Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Bailey Deitch

Deitch 1
Professor Doran
ENC 2135
1 November 2016
Annotated Bibliography
Bostwick, J. Michael. "Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical
Marijuana." Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 87, No. 2, Elsevier, Feb. 2012, pp. 172-186.

Blurred Boundaries is a lengthy report on the Mayo Clinic Proceedings on medical marijuana.
The author explores many controversies by citing various resources and quoting experts in the
field. His analysis examines medical verses recreational marijuana, benefit verses harm of use,
laboratory research and pharmacologic application verses federal restrictions, and state verses
federal law. He begins with a brief history stating marijuana has been used as medicine and
recreationally for 5,000 years globally. Congress s the reason for the limited amount of studies
available, suggesting the 1970 re-classification to a Schedule I drug, halted research activity. The
research into this study is limited to the same botanical form that recreational users use to get
high. Medical users also experience the same euphoric symptoms. Some experience negative
symptoms like dysphoria, anxiety and paranoia. These effects and other symptoms like memory
loss, slow response rate, increased body awareness, reduced coordination, ability to focus and
sleep also interfere with treatment and research studies. The author reports todays strains of
weed produce significantly higher THC levels and subsequent, psychotropic effects than years
ago because of hybridization. The best effects are experienced when the drug is inhaled due to
the rapid response rate, ease of titration, and because ingestion involves digestion that cause
erratic peak levels. It has been proven in many studies that most medical users are also

recreational users because new users do not like the side effects of the drug. A relationship with
marijuana and psychosis was discovered in numerous studies.

A less significant relationship with dependency was noted, with new users over 25 years old not
having a impact on addiction. However, when pubertal and teenagers users were examined, one
in eleven 17-18 year olds and one in six 12 year olds had addiction problems. Withdraw was
noted in all groups with symptoms ranging from irritability to weight loss. Several studies link
marijuana use to exacerbating psychosis and/or precipitating onset in vulnerable individuals. A
Dutch study also found that the risk of psychosis increases in psychosis-free individuals from .
8% in non-users of marijuana, to 2.2% in users of marijuana. Another study found that
individuals within the schizophrenic spectrum experience relapse at some point during the
yearlong study, from 42% of abusers to 17 %. Heavy marijuana users (greater than one cigarette
a day) increased to 61% in this study. Peri-puberty increases the risk. Additional studies reveal
that users who start before 16 years old experience far more drug abuse problems, physical
injuries, psychosomatic symptoms, academic failure and delinquency. Studies are conflicting as
to whether marijuana is a gateway drug. However, based on this research, benefits of medical
marijuana are unproven and additional randomized controlled trials are needed. Furthermore, the
study supports that marijuana is not a wonder drug and attests that recent legislation is a result of
voters rather than legislation making it legal in in several states. His research identified the newly
discovered endocannabinoid system that is described as a ubiquitous network of receptors in the
nervous system that attach to THC that can be manipulated to benefit treatment regimes. This
system provides scientists with valuable information that can be used to create new
pharmaceuticals that will hopefully be used to treat many of the same diseases that marijuana

treat. The author closes by calling for a reclassification of marijuana to a Schedule II drug to
make it easier for much needed research to be done and also to allow pharmaceutical companies
to begin working on new synthetic marijuana drugs to help patients with debilitating diseases.
However, but warns physicians that non-conventional drugs should not be used until all
conventional methods have been exacerbated.

This article is very valuable. It provides a wealth of information regarding medical marijuana use
that I will use in my research. It put a lot of theories into perspective, proving some and
disproving others. This source is highly reliable and valid because the author used many different
studies as support of claims. It is also an article from the Mayo Clinic, a highly reputable medical
research institution. The author is a medical doctor and remained unbiased throughout the text.
He used credible sources as references and included more than one study to support his findings.
I was surprised to discover the strong relationship to psychosis among teenagers and adolescents
and to discover its addictive potential, as well as the relationship to psychosis. I will use all three
topics in my research paper. I wished that it had included the benefits to specific conditions such
as pain. I also found it interesting that the author pointed out many medical marijuana patients
experience memory loss and other side effects that may influence many of the studies performed
on them due to them being high. Overall, the article is an excellent source because it references
so many clinical trials and covers so much information. It directly relates to my research topic
and provides many statistics that will be helpful in supporting my argument. The fact that the
article is four years old may be a weakness because legalization of marijuana is moving very
rapidly. Although, much of the information reviewed is not time sensitive.


