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Chapter 3: Texas in the Federal System

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The Supreme Court in Shelby County v. Holder (2013) ruled all of the following EXCEPT that
a. the coverage formula used to determine which jurisdiction had engaged in egregious voting
decisions was outdated.
b. the outdated coverage formula was an intrusion on states rights.
c. Congress must update the coverage formula.
d. states were now free to pass laws affecting voting without Justice Department approval.
e. Texas had to rewrite its voter ID law.
ANS: E
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing

2. ________ percent of the worlds population lives in the countries that are organized around a federal
principle where there is a national government and regional government.
a. Ten
d. Forty
b. Twenty
e. Ninety
c.
Thirty
ANS: D
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Applying

3. Congress gained the power to tax income through


a. the Seventeenth Amendment.
d. the Sixteenth Amendment.
b. the Tenth Amendment.
e. coercive federalism.
c.
the New Deal.
ANS: D
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Remembering

4. Both federal and state governments obtain sovereignty directly from


a. the Treaty of Versailles.
d. block grants.
b. the consent of the people.
e. the Divine Right of Kings.
c.
the Declaration of Independence.
ANS: B
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating

5. A defining characteristic of federalism is that


a. rather than being held exclusively or primarily by one body, governing authority is divided
at different levels among several bodies.
b. the federal government wields ultimate authority in all matters.
c. state governments can nullify the exercise of unpopular federal laws within their own
states boundaries.
d. state governments exist primarily to enact laws established by the national government.
e. the federal government cannot pass any laws without the explicit consent of the majority of
state governments.
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Remembering

6. Which amendment was commonly referred to as the States Rights Amendment?

a. the Tenth Amendment


d. the Sixteenth Amendment
b. the Seventeenth Amendment
e. the Ninth Amendment
c.
the Nineteenth Amendment
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Applying

7. During the Nullification Crisis in 1833, South Carolina tried to assert the right to veto (or
nullify)
a. national legislation passed by Congress.
b. actions taken by the North Carolina and Georgia militias.
c. Supreme Court rulings.
d. presidential cabinet appointments.
e. terms of office for U.S. senators and representatives.
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Understanding

8. In the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Chief Justice John Marshall argued that
a. state governments had the power and the duty to protect their citizens from onerous federal
legislation.
b. although the federal government could create a national bank, it could not shield the banks
branches from taxation by the governments of the states in which the branches were
located.
c. although a national bank would have been an effective means with which the federal
government could regulate the economy, it was not the only means available and therefore
did not meet the requirement of the necessary and proper clause.
d. the federal government had the right to charter a national bank, and that state governments
had no right to impede its functions through taxation.
e. the will of the people, as expressed through the actions of their state governments, must
always take precedence over the whims of the more distant national governing officials.
ANS: D
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing

9. In his famous landmark cases, Chief Justice John Marshall generally


a. supported the authority of the federal government over that of state governments.
b. enhanced the power of state governments over that of the federal government.
c. maintained that the powers of the state and federal governments were identical and
inseparable.
d. held that no restraints could be placed on a government that derived its authority from the
consent of the majority of its citizens.
e. contended that the Supreme Court had no authority to adjudicate in interstate or intrastate
affairs.
ANS: A
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing

10. In the case of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court decided that
a. states retained full authority to regulate commerce within their own borders and among
their immediate neighbors.
b. the federal government had authority to regulate only international commerce, not
interstate commerce.
c. the federal government had authority to regulate only interstate commerce, not
international commerce.

d. the federal governments authority to regulate international and interstate commerce


bestowed on it some power to regulate intrastate commerce.
e. the federal governments limited ability to regulate interstate commerce was sharply
curtailed by a narrow definition of commerce.
ANS: D
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing

11. Which Supreme Court case in 1869 voted Texass secession from the Union?
a. Texas v. White
d. Texas v. Perry
b. Texas v. Marshall
e. Texas v. Wilson
c.
Texas v. Chase
ANS: A
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Applying

12. According to the Tenth Amendment, any powers not delegated to the national government by the
Constitution
a. can be claimed by the national government as necessary.
b. belong exclusively to the people.
c. belong exclusively to the states.
d. are denied to both the national government and the states.
e. belong to either the people or the state.
ANS: E
DIF: Difficult
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing

13. Which of the following styles of federalism characterized the immediate preCivil War era?
a. creative federalism
d. devolution
b. dual federalism
e. cooperative federalism
c.
new federalism
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering
14. To which court case did the U.S. Supreme Court apply the dual federalism perspective when it ruled
that state officers did not have to pay a federal income tax because such a tax would interfere with the
autonomy of states?
a. Collector v. Day
b. Gibbons v. Ogden
c. Texas v. White
d. McCulloch v. Maryland
e. New State Ice Company v. Liebmann
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering
15. Dual federalism is also known as
a. layer-cake federalism.
b. cooperative federalism.
c.
coercive federalism.

d. marble-cake federalism.
e. New Federalism.

ANS: A
DIF: Easy
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time

STA: 2

MSC: Applying

16. Under the New Deal, federalism is frequently described as


a. New Federalism.
d. dual federalism.
b. coercive federalism.
e. layer-cake federalism.
c.
cooperative federalism.
ANS: C
DIF: Easy
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating
17. For eligible participants, the Social Security Act of 1935 instituted all of the following EXCEPT
a. a national retirement pension for the elderly.
b. unemployment insurance for the unemployed.
c. universal health care for all Americans.
d. aid for the blind and disabled.
e. aid for impoverished elderly persons.
ANS: C
DIF: Easy
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating
18. During which of the following presidents administration did the federal governments power,
especially with regard to the economy, increase the most?
a. Theodore Roosevelt
d. Franklin Roosevelt
b. Woodrow Wilson
e. Ronald Reagan
c.
Andrew Jackson
ANS: D
DIF: Medium
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering
19. In Wickard v. Filburn, the Supreme Court decided that
a. Congress had improperly used the interstate commerce clause.
b. Congress had no authority to regulate commerce.
c. not only could Congress regulate interstate commerce but it could regulate anything that
affected prices and market conditions.
d. Roscoe Filburn was right and he was to be paid $117.11 by the federal government.
e. the New Deal was not subject to any constitutional limitations.
ANS: C
DIF: Medium
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Applying
20. The use of block grants, allowing states considerable leeway in how federal money is spent, was
championed by President ________ under the name New Federalism.
a. Clinton
d. Nixon
b. Wilson
e. Obama
c.
Johnson
ANS: D
DIF: Medium
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering

21. A federal program that gives a state government federal funds to address a specific need but gives the
state wide latitude in deciding how the funds will be spent is known as a(n)
a. categorical grant.
d. formula grant.
b. block grant.
e. unfunded mandate.
c.
program grant.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Understanding
22. Which of the following requires state governments to spend their own money to meet standards
imposed on them by the federal government?
a. categorical grants
d. formula grants
b. block grants
e. unfunded mandates
c.
program grants
ANS: E
DIF: Easy
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering
23. The supremacy clause, stipulated in Article VI of the Constitution, holds that
a. in a conflict between federal and state laws, the former will override the latter.
b. in the federal system established by the Constitution, the true source of sovereignty is in
the people.
c. federal laws will be supreme in the national sphere and state laws will be supreme in local
affairs.
d. as a sovereign institution, the only limits that the federal government need obey are ones
that it establishes for itself.
e. despite temporarily sacrificing certain powers to the federal government, the state
governments remain sovereign entities.
ANS: A
DIF: Medium
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Applying
24. In general, Governor Perrys position on Obamacare
a. is that it is an unconstitutional, overly broad exercise of Congress power to regulate
interstate commerce.
b. is that it is fully supported under the interstate commerce clause.
c. is that it is justified under the precedent set in Wickard v. Filburn (1942).
d. is that it can be properly defended under the Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
e. remains unclear, as Governor Perry generally takes a pragmatic approach to social
legislation and withholds judgment, depending upon the programs effectiveness.
ANS: A
DIF: Medium
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating
25. Until a national database was created, background checks under the Brady Act were
suspended following the Supreme Courts ruling in
a. United States v. Lopez.
d. South Dakota v. Dole.
b. Gonzales v. Raich.
e. Wickard v. Filburn.
c.
Printz v. United States.
ANS: C

DIF: Medium

REF: Coercive Federalism

OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Applying
26. Which of the following theories about the applicability of the Bill of Rights to the states can be said to
have emerged victorious?
a. the No Incorporation theory
b. the Selective Incorporation theory
c. the Total Incorporation theory
d. the Total Incorporation Plus theory
e. the Partial Incorporation theory
ANS: B
DIF: Difficult
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating
27. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
a. invalidated the state-imposed racial segregation in Texas.
b. validated the election of State Board of Education members.
c. overturned the Brown v. Board of Education U.S. Supreme Court case of 1954.
d. was reinforced by Edgewood ISD v. Kirby.
e. validated the Texas state-imposed racial segregation in public schools.
ANS: E
DIF: Medium
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating
28. The legal doctrine at issue in the Plessy v. Ferguson case is the
a. separate but equal doctrine.
d. supremacy clause.
b. privileges and immunities clause.
e. doctrine of eminent domain.
c.
hold and save harmless doctrine.
ANS: A
DIF: Medium
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Understanding
29. The U.S. Supreme Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in
a. Gilmer v. Aikin.
d. Roe v. Wade.
b. San Antonio v. Rodriguez.
e. Brown v. Board of Education.
c.
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby.
ANS: E
DIF: Easy
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Understanding
30. In the Brown v. Board of Education case, segregated school districts were ordered to
a. double the funding for African American integrated schools.
b. desegregate their schools within the next 10 years.
c. desegregate their schools with all deliberate speed.
d. appoint a commission to study the Texas school system and make recommendations to the
governor.
e. redraw school district lines to improve funding for all schools on a more equitable basis.
ANS: C
DIF: Difficult
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering

31. In Plyler v. Doe, the Supreme Court held that Texas may not deny a free public education to the
children of illegal aliens. How did the Court justify its decisions?
a. The statute lacked a rational basis.
b. Alienage is a suspect classification and Texas could not show it had a compelling interest.
c. Education is a fundamental right and Texas could not show that the statute was narrowly
tailored.
d. The Court held for the aliens on procedural grounds.
e. The Court found that funding for schools came from both the state and federal
governments and it was based on the number of students enrolled.
ANS: A
DIF: Difficult
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating
32. ________ provide(s) states constitutional protections that go above rights guaranteed by the U.S.
Constitution.
a. The Fourteenth Amendment
d. The Tenth Amendment
b. The Fifteenth Amendment
e. Intermediate standard of review
c.
Independent state grounds
ANS: C
DIF: Difficult
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing
33. As federal regulations became more intrusive, forcing states to change their policies in order to meet
national goals, some people began calling our system a ________ federalism.
a. sovereign
d. coercive
b. dual
e. utopian
c.
progressive
ANS: D
DIF: Easy
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Evaluating
TRUE/FALSE
1. Federal laws provide the regulation for birth, death, marriage, divorce, and most crime and
punishment.
ANS: F
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing

2. The Constitution was created out of a fear of disunity.


ANS: T
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Remembering

3. Under the Articles of Confederation, states played a primary role in governing Americans, while the
national government had very limited powers.
ANS: T
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Understanding

4. During the Nullification Crisis of 1833, South Carolina and several northern states attempted to nullify
key provisions of Franklin Delano Roosevelts New Deal.
ANS: F
DIF: Medium
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing

5. The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prevents state governments from imposing cruel and
unusual punishments.
ANS: F
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Applying

6. Replacing the Articles of Confederation in 1787, the new U.S. Constitution allowed both the federal
government and state governments to retain significant measures of sovereignty.
ANS: T
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Applying

7. The Great Depression of 1929 was the catalyst that led many Americans to support the New Deal.
ANS: T
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Remembering

8. The Tenth Amendment is also known as the states rights amendment.


ANS: T
DIF: Easy
OBJ: Understand federalism

REF: Understanding Federalism


STA: 2
MSC: Remembering

9. One advantage that a federal system has over a highly centralized government is that it allows states to
experiment with ways to improve public policy.
ANS: T
DIF: Medium
REF: Dual Federalism
OBJ: Trace the major changes in national and state power over time
STA: 2
MSC: Applying
10. New Federalism was President Richard Nixons attempt to give individual states greater control over
how they spent federal money.
ANS: T
DIF: Medium
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Applying
11. Unfunded mandates requiring states to meet federal guidelines without financial support are associated
with coercive federalism.
ANS: T
DIF: Medium
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Applying
12. Unfunded mandates infringe upon state sovereignty.
ANS: T
DIF: Easy
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Understanding

13. The Fifteenth Amendment gives states leeway to expand the rights of their citizens.
ANS: T
DIF: Easy
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering
14. Texas rejected the Equal Rights Amendment.
ANS: T
DIF: Easy
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Applying
15. As of late April 2013, Attorney General Greg Abbot sued the Obama administration twice.
ANS: F
DIF: Easy
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Remembering
ESSAY
1. Analyze why we have our particular form of federalism, including the alternatives and their
advantages and disadvantages.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult
STA: 2

REF: Understanding Federalism


MSC: Evaluating

OBJ: Understand federalism

2. What are some advantages that our federal form of government has over a strong national government
in a highly centralized system? What are some disadvantages of a federal system like ours?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult
STA: 2

REF: Understanding Federalism


MSC: Evaluating

OBJ: Understand federalism

3. Analyze the ways the Constitution divides power between federal and state governments.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult
STA: 2

REF: Understanding Federalism


MSC: Analyzing

OBJ: Understand federalism

4. Describe the Supreme Courts position of federalism from the founding of the republic to the present
day. What landmark cases have been most influential in shaping federal-state relations? Has the
Supreme Courts position changed frequently, or has its stance been generally consistent, despite a few
anomalous periods?
ANS:

Answers will vary.


DIF: Difficult
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing
5. Describe the character of federal-state relations today. How much influence does the federal
government wield over the states? What tools can it use to coerce state compliance with federal
measures? What means do states have to resist federal initiatives?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult
REF: Coercive Federalism
OBJ: Describe the sources of national and state power as they relate to federalism today
STA: 2
MSC: Analyzing