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group

not ash contacting metal. MDC internals made of ceramics have now been in use for 11 years with essentially no
maintenance.

Minimal refractory use


The amount of refractory used in B&W PGG CFB boilers
is 80 to 90% less than that used for similar capacity CFB
boilers with non-cooled hot cyclones and 40 to 50% less
than CFB boilers with cooled cyclones. The start-up time
for B&W PGG CFB boilers is not limited by the rate of
temperature rise of the refractory; instead it is limited by
adding heat to the pressure parts, like all other non-fluid
bed boiler technologies.

Low maintenance
A distinct feature of B&W PGG IR-CFB boilers is low
maintenance. Among the factors contributing to this feature are: low overall amount of refractory, lower furnace
refractory interface Reduced Diameter Zone (RDZ) design
(Fig. 3), low furnace exit velocity, and an absence of hot
expansion joints.

Dynamic load change


Dynamic load change response is achieved due to the
absence of massive refractory and the ability of furnace
inventory adjustment using variable ash recycle rate from
the MDC.

Wide turndown ratio


A wide turndown ratio (5:1) without auxiliary fuel is
possible due to the selection of furnace velocity and controllable solids recycle.

Fig. 3 Reduced Diameter Zone (RDZ) design for erosion


protection at the upper refractory edge.

Operating Experience
This paper continues updating long-term availability of
CFB units supplied by B&W PGG (Table 1, and previously
highlighted in the 2005 paper by Maryamchik and Wietzke),
and B&W PGGs licensee in India, Thermax Limited (Table
2). B&W PGG has a longstanding relationship with Thermax Limited, Pune, India, through licenses of industrial
boilers, CFB boilers and subcritical utility boilers. Thermax
Limited has been very active in the CFB market and has
successfully sold 49 CFBs in India and 4 CFBs outside
India. Twenty of these units are in commercial operation,
while the rest are in various stages of design, fabrication,
construction and commissioning.

Table 1
Plant Availability (all data in % of total time available)

Table 2
Plant Availability (all data in % of total time available)

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group

Table 3
Recent B&W PGG CFB Boiler Experience
Steam
Flow
KPPH
TPH

Op.
Pressure
psig
bar

Steam
Temp
Deg F
Deg C

Fuels

386
175

1595
110

1007
542

Indian coal, Indonesian coal,


Petcoke, Lignite

Lic.

253
115

1595
110

1007
542

Indian coal, Imported coal,


Petcoke

Lic.

Lic.

364
165

1595
110

1007
542

Indian coal, Wood dust, ET


sludge

Rohit Ferro-tech
Jaipur, Orissa, India

Lic.

Lic.

331
150

1595
110

1008
542

Indian coal, Washery rejects,


Char

2012

Simadhri Steel
Andhra Pradesh, India

Lic.

Lic.

463
210

1595
110

1007
542

Coal, Washery rejects

2012

Suryadev Alloys &


Power, Phase 2
Gummidipoondi,
Tamilnadu, India

Lic.

Lic.

727
330

1595
110

1607
875

Indonesian coal, African coal,


Indian coal, Char, Petcoke

2012

Ultratech Cements
Rawan, India

Lic.

Lic.

298
135

1624
112

1004
540

Indian coal, Washery rejects,


Petcoke

2012

Ultratech Cements, Ltd.


Rajashree, Kamataka,
India

Lic.

Lic.

253
115

1624
112

1007
542

Indian coal, Washery rejects,


Petcoke

2012

Vicat Sagar Cements


Gulbarga, Karnataka,
India

Lic.

Lic.

287
130

1291
89

959
515

Imported coal, Indian coal

2012

Wonder Cement
Udaipur, Rajasthan,
India

Lic.

Lic.

353
160

1523
105

995
535

F Grade coal, Petcoke

2011

Arkansas River Power


Authority
Lamar, CO, USA

B&W
PGG

B&W
PGG

125

360
163

1586
109

990
532

Coal

2011

Meenakshi Power
Andhra Pradesh, India

Lic.