Chu, Yu-Wei Luke. "The Effects Of Medical Marijuana Laws On Illegal Marijuana Use."
Journal Of Health Economics, Vol. 38, Aug. 2014, pp. 43-61. Academic Search
Complete, Web, Accessed on 13 Oct. 2016.

This article is written by a finance and economics professional for the Journal of Health
Economics. It is one of few articles that interested me that was not written by a physician. The
author uses empirical data to illustrate time-specific city trends that show a 15%-20% increase in
marijuana-related arrests in non-patients after medical marijuana laws were successfully passed
and implemented. Surprisingly, it is the only study that I reviewed that addressed the impact
recent legalization has on law enforcement. The author compared the legal documents of arrests
to the number of visits to a rehab facility and observed the same trends among adult males.

This article is written by expert researchers and published in a peer-reviewed professional

journal, it a credible source. The credibility of this study is also obvious as it was conducted over
a twenty-year period. It was also written for and published in a peer-reviewed professional
journal, adding to its credibility. The data contained is directly related to the topic of my research
and will add validity to my paper. I will use this information to show how medical marijuana
impacts a community. I will link the material to preliminary information that I gathered that
indicated car accidents were notably higher in Colorado after passing similar laws. This article is
helpful and useful in illustrating my argument and will help me to answer my research question
as to whether or not medical marijuana should be legalized nationally. The length of the study is

that it takes into consideration how medical marijuana has impacted the community. No
weaknesses were noted.

Drug-Free Action Alliance and Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Association of Ohio. "The
FDA's Opposition to Medical Marijuana Legalization Is Based on Science." Marijuana,
edited by Noah Berlatsky, Greenhaven Press, 2012, pp. 219, ISBN: 9780737757330
0737757337 9780737757347 0737757345.

This article supports that there is no medical value to marijuana. However, the report states that
there is some research indicates marijuana may help with nausea and vomiting, but research is
limited. The FDA, AMA, ACS, and NIH do not support marijuana as a medicine. The
classification of the drug, as a Schedule I supports that it marijuana is an addictive substance
with no medical benefits. These leading medical organizations state that there are safer and more
effective medical options. However, the article does strongly support that additional research is
needed. The article further states that additional research is needed on identifying the chemicals
within marijuana associated with any benefits. Additional research is needed for appropriate
dosage levels and safe means of administration, should medical benefits exist. The article further
recommends the same logical, rational approach to legalization as any other drug that has
demonstrated to have health and safety benefits. Voter and legislative initiatives do not meet the
necessary standards for medicine approval. In addition, the author states that, there is currently
available sound evidence that marijuana is harmful and the measures used for legalization are
inconsistent with efforts to ensure medications are safe for the public. The FDA has given
synthetic marijuana its approval and stated that it is available in all 50 states. It addresses a lack

of research available regarding the most common medical claims, when compared to other foods
and drugs that the FDA has mandated. Lastly, it discusses how legalized marijuana may inhibit
FDA approved medicines that are legal and have successfully been used for years. The
information in the article is directly related to my research topic and will compliment many of
the questions that I intend to answer with my research.

This article is written by the FDA and therefore might contain bias because they are opposed to
medical marijuana at this time. The article is pertinent and useful to the topic of my research. I
will use the FDAs claims to support my argument. The strength of the paper is that the FDA is
the governing body as to whether or not medical marijuana is passed on a national level.
Therefore, they should be the experts in the field, making this a credible article. The strength of
the article is that it is a FDA publication and it provides a wealth of information that will be
useful in presenting and supporting my argument. Drug-Free Action Alliance is opposed to
medical marijuana legalization. The information in the article is directly related to my research
topic and will compliment many of the questions that I intend to answer with my research.
Overall, it is a very useful source. However, it is not first-hand information, it is being represented in a concise form.

Freisthler, Bridget, Gruenewald, Paul J., Wolf, Jennifer Price. Examining the Relationship
between Marijuana Use, Medical Marijuana Dispensaries, and Abusive and Neglectful
Parenting. Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 48, Pergamon Press, Oct. 2015 pp.170-178.
Academic Search Complete, Web, Accessed on 12 Oct. 2016.

This article was designed to examine how marijuana use affects the inability to provide for a
childs basic needs, lack of supervision or harsh parenting. A study of 3023 parents was
performed in several cities across America. There was no relationship found between supervisory
neglect and marijuana use. Dispensaries and delivery services were linked to physical abuse of
children. Interestingly, the article presents information suggesting that there is a connection
between current marijuana use and the frequency of physical child abuse.

This peer-reviewed article is a credible source because it is current. It was also written for the
Child Abuse and Neglect professional journal by educators in the field of social work and public
affairs at UCLA, a nationally ranked research university. The article provides very beneficial
information regarding some of the problems found in states that recently passed marijuana laws.
This information is very pertinent to my research and very interesting. I think others will be
interested in knowing that an issue that such as this has risen in a community, as a result of
medical marijuana legislation. This information will add a new dimension to my research and
will give a great deal of support to my argument. However, I was very surprised to learn that
marijuana use/location of dispensaries and delivery services influenced physical abuse of
children by parents. The strength of this source is that is it is new information, it is current and it
covers a very interesting topic. The fact that it examined 3023 subjects across a large
geographical area adds credibility and validity. A possible weakness to this research is that it is
only one study. Additional studies having the same results would increase the validity of the
clinical trial. However, the number of subjects examined gives the study a great deal of validity.


Hall, Wayne, and Michael Lynskey. "Evaluating The Public Health Impacts of Legalizing
Recreational Cannabis Use In The United States." Addiction, Vol. 111, Issue 10, June 7,
2016, pp. 1764-1773, DOI 10.1111/add.13428. Academic Search Complete, Web,
Accessed on 12 Oct. 2016.

This comprehensive article examines the effects on adolescent cannabis use, adult cannabis use
and cannabis-related harm when examining states with new medical marijuana laws.
Comparisons of adolescent cannabis use in household and school-based surveys have not found
differences between the states with and without medical marijuana laws. However, comparisons
of adult cannabis use have increased among users over 21 years of age. Evaluations of the
effects of medical marijuana laws and cannabis-related motor vehicle accidents have been mixed.
However, the most comprehensive study performed in Colorado over many years found an
increase in cannabis positive fatalities when compared to 34 other states. However, lower rates of
opioid overdose deaths were observed. Incidentally, more binge drinking and more concurrent
use of alcohol and cannabis were noted in adults over 21 years of age. The author says more
evidence is needed to indicate a cause and effect relationship.

This article is a credible source because it is published in a professional medical journal.

Information about the authors professions is unknown and may be considered a weakness of this
article by some. The statistics from the study are very beneficial and a strength of the article. The
extensive amount of information the article provides is very valuable and pertinent to my
research topic. I will use the research gathered in support of my argument. I discovered a lot of

information that I was unaware of and expect it to be indirectly useful when writing my paper.
One example is that I did not know the age limit was the same as alcohol, having to be 21 years
old to purchase in places like Colorado. I was also surprised to learn about how the taxing system
is similar to cigarettes, as well as the enforced limits on personal cultivation. I believe this source
will give me a better insight to the overall marijuana controversy and add significant information
to my research. Overall, this article will be very helpful in writing my research paper.

Kaplan, Karen. Most Uses of Medical Marijuana Wouldnt Pass FDA Review. Los Angeles
Times, June 23, 2015. Web, Accessed on Oct. 17, 2016.

This brief article, written for the Lost Angeles Times introduces the decision of the Food and
Drug Administration to not endorse medical marijuana. The author explains that they have
formed their decision based on a lack of evidence conducted to support marijuana for therapeutic
therapy of specific disease states. She further acknowledges that the FDA reports a lack of
scientific evidence to recommend medical marijuana. In addition, she mentions that the FDA
believes that there are extended risks and dangers to patients who rely on marijuana for
medicine, although confirming that they remain open to future research and will re-evaluate as
needed. She also quotes select Yale professors who have also taken a stance against medical
marijuana and claim that legislation has allowed voters to determine whether or not to use
medical marijuana, which makes a mockery out of medicine, claiming that what would voters
think if all medicines were approved in that manner.

This article will be very beneficial to my research because it includes pertinent information and

direct quotes from highly respected faculty from a prestigious university. It will also contribute a
great deal to my paper because it includes the views from the most important industry in America
who approval is needed to pass medical marijuana legislation nationally. The author, although
not at physician, is a credible author as she has written multiple articles on medical marijuana
that has required an extensive amount of research, making her an informed writer. Overall, the
entire article will be very useful is supporting my argument in research.

King, Steven A. "Medical Marijuana For Pain: What The Evidence Shows." Psychiatric Times,
Vol. 32, No. 8, 2015, pp. 4-8. Academic Search Complete, Web, Accessed on 12 Oct.

