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Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) or stroke occurs due to brain cell death

caused by impaired blood flow to the brain. In many cases resulted in


permanent disability to the sufferer (American Heart Association (AHA)),
2009).
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) is a disorder of oxygen supply to the cells nerve se that can be caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
(Brunner and Sudart, 2002).
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) is a brain injury associated with cerebral
blood flow obstruction. Stroke may be due to the formation of brain / sector in
cerebral arteries, due to embolus flowing to the brain from elsewhere to the
body or a brain hemorrhage (Corwin, 2001).Pathophysiology of
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
Cerebral function depends on the distribution of oxygen and glucose to the
brain. However, oxygen and glucose will not be stored in the brain. Thus, the
brain needs a steady supply of oxygen and glucose continuously. If the supply
of oxygen and glucose is suspended, then the cells in the brain will die.
Stroke is classified into two: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
1. ischemic stroke
a. Thrombotic Strokes
b. Embolic Stroke
2. Hemorrhagic Stroke
a. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
b. Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Five signs or symptoms that can be recognized by the American Heart
Association and American Stroke Association :
1.
In sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm, or leg, especially on one
2.

side of the body.


Suddenly there is chaos or disruption of speech or comprehension

3.
4.

abilities.
Sudden disruption seeing in one or both eyes.
Tib occur suddenly trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or

5.

coordination.
In sudden severe headaches with unknown causes (American Stroke

Assocition, nd.).
Risk factors of Cerebrovascular Accident ( CVA ) can be modified
1. High blood pressure
2. Smoke
3. Diabetes mellitus
4. Atrial fibrillation
5. Physical inactive and obesity
Risk factors of Cerebrovascular Accident ( CVA ) can not be modified
1. Age
2. Gender
1

3. Heredity and race


4. Prior stroke

Dianostic test of Cerebrovascular Accident ( CVA )


CT scan
Electrocardiograph (ECG)
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Carotid Doppler

CVA or commonly known as the stroke occurs as a result of brain cell death
caused by impaired blood flow to the brain. Stroke caused by the supply of
oxygen and glucose to the brain is stopped for a while, so that the cells in the
brain death. Based on the cause, strokes are classified into two: ischemic
stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic strokes occur as a result of the blood
supply to the brain is not smooth. Ischemic stroke is subdivided into two
thrombolytic stroke and stroke embolic. While hemorrhagic stroke caused by
a rupture of a blood vessel that causes blood passes into the brain tissue and
does not experience the ride after the location of ruptured blood vessels.

Based on the statement above, nurses have to understand the nursing process
for the patient with stroke. Besides that, they have to know the way educating
the patient so that people who is at risk in stroke will be able to improve their
life style.