B&W/
Lic.

374
(w/ RH)

1091/886
495/402

2020/378
139/26

1004/1004
540/540

Indonesian & Indian coals

2011

Jaiprakash Associates
Churk, UP, India

Lic.

Lic.

180

551
250

1595
110

1004
540

Coal, Washery rejects, Petcoke

2011

My Home Cement
Andhra Pradesh, India

Lic.

Lic.

173

529
240

1580
109

1004
540

Coal, Washery rejects

2011

Bajaj Hindustan, Ltd.


Uttar Pradesh, India

Lic.

Lic.

137

417
190

1580
109

1004
540

Coal

2011

Longulf Yemen Sugar


Company
Yemen

Lic.

Lic.

69

187
85

943
65

905
485

African coal

2010,
2011

National Cement
Company
Yemen

Lic.

Lic.

52

159
72

1276
88

968
520

African coal

2010,
2011

Indian Metals &


FerroAlloys
Choudwar, Orissa,
India

Lic.

Lic.

173

529
240

1450
100

1004
540

Coal, Washery rejects

Startup
Year

Customer and
Plant Location

Mfg by

Eng by

No. of
Units

2012

Grasim Industries
Bharuch, Gujarat, India

Lic.

Lic.

2012

India Cements,
Vishnupuram, AP,
India

Lic.

2012

JK Paper
Rayagada, Orissa,
India

2012

Output
MWt

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group

Customer and
Plant Location

Mfg by

Eng by

No. of
Units

Output
MWt

Steam
Flow
KPPH
TPH

Op.
Pressure
psig
bar

Steam
Temp
Deg F
Deg C

Fuels

2010,
2011

Kamachi Sponge & Iron


Chennai, India

Lic.

Lic.

109

331
150

1378
95

959
515

Coals, Char, Washery rejects,


Petcoke

2011

Great River Energy


Spiritwood, ND

B&W

B&W

275

805
365

1780
123

1006
541

Lignite

2011

Bhubaneshwar Power
Orissa, India

Lic.

Lic.

606
275

1378
95

1007
542

Coal, Washery rejects

2011

Pasupata Acrylon Ltd.


Kashipur, India

Lic.

Lic.

110
50

972
67

914
490

Rice husks, Coal

2011

Suryadev Alloys &


Power, Phase 1
Cummidipoondi,
Tamilnadu, India

Lic.

Lic.

727
330

1595
110

1004
540

Indonesian coal, African coal,


Indian coal, Char, Petcoke

2011

Welspun
Anjar, Gujarat, India

Lic.

Lic.

771
350

1595
110

1008
542

Indonesian coal, Indian coal,


Lignite, Petcoke

Lic.

Lic.

89

242
110

928
64

905
485

Coal, Washery rejects

Startup
Year

ACC
2010

Chanda, Maharashtra,
India

2008,
2009

Altratech Cements,
Ltd. Hirmi, Chattisgarh,
India

Lic.

Lic.

83

254
115

1415
97

1004
540

Coal, Petcoke, Washery rejects

2009

BILT Power
Ballarshah, Maharashtra, India

Lic.

Lic.

128

353
160

943
65

896
480

Indian & imported coals, Bamboo dust, Sludge

2009

AG Processing, Inc.
Hastings, Nebraska

B&W

B&W

87

300
136

150
10

1006
541

PRB coal

2009

Aluminum do Norte do
Brazil, SA
Alunorte

Lic.

B&W/
Lic.

270

750
340

1325
91

909
487

Bituminous coal (high volatile);


Light oil (diesel) for startup

2009

GHCL, Ltd.
Veraval, Gujarat, India

Lic.

Lic.

89

276
125

1508
104

950
510

Indonesian coal, Lignite,


Petcoke

2008

UltraTech Cement, Ltd.


Maharashtra, India

Lic.

Lic.

83

253
115

1435
99

1004
540

Indian coal, Washery rejects

2008

Grasim Cement
AP, India

Lic

Lic

83

254
115

1415
97

1004
540

Coal, Lignite, Petcoke

2008

Grasim Industries, Ltd.


Rawan, Chihatisgarh,
India

Lic.

Lic.

83

254
115

1415
97

1004
540

Coal, Petcoke, Washery rejects

2008

Saurashtra Cement
Gujarat, India

Lic

Lic

80

242
110

1250
86

968
520

Coal, Lignite, Petcoke

2008

UltraTech Cement, Ltd.,


Hirmi, CG, India

Lic

Lic

83

254
115

1415
97

1004
540

Coal, Petcoke, Washery rejects

2008

Grasim
Industries
Kotputli, Rajasthan,
India

Lic

Lic

73

224
102

1400
96

1004
540

Coal, Lignite, Petcoke

2006

Indian Rayon & Ind.


Veraval, Gujarat, India

Lic

Lic

76

231
105

1280
88

950
510

Lignite, Petcoke,
Indonesian coal, Oil, Gas

2005

Kanoria Chemicals, Ltd.


Renukoot, UP, India

JV

JV

89

242
110

972
67

905
485

High ash coal

2004

Konya Sugar Corporation, Cumra, Turkey

Lic

B&W/Lic

55

165
75

622
43

806
430

Lignite

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group

New Commercial Projects


Successful operation of the existing B&W PGG CFB
units is accompanied by a substantial increase in the number
of new units coming online in recent years (Table 3). Two
of the units (AGP and Alunorte) featuring the latest design
of the U-beam particle separator (Fig. 2) are in commercial
operation. The design and performance characteristics of
these units were described in an earlier paper (Maryamchik,
2008). Previous CFB-related technical papers by B&W PGG
are available on the companys web site at: http://www.
babcock.com/library/tech-fluidbed.html.
The highest capacity IR-CFB units are sold for Meenakshi Power in Krishnapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The
units are designed for firing Indian and Indonesian coals
(moisture = 25 to 45%, ash = 5 to 19%, sulfur = 0.6 to 0.7%,
HHV = 5700 to 8600 Btu/lb). The main boiler performance
characteristics are provided in Table 4 and its arrangement
is shown in Fig. 4.
The furnace and horizontal convection pass enclosure
are top-supported and made of gas-tight membrane walls.
Fuel is fed to the lower furnace through the front wall using air-assisted chutes. Limestone is injected pneumatically
through multiple points uniformly across the width of the
furnace near the bottom. Startup fuel (light diesel oil) is
fired using burners mounted on the rear wall. Separate fans
supply primary and secondary air. The bulk of the primary
air is introduced through a grid of bubble caps at the furnace
floor. The main portion of the secondary air is fed through
nozzles at the front and rear furnace walls. Bottom ash is
removed through fluidized-bed coolers.
The furnace contains full-height water-cooled panels,
or division walls, and steam-cooled wing walls. The lower
furnace is protected from erosion and corrosive conditions
by a layer of low-cement, high-strength refractory. The
membrane tubes at the upper edge of this refractory are
protected from erosion by the patented Reduced Diameter
Zone (RDZ) design (Fig. 3).
The U-beam particle separator (Fig. 2) system is comprised of four rows (two in-furnace and two external) of
U-beams. Each beam consists of about 4 ft (1.2 m) segments
supported from a water-cooled tube. The design allows independent thermal expansion of each segment. The U-beam
segments are made of stainless steel material, which has
proved suitable for U-beam fabrication in previous B&W
PGG CFB projects. Solids collected by the U-beams fall

Fig. 4 General arrangement of 150 MW Meenakshi Power


CFB boiler.

along the beams and return to the furnace directly (from the
first U-beam row) or by sliding along the U-beam zone floor.
Superheater and reheater banks are located downstream of
the U-beams followed by the economizer.
The second stage of the solids collection system, a
multi-cyclone dust collector (MDC), is located immediately
downstream of the economizer followed by the tubular air
heater. The air heater is a gas-through-tube type and is sidesplit for primary and secondary air. After the air heater, gas
flows through an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and an
induced draft (ID) fan to a stack.
Solids collected by the MDC are recycled back to the
furnace through recycle lines utilizing conveyors and gravity
feed. Controlling the MDC solids recycle rate allows precise
and effective furnace temperature control.
Because the fuel specified for this project features relatively low ash and low sulfur content, solids input with the
fuel ash and limestone may not be sufficient for maintaining
the furnace solids inventory required for furnace temperature control. Therefore, the unit is equipped with an inert
bed material feed system. This system allows the input of
inert bed material to the furnace as directed by the boiler
controls. To minimize, or eliminate, the need for external bed

Table 4
Meenakshi CFB Performance Characteristics per Project Specification

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group

material, e.g., sand, the inert bed system includes recycle of


the bottom ash as well as MDC and air heater hopper purge
back to the inert bed silo, from where the bed material is
metered to the furnace.

New Developments in B&W PGG CFB


Design
300 MW IR-CFB boiler
With a two-year proof of successful commercial operation
of key design features, the latest IR-CFB design is being
expanded to higher capacity boilers (Fig. 5). The 300 MW
IR-CFB boiler features a top-supported furnace and horizontal convection pass enclosure made of gas-tight membrane
walls. The furnace is 30 ft (9.2 m) deep, 84 ft (25.6 m) wide
and 120 ft (36.6 m) high. It contains full height water-cooled
panels, or division walls (~1/3 depth of the furnace), and
steam-cooled wing walls. All other design features are the
same as the lower capacity B&W PGG IR-CFB boilers.

U-Beams

Conclusion
Highlighted operational experience, commercial activity
and technical developments illustrate the status and trends
of B&W PGG IR-CFB technology.

References
M. Maryamchik and D.L. Wietzke, Proceedings of 18th
International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion,
ASME, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 22-25, 2005, FBC
2005-78004.
M. Maryamchik, Proceedings of the 9th International
Conference on Circulating Fluidized Beds, Hamburg, Germany, May 13-16, 2008.
S.P. Ganehsan, M. Maryamchik and D.L. Wietzke, Proceedings of the 2010 PowerGen India Conference, New
Delhi, India, April 21-23, 2010.
M. Maryamchik and D.L. Wietzke, Proceedings of the
2010 Coal-Gen Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, August 10-12, 2010.

Final Superheat
Cold Reheat
Hot Reheat

Multi-Cyclone
Dust Collector
(MDC)

Wing
Walls

Economizer
Division
Walls
Air
Heater

Fuel
Feed
Ports

MDC
Recycle
Ports

Fig. 5 General arrangement of 300 MW IR-CFB boiler.


Copyright 2012 by Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc.
a Babcock & Wilcox company
All rights reserved.
No part of this work may be published, translated or reproduced in any form or by any means, or incorporated
into any information retrieval system, without the written permission of the copyright holder. Permission requests should be addressed to: Marketing Communications, Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc.,
P.O. Box 351, Barberton, Ohio, U.S.A. 44203-0351. Or, contact us from our website at www.babcock.com.

Disclaimer

Although the information presented in this work is believed to be reliable, this work is published with the
understanding that Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W PGG) and the authors are supplying
general information and are not attempting to render or provide engineering or professional services. Neither
B&W PGG nor any of its employees make any warranty, guarantee, or representation, whether expressed or
implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, product, process or apparatus discussed in this work; and neither B&W PGG nor any of its employees shall be liable for any losses or
damages with respect to or resulting from the use of, or the inability to use, any information, product, process
or apparatus discussed in this work.

Centres d'intérêt liés