Psychiatric Times is a peer-reviewed journal suggesting this article is a credible source. It is also
current, written within the last year by a medical doctor, adding to its credibility. The article
examines two separate studies on the effectiveness of marijuana when treating pain in various
diseases and diagnoses. The first review examined the effectiveness of cannabinoids in treating
marijuana in 28 separate studies. A 30% reduction in pain was noted. The most successful
method was smoking THC. The second review examined 5 controlled studies. All but one noted
a decrease in pain. Both studies also determined cannabinoids were not beneficial for treating
chemo associated nausea/vomiting, glaucoma or the ability to stimulate appetite with HIV and
AIDS. The study also couldnt rule out medical marijuana legalization as being a potential
backdoor approach to attaining legalization.

This article is directly related to my research and provides some very beneficial information that
will help support my argument. Both studies had a potential for bias or other validity concern
ranging from the inability to distinguish between chronic and acute pain. The lack of data for
more than 3 or 4 months may be considered a weakness of both studies. The results of both
studies determined cannabinoids were not beneficial for treating chemotherapy-associated
nausea/vomiting. Overall, the information will prove beneficial, but the potential for bias is of
importance and considered a weakness to the study.

Maa, Edward, and Paige Figi. "The Case For Medical Marijuana In Epilepsy." Epilepsia, Series
4, Vol. 55, No. 6, 2014, pp. 783-786, DOI 10.1111/epi.12610. Academic Search
Complete, Web, Accessed on 13 Oct. 2016.

This article is about a study conducted on a little girl named Charlotte who was featured on a
CNN documentary, hosted by Sanja Gupta. She had a very rare disease that caused her to have
more than 100 severe seizures per week. After administering a special pharmaceutical grade of
marijuana, containing higher amounts of CBD and a much THC, the two active ingredients in
marijuana, she showed drastic improvements. The article includes information about how her
family found the drug in Colorado after the state had legalized marijuana for recreational use. As
a last resort, after all conventional medicines and therapies were tried unsuccessfully the family
traveled to Colorado, to meet with a group of men that had cultivated this strand by
crossbreeding marijuana with industrial hemp. As a result, it had much lower levels of the
psychotropic THC compound and a higher concentration of CDC. This hybrid plant does not
cause euphoria because of the low concentration of THC, but showed remarkable improvements

in Charlotte. However, his study lacks enough evidence to support its safety and effectiveness.
The family initially experienced finding a physician to prescribe the marijuana for her because of
her being five years old, but later was successful. Charlotte showed alarming results with her
seizures decreasing to one a week. Unfortunately, there is limited research in terms of marijuana
and epilepsy. Parents are not willing to give them the drug and epilepsy is most often a childhood
disease that children tend to outgrow.

This article is a valid and credible study because it is published in a professional epilepsy
medical journal. It is also credible because Charlotte has captured the attention of many doctors
and is being followed by experts in the field. The author appears unbiased and sticks to the facts,
adding to its credibility. This case has been seen by many people around the world on a CNN
special documentary, entitled Weed. This article directly relates to my research and I will
include the information in my paper. This information will add a sense of controversy to my
paper because the authors claims are not supported in additional research. The strength of the
article is that many people will be able to put a face with a name because the child is known
nationally and also because she is a child. The weakness of this study is because it is an
anecdotal health claim and the same results have not been seen in additional studies. There is
limited research involving marijuana and epilepsy because not many parents are willing to give
their child marijuana and epilepsy is a common childhood disease and a child often outgrows
epilepsy. The study is also limited in that she is the only patient that is examined in full detail. An
additional study of more participants would offer greater value. I will use this study to illustrate
that this treatment has worked for some, but not necessarily all. I was surprised to see this study
in a publication because I was familiar with her from a previous pop culture and marijuana

assignment. I find her condition and her progress associated with marijuana very interesting.

Metts, Julius, Wright, Steven, Sundaram, Jawahar, Hashemi, Nastran. "Medical Marijuana: A
Treatment Worth Trying. Journal Of Family Practice, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2016, pp. 178-185.










This article is intended to be a guideline for physicians to follow before prescribing medical
marijuana to patients. The author states that only a few claims are backed up by evidence
regarding the benefits of medical marijuana. He references a study that showed moderate
evidence in treating pain and low quality evidence to support medical marijuana for
chemotherapy induced nausea, weight gain in patients with HIV and to treat Tourette syndrome.
He calls for more research needed in this area. He examines both botanical and synthetic
marijuana. He recommends, benefits outweigh risks before prescribing marijuana because it
has adverse health effects. Important factors to consider include: diagnosis to include one of the
above, have conventional methods of treatment been exacerbated, and what are the risks to the
patient (adverse side effects). He further recommends, consulting with a pain management
specialist to determine the correct strain and amount needed, obtain an informed consent and
apply for state administered certificate. He further encourages, scheduling follow-up
appointments and drug screen during treatment. Often when non-medical marijuana users have
access to medical marijuana, it may indicate patients sell their weed to others. He further
recommends, certain individuals not be treated, to include: patients under 25 years old, history

of addiction, a high risk for cannabis use disorder, pregnant, safety-sensitive job, respiratory,
cardiac or vascular disease, concurrent opioid use, and/or tobacco use. The article examines 79
different studies and found a 30% reduction in pain of medical marijuana patients.

This article is a credible source because it is currently published in a professional journal. The
author is a physician, adding to the credibility. The fact that it is easy to read and understand is
also a strength of the article. The size of the study including 79 trials makes the article more
reliable, valid and credible. The article is directly related to medical marijuana and includes a lot
of information pertinent to my topic. I will use the recommendations and guidelines as part of
my research to support my argument. It is interesting to discover how these physicians feel about
medical marijuana based on the research they have done. It is also surprising how much extra
documentation is required to initiate marijuana therapy. Overall, this is a very informative and
helpful piece of information and I did not discover any weaknesses. However, this article is not
consistent with some of my other research.

Schwartz, Richard N, Cooper, Meghan N., Oria, Marife, Sheridan, Michael J. "Medical
Marijuana: A Survey Of Teenagers And Their Parents." Clinical Pediatrics, Vol. 42, Issue
6, July/Aug. 2003, p. 547-552. Academic Search Complete. Web, Accessed on 13 Oct.

This article gives the results of a survey given to parents and their teenagers. The survey is
conducted in Ohio and Virginia. The survey is conducted in Ohio and Virginia. The results to the
study indicate that more teenagers than parents believe that medical marijuana laws passed

within a state will cause teenagers to smoke more marijuana.

This article is published in a peer-reviewed professional journal giving it much credibility and
validity. The fact that the information is current also adds credibility. This information is critical
to my research, as I had proposed to include the effect of medical marijuana on teenagers
behavior. It is very pertinent to my topic and I will use it to help answer my research question
and argue my case. The information is limited and only provides the results to one study,
although a very valuable piece of information. The data provided is a strength. However, I found
the results astonishing because I would not have thought the students would admit to medical
marijuana influencing them. I also found it interesting that more students than parents thought
that it would impact them.

Whiting, Penny; Wolff, Robert F.; Deshpande, Sohan; Di Nisio, Marcello; Duffy, Steven.
Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of the
American Medical Association, Vol. 313, No. 24, June 2015, pp. 2456-2468, DOI

This article is the original study that many of my sources referred to throughout my research.
Initially I was unable to locate it, but fortunately, later it became available. Unlike other sources I
used, the article is a primary source written by the original group international of researchers
who conducted the largest and most recent study available on medical marijuana. This metaanalysis is very scientific in nature, providing a great deal of useful data and facts. The authors
use charts and graphs as illustrations to make it easier to understand. Over 200 clinical trials

were evaluated. Diagnoses were arranged and categorized from a variety of studies and
examined for the effect medical marijuana played in treating them. A summary of the findings
and a conclusion is reached for each diagnosis. In fact, I used the same format to structure my
research paper. The authors examined the effect medical marijuana had on chronic pain, chemoinduced nausea and vomiting, appetite stimulation and weight gain of HIV/AIDS, Multiple
Sclerosis spasticity pain, sleep disorders, psychosis, glaucoma and Tourette syndrome, the most
common diagnoses that are currently being treated with medical marijuana. All opinions are
eliminated and only facts are used, which makes it different from my other sources. Overall, the
article is very useful in reporting my research and writing my paper.

This article is a credible source because it is the original work of a group of international experts,
including physicians, doctorates, and other scientists who have spent their entire lives
researching this topic. The fact that the researchers are multi-cultural from many countries across
the world also gives a broad range of ideas to examine while reviewing these studies, adding to
the credibility. The statistics and facts presented also allowed me to use to give validity to my
paper. Overall, this source is very helpful, informative and useful for writing my research.