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RI 6.

6-Author's Purpose [1373713]


Student
Class
Date
Read the following and answer the questions below:
Careful! Earthworms Underfoot
Careful! Earthworms Underfoot
by Jan Suszkiw
A soil scientist for the past 25 years, Dr. Dennis Linden knows a thing or two about earthworms.
Sure, he knows worms are good for gardens and farmland. By tunneling through soil, they bring in
oxygen, drain water and create space for plant roots. Like many people, he also knows worm casts
(manure) are rich in nutrients.
Linden works at ARS Soil and Water Management Research Lab in St. Paul, Minn. There, he is literally
unearthing important clues farmers can use to get the most from their lands earthworm population.
Along the way, hes come across some less well-known facts about these helpful creatures, such as how
well they adapt to different soils and temperatures.
Two good examples are species of Aporrectodea and Lumbricus [say, Apor-wreck toadeea, and Lum
brick-us].
When temperatures drop or soils get too warm or dry, these worms know what to do. If it starts getting
chilly, they may tunnel deep into the soil before it hardens. They may also coil into a slime-coated ball and
go into a sleep-like state called estivation. Its something like a hibernating bear.
One winter day, Linden chipped away at a frozen patch of soil to check on these slimy, sleeping beauties.
I found them curled up in a tight little ball with a layer of mucus around them, says Linden. Theyre
very well adapted. Theyll survive in frozen or dry soils by estivation and come back when conditions
improve.
This adaptability is one reason why species of Aporrectodea and Lumbricus are the most common in
North America.
But it may surprise you to know that neither is originally from this country. Scientists believe the worms

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probably were brought here from Europe by settlers. Most likely they came with the settlers in ship
ballast,* seed stock, potted plants and who knows what else, says Linden.
Once in the New World, as it was called then, these stowaway worms grew used to the new soils,
climate and plant life. And, they began to spread. In fact, scientists believe the stowaways may have edged
out native worm species from the choicest food and soils.
One modern-day descendant is the nightcrawler. Widespread throughout North America today,
nightcrawlers are among the countrys largest worms, reaching 8 inches or more.
They are also really fast.
Youve probably discovered this first-hand if youve tried to nab one peeking out of its hole.
Nightcrawlers spend a lot of their time on the soil surface getting a snack. So speed is important if they
are to escape watchful birds and other hungry predators.
Night crawlers are important to agriculture. But is a bigger worm better than a smaller one, like the
common grey, when it comes to mixing soil or making more nutrient-rich casts for plants?
Not in my opinion, says Linden. I think it has little to do with the size of the worm. But theres some
disagreement on the topic, he adds.
Each species is different, he says, with different strengths, weaknesses and roles to play in agriculture.
Now, if youre going fishing, a plump, juicy nightcrawler may be the way to go. Linden admits to
occasionally baiting a hook with the hefty wriggler: Ive used nightcrawlers and redworms.
*ballast:

heavy objects carried by ships to give them balance and stability

Careful! Earthworms Underfoot. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/kids/soil/story2/goodworm.htm


(02/27/2013).

1.

What is the authors purpose in interviewing Dr. Linden?


A. to show that scientists are studying worms
B. to explain the clues scientists have found
C. to prove that the authors facts are true
D. to give information from a real expert

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2. Based on the selection, how does the author view earthworms?


A. helpful and adaptable
B. tough but interesting
C. necessary but slimy
D. fast and aggressive

3. Which sentence from the selection shows that the author wishes to inform readers about
earthworms?
A. Linden works at ARS Soil and Water Management Research Lab in St. Paul, Minn.
B. Scientists believe the worms probably were brought here from Europe by settlers.
C. I think it has little to do with the size of the worm.
D. Now, if youre going fishing, a plump, juicy nightcrawler may be the way to go.

4. How does the last paragraph help to convey the authors purpose?
A. by helping the reader learn the many uses of earthworms
B. by showing that the author and the expert love fishing
C. by helping the reader feel a connection to the expert
D. by showing that even scientists can have hobbies

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5. Which statement contributes to the overall purpose of this selection?


A. A soil scientist for the past 25 years, Dr. Dennis Linden knows a thing or two about
earthworms.
B. Theyll survive in frozen or dry soils by estivation and come back when conditions improve.
C. You've probably discovered this first-hand if youve tried to nab one peeking out of its hole.
D. Linden admits to occasionally baiting a hook with the hefty wriggler: Ive used nightcrawlers
and redworms.

6. How does the authors style help support the purpose of the selection?
A. The author uses quotations to inform the reader.
B. The author uses scientific language to entertain the reader.
C. The author writes casually and directly to engage the reader.
D. The author writes about personal experience to involve the reader.

Read the following and answer the questions below:


The Arts in France
The Arts in France
The Lumire brothers invented the motion picture in 1895. Today, France produces more films than any
other country in Europe. Going to the movies is increasingly popular with young people who love
American films. The Palais du Festival in Cannes on the Croisette is the worlds most famous movie
festival.
French music is well known all over the world. Composers like Berlioz, Debussy, and Ravel are

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appreciated for their harmonies. Bizets Carmen is the most frequently performed and filmed opera.
There is a music to suit every taste, from French songs interpreted by artists like Piaf, Trenet, Montand,
and Aznavour to rock bands and rappers. In Paris, opera lovers have two theaters to go to: the Opra
Garnier, built in the 19th century, and the Opra Bastille, built in 1989.
In painting, the most innovative* styles started in France. Impressionists like Renoir, Cubists like Braque,
and Fauves like Matisse painted and signed huge canvases that are now known all over the world. There
were other masters, tooVan Gogh, Picasso, Miro, Modiglianiwho chose France as their land of
inspiration.
French literature is one of the most appreciated in the world. Authors like Molire, Racine, Hugo,
Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Saint-Exupry, Malraux, and Yourcenar have been translated into every language.
The book Notre-Dame de Paris is the best-known work of Victor Hugo. It was made into an animated film
by Walt Disney called The Hunchback of Notre Dame.
*innovative:

7.

creative
Which sentence from the selection conveys the authors attitude?
A. The Lumire brothers invented the motion picture in 1895.
B. French music is well known all over the world.
C. In painting, the most innovative styles started in France.
D. The book Notre-Dame de Paris is the best-known work of Victor Hugo.

8. How does the paragraph structure help to accomplish the authors purpose?
A. The paragraphs move from the least persuasive to most persuasive reasons for liking French art.
B. Each paragraph informs the reader about the arts in a different region of France.
C. Each paragraph informs the reader about a different type of French art.
D. The paragraphs move from older forms to new forms of art in France.

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9. How is the authors point of view conveyed in the selection?


A. The author uses information from historical figures to support the main ideas.
B. The author uses positive language and popular opinion to describe art history.
C. The author uses examples of art and artists that have had an international impact.
D. The author uses specific works of art from around the world to compare to French art.

10. How does the tone of the selection communicate the authors perspective on French art?
A. The informal and excited tone encourages the reader to visit the cities of France.
B. The informal and approving tone communicates the authors admiration and respect.
C. The formal and calm tone encourages admiration for the uniqueness of Frances style.
D. The neutral and detached tone makes the reader uninterested in Frances accomplishments.

11.
Which phrase supports the authors claim that France enjoys influence in the movie industry?
A. invented the motion picture in 1895
B. the worlds most famous movie festival
C. going to the movies is increasingly popular
D. young people who love American films

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