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SummaryforALSAConferenceSingapore2014

AirPollutionLawinIndonesia
NadziraBoenjamin,ALSANCIndonesia
AirpollutionisoneofthefrequentenvironmentalissuesinAsia.Airpollution
occurswhenairgotcontaminatedwithpollutantssuchasgases,dust,alsopoisonous
andtoxicfumesinharmfulamountthatcouldendangerhumanhealth.However,the
dischargeofairpollutants isinevitableinthis21st century.Thereleaseofcarbon
emissions from vehicles is one of the examples where air pollution will only be
sanctionedifacertainamountisdischarged.Inconsequencetothat,therehasbeen
thorougheffortbymanycountries,suchasIndonesia,totackletheissue.Byusing
legal instrument, Indonesia had attempted to minimize the negative impact of air
pollution.The1945ConstitutionandpolicyregulationsinIndonesiaacknowledgethe
importanceofenvironmentforthewelfareofthepeople.
ThepolicyregulationsthatcontrolsairpollutionarenotlimitedtoLawNo.23
year1997onEnvironmentalManagementwhichhasnowbeenreplacedbyLawNo.
32year2009andGovernmentRegulationNo.41year1999onairpollutioncontrol.
Butitalsoincludesconstructionandsectoralregulationshaveaneffectonthesizeof
polluter andthedivisionofauthorityacrosssectors,aswellregulations regarding
localgovernmentsthatdividethecrossregionalauthority.Thespecificdomesticlaw
onairpollutionthatisgoingtobediscussedinthispaperistheEnvironmentallawin
Indonesia,LawNo.32/2009andGov.RegulationNo.41/1999.
Indonesianlawisstructuredinalegalorder.The1945Constitutionasthe
highest law in Indonesian legal order serves as set of rules for the government.
Through Article 33 (3) The 1945 Constitution formally admits the importance of
environment for the collective welfare, thus it needs to be managed by the
government.Furthermore,Article28Hstates(1)Eachpersonhasarighttoalifeof
wellbeing in body and mind, to a place to dwell, to enjoy a good and healthy
environment,andtoreceivemedicalcare.Withtheexistenceofthisarticle,this
meansthateveryIndonesiancitizenallentitledtoagoodandhealthyair.Therefore,
thecleanandhealthyairmustbeavailableabsolutely.

ThemodernenvironmentallawinIndonesiadevelopedsincetheearly1980s
with the establishment of Law No. 4/1982 regarding the Principal Provisions of
EnvironmentalManagementthatbecametheumbrellaprovisionsfortheenvironment
protectioninIndonesia.Asthislawisconsideredtobeinsufficientforpreventing
pollutionandenvironmentaldestructionthusthegovernmentdecidedtoissueLaw
No. 23/1997 on Environmental Management. With the deficiencies in Law No.
23/1997,itisthenrefinedagainwiththeestablishmentofLawNo.32/2009onthe
ProtectionandManagementoftheEnvironment.Article1ofLawNo.32/2009the
defineprotectionandmanagementoftheenvironmentas:
Systematicandintegratedeffortsbeingmadetopreservethefunctionofthe
environmentandpreventpollutionand/ordamagetotheenvironmentwhich
includes the planning, use, control, maintenance, supervision and
enforcement.
The existence of this law is should be able to improve the effectiveness of
environmentalprotection inIndonesiaincludingairpollutionduetothefollowing
provisionsthatcomeswithseveralobligationsandpenalties:
1. Comprehensivedivisionoftasksandresponsibilitiesbetweenthecentral,
localandmunicipalgovernmentsasarticulatedinArticle63
2. Central and local government obligation to carry out strategic
environmentalassessment(KLHS)asarticulatedinArticle15
3. Administrative and criminal sanctions for government officials due to
negligence in performing tasks related to environment protection and
managementstatedinArticle93,111and112.
4. Criminalpenaltiesshallbeimposedtoanypersonwhoviolatesemissions
standardsandinterferencewiththreeyearsimprisonmentandamaximum
fine of three billion rupiah if they keep breaking after administrative
sanctionisimposed,orforoffensescommittedmorethanonceaccording
toArticle100.
ThenextspecificdomesticlawthatisgoingtobediscussedisGovernment
Regulation (PP)No.41/1999about AirPollution Control. PP No.41/1999is the
highestregulationinIndonesiathatspecificallyarticulatesAirPollutionControlin
Indonesia. PP No. 41/1999 consists of 9 chapters that contain several provisions.
Chapter(i)isthegeneralprovisionthatcontainsseveraldefinitionandobjectivesof

air pollution control in Indonesia. Article 2 stated that air pollution control in
Indonesiaisdonebyemissionsourcecontrol,inordertopreventthedeclineinquality
ofairambient.Chapter(ii)isaboutBasisprotectionofambientairquality,which
consistsofambientairqualitystandard,thestatusofambientairquality,emission
standards,emissionsstandards,gasemissionlimitandthePollutantStandardsIndex.
Theobligationsineffectareaddressedinseveralchaptersofthegovernment
regulation,suchasChapter(iii)regardingairpollutioncontrol,includingthepollution
preventive mechanisms and precautionary approach, air quality restoration and
emergencyresponse.Chapter(iv)isaboutmonitoringofthepartyresponsibleforthe
business and/or activities that can cause air pollution. The authority is given to
MENLH and in the era of regional autonomy left to the Governor, Regent, and
Mayor. These three officials may establish supervisory authorities. Chapter (v)
financing,theproducerisrequiredtobearallcoststhatariseduetoeffortstocontrol
airpollutantemissions.Chapter(iv)isabouttheobligationofpartythatemittedair
pollutantstopaycompensationtothedisadvantagedparties.Chapter(vii)Criminal
sanctionscanbeimposedontheemitterwhoviolatesemissionlimits.Thetwolast
chaptersaddressestransitionalprovisionsandclosingprovision.
Air pollution happening in one country might also spread to neighboring
countries.AnexampleofthishappenedduringwhentheforestfiresstrikesIndonesia
duringthedryseason,orcausedbyslashingandburningtreesasamethodtoclear
andopenlandforplantations.Asaresulttotheseforestfiresistheemergenceof
haze. The wind carries the haze across borders and spreads it to the territory of
neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. The occurrence is called
transboundary haze pollution. That is why it is important for the national
environmental law in Indonesia to consider pollution effects on other countries
because transboundary haze pollution might occur. The implementation of
Indonesias consideration regarding pollution effects on other countries is seenin
elucidationofArticle9andArticle22ofPPNo.41/1999.
In order to diminish transboundary haze pollution, cooperation between
countrieshasshownitsbesteffortinfindingsolutiontotheproblem.TheAssociation
ofSoutheastAsianNations(ASEAN)articulatedsomeconcretemeasurestoimprove
regional cooperation on transboundary pollution embodied in the 1995 ASEAN

Cooperation Plan on Transboundary Pollution that has no legal binding effect.


ASEANalsoembraceaZeroBurningPolicyinyear1999toabolishpracticesof
burning foragriculture landclearance. Inorderforthe policy tobeeffective, the
ASEANmembercountriesneedtoimplementitintheirrespectivenationallaws.In
reality,itisnoteasytoovercomethechallengeswithinASEANcountriestofully
implementthispolicy.
On June 10 2002 in Kuala Lumpur, 10 ASEAN governments signed the
ASEANAgreementonTransboundaryHazePollution.Theagreementfocusesonthe
preventionandmonitoringoftransboundaryhazepollutionthatresultedfromforest
fires through national efforts and international cooperation. The formation of an
ASEANCoordinatingCenterforTransboundaryHazePollutionthatwillfacilitate
regionalantihazeefforts,resourceallocationandcarryouttaskascentralfocalpoint
foremergencyresponsewasalsomadeintheagreement.Theagreementalsoledto
the creation of ASEAN Transboundary Haze Pollution Control Fund in order to
providefundingfortheimplementationoftheagreement.Contributiononthefundis
decidedonvoluntarybasis.
TheagreementcommencesonNovember252003,howeverIndonesiaisthe
onlymembercountrythathasnotratifiedthetreaty.ItisimportantforIndonesiato
signthetreatyinordertostrengthenthecooperationamongcountriesinmitigating
transboundaryhazepollutionbecausethemostimportantprincipleoftheagreementis
preventivemechanismsandtheprecautionaryapproach.Asacountry,Indonesiahas
thesupremacytoexploititsparticularresourcesbutIndonesiastillneedtosustainthe
responsibilityofensuringthatsuchactivitieswithinitsjurisdictiondonotdestroythe
environment and harm the human health of other countries or areas outside the
nationaljurisdiction.Thusthepenaltiesachieveshallbeunderdeterrencebecausethe
aimofthepunishmentisintendedtomakethepartychoosenottocommitthecrime
ratherthanexperiencethepunishment.Itisimportantforenvironmentalpunishment
tobeunderdeterrencereasonratherthanretributioninordertopreventpeoplefrom
harmingtheenvironmentinthefirstplace.
Howeveritholdstruethattheenforcementoflawisthebiggerproblem.From
thedomesticside,thereisstilllackofmonitoringfromthegovernmentregarding
foreign and domestic companies that emits air pollutants beyond certain amount.

From the international treaty, there is still lack of cooperation among member
countriesinimplementingtheagreement.Inconclusion,transboundaryhazepollution
couldberesolvedbyjointresponsibilitybetweenASEANcountries.Everymember
countriesshouldsignthetreatyandeverymembercountriesshallratifyitinorderto
buildstrongercooperationinmitigatingtransboundaryhazepollution