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FROM

METTERNICH
TO

BISMARCK

TEXTBOOK

OF

EUROPEAN

HISTORY

1815-1878

BY

L. CECIL

JANE

OXFORD
AT

THE

CLARENDON
1910

PRESS

HENRY

PUBLISHER

FROWDE,

TO

LONDON,

TORONTO

THE

M.A.

UNIVERSITY

EDINBURGH,

OF

NEW

AND

MELBOURNE

J5

OXFORD

YORK

CONTENTS

page

Metternich

System

Independence

Fall

Metternich

of

Fall

of

Austria

Fall

of

France

156
184
208

230

System

253

AUTHORITIES

CHRONOLOGICAL

275

SUMMARY

GENEALOGICAL

276

TABLES

1.

The

Habsburgs

2.

The

House

The

Houses

3.

Order

Italy

of

Bismarck

OF

103
134

Restoration

LIST

70

1848

Union

40

1830

of

of

Year

Greece

of

Revolutions

of
of

280

281

Savoy
Denmark

and

Augustenburg

INDEX

282

283

PLANS
The
The

Campaign

in

Campaign

in

the

Crimea
.

Northern

Italy, 1859

192
201

CONTEMPORARY

Great

SOVEREIGNS

Britain.

{German

George

III, 1760- 1820.

George

IV, 1820-

William

Empire

proclaimed,

1871.)
German

1830.

IV, 1830-1837.

William

Empire.

I, 1871-1888.

Victoria, 1837-1901.
Austria.
France.
Francis
Louis

XVIII,

Charles

1814-1824.

II, 1792-1835.

Ferdinand

X, 1824-18^6.

I, 1835-1848.

Francis

Joseph, 1848.

Louis-Philippe, 1830-1848.
Second

Republic,

Napoleon
Third

848-1 852.
Russia.

III, 1852-1870.

Republic,

Alexander

1870.

I, 1801-1825.

Nicholas
Alexander

Spain.
Ferdinand

VII,

Isabella

181

II, 1833-1868.

1868-1870.

Amadeus,

1870-1874.
XII,

The

II, 1855-1881.

3-1833.

Republic,

Alfonso

I, 1825-1855.

United

The
William

1874-1886.

Netherlands.

I, 1814-1830.

{Belgium

independent,

1830,)

Belgium.

Netherlands.

William

I, 1830-1840.

Leopold

I, 1830-1865.

William

II, 1840-1849.

Leopold

II, 1865-1910.

William

III, 1849-1890.

Portugal.
Prussia.
Frederick

William

III,

1797-

1840.
Frederick

I, 1786-1816.

Maria

II, 1816-1829.

Miguel,
William

1861.
William

Maria

I, 1861-1871.

IV,

1840-

1829-1834.

Maria

II

Pedro

I, 1853-1860.

Louis

I, 1860-1889.

{rest.),1834-1853.

SOVEREIGNS

CONTEMPORARY

and

Sweden
Charles

{King

XIII

1809),

of Sweden,

1814-1818.

Charles

18

XIV,

18-1

844.

I, 1844-1859.

Oscar

Charles

XV,

Oscar

Sardinia.

Norway.
Victor

Emmanuel

Charles

Felix,

Charles

Albert,

Victor

859-1

I,

802-1821.

1821-1831.
1831-1848.

Emmanuel

II, 1848-1861.

872.

II, 1872-1907.

Denmark.
Frederic

{Kingdom

of Italy formed,

1861.)

1808-1839.

VI,

Italy.
Christian

VIII,

1839-1848.
Victor

Frederic

VII,

1848-1863.

IX,

1863-1906.

Emmanuel

Humbert,

Christian

The

II,

Abdul

Medjid,

Abdul

Aziz,

1878-1900.

Empire.

Ottoman

Mahmoud

1808-1839.

The

I, 1814-1825.
I, 1825-1830.

1876.
Ferdinand

Abdul

Hamid

The

Leo
Pius

VII,

IX,

Leo

XIII,

{United

1859-1861.
to

Italy,

1823-1829.

VIII,

Pius

Papacy.

II,

1800-1823.

XII,

Gregory

II, 1830-1859.

II, 1876-1909.
Francis

Pius

Sicilies.

1861-1876.
Francis

V,

Two

1839-1861.
Ferdinand

Murad

II, 1861-1878.

1829-1831.

XVI,

Greece.

1831-1846.

1846-1878.
1878-1903.

Otto,
George

1833-1863.
I, 1863.

1861.)

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK,

1815-1878

CHAPTER
THE

"

The

I.

"

6. The

"

Alexander

4.

Conferences

of

815

ends

Europe

war.

The

people had

period

had

been

the

such

of government,

of the

of almost

French

The

during "'"

of

continuous

Revolution
its

confer

to

not

French

defend

to

in order

had

origin; the

assumed

Republic.
and

Revolution

; the

historic

natural

frontiers

and

Pyrenees became

the

war

continued
The

changed.

ardent

more

and
territory,

that

theatre

the arms,

revived

of

II.

twenty-five years

country

monarchy

the

France.

changes
other

upon

blessingsof Liberty,Equality,and Fraternity.


of purpose
singleness
earlyceased to characterize

armies

'

of the

the

nations

the

of

of the

the

to

retained

in their form

the

in France.

Restoration

5. The

3.

Laibach.

and

influence

confined

But

"

I.

of

Troppau

which

been

Principle of Stability. "

The

2.

Aix-la-Chapelle. " 7. Government


in France.
in
" 8. Progress of Reaction
Spanish Constitution.
" loTUnrest in Italy. "

9. The

In

"

1815.

Conference

Moderates

"

SYSTEM

METTERNICH

Year

Metternich.

high

moral

deadliest

the

struggle for

'

the
and

boundaries

epithet natural
revolutionaries
there

was

'

had
to

But

of the

the

Still

of France.

served

the

gradually
to

reconcile

first annexations

of
soon

justification
disappeared.

enemy

of

possessionof
Rhine, Alps,

the

in
plausibility
formation

old

character

still its

'

of the

idealism

resumed, and the

was

protect the frontiers.

to

traditions

overcame

the
necessityjustified

states

The

Revolution, stood

the

argument

ring of

client

all pretence

Napoleon,
forth

as

of
the
the

"^^^

FROM

heir

rather

METTERNICH
of

Louis

BISMARCK

TO
XIV

than

CH.

of

Robespierre. He
shattered
a
a
poHtical system, recognized for over
hundred
of the
not
rightsof
years, in the interests,
',but of French gloryand French supremacy.
man
The
France
an
won
By his victories,
Napoempire touching the
Baltic beyond Hamburg
and
the Adriatic in Illyria,
Empke.
*

fenced
the

about

with

straits

dominions

vassal

from

states

of

Messina, callingto
Charlemagne. The maps

of

Vistula

the

remembrance

to

the

Germany and
Italywere
changed out of all recognition.The Holy
Roman
Empire and the States of the Church, picturesque
survivals of the Middle
Ages, shared the fate of Holland,
the political
of the Reformation.
monument
where
Everythe subject-allies
of the
kings fled or became
members
of the upstart house of Bonaparte
conqueror:
sat

the

on

thrones

of

exiled

France,yesterday confounded

of

monarchs
with

the

mass

marshals
of

of

mankind,

accepted as equals by the proudest families ;


courted
the
and Romanovs
Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns
favour
of the Emperor of the French
; the Continent
were

now

murmured
But

Fall of

and

^o

under

factors which

the very

s"^^
fsTs-'iTj.
"^^

submitted.

^^ig^t of g^ory led

foot the

it armed

enabled

had

new-born

sentiment

to

of

Napoleon

his fall.
'

He

to

trod

',until
nationality

againstthe tyrant who had insulted it.


In the War
of Liberation,
Germany followed the example
alreadyset by Spain ; the energy of peoplesrebuked the
supineness of governments, and at Leipsicthe battle of
itself

'

the nations
Paris."

For

'

back

hurled
a

the aggressor
the Allies
moment

hesitated

lion at

"'^'

the Rhnie
to

attack

and
the

bay, but at last they entered France and crowned


their labours by the exile of the
Corsican usurper '.
His ovcrthrow
it was
effected,
necessary to reconstruct
the political
fabric which
he had destroyed. The
new
'

Congressof

on

And

ignored.

epithetof
unselfish

could

created

be

not

permitted

dispossessedsovereignscould

though

'

liberators of

to

be content

the Allies

1814-

^""^ ^^^^'

sufficiently

not

find their sole reward

to

not

in the

might glory

Europe ',they were

toNov.

in the

The Congressof
emancipated continent.
to
therefore assembled
considerthe reatoiar

applause of
Vienna

had

rightsof

; the

endure
be

he

which

order

SYSTEM

METTERNICH

THE

CH.i

an

was

tjonjofthe old order, and to compensate the conquerors


by dividinrj
th^rnth^ spoilsof the conquered.
nmnnc
The

part of thework

second

oi the

Congress, the

Territorial

mere

settlement:
.

"

II-

T-

of

settlement

Europe, though

carried

disputes,
was
^

some

territorial

gave rise to (_a)gainsof


As ^^ ^^^^^
relative ease.

with

out

'

might

have

fell

the

to

three

Great

in

her

to

of her

of

the

Britain found

Austria, deprived of

added

Finland

Grand
thus

Prussia, who

Pomerania,
share

her

Tyrol, Salzburg,and

and

in
the

and

the

her
and
of

Duchy

lost most

of Poland, was
partition

Saxony, Swedish

recovered

more

Napoleonic

dominions.

of the

booty
to the
particularly

Russia

empire.

the final

gains in
in

Powers, and

colonial

larger part

Warsaw

Powers.
^

lion's share

expected,the

monarchies, since Great

eastern

reward
the

been

it

sated
compenthe Rhine.

on

Netherlands,

IllyrianProvinces,
kingdom. Her

Venetian
gained the Lombardopredominance in northern and central Italywas assured
by the restorations in Tuscany and Modena, and by the
establishment

of Marie-Louise

Great

in Parma.

Britain

kept Malta and received the protectorate of the Ionian


with consequent naval control of the Mediterranean.
Isles,
In

the

rest

bringingback

of

Europe,

those

pelled was
her

rulers whom
But

balance

served

the

to

reward

the

general principleof

by

was

the

perfidyof

sacrifice of Finland.

French

the

Denmark

adopted.
adherence
to
Napoleon

which

the

The

loss

had

ex-

(^)settle^est

of

penalized for Europe,


of

Bernadotte
Austrian

Norway,
and

to

Nether-

FROM

10

lands

METTERNICH
united

BISMARCK

TO

Holland

with

CH.

form

kingdom
House
under
the
of Orange.
Bavaria
gained the
southern portionof the Rhenish
Palatinate ; half Saxonytransferred
to
was
Prussia,partlyin order to punish
King Frederic Augustus, who had fought on the side
of the French
of Germany
at Leipsic. All the states
were

united

were

included

Sardinia
free

of which

of

In

confederation,the

German

the

Prussia.

Disregard

in

limits

territories of both

Genoa

absorbed

of

which

Austria

; Cracow

and
clared
de-

was

city; Switzerland,the originalconstitution


neutralized.

restored,was

was

this

to

settlement

the

salient

characteristic

was

'

nation'
'.
ality

of nationality
'. That ideal,
principle
the theory of the rightsof peoples as opposed to the
had
been
rightsof sovereigns,
brought into practical
It had vitalized the
politics
by the French Revolution.

disregardfor

defence
'

of the

in

actual,and

the

leadingthem
and

'

',frontiers of

natural

chord

the

hearts

victories

for

turned

this

nations

the

of

against
burden

common

his opponents

struck

the French

themselves.
force

possessionof

the

responsive
and Poles,
Germans, Italians,

defeats

the

the

It had

France.

to welcome

regard

to

secured

of

armies

their

saviours

as

governments

But

the

rule

him

by

imposing

of submission

of

to

as

Napoleon
all

upon

France, and

bring about
his downfall.
Thus
it might have been expected that in
Allies would
have recognizedthe debt which
1 815 the
they owed to Nationalityand have paid some
regard
That
at least to it in their restoration of order.
they
signallyfailed to do so has been made the ground for
accusingthem of having acted from purelyselfish motives.
gave

weapon

it may

to

'

'

But

wherewith

be

doubted

whether

other than that


pursued a course
Though their final victorymay

which

they

could

they did

be attributed

have
pursue.

mainly

to

THE

CH.i

the

METTERNICH

of their

success

appeal was

none

'

the

the greatest

Alliance

have

have

To

the

countenanced

And

it would

the

Allies.

There

be

can

8 15 would

that

more,
; it had

been

taken

been

would

no

reasonable

have

doctrine
been
the

age.
of

consideration

improbably have
of

at

been

war.

that continuance

doubt

to

productive of

more

into

not

the

defeat the aims

to

indefinite continuance

an

once

acceptedsuch

served

perhaps
No
principlehas

to

For,

revolutionary
spiritof
have

and
if it had
strife,
Vienna, the continent
condemned

sentiment,yet

support of that force againstwhich

the basis of the settlement of

as

ii

the Revolution

product of

directed.

was

national

appealto

the less inconsistent.

nationalitywas

been

SYSTEM

of "

2.

Piin-

thing desired by the Allies. Rather it ^g^abiiL


their aim to give Europe rest by producing an order
was
of things,
in which
revolution should be impossibleand
this
For
no
mere
everlasting
Utopian dream.
peace
reason
they rejectedthe ideal of
', the
nationality
principleof the rightsof peoples',opposing to it the
', founded
principleof stability
recognitionof
upon
the 'rightsof sovereigns'
and
the establishment
upon
war

the last

was

'

'

of

balance

of the

'
of power.
The
Treaties
to be
Congress of Vienna, were

immutable

but

basis of

new

order

', the
the

decisions

sacred

they were to be supported


idealists
by impractical

by guarantees devised not


who could recognizethe
by sober diplomatists,
of international

conditions

and

relations.

damental
fun-

In these

guarantees, three main


In
menace

the

ideas appear.
first place, France
was
regarded as

the surest
status

bond

quo.

penalized,she
were

and

to peace,

left to

resistance

of union

to

between

Accordingly, while
was

held

in check.

French

the

chief

aggressionas

Guarantees

^^f^fg.
*

the supporters of the guards


she

was

Alsace

her, despitethe protests of

not

and

unduly pfance.
Lorraine

Prussia ; the

/
FROM

12

METTERNICH

result of the

the formation
the

on

made

to limit her power

Power,

created

was

lands
kingdom of the United NetherRhine, Prussia replacedthe petty principalit
barred the

entrance

Germany.

In the second

the

of

Days.
aggression.

of the

and ecclesiastical
states and
into

merely the

state
a strong military
Countries,

In the Low

by

cii. I

the Hundred

alarmingepisodeof

effortwas

an

BISMARCK

was
occupationof her territory

temporary
But

TO

of Vienna

statesmen
place,the practical

accepted the "ambition

ol

governments

as

iacforTn

than to stifle,
They strove rather to"~satisfy,
the desire for expansion,
hopingthat when the legitimate
been
of all states had, as far as possible,
aspirations
the cause
and
of war
gratified,
might be removed
jealousybetween nations become a thing of the past.
this hope which
It was
reallydictated the territorial
settlement of 1815. More
Austria,Prussia,
especially
and Russia were, on
the one
hand, to be recompensed
for their exertions in the common
faction
cause
by the satis"oKi":b;

of their

ambitions,and

on

left in that relative position


which

the other hand

to

be

they had occupiedin

1789.
But

could
possessions
be devised which
should be equallyacceptable
to all
Alliance.^
and the Allies recognized
that,ifthe order created
states,
the
("r)

at

it

clear that

was

Vienna

to

were

guarantee that
The

led him

hope

The

Holy

basing of

the

Gospel,the

Powers.

The

'

international relations
observance

of which

be

must

Treaties

that this guarantee

tender solicitude and armed

invited
Sept."i8'i!;.
were

maintained,there

'

some

would

of Alexander

mysticaltemperament

the

by the

transfer of

infraction of the

punished.
to

be

no

might be

found

be
I
in

the precepts of
should be ensured

on

strengthof

the Great

Holy Alliance which almost all rulers


to joinexcept the Pope,as beingtoo Chris"

CH.i

THE

tian,and

the

aimed

the

at

METTERNICH

Sultan,as

of the
a

alliance

But

the very

sufficient to

found
securitywas
Chaumont, which had

real

more

Treaty

of

eluded

between

"

of fraternal love for the international

the past.

was

13

being Christian enough

not

substitution

rivalryof

SYSTEM

Great

defeat

expansiveness
its object,and

in the

renewal

been

of the Renewal

conoriginally

Britain, Austria, Russia, and

of
^

of^chatT"ont, Nov.
iSii;

Prussia

effect

the

of

Napoleon. The
signatories
pledgedthemselves to maintain the Treaties',
and more
renewed
to prevent any
especially
aggression
to

overthrow

'

the part of France.

on

To

carry
should

provided that the Powers


at fixed periods to consult as
and
to provide for the repose
'

the

and

of

maintenance

Quadruple Alliance,thus
the

status

'

renew

their

this treaty, it
their

was

meetings
interests

common

of Nations,
prosperity
the Peace
of Europe '. The
to
confirmed, seemed
place
and

effective guarantee

the

under

quo

to

out

of

whelming
over-

militarystrength.
There
Allies.
ences

had

was,

however,

Before

Hundred

the

arisen

real

no

that

war

unanimity

Days,

seemed

not

such

between
acute

the " 3. Metterdiffer-

"'^

improbable,and

Question had been shelved


of agreement.
matists
Diploowing to the obvious impossibility
spent anxious hours in attempting to discover
the sinister purport, which
they believed to be hidden
under the unexceptionablelanguage of the treaty of the
Holy Alliance. Great Britain was not in accord with
her allies either as to the principles
which should govern
the future conduct
of the affairs of Europe, or as to the
the
In fact,
of the Treaty of Chaumont.
interpretation
historyof the years which immediately follow the Peace
of the
is mainly concerned
with the gradual falsifying
hopes raised by the concord of the Powers at Vienna.
which
had for a_while been stilled in
Those
rivalries,
at

later date

the

Eastern

"

METTERNICH

FROM

14

the

of

awful

the

BISMARCK

TO

majesty of

CH.i

the

Napoleonic
revived, and there was, perhaps,only
tyranny ',soon
who
one
prominent statesman
sincerelydesired the
(Thatman, Prince
coming of the projectedmillennium.
Metternich,chancellor of the Austrian Empire, dominates
the stage of European historyfor a generation,as he
presence

'

strives

againstfate

past.

He

Metternich

he

as

breathe lifeinto

to

bound

was

fail; and

to

dead

because

the ideals

againstwhich he contended
invested with the glamour of successful realization,
are
he has been
or
glorified,
degraded, into a speciesof
barringthe path out of
political
Apollyon,deliberately
darkness into light.
the status quo was
Yet his anxiety to maintain
the
because
failed,

he

Character

failed

labours

and

of his

i^^tural result both

of the

and

temperament

cumstance
cir-

position.Distrustingall appeals to
and
his innate
rejectedheroic policies,

of his

sentiment, he

enhanced

the fact that

by

conservatism

was

patiencehad

won

Atthe

time, his jyanityled him

had

same

dictated

such

him

the decisions of the

for the settlement

there devised

he

as

success

to

.cautipnand
had

secured.

believe that he

Congressof Vienna, and


he

conceived

an

almost

paternalaffection. That it was purelythe result of his


diplomacy is hardly true ; but it did represent his views
And
more
accuratelythan those of any other man.
especiallythe substitution of the ideal of 'stability'
for that of 'nationality'
was
altogetheracceptableto
him.
For

Situation
Austrian

Empire.

the
of

Metternich

of
integrity
the

was

Austrian

Empire

and

even

any

it.

Francis

Habsburg.
was

unrest,
II

desired to preserve

patriotwho

his master's dominions


of

House

ruled

But

such that any


was
over

the

and

the

prestige

situation of the

appeal to nationality,

fraughtwith

serious

danger

to

Germans, Magyars, Czechs,

CH.i

METTERNICH

THE

SYSTEM

Poles, Ruthenians, Slavs, Croats, Roumanians,

15
and

Italians ; he could

relyupon no bond of union between


these diverse races
beyond that which might be afforded
by the faith of treaties and by the desire to avoid conflict.
admitted
If nationalities were
to possess a prescriptive
form of government, the collapse
rightto select their own
of the Austrian
to be within sight.
Empire might seem
which might be harmless
where
elseAnd further,
movement
a
here only too likelyto lead to the preaching
was
of nationality
and to consequent revolution.
Rest was
essential to this most
heterogeneousmonarchy.
Realizingthis fact,Metternich could do nothing but Policyof
the
adpiOcate42"ace_jaiid_."veiLimm^^

apostleof

the status

Metternich.

opposing all change,since there


could be no change which might not lead to the disruption
He feared,and not without
of the Habsburg dominions.
good cause, as the events of 1 848 were to prove, that any
weakening of the barriers againstdisorder would open
of revolution and overwhelm
the floodgates
the Austrian
monarchy. For this reason, he desired so to interpret
the Quadruple Alliance that it should mean
the complete
control of Europe by the Allies,
not
the maintenance,
the- territorial settlement of"^Vtennan5ur~also
merely-tjf
of existing internal systems.
relied Off ~hi^-ewn
He
superiordiplomacy to enable him to dictate the decisions
of the Allies at the periodical
reunions of sovereignsand
ministers.
Thus the integrity
of Austria and her influence
would
in Europe would
be secured
and the Continent
in the attainment
of long-soughtrepose.
rejoice
it was
of this policy,
not " 4. AlexUnfortunatelyfor the success
^'
^^^^
of the Alliance.
entirelyagreeableto the other members
Great Britain could not co-operate heartilywith absolutist
states.
Her
ministers,with the ever-present fear
of the House

quo,

of Commons

before their eyes, could

not

METTERNICH

FROM

i6

lightly
agree

to

TO

which

institutions upon

the

across

suppress

BISMARCK

ch.

Channel

those free

the

prosperityof England was


allegedto rest. On the other hand, partialgeographical
the hesitancyof Castlereagh,who
isolation and
was
to
unwillingopenly to break with the Allies,combined
for

minimize
Character
of Alex-

It

ander
of
I.

time the effect of British


in the

far otherwise

was

case

policy.

of Alexander

I.

Ruler

of a supposedly
empire, master
invincible army, his opinionsand
conduct
bound
were
of continental affairs,
the more
to affect deeply the course
the soul of
he enjoyed a complete ascendancy over
as
so
William
For
III.
while
Frederick
the diplomatic
a
history of Europe turns largelyon the control of the

great

autocratic

of the Tsar, which

mind

influences.
of

genius

'

'illumined

hatred

'

of

by
the

for

Dominated

Napoleon,

Alexander

Tyrant

'

been

had

the

of his

influence

moment

had

been
and

utilized

suggest the adoptionof the role of


Under

of Moscow,

flames

the

the

swayed by

was

'

most

by the
mentally

the

resultant
Stein

by

to

Europe '.

liberator of

mysticism and

own

flicting
con-

of

the

turned
Kriidener, a courtesan
teaching of Madame
of his destinydeveloped.
the Tsar's conception
prophetess,
of the Millennium ;
He imagined himself to be the apostle
the exponent
of vaguely
he became
in some
measure

Liberal ideas.

Holy Alliance was the expressionof the religious


To Metternich
it was
side of the imperialnature.
ander
mere
I.
as
tending to obscure the real
verbiage',objectionable
The

Liberalism
of Alex-

and
not

necessary
much
more

the court
and

gave

became
and

union

serious than
But

of Vienna.

expressionto

graver.
his address

He
to

the

between

his

had

Powers, but

the later present of bibles to


when

the

Tsar

the
Liberalism,

granteda

the Diet

otherwise

was

went

outlook

further
at

once

constitution to Poland

couched

in almost

Jacobin

t8

METTERNICH

from

Metternich

in

efforts to

induce

Germany
the

BISMARCK

TO
left no

stone

belief that

'

unturned

CH.i

in their
'

political
immorality

time the condition of


increasing.But at the same
Europe might well afford food for anxious thoughtto the
of all the
supporters of the existingorder, and most
of
posture of affairsin France, the reputed forcing-house
revolution,
was
decidedlyominous.
AntiThe
first return
of Louis
XVIII
had hardly been
hailed with enthusiasm, but had been not unpopular; it
opposition,
was
regarded as the only possiblesolution. His second
much
lesswelcome.
was
return,perhapsequallyinevitable,
It seemed
dictation to France ; the king
to involve foreign
back
had too obviously come
in the baggage train of
the Allies '. The monarchy had lost such hold as it had
possessed on the affections of its subjects
; for that hold
was

'

had

consisted

in the

fact that

it had

seemed

offer

to

securityagainstdisturbance,a dream which the Hundred


episode had
dispelled. That
effectually
Days had
destroyed the prestigeof the Bourbons ; they were
henceforth regarded with indifference,and it took little
to change indifference into positive
hostility.Discontent
increased
was
by the action of Louis in dissociating
himself from the gloriesof the revolutionary
period by
the rejection
of the tricolour,
by the occupationof French
of the royalists.
and by the excesses
soil by the Allies,
At
first,indeed, the 'tricolour' party, the Left, was
and cowed
into sullen acquiesin numbers
insignificant
cence
but from

in

was

which

very
would

real
do

the

of Louis'

moment

divided

sense

nothing

to

into two

keep

the

return, France

nations,one

dynasty

on

of
the

throne.
The

Ultra-

roya

IS s.

There

was,

fnonarchyin
'

Ultras

'

or

however,
the

more

existence

Right, whose

immediate

of the

menace

extreme

zeal outran

to

the

the
royalists,

their discretion.

METTERNICH

THE

CH.I

SYSTEM

19

Consistingmainly of returned emigres and clergy,this


abomination
and
as
an
party regarded the Revolution
hoped to find in the Restoration a complete return to the
ancien regime. They wished
render
the Charter
to
of
nugatory, if not to abolish it ; to establish a censorship
the Press, and to bring education
completelyunder the
control of the Church
compensation for those
; to secure
whose

lands had

those who
At

had

their head

made

his

used

National Guard

to turn

whose

agents, and

agreement

no

to confine office to

with

the Revolution.

the heir to the

was

d' Artois,who

confiscated,and

been

throne,Charles,Comte Charles
of the
positionas colonel-general
militaryinspectorsinto political

extensive

appanage

enabled

him

to

The
so-called
royalistparty leaders.
but in effectThe
a religious
Congregation',ostensibly
society
^^^^
club with reactionary
ideals,gave the Ultras
a political
its whole-hearted
support ; it included the majorityof
devout
the clergy and
laymen, and its influence was
romantic
increased by the
revival,by the brilliant pen
of Chateaubriand, and by the new
of Ultrapopularity

subsidize

of

the

'

Con-

'

montanism.
Louis

XVIII,

Voltairean

and Policyof
by temperament
from painful
a statesman
experience,realized the danger jijgcenh^e
of these zealots were
into which the excesses
leadingthe P^'^ymonarchy. He therefore turned to the Centre party, to
that mass
of moderate
opinion which aimed, in the
the monarchy
at nationalizing
phrase of one of its leaders,
and
royalizingthe nation. Loyal observance of the
Charter was
the key-note of the Moderate
policy; the
tutional
country should be led soberly along the path of constia

and

progress,
the

dynasty was

revolution
It would

was

so

learn that the

maintenance

with liberty
and
incompatible
the only avenue
to freedom.

not
not

have

been

more

easy
B

to have

carried out

of
that

this " 6.

The

METTERNICH

FROM

20

policy,if it had

Conference

^^^
Chapeiie,

Oct. 1818.

^"^^

CH.

able to

were
royalists

extreme

raise

cloak

constitutional

serious

^^^

BISMARCK

that the character of the Charter

been

not

^^^^

TO

to
question and
the guise of advanced

their

Liberalism.
ideas under
reactionary
The deputies,
elected during the turmoil
which
followed
the Hundred
Days and under pressure from the Allied
armies, were
generallyof the Ultra party, and though
the King desired an
amnesty, the majoritycompelled
of retaliation. Ney was
of
measures
executed, courts
created
the
deal with
were
to
jurisdiction
summary
supposedlydisaffected,
high officials of the Empire and
excluded

regicideswere

violent outburst of
occurred.

from

office,and

royalist
vengeance,

All this

White

south

Terror

with the declared

in accord

was

the

in the

',

wishes

of the

Constitu-

problem

of

the Resto-

majorityof the elected of the people.


Thus
the political
situation led to a constitutional
which centred
mainly around the question of
struggle,
the relationship
the Executive and the Chamber.
between
The Charter,granted by Louis in 18 14, was
indecisive on
this point. It providedfor the creation of an hereditary
House
of Peers, chosen in the firstinstance by the Crown,
and

Lower

elected

by

House,

the

less than 300 francs in direct taxes.

It remained

and
working of this constitution,

choice

this

were

of ministers

The

should

be

to

left to

point,the

in flat

ideas

of Louis

and
contradiction,
be

must

it was

changed or

whether

the

King or be
the Deputies.

of the

and

the
the

secure

to decide

with the will of the majority of

the electorate
hands

body.

to be under

was

smooth

On

of

finance

of the elective

in accord

Causes

guaranteed ;

paying not
and liberty

Toleration

control

the

were

be

to

were

of those

constituencycomposed

of the Press

of which

members

Chamber

thus clear that either


the

King

fall into the

of the Ultras.

historyof

the Restoration

turns

mainly

on

the

SYSTEM

METTERNICH

THE

CH.I

solution of this problem.


of

security

the

his

that
realizing

XVIII,

the failure

conciliatory
goJ^bons

demanded

dynasty

of the reaction

to restrain the violence

laboured

measures,

Louis

21

for his advisers.


But
the
men
by selectingmoderate
Ultras,powerfulin the Chamber, united with the Left,and
the declared foes of their most

with

even

in order to

approved ; and
withstand
led to
to

be

thus

the pressure,

failure

which

from

of

the

only

the
bear

brought to

ideals,

of whom

of ministers

eventual

the

situation

the choice

compel

cherished

they
King to
him,

upon
was

escape

found

but yet
paradoxical,
fell because they failed to

It is somewhat

revolution.

true,to say that the Bourbons

rule in defiance of the elective Chamber.

At the time of his first restoration,


Louis,on
of

Wellingtonand

as

kind

some

of guarantee

violent reaction,had

accepted Talleyrand and

his ministers.

it

be unable

But

only

was

natural
with

in full accord

to work

the advice Talley-

againsttoo
Fouche

that

he

as

Fouch^

ministry,

should

ex-bishop and

an

Napoleonic minister of police,and he took the earliest


opportunity of accepting their resignations,
despite
the services which
the
to
Talleyrand had rendered
Bourbon
at the Congress of Vienna.
cause
They were

replacedby
emigre who
whose

moderate

had

borne

not

administrative

government

Louis

againsthis country

arms

capacityhad

of Odessa.

in face of the Ultra

an
by Richelieu,

cabinet,headed

But

the

majorityin

minister

Chambre

proved by
was

and

ministry,
his Sept.1815.

powerless
Introuvable,

An
royalistChamber.
electoral law, which
he introduced,was
rejectedin both
houses,while the deputies approved a counter
proposal
This measure
put forward by the Ultras.
projectedan
as

extension

nicknamed

La

been

Richelieu's

of the

his

too

an
franchise,

which

the real aim

throw

all power

was,

into the

by

means

hands

ostensiblyLiberal idea,of
of indirect election,to
of the

local landowners.

Dissolution

22

FROM

The

Peers threw

METTERNICH
out

BISMARCK

TO

CH.

this bill also,


and Louis,on

the advice

^^ ^^^
^Chambre

Powers, met the resultant deadlock by a dissolution.


royal ordinance,devised by the Moderates, reduced

introu^'

""^

"

the number

of

deputiesfrom 408 to 258,as it had been


in 1 814, and the result of the generalelection afforded at
law of
^^^^^ ^ partial
of the royalpolicy. Richelieu
justification
fsiy^^*^"'
secured a majority,
and was
able to pass an electoral law,
fifth of
which
renewal of one
providedfor direct election,
the Chamber
annually,and permanent reduction of its
The
electors were
numbers.
the Deputies
to be thirty,
the
fortyyears of age ; the former were to pay 300 francs,
latter

in direct taxes.

t,ooo,
of voters

number

of moderate
followed

by

reduced

was

In
to

opinionwas

00,000, but

the

This

secured.

total

the

this way,

sentation
repre-

measure

the

courts,
suppressionof the summary
and by the reform of the army
by Gouvion St. Cyr.
Conference
of the
Richelieu profitedby the increased
stability
his greatest triumph. By the Peace of
Chapelle, monarchy to gain
was

Oct. 18

1 8.

Paris,and the
it had
a

while

by

providedthat

agreements between
France

the allied armies

should

; the date

be

the

Powers,

occupiedfor

of evacuation

was

to his

by a conference to be held in 1818.


it met
at Aix-la-Chapelle,
Richelieu,partlyowing
personalinfluence with the Tsar, but partlyowing

to the

improved

to

be

When

an

Evacuation

been

concurrent

determined

army

secure

condition

of France

and

the existence

capable of defendingthe monarchy,


that the allied troops should

was

be withdrawn

of

able to

by the

thus
The Bourbons
November.
were
following
freed from the stigma of relyingon foreign support, and
in a positionto 'nationalize the
for the first time were
the nation '. But Richelieu gained
monarchy and royalize
than this. France was
more
recognizedas being purified
habilitate
refrom
the stain of revolutionaryconduct ; she was
in the eyes of Europe and formallyadmitted

^"^ "^ ^^^


Nov'^Ts^iS.

SYSTEM

METTERNICH

THE

CH.i

23

membership of the Alliance. From the positionof a France


raised to the rank of a policeshe was
^^^^
suspectedcriminal,
constable. To Metternich,the event afforded ground for Alliance,
alarmed
at the inclusion of
grave misgivings. He was
in the leagueagainst
another constitutional Power
disorder,
But
and he foresaw resultant weakening of the Alliance.
he was
a secret
only able to secure
guarantee that the
to

continue

would

Powers

Great

had

that country

appearance

France

to watch

resumed

ward
; to out-

her

proper

placein the councils of nations.


Richelieu,who had thus gained a signaldiplomatic5 7-GovemBy the Moderates
triumph,did not long preserve his tenure of power.
in
^^^
his
fall
ironies
in
of
the
bitter
of
was
a sense
one
history,
France.
In the work of securinginternal
the result of his success.
repose, which he had undertaken,he had been fortunate
enough to enjoy the support of the most brilliant section
in the Chamber, the
Doctrinaires ',a group
of some
half-dozen
which included
independents,
Royer-Collard
^

and

Guizot.

But

when

this part of his work

had

been

completed,when French soil had been freed from the


troops,Liberalism became, as it were,
presence of foreign
more
a
once
possiblecreed,and Richelieu found himself
at

variance with

ideals

at

was

and

those of

were

of his former

many
a

in the

unpopular.
passivity

remembered

that

he

consistently
opposed
greater dread
driven

Rightthan

been

to the Left

of the

Louis

masquerading

"

was

tion
modera-

Restoration

always to have
emigre, and though

royalism,he

would

own

seems

look

as

favoured
reduced

had

even

reform

rather

for help. But his chief

and the Cabinet

internal dissensions.

an

violent

he
direction,

Decazes, St. Cyr,Baron


programme,

had
to

France

Richelieu

of revolution

in either

Conservative,but

moderate

discount

His

supporters.

to

; if

the

colleagues
Liberal
a frankly
to impotence by
"

24
Growth

of

The

partialelections

conference
i^^Sii"

ResignaRkhelieu,
Dec. 1818.
Liberal

METTERNICH

FROM

BISMARCK

TO
of

1818,which

isis-20.

while the

occurred

of

Aix-la-Chapelleyet sat, brought matters


The
Liberals made
to a head.
gains; Lafayette
many
and
Constant, who had been prominent supporters of
the Revolution,were
those returned.
Richelieu,
among
though he assured the Powers that there was no cause for
He took the event to prove a
trembled.
alarm, secretly
revival of revolutionary
sentiment, and when the Ultras
clamoured
for electoral reform,his sympathy went
out to
drew entirely
But the majorityof his colleagues
them.
of the Left
different conclusions. Regarding the successes
free to express her true
as
proof that France was more
opinion,they argued that the desire for progressive
and
in advocating conshould be gratified,
cession
legislation
in lieu of repression,
they had the support of Louis
XVI IL
seized the
Richelieu,never a gluttonfor office,
opportunityto resign.
His

nominal

Qf j-j^g^g^

successor

Cabinet

was

Dessoles, but the real head

Decazes,

was

to whom

the

leadership
^

Ministry of
Decazes,

CH.I

of the

moderate

more

Liberals

fellas

result alike of his

undoubted

capacityand of his intimate friendshipwith


the King. Under
his direction,
the country entered upon
a
period of great political
interest,during which an
of
made
to realize his aim
nationalizing
attempt was
'.
It proved
the monarchy and
royalizingthe nation
impossibleto attain either of these ends ; the constant
'

distrust of moderation

which

characterized

has

French

preferencefor
politicallife since 1789, the constant
idealistic projectsrather than practical
reforms, was
an
insurmountable

obstacle.
efforts of the

attended

the

tendency

of the

addition
former

of

new

House

of

members,

of
dignitaries

the

for

Yet

while

Ministry.

The

Peers

corrected

was

drawn

Empire.

from

Baron

fortune

Conservative

the

by

the

ranks

of

Louis, by his

FROM

26

METTERNICH

the candidates

BISMARCK

TO

of the Left

CH.i

of the

Ministry,
that the return
extremist
such
of an
as
so
Gregoire
order,
proved not that France was weary of the existing
but that there are
bounds beyond which faction will
no
its devotees.
It showed, perhaps,that moderate
not carry
counsels could not as yet prevail
; it hardlyindicated
that reactionary
either necessary or expedient.
measures
were
againstthose

he

as
Realizing,

certainly
did,the true meaning of the
^^ent, Decazes
might have been expected to resist the
of*De"ca2s.
and French hypocrites,
pressure of foreigndiplomatists
Change

in

but

he

have

to

seems

lost his

conciliate the Ultras,he

effort to

an

exchanged his former consistent

for advocacy of

Liberalism

In

nerve.

electoral

reform.

his

But

weakened

by the resignationof Baron


shattered by its
Louis and St. Cyr, and its prestige
was
forced assent
to the expulsionof Gregoire. Attempts
and to bolster up
to induce
Royer-Collardto take office,
Doctrinaires
the Government
with
the help of the
De
and though Decazes
and his chief lieutenant,
failed,
Serre, battled on, they constantlylost ground in the
Chamber, until a tragedy completed the ruin of the
Ministry was

'

'

Cabinet.
The

Assassina^

Duke

of

Berry,

Duke

of

w^s

assassinated

and

his

elder

Berry,younger son of Charles of Artois,


fanatic,and as both he
by a political
brother, the

of Angouleme,

Duke

'

Feb. 1820.
,.,,,.

easy

to

represent the

calculated attempt

to

extinguishthe

childless.It
a

the

royal family.

Decazes

of

The

minister

had

the

storm.

contributed

He

crime

elder

as

part

branch

of

of

openly accused
murder; many who rejected

suggestionconsidered

bitterly
reproachedby
before

the

were

duchess

widowed

complicityin

this absurd
the

was

'

.,

to

that the Liberalism


the

his brother and

accepted

the

of

tragedy. Louis,
his

family,bowed
of his
resignation

THE

CH.i

METTERNICH

favourite,who

embassy

consoled

was

with

27

dukedom

and

the

called 'the

marks

constitutional

the

of what

end

be "

may

experiment' of the

restored

Bourbon

of the

with

The

monarchy,
the dynasty.

that the

more

trusted

to

Fall of

Feb^^o.

London.

to

fall of Decazes

The

SYSTEM

violent

attempt
failure was

on
partizans

^^^f."^
reaction

reconcile the nation

to

s. Pro.

France,

the result of the fact

either side hated

nothing
much
to
as
so
moderation, and this inveterate hostility
temperate counsels drove France
along the path which
of 1830. For a while,indeed, the
led to the Revolution
to the Ultras and tried to
King refused to submit entirely
find a solution by securingonce
the services of
more
what Wellington was
to French
to
Richelieu,who was
life at this period. Richelieu
English political
might be
refrain from

to
possible,

pursue

from
realize

the

his

national

first that
of

aim

violent

it

measures,

and,

policy. But
was
beyond

he

conciliation and

and it was
legislation,
only after Charles had

and

his hands

censorshipof
various
summary

concessions

certain

the Press

restored

was

parts of the kingdom

extreme

tance,
reluc-

The

courts.

electoral law

for the arroudissements

voting on signed papers,


for departments were
to
who

by

thus

while
be

and

to

endowed

The

views.

revival

modified

Electoral

jg^"

in

of the
bers
; mem-

be chosen by indirect

172 additional

elected

accept

disturbances

the

was

his

him

by
with

the
a

members

richest
double

stituents,
con-

vote.

guard againstthe return of Liberal deputies,


appointed
presidentsof each electoral collegewere

Further
the

were

to

were

their

by

met

to

from

promised

to

vinced
con-

was

his power

support, that he consented to take office.


At first,
however, the Ultras condescended
at

as

abstention

with

controversial

far

as

to

the Government.
So far Richelieu

had

been

supported by

the

Right,but

End

of

FROM

28

Richelieu's

this

Ministry,

Dec.

182

1,

support
outbreak

an

made

gains
which

they

the

Ultras

decided

with

the

They

measures.

consequent

the

favour of their candidates,caused


more

led to

ensuing elections,in
by royal proclamationsin

at

assisted

were

birth of

Berry

The

royalistenthusiasm.

of

by

of

Duke

heir to the murdered

CH.I

The

presentlywithdrawn.

was

posthumous

BISMARCK

TO

METTERNICH

that party to press

dissatisfied

further

were

for

adopted by the Ministry at Troppau


and Laibach,where they had hoped to see France ranged
and commissioned
the side of legitimacy
to
on
definitely
attitude

intervene

in

time,

Left, already alienated


of the Government, were

the

measures

favour

of

Ferdinand

Richelieu

the

same

by the repressive
disappointedthat
the Greek
insurgents.

failed to go to the help of


Cabinet was
thus assailed on all

The

At

VII.

sides,and the great

capacityof De Serre did not suffice to


it.
After making one
last appeal to Charles to
save
his promise of support, and findingthat the
remember
Richelieu resigned.
word of honour was
prince's
valueless,
administrative

He

had
;

enough ;
that

was

been

once

violence

in both
he
was

fell because

he

now

the victim

cases,

was

bound

the

of his conservative
he

true

not

was

cause

dencies
ten-

conservative

of his retirement

realized that party


patriot,who
to
destroy the monarchy of the

Bourbons.

That

Louis
hastened
its doom.
to
monarchy now
to the influence of gout and Madame
XVIII, submitting
182^1-%.
Cayla, ceased to fight against the extremist views of
those nearest
allowed
Villele to form
to him, and
an
bent on revenge.
For the ideal
Ultra-royalist
ministry,
of
the monarchy ',that of a close union
nationalizing

Ministryof

between
aimed

Church

and

deliberatelyat
regime ; he hoped to

Crown
the
secure

was

substituted.

restoration
this

of

the

Villele
ancien

by parliamentary

METTERNICH

THE

CH.I

by

agency,

which

measures

validityas the assent


supply. To secure
of the

the hands
alarmed

by

should

that

assent

of

formation

the
Charbontierie,

of secret

with such

people could

into
political
power
had been thoroughly
societies such

counterpart of the

French

The

difficult.

not

landowners, who

the

of the

was

balance

the

29

invested

be

of the elected

threw

electoral law

SYSTEM

as

Carbonari,
that

frequencyof militaryplots. They believed


measures.
securityof property demanded
repressive

and

the

In
in
'

circumstances, it is

these

'

^Congregation

dictated
a

"

each

be

be

might

for this

be

cause

the

on

tried before

punished. "With

jury
the

the

in

dissemination
'

of

introduced.

was

assumed

silence expressions

'

guilty of

revealed

more

tendency

'

series of articles,

perfectlyharmless, and
suspended. The censorshipwas
other
was
hand, authorization
Press cases
ceased to
publication.

prelude to

necessary

found

which

Measures
ofVillfele.

andJ

more

To

of tendencies

conduct

improper

abolished,but,
be

law

might

of which

might

opinions,the

newspaper

towards

markedly ecclesiastical character.


of oppositionand to prevent

Liberal

surprising that the

not

numbers
and
m
grew
policyof the Government,

the

the

in itself

and

end

same

offences

Press
in

view,

heavily

were

bishop,Frays-

appointedGrand Master of the University,


a
preliminarystep towards placingall education under
the control of the Church, the Ministry of Religionbeing
sinous,was

associated

with

to
seriously
emigres.

open

was

the

censorship of
criticism

monarchy

was

realized

of Education.

consider

Meanwhile
the

that

the

growth
the

And

question of
of material

Villele

began
compensating the

prosperityinduced, Growth

Press

compelled,the cessation of
of the government.
Though the Bourbon
already dancing on a volcano ',the truth
'

neither

at

home

nor

abroad.

On

the

con-

of

sp^t"""^
France,

trary, stability
appeared

France, cured of
and

more

her

to

have

with

line

CH.i

attained,and

been

heresies,to
revolutionary

into

more

BISMARCK

TO

METTERNICH

FROM

30

be

coming

autocratic

the

states.

that one of the two 'Liberal Powers'


rejoiced
should displaysignsof a willingness
to join in the great
of maintainingthe status quo ; he possiblyfelt that
work
Mettemich

reformed

would

criminal

be

make

to

sure

an

efficient

police-constable.
". 9. The

Spanish
Constitu-

tion.

version
delightedat the apparent conof France, because
the European situation was
such as to rouse
his gravest fears. Unrest
was
prevalent
in all the other states borderingon the Mediterranean,
and
events
occurring which disquietedthe courts of
the warnings of the
Europe and which seemed to justify
Conservatives
in every
country. It is, at first sight,
that Spain should have set the example of
remarkable

And

he

was

the

more

had

revolution,since nowhere
welcomed
sincerely
a
larger measure

Character
of the Re-

Spain.

more

reactionarypolicycommanded

VII
public support. Ferdinand
been
had
idealized by his people as a martyr to the
ambition of Napoleon, but he quickly lost the glamour
which
had been cast round the picturesque
figureof the
princelyexile. Coarse and sensual,inconstant even in
his vices,swayed by favourites of low birth and lower
well fitted to disgustthe most
tastes, he was
loyalnation
under Heaven.
while the brutality
of the GovernAnd
ment
offended the humanity, its inefficiency
galledthe
prideand patriotismof the Spanish race.
As
might have been expected, Ferdinand's first act

to abolish
storation
was

in

or

the restoration been

was,

in

of

the Constitution of 181 a, the loss of which

no
itself,
great evil,since

the traditions of the


case

the

have

proved

to

and
Inquisition

people and

it

was

would

be unworkable.
of the immunities

utterlyalien

probably in

Even

to

any

the revival of

of classes

was

not

METTERNICH

THE

CH.i

SYSTEM

31

altogetherunpopular. But the complete restoration of


The
the former governmental system bred discontent.
ministers
hidden

became

once

more

palace,and they did not even


unoriginality.Garay,
competent

in the vaults of the


the

possess

of

merit

for

indeed, was

permittedto labour at
though the cupidityof

but
finances,
gratifiedby the prospect

minister

fell.

soon

long make

the reform

while

of the
was

clerks

covachtielistas,
mere

Neither

of increased

he

nor

any

Ferdinand

else could

one

headway againstthe intriguesof

the

revenue,

the

camarilla^

cliquecomposed of the personalfavourites of


the King.
had served
of those who
while many
And
their country well during the strugglewith Napoleon
reduced
to
were
persecuted and proscribed,Spain was
and weakness.
a condition of extreme
poverty, ignorance,
left without
She was
a
navy, in a state bordering on
bankruptcy and riddled with corruption,and with an
naked, and ashamed.
starving,
army
inner

an

Ferdinand's

Abroad
keen

moral

sense

government

of the

offended

the

Powers, and

Eastern

not

the

too

Growth

Tsar, "PP"^*

ready to sell worthless shipsat


exorbitant price to the bankrupt King, yet at first
an
him
marked
his disapproval
of his courses
by not inviting
to enter
the Holy Alliance.
At home, plotsmultiplied,
and the Freemasons, becoming a political
organization,
strove to spread revolutionary
doctrines. The traditional
loyaltyof the Spanish people was long proof againstall
of dreams.
But at last the accession to office
shattering
of Mataflorida,the most
notorious of reactionaries,
by
bitter tyranny, produced a crisis.
givingpromise of a more

though

he

was

afterwards

which had been collected at Cadiz for the


army,
reduction of the rebel American
had been unable
colonies,

The

to

embark

infected

owing
with

to the

lack of

'constitutional'

transports. It became

ideas,the

more

readily

of
^""*

FROM

32

METTERNICH
it loathed

because

the

because

Atlantic,and
initial plotwas

TO

BISMARCK

CH.i

prospect of service

it

frustrated

was

by

left

unpaid

across

idle.

and

treacheryof

the

La

the
An

Bisbal,

the confidence,
generalcommanding, who first won
of the conspirators.But the
and then revealed the plans,
traitor was
rather unwiselyreplaced in his command
by
the weak
and dilatory
Calderon, and a second attempt
the

with

met
Revolt

Led

of

better

by Riego

1820"' vanity than

fared

Cordova

through which

he

adherents.

simultaneous

greater luck

ill at

first. A

than

march

of greater

the
ability,
by Riego on

populationof the districts


apatheticand he gained

passed was
But
just when

outbreak

colonels

Quiroga, two

fruitless; the

was

and

and

merit, and

movement

few

success.

all seemed

of revolt at Corunna

lost, the
and

lona,
Barce-

throughout the kingdom, turned the


scale.
under
illusions
no
Ferdinand,who was certainly
the extent
of his popularity,
to
was
as
thoroughly
He
decided
to give way.
to the
swore
frightenedand
the mobs
had vaguely
Constitution of 1812, for which
a Cortes.
clamoured, and promised to convene
Riego,
enteringMadrid, was hailed as a popularhero and as the
saviour
In

Meetingof

indeed

of his country.

due

course,

the

estates

and

met

an

attack

was

instituted
18^0'"'^^^'

as the necessary
prelude
upon clerical privilege,
the
But
social reform.
to financial and
majorityin the

Cortes

was

not

content

with

mere

redress

of

grievances.

with
complete breach with the past, and forththe absurd
its violence, coupled with
vanity of
Riego, began the alienation of publicopinion from the
It

hoped

Liberals.

for

watched

Ferdinand

of devotion
for the

restoration

factors

to

secure

to

of
his

with

satisfaction the

vival
re-

himself; he intriguedperpetually
absolute power, relying upon two
triumph.

He

believed

and

with

FROM

34

Inaction
PowcK.

doctrine of

to

^^'

TO

BISMARCK

CH

aggression.And he was
equally reluctant either
discredit upon the Alliance,
to risk its
or
bringpossible
weakeningand dissolution,
by usingit to support a ruler
condemned
by the generalvoice of the Continent. For
he was
led to preach the unusual
a
while, therefore,
adopted

State of

METTERNICH

and
non-intervention,
decisive in

was

abstain from

the attitude which

leadingthe Powers

he

rigorously

action.

It was,

of wide
however,onlyfor a while that the apostle
of the Treaties preachedanother
interpretation
gospel.
Disturbances
to

in the Italian peninsula


soon

his earlier view


'

that

Europe

should

him

won

back

be controlled

by

'

hegemony which the great Powers had


reduced once
established. Italy,
to a
more
mere
matic
diploexpression'by the settlement of 1815,had, with
little more
the notable exceptionof Piedmont, become
than a mere
of the Austrian
Empire. The
appanage
rulers of the various states were
bound to the Habsburgs
by ties of blood or interest ; they were ready and even
anxious to assist in stifling
those vague yearningsfor a
national existence which the use of the term
Kingdom
of Italy
in
the work of
',and the employment of Italians
government, had called into beingduringthe Revolution.
Such yearningswere
to Metternich,for the
anathema
restraint of Liberalism,
in his opiniona necessity
everywhere,
here doubly necessary, since Austria was
was
and her dominions in dangerof infection.
touched directly
the danger of attempts to
he saw
While, therefore,
of his policy
Germanize
it was the firstprinciple
Italy,
to crush allnational feeling.
was
not
Unity,he declared,
merelyan emphatic denial of the doctrine of legitimacy

the

moral

'

Italian

'

Metternich

'

and of the sacredness of the

'

Treaties

'

; itwould

also lead

since the jarring


interests of the
to revolution,
infallibly
could but produce
various sections of the peninsula

METTERNICH

THE

CH.I

Unendingconflict.
thought,then, and
inertia,he

SYSTEM

In order to deaden
to lull the Italian

of political
activity
people into mental

efficient administration

advocated

of material

encouragement

35

prosperity; those

and
who

the
were

'

would
not disturb the peace, since
well-liking
would
disturbance
imperil their own
position. The
LombardoVenetian
kingdom, on the whole, afforded a
practical
example of the working of Metternich's ideal of
benevolent despotism. Government
was
honest, though
fostered and
was
strict;technical education
industry
advanced
unduly heavy, it
consequently
; if taxation was
still not
was
heavy enough to destroy the industrial
had
time, would-be
well-being.At the same
politicians
from
excluded
cause
enough to complain. They were
irritated,
publiclifeand rather needlessly
though it must
be remembered
loyal
that they were
at heart thoroughlydisto the existing
order,and that their ideal involved
the expulsionof the Austrians
from Italy. As to the
other states of the peninsula,Mettemich
formed close
alliances with most
of them, but though they were
thus
broughtunder Habsburg influence,
they offered less perfect
'

fat and

of the Austrian

illustrationsof the methods

Tuscany and

Parma

were

ruled

with

the

chancellor.

mildness

ditional
tra-

in the

imperialhouse,and in these duchies the


sovereignswere
generallypopular. But Modena, the
Sicilies
Papal States,and the Kingdom of the Two
presented in varying shades picturesof corrupt and
unpopularadministration.
attitude of the governments The
Everywhere the repressive
led to a development of those secret societies which had
firstarisen during the Revolution,and which
made
a
inherent in the Italian
potent appeal to the love of intrigue
character. The chief societywas
that of the Carbonari,
which had been founded at Naples and joinedafter 18 15
c

Car-

S6
by

FROM

METTERNICH

the former

of Murat,
partisans

who

the

restored Bourbons.
by
in
throughoutItalyand especially
result that the firstoutbreak
Revolution
^^^'
1820

BISMARCK

TO

CH.

been

had

It made

scribed
pro-

converts

armies,with the

the

due to its effortsassumed

militarycomplexion. Morelli and Salvati,two sublieutenants in the Neapolitanarmy, raised the standard
of rebellion at Nola, vaguely demanding the Spanish
catchword
which
meant
to those who
a
Constitution',
'

used it as

much

Confessor'

England.

and

meant

had

to

littleas
the

from

'

the Laws

the

of Edward

agitatorsof twelfth-century
of the Government

weakness

The

the movement

as

being nippedin the

prevented

bud, and

when

it

joinedby Pepe, the generalcommanding at


Naples,the King made unconditional surrender. The
constitution was
duly proclaimed; the political
tion
persecuof the Muratists ceased,and Ferdinand
IV, while he
loud in his professions
waited for a chance of revenge, was
of ardent devotion to the popularcause.
Revolution
"^

been

Almost

at

the

same

time,

Piedmont, which
^1^*^82

alone among
agreement with Austria.

made

the fact that


had

an

incident known

occurred,was

amiable

revolution

occurred

in

the states of
Victor
as

Italyhad not
Emmanuel, despite

the French

and

gentle;
Alexander
I,to

and

Revolution
he had

been

able,with the help of


preserve comparative
with
the
relations
in
his
Habsburgs.
independence
of
His heir presumptive,Charles Albert
Carignano,was
and was
outspoken in his
regarded as a revolutionary,

Consequently,though the
of Piedmont
Government
was
popular,and in some
its leniencyproduced the same
respects almost Liberal,
of Ferdinand
IV.
The
results as the barbaric severity

hatred

of

Carbonari

the

made

Austrians.

converts

; and

when

Neapolitanrevolution,a section of
civilians,
partly soldiers,demanded

news

the

the

arrived of the

people,partly
Spanish Con-

METTERNICH

THE

CH.i

SYSTEM

stitution,
believingthat they were
wishes of their future,ifnot

tolerate

Liberal

actingin accord

with the

with those of their actual,king.

realizingthat

Emmanuel,

Victor

37

her

at

government

Austria

would

not

door, and

very

Abdication

his

subjects,
sought refuge in abdi- Emmaiiuel
1821.
Charles Albert, appointed regent for the newMar.
cation.
be
to
King, Charles Felix,^allowed the Constitution
that the Accession
proclaimed,but safeguardedhimself by declaring
For his vacil- Felix.^"^
subjectto royal confirmation.
grant was
unwillingto

coerce

^^

lation

on

this occasion,he has been

accused

of the basest

of havingdeliberately
lured his former
and even
treachery,
It is perhapsjustto say that
accomplicesto their doom.
his personal sympathy with the
he wavered
between
revolt and his loyaltyto his family; the latter sentiment
because it was
backed by the strong
eventually
prevailed,
of Austria presented.
argument which the military
power
In any case, Charles Felix was
He
rejectedthe concessions

resolved
made

his

on

his

by

own

course.

cousin, and,

supported by Austria,easilyrestored absolutism


kingdom. Charles Albert was sent into temporary
from

in his

exile

the court.

The

outbreak

Metternich

of unrest

that

perfect doctrine.

in

Italywas

non-intervention
In

was

by

circular-letter to

to convince

enough
no

the

means

Powers, he
'

endeavoured

distinguishbetween

to

the

Spanish

Naples,had

rightto intervene,and

for the individual action of his' government


support of the Allies.
his demand

for

Alexander, however,

conference

to consider

Brother

to Victor

Emmanuel

the moral
was

the matter

I.

Laibach.

ing
claim-

firm

in

; and

Metternich,though the danger of raisingthe Spanish


question appeared clearlyenough to him, was
obligedto
of Europe.
assent in order to avoid a breach in the concert
*

oi

ences

and Troppau

Italian questions,urging that Austria, in virtue of her


alliance with

"11. The
^""f^^-

"

FROM

3"

The

Conference

METTERNICH

imminence

of such

Conference
Oct'^TsTo"'

of the

^^^

Great

breach

Powers

showed

to

be

party

her real wishes

Ferdinand

between

assembled

and

to

CH

appeared as

Britain,
representedmerely by

Vienna, refused
and

BISMARCK

TO

at

soon

1
a::

Troppau.

her ambassador

the coercion of

at

Naples,
mediate

by attemptingto

his

not at
subjects
; she aimed
servingthe ends of Austria,who desired to destroy
but at removing the only plausible
Liberalism in Italy,
for intervention by ending the internal divisions of
excuse
the Two Sicilies. France,whose envoys had onlylimited

powers, assumed
hand, Metternich
recent
to

attitude of

an

found

Powers
strove

were

cause,

willingto

to maintain

the Alliance.

which

at

The

the other

that the Tsar,

in Poland,had
experiences

the Conservative

But, on

reserve.

act

and

been

disgustedby his
won
over
entirely

that the three

together.For

least the appearance

a
Troppau Protocol,

Great

Britain

of

Eastern

while, he

in
solidarity

colourless document,
able to

give a
assent, merely asserted the generalprinciple
qualified
when
internal changes
that intervention was
legitimate
The actual case
threatened external disorder.
of Italy
which the King of
was
postponed to another conference,
Naples was invited to attend.
Before
with
he
Ferdinand
left his capital,
swore
Conference
solemnityto the constitution and declared that
Peculiar
Tan^^'821
he was
going to the Conference merelyas a peacemaker
between his people and Europe. But as soon
as he was
safe under Austrian protection
at Laibach, he gave vent
his true
to
feelings,
denouncing the revolution and
acceded
begging for help. The Eastern Powers readily
to his request,and though Great Britain refused to act
to restore
order in
with them, Austria was commissioned
the peninsula.
RestoraThis
restoration was
speedilyaccomplished. The
to

even

was

THE

CH.i

rebels

Neapolitan
lost

heart,

back

to

and

time,

rious

end,

real

The

Powers

Italy
of

his

revolution

fully

of

system

that

realized

at

not

appreciated.
the

to

assure

of

Conservatism

still

at

the

time
the

At

the

the

and

Europe.

and
the

of

the

in

Laibach,
of

Eastern

settlement
Metternich

End

182I

of

of
and

the

^^^"^"^'""
Piedmont,

basis.

impossibility

Western

supremacy

ascendancy

breach

Troppau
;

inglo-

an

assured

the

Instead,

in

foes.
to

more

m^^

the

the

ascendancy,

appeared

between

on

borne
to

came

peninsula

absolutism

turned
his

on

Rieti,

at

Ferdinand,

Piedmont

the

had

co-operation

seemed

in

placed

skirmish

himself

throughout

which

was

arms

39

Austria,

of

revenging

was

in

struggle.

the
the

weakness

not

constant

the
and

Alliance

was

of

Habsburgs

the

defeated

were

on

task

same

SYSTEM

abandoned

power

congenial

of

METTERNICH

^
CHAPTER

II

".i.German

Policyof

Mettemich.

"

" 9.

AH.

Nicholas

Kingdom

The

Carlsbad

Decrees.

" 4. Beginningof the Greek


revolt. " 6. Intervention of

" 3. State of the Ottoman


Empire.
revolt. " 5. Progress of the Greek
Mehemet

GREECE

OF

INDEPENDENCE

THE

" 8. Death of Alexander I.


" 7, Policyof the Powers.
and the Greek Question. " 10. Navarino.
"11. The

of Greece.

Germany Metternich had secured


less complete triumph for his ideas. At the
a more
or
of^Metter^^
nich.
Congressof Vienna the restoration of the old Holy Roman
as
impossible.
Empire had been considered and rejected
"

I.

Ger-

Meanwhile

The

in

tradition upon

discredited
shattered

which

alone

rested had

it had

been

completely
the Napoleonic

by the gibes of Voltaire,and

by the

reconstruction

French

Revolution

of the German

map

and

; it could

not

revive

at the

biddingof the Great Powers,even if Prussia would


have agreedto such increase of Habsburg prestige.On
the other hand, the German
out
states could not be leftwithany
numerous

bond

of union

enclaves,and

whatsoever.
the

The

consequent

existence

of

frequencyof

boundary disputes,
suppliedan ever-presentcasus belli.
The divergencein strengthbetween
the various states
afforded sufficient inducement
for aggressionto the
to the weaker,to
stronger,sufficient motives for jealousy
render a condition of perpetual
at least not unthinkable.
war
And
in the background rose
the vision of an
aggressiveFrance,who had always found in the divisions
of Germany an occasion for her own
advancement.
The

42

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

the lesson of the failure of

Joseph II was
bound
Habsburgs were

The

successors.

the
rivalrybetween
and on
intervention,

smaller
the

CH.li

not

lost

to

relyon

states, which

jealousywith

of the Hohenzollerns

on

the

their

invited

which

the

his

growing
ever-

regarded. But
of all they placed their trust in the feelingof
most
traditional loyaltyto themselves
the recognizedheirs
as
of the mediaeval
twenty-five
emperors, a feelingwhich
power

stressful

years
with
cordiality

had

sufficed

not

which

was

Francis

II

received,duringhis

was

statelyprogress from Vienna to the


la-Chapelle,
inspiredhis chancellor
that he had
Himself
'

welcomed

moral

force
would

Germany

as

'

', Metternich
find in him,

master, her guide in

with

livelyhope
German
problem.

matters

'

Messiah

new

of Aix-

Conference

solution of the

the

found

The

eradicate.

to

exalted

and

that

trusted

into

divided

of his
representative
and the perpetual
political
the

as

arbiter of her destinies.


But

Policyof
"

if this dream

that all

to come

were

supporters of the

true, it

was

order should
existing

necessary
be banded

togetherin its defence and decided in their attitude and


policy. Infirmityof purpose on the part of governments
would
supply an opportunityfor subjectsto assert their
undoubted
will ; and it was
fact that the subjectsof
an
attracted by the ideal of nationality,
were
rulers,
many
inclined to seek by the vague
paths of Liberalism for
a mysterious
something called Progress'. Left alone,it
was
highly probable that peopleswould fail to realize
and
the Treaties ',or that stability
how sacrosanct
were
were
interchangeable
morality,Liberalism and revolution,
that they should
be
It was, therefore,
terms.
necessary
ideas were
guided from above by the Powers, if the new
'

to be

remain

combated
'

moral

with effect,if Prince


force

in

Germany

Metternich
'

to

save

were

to

the world

INDEPENDENCE

THE

CH.ii

GREECE

OF

43

anarchy and atheism,from contempt for the Habsburgs and for God.
And
it happened, certain accidental circumstances Obstacles
as
foundation ^^
both deprivedMetternich's policyof that sure
^g"^"^
for which
its author sighed and
served to policy
in legality
bring into the councils of the Powers division of opinionxni.
Article XIII
of the federal
of Germany.
the matter
on
assemblies of
constitution providedthat there should be
from

'

estates

other

and

clause

the

sacred

of the

charge

rulers who
them.

this article

was

And

of

grant

less sacred

wished
many

perform

to

Liberal

the

of the German

and

followed

was

the Austrian

to

any

conduct

censured

open
those

duty thus assigned to


princeshad this wish.

the Grand

constitution

was

he

than

positionof the

ambiguous, his

when
inconsistency,

them
was
Conspicuousamong
Weimar, who defied Vienna
to

no

Treaties,the

chancellor became

Austrian
to

as

was

his

'

Duke

immoral

of Saxe'

enough

subjects. His

ample
ex-

of the southern states, with


by some
the result that Germany failed to present to the eyes of
of consistent absolutism.
Metternich a pleasing
spectacle
Nor

government able

to

protest

too

(3)Atti-

of the dramatic Alexander


loudly. Alexander
I,not yet forgetful
attracted by the Iappealof Stein,^and characteristically
glamour of an apparentlyloftyideal,took the nascent
Liberalism
of Germany under his protection
and warmly
approved the conduct of the reformingprinces. Austria
could not afford to incur the hostility
of the Tsar
by
attackinghis proteges, especiallywhen those proteges
were
merely carryingout a clause of the Treaties which
the Alliance was
And
the dilemma
pledgedto maintain.
of Metternich
rendered
acute
was
more
by another fact.
Had
Prussia been
in full sympathy with Austria, the
combined
persuasion of two great states might have
*

Cp. above,

p. 16.

FROM

44

induced

METTERNICH
the

abstain from

other

TO

members

of

BISMARCK
the

CH.II

Confederation

dangerous practices.But Frederick

III,had vaguelypromised a constitution

to his

to

William

people,and

his

character led him to hesitate either to break


vacillating
to keep his word.
or
Hardenberg was
permitted to
employ his dotage in constructingand reconstructing
debated
parliamentsof ink and paper, while his master
whether
no
or
they should be allowed to become
thing
anymore.

In

these

circumstances

Metternich

was

compelledto content himself with passiveresistance. He


less
or
urged continuallyon the court of Berlin more
ingeniousplans for the technical keeping and actual
At the
breaking of the promises which it had made.
time,he instructed Count Buol,the Austrian delegate
same
of the Diet, to impede the completion of
and president
He
himself waited for a chance to play
any business.
the part of St. George and strike down
the dragon of
Liberalism.
His

the result of some


rather
as
opportunity came
of extreme
futile exhibitions by a group
Liberals,the
of the University of Jena.
The
students
Wartburg
Wartburg Festival was
held by them
the Reformation
to celebrate
marked
by the burning
Oct. 1817. and the battle of Leipsic; it was
of some
reactionarybooks, a corporal'sbaton, and
actions were
of a pair of corsets.
These
incidentally
to
meant
militarism,and
displayhatred of repression,
foreigninfluence ; they were
interpretedas dangerous
signs of increasing
contempt for authority. Metternich
pointed the moral that students should be carefully
restrained ; and the Wartburg exhibition and other similar
of his sympathy for
displaysassisted to cure Alexander
Liberals.
The influence of Austria,which had
the German
of Aix-labeen steadily
growing since the Conference
Chapelle,was soon confirmed by an emphatic illustration

INDEPENDENCE

THE

CH.il

of the

danger

OF

of indecision.

GREECE

Kotzebue,

45

Russian

privyMurder

for poetry,incurred ^^
politics
the hostilityof the reforming party by his reactionary
writings. He was now assassinated by a mad theological
student, and the deed, which was
rashlyapplauded by
followed by other attempts
was
Liberals,
some
injudicious
who
councillor,

Metternich

murder.

at

abandoned

had

of horror

hailed these

of
feelings

and

events

with

of
jgio.

sions
expres-

delight; they gave


him the chance
for which
he had waited.
Everywhere
laboured
his agents
to discover,perhaps even
to invent,
proofs of a general conspiracyagainstlaw and order,
while

the court

of Vienna

secret

insisted

the absolute

on

sity
neces-

of precautionarymeasures.
relonger alone in its advocacy of stem
pression. Prussia had already postponed all internal
of SaxeDuke
the Grand
change and had admonished
Weimar.
After the death
of Kotzebue, a conference

It

was

no

Teplitz,and as
adopted by the
the

William

Frederic

between

maintenance

and

result the

court

of

Austrian

of Berlin.

good

Metternich

order

policy was

Common

measures

at

fully
for

were

invited to send

Here
the
to a specialdiet at Carlsbad.
representatives
in imposing their
found
Great Powers
two
no
difficulty
views

the

on

minor

states, and

XugriSig

concerted,and the

were

of the Confederation

other members

held

was

Convention

the

Carlsbad

Decrees

The

^^^^
Sept.1819.

regulatethe policesystem of Germany.


I^ was
provided that universities should be supervised
and all secret
societies prohibited. Pamphlet literature
censored ; Metternich
to be strictly
was
urged the direct
of the national taste for books
literally
encouragement
and
figuratively
ponderous, in order to gratifyin a
A central
fame.
harmless
manner
aspirantsto literary
were

issued

commission

to

was

established at Frankfort

disturbance.

to check

tionary
revolu-

The

The Vienna

METTERNICH

FROM

46

of

court

Vienna

to limit the
specifically
May\82o

other

members

BISMARCK

TO
desired

discontent,declined to accept
have led to disorder,and
infallibly

would

for Austrian

excuse

of Carlsbad

were

intervention.
resumed

at

When

the

But

Confederation,threatened

internal

and

further

go

of local estates.

powers

of the

to

II

CH.

with

policy which

so

afforded

an

the conferences

of
Vienna, the opposition

Prussia,Bavaria,and Wiirtemberg compelled Mettemich


tained
mainwere
compromise. The Decrees
but their provisionswere
not
extended, and
made
though at a later date they were
permanent, the
the same
at
independence of the smaller states was
time
no
guaranteed. On the other hand, there was
to

to

agree

further
under

idea
the

in

of the establishment

aegis of governments

Germany

became

of Liberal
; the

institutions

ment
reforming move-

force hostile to

constituted

and deprived of the sympathy of Russia by


authority,
the folly of many
of one,
students
it
and the crime
ceased greatlyto concern
the advocates
of absolute rule.
At the same
time, the new
friendshipbetween Austria
and

Prussia confirmed

Diet, and

of the former in the


the supremacy
all proposalsfor strengthening
the Germanic

Confederation

"3. State
Ottoman

Empire.

If Mettemich
tacitlyabandoned.
had
not
the less
triumphed completely,he had none
triumphed. The Conference of Vienna is the highwatermark
of his ascendancy in Europe.
Almost
immediately the shadow of his approaching
^^^^ darkens his path, and the menacing spectre of the
Eastern
Question looms large in the foregroundof the
had attempted in 1815 to
political
picture. Mettemich
of the affairs of the Ottoman
secure
a settlement
Empire,
and by placing the dominions
of the Sultan under
the
guarantee of the Powers, to set up an effective barrier
So vital,
however, had
againstthe aggressionof Russia.
were

been

the differences which

that

discretion

valour ;

to

the Concert

save

the

better

part of

of

Europe, it was agreed to


harmony. But though the question

certain lack of

ignorea

indeed

be

47

the Allies

appeared between

felt to

was

GREECE

OF

INDEPENDENCE

THE

II

CH.

thus

gentlyshelved,its pressingcharacter was not


The
the less fullyrealized.
dissolution of the Ottoman
Empire was regarded as being merely a questionof time,
was

and

scramble

considered
When

for the inheritance


be

to

it came,

Alliance

; and

circumstance

of

one

there
as

the

would

of

end

an

devotion

to the ideal of

anxiouslyto postpone

long

as

who

those

Grand

additional

felt to be

was

had

was

events.

the

of the

this,and

that the issue of the scramble

extremely uncertain, even


ardent

probable

most

be

result of

Sick Man

of the

little

but

Europe laboured
possiblethe inevitable

united

a
as

crisis.
As

of

matter

fact,their anxiety was


illness of the

needless, and

the

enough, was

much

Sick

to

extent

some

real

Man, though
his

This

doctors.

exaggerated by
moud
exaggeration was
partly due to the character of MahII, who was
something of an enigma and who
was
generallythought to be wholly incapable of doing
anything
He

as

to

the

arrest

decline

Character
Mahmoud
H-

fall of his

and

empire.
other
weak, at an-

appearedto be at one time indolent and


and violent,
and was
constantlyregarded
energetic
competent,
a
typical Oriental despot, by nature
lazy and inbut liable to flashes of trulybarbaric anger.

This

portraitfell

rather
and

of

man

short

was

to
policy,
altogetherdevoted.

that

it

most

availinghimself
might from time

the

the

to

such
time

he

But

he

was

to

advantages
afford him.

was

pursued

accomplishmentof

essential for him


of

Mahmoud

truth.

ordinary talent

no

consistent

was

of

which

also well
act
as

with

clear
he

aware

caution,

circumstances

Only

in this way

FROM

48
could

he

which

beset him.

hope

Those

Difficulties

to

treaties of

claim to certain

rightsover

she had

the nonfulfilment

find

to

unity.

in character.

Exter-

Bucharest, she

and

laid

subjectsof the
grievancesarisingfrom

of the later treaty.

need

search

the

the Christian

also certain

delU,her

castis

arduous.

if she desired

Thus
not

be

either

long

anything else,the conduct of


the sultans towards their non-Mohammedan
subjectswas
for complaint.
never
so
ideally
justas to afford no excuse
the Janissaries
were
so
Internally
powerful that their
or

of

the difficulties

overcome

Kutchuk-Kainardji

CH.

ever-present danger. Under

an

was

to

BISMARCK

twofold

were

Porte,and

Lack
(i")

and

meet

difficulties

^^^^Y Russia
moud:'(a)
relations
with
Russia.

TO

METTERNICH

nominal

Apart

master

from

in effect their

was

slave, and

there

was

other

the
adequatemilitaryforce. In the provinces,
Pashas rendered a very shadowy obedience to Constantinople,
and there could be no
tion
strengthin the administraof the
empire until they had been coerced or
in a word,
persuaded into real loyalty. Centralization,
the paramount
was
necessityof Turkey, but Mahmoud,
that it was
aiming at this,had to remember
only too
would mark the conclusion
murder
probablethat his own
no

of his schemes.
Position of
tians.

For

the
thing which
Mohammedan
populationof the empire desired,and the
obstinate localism of the Ottomans
had always imposed
limitation on the theoretical
a
speciesof indeterminate

centralization

absolutism

of the

to

was

would

them

secure

acted

last

It had

as

kind

also driven

which

of

since 1453, the

viceroyover

the Orthodox

Church

the
was

'

to

interest

either could

against unlimited
Ever

them

subjects,whose

support the only power

probablemassacre.
had

sultans.

the

their Christian

relylargelyon
it

was

or

oppressionand'
Greek patriarch
religionists
rayahs',his co-

almost

depart-

METTERNICH

FROM

50

by

most

BISMARCK

TO

of the

prominent men

very

little.

administration

incapacityand accused
the results of its
were
insignificant
Ottoman
government, though fullyaware
of

convicted

The
Orthodox
Church.

More

real service

rendered

of union

only,bond

the country.

In

between

the
it

measure

some

worse,

and
that

labours
of its

to the

so

the

existence,

Greek

cause

by

the truest, if not

afforded

Church, which

the Orthodox
the

was

of

was

it.

trouble to suppress

did not

ii

plished
country, it accom-

of the

central

Its

ch.

various

kept

sections

alive

sense

of

of

identityand the use of a national language; it


that revival of Greek literature which was
made
possible
of Korais.
Even
able
valuillustrated by the writings
more
of Western Europe.
the sentimentality
was
ultimately
national

'Philhellenism '.

The

'

Philhellenes

by

the

all countries

'

ancient
section

Greece

that

believed

Athenians, and
which

strove

they
to

still inhabited

was

formed

rouse

in

public

pendence.
opinionagainstthe Turks and in favour of Greek indeThis sentimentalityat last compelled that
European intervention without which the revolt would
have

ended

in

the

defeat

and

extermination

of

the

rebels.
The Greek
fleet.

Finally,the
their fleet. The

Greeks

possessedan

mountainous

invaluable

asset

in

character of their country,

complete absence of any roads worthy of the


the subjugationof Greece
made
by an enemy at
name,
became
almost
all times a difficulttask,and the difficulty
when the enemy
did not possess the command
insuperable
For the country was
intersected by gulfs
of the sea.
so
and channels that there was
no
important fortress which
less readilyreached
could not be more
or
by water, and
faced
thus a besiegingarmy, unsupportedby a fleet,
was
with a problem almost
incapableof solution. As was
of Missolonghi,
of
the naval inferiority
in the case
seen
and

the

INDEPENDENCE

THE

CH.ii

51

militarysuperiority

they might possess.

as

Nor

valueless such

often rendered

the Turks

GREECE

OF

was

of the

their command

value to the Greeks.

They
Aegean,

of the

commerce

made

use

of direct Impor-

of it to prey

on

creeVflee

the

plundered indifferently

and

the tradingvessels of all nations.


to take

merely

sea

As

action.

result ments
governmight have for

They
and tears of
remained insensible to the supplications
ever
bound
to
the friends of an oppressedpeople; they were
eloquentappeal of wealthy
pay attention to the more
merchants
and traders who
were
incidentally
important
sentiment
reinforced by
when
was
taxpayers. Thus
considerations of practical
necessity,
Europe suddenly
discovered that it had a moral duty to perform in saving
were

the Greeks

moved

from

extermination.

In such ways the ground was


of Greece and itsultimate success
circumstance

prepared for the


made possible
;a

revolt

Revolt of

casual

suppliedthe opportunity. Mahmoud,

janina,
^^'"-

in

of centralization,
resolved to destroythe growpursuit
ing
of
independence Ali of Janina. The latter had long
held the pashalikof Epirus,and had consolidated his
power by a skilful blendingof diplomacy with violence
of enlighteneddespotism with brutality.Aware
and
that the Sultan was
planninghis overthrow,he tried to
his

prevent

his fall

by procuring the
in the

prominent enemy

murder

capital.The

of his most

attempt

was

only

successful ; the Sultan was


partially
hopelesslyangered
of his authority; and Ali,deprived
by such open flouting
of all prospect of pardon,went
to his own
capacityand the

neighboursto
For
no

of

secure

him

while he made

regulararmy
the pashas.

and
But

was

the

in open

rebellion,
trusting
sympathy of his Albanian

final victory.
had War beheadway. Mahmoud
obligedto relyon the loyaltyMahmoud

some

latter concentrated

their forces

and

ah,

1820-22.
D

5Z

FROM

with

deliberation

METTERNICH
and

supreme

commander;

his

collection

own

BISMARCK

TO
would
each

of camp

campaign ; each
privateaims and

distrusted

for that very reason


to the Greek

the

CH.ii

readilysubmit to a
had his own
commissariat,
followers,his own
plan of
not

the

other, and

all had

their

privatesuspicionsof the Sultan. So


little progress
that eventuallythe
made
whole
was
strengthof the Ottoman
Empire had to be exerted and
of the army
the command
entrusted to Kurshid
Pasha,
of the Morea, whose
undoubted
but
was
ability
governor
whose
withdrawal from his province at this juncturewas

blockaded

soon

by

its

chance

of the

Greeks

rather

standards

ypsi

an

But
i.

their embrace

was

to

on

have

the attention of

Epirus.
come,

and

The
the

reproachedfor raising
of revolt,embraced
the
have
seemed
to
placed in
been

opportunity,which fortune
their hands,of vindicating
their
Alexander

and
siege,

appeared

leaders had

than

ficial
bene-

more

new

still mainly concentrated

was

whose
Hetairists,

funds

in his

the

commander, indeed,
but Janina,protected
capital,

able to stand

lake,was

the Porte

The

cause.

Ali

serious and

more

character.

rather enthusiastic than discreet.

-j^^ygreatlyexaggeratedthe power of Russia, believing


that the Tsar could defy Europe ; they were
ignorantof
the ties which bound Alexander
to the Alliance,and they
obsessed by the idea that his devotion to their cause
were
would lead him
was
so
great that the first sign of a rising
to

arm

they
they
honour

their behalf.

on

lacked

competent

first invited

to

And

to

direction.

lead

matters

worse,

whom
Capodistrias,
declined

the

doubtful

next
Hypsilanti,who was
approached and who accepted the offer,was a kind of
to Frederic,Elector Palatine.
nineteenth-century
parallel
for the position,
he possessed
Of the qualities
requisite
and this he possessedin such
none
except self-confidence,
;

Prince

Alexander

them,

make

abundant

that he devoted

measure

to

with

the

of

reward

he would

circle of

the charmed

of
bound

fail when

to

blunder

the

situation

led

by

admitted

into

full realization

essential,was

were

such

made

initial

An

man.

certain.

certaintymore
selected as
conspirators

The

be

indeed

decision of action and

facts of

the

be content

to

reigningsovereigns.An enterprise

kind, in which

of this

have

subordinate,though dignified,

some

whether

or
position,

S3

greater part of his

the

he would

whether
speculating

time

GREECE

OF

INDEPENDENCE

THE

II

CH.

the

of their attempt Attempt

scene

of

Moldavia,a country in which the Greeks were


cordiallyin^Moldadetested as the tyrannicalrulers of a Rouman
population,via,
T

It

support of
that

-J

"!

TT

rash

only Hypsilantis

was

Russia

for him

Great

had

',and

Power

sanctioned

Mar.

,11,1

that

assertion

the

he

had

1821.

the

belief

consequent

that gained
enterprise,

the

of success
which
he
slightmeasure
secured.
He soon
disgustedhis adherents by proving
his incompetence. Instead
of advancing at once
into
weeks at Jassy,and thus
Wallachia,he delayedfor some
the

gave
His

ruin

Tsar

and

dared

the

even

Sultan

to

excommunicated
await

attempt

owes

which

began

Alexander
created

had

and

Greek
;

Pruth,

by the
patriarch,he

less than

four

he

credited
dis-

was

Despite the promptitudewith which


disavowed
Hypsilanti,a suspicionwas

endured

that

the

were

Russia
an

hoped

excuse

to

to

find in the

forward

her

own

the Ottoman

risingof

Morea, Europe

statesmen

him.

it.

sinisterdesignsupon
when

crush

Disowned

advancing Turks

the

disaffection of the Greeks

in the

the

to

disgraced fugitivein Transylvania. His


its importance to the declaration
with

and

But

by

after his crossingof the

he

forces

prepare

speedilycompleted.

was

not

months

time

was

Empire.
echoed
Hypsilantiwas presently
not

prepared to

greatlyconcerned.
endorse

the

Most

sentiment

" 5- P'oGreek

of^^"^**

Metternich
and

corner

it seemed
cut

to

measure

'

beyond the pale of

tion',
civiliza-

matter

was

not

little if Mohammedans

another's throats

one

That

of the south-east.

indifference
a

CH.ii

TO

that the affair was

Christians

and

BISMARCK

METTERNICH

FROM

54

an

this attitude of

permanently

the
originally

in

fault of the

maintained
Turks

obscure

Olympian
was

in

themselves.

of
by a wholesale massacre
^^^ Mohammedan
on
populationof the Morea ; reprisals
Apr. 182^.'
Christians followed
Empire,
throughout the Ottoman
reached when
Mahmoud
and the culminatingpoint was
of the patriarchGregorios. The
Execution
ordered
the execution
of the Russian people were
deeply moved by the
feelings
Patriarch
Apr. 1821. death of one
of the princesof the Orthodox
Church;
nople
diplomaticrelations between Petersburgand Constantiwere
suspended,and the avoidance of actual war
be attributed mainly to the accidental circumstance
may
the Tsar at Laibach.
reached
that the news
Being for
the moment
under
the direct influence of Metternich,
Alexander
his ideal of a
was
easilyled to remember
united Europe ; his devotion
to that dream, of which
the
Holy Alliance had been the expression,
outweighed his
attachment
and his sympathy with his own
to his Church
people. Elsewhere than in Russia, opinion was enlisted
Revolt

in

The

on

revolt had

Policyof

initiated

the side of the Greeks.

Sentimentalists all the world

forgettingthe degeneracy of the bastard children


of the ancient Hellenes,wept copiouslyat the thought
of the misfortunes of the land of Homer
and Plato,and
words and feelings
into action,
hastened
translating
many,
to the deliverance of the oppressed.
Metternich
the
regarded with ever-increasing
concern
declininginfluence of his convenient
dictum, and the
growth of the belief that he had unduly limited the area
of the civilized world.
As time passed, it became
more
evident that the passivity
of Europe would not
and more
over,

Metternich.

been

CH.ii

THE

endure

for

It had

ever.

settle the

failure to
the

INDEPENDENCE

Eastern

interests
conflicting
that

hopelessto expect
The

matter.
to

pin

of

GREECE

been

certain

55
that

the

Question in 1815, owing to


the Powers, made
it morally

the

Alliance

could

act

chancellor,therefore,was

Austrian

his faith to

always

OF

policy of delay.

He

in this
driven

trusted

that

tage
singlePower should snatch an undue advanwould
and his
effectually
prevent all intervention,
the greater because
he
trust was
Castlereagh,with whom
had a conference
at
Hanover, agreed that at all costs
Metternich's secret
be preserved. It was
must
peace
that while Europe deliberated,
Greece might be
prayer
destroyed; deliberation should be prolonged until the
Turks
could
of
effect the providentialextermination
a
some
people who, to serve
private end, had not
scrupledto shake the very foundations upon which the
political
system of the Continent reposed.
For a moment
likelythat this prayer
only did it seem
would be heard.
Though their fleet failed to prevent the
retained
of the inhabitants of Chios,the Greeks
massacre
the command
of the sea.
Kanaris,the most daring of
their captains,
burnt the Turkish
and so great
flagship,
the terror inspired
was
by this exploitthat the Ottoman

fear lest

fleetdared
On

not

stir from

the

land, temporary

safe

success

waters

Successes
Greeks,

of the Dardanelles.

for the Sultan's

arms

preludeof overwhelming disaster. The


Kurshid
reduction of AH of Janina enabled
to undertake
the conquest of Greece and from his head-quartersat
Larissa a dual attack was organized. One army advanced
Arta and prepared
westwards, defeated the Greeks near
to restore
order in Epirus as a preliminarystep to the
fortress north of the
siegeof Missolonghi,the principal
Gulf of Lepanto. At the same
moved
time, Ali of Drama
of
He
through central Greece.
passed the isthmus
proved to

be the

56

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

Corinth and entered the Morea, which, since the fall of


in the sixth month
of the revolt,had been
Tripolitza
cleared of Turks.
But his over-confidence
practically
Defeat of
proved his ruin. Advancing to the reliefof Nauplia,he
neglectedto secure his line of retreat ; he was defeated
Drama
annihilated.
Aug. 1822. and his army
Nauplia fell into
practically
the hands of the Greeks, whose
naval superiority
soon
afterwards enabled them
to gain a further success
by
the
Relief of
Compelling Turks to raise the siegeof Missolonghi.
^^ seemed probablethat the liberation of Greece would be
longm,
Nov. 1822. accomplished without
the
intervention of Western
Europe.
But the Greeks themselves threw away the advantage
Greek civil
^^~ which
the fortune of war
As has so
had given them.
^4!'
often happened,it was
found more
easy to destroythan
to create.
Unitingin the face of a common
danger,the
Greeks

had

been able to overthrow

Ottoman

rule and to

repulseattempts to restore it,but when the immediate


perilhad passed,they became the prey of dissensions.
Neither the military
would
leaders nor the sea-captains
consent

conduct

to the supremacy

of the others,
and their factious

sufficiently
preventedthe establishment of any
real central government.
Instead of completing the
deliverance of their country by the reduction of the few
the Greeks turned their
remainingTurkish strongholds,
arms
againsteach other.
Kolokotrones,the ablest of
their generals,
and failed to establish a military
strove
Meanwhile
the Greek navy fellinto a state
dictatorship.
of anarchy,and it was
and incompetence
only the sluggishness
of the Ottoman
which
commanders
prevented
from taking the opportunityto recover
the lost
them
territory.As it was, all that the Turkish fleet could do
to revictual the fortresses stillheld in the Morea
was
by
Turkish
that
the
of a hasty cruise ; all
means
army

58

METTERNICH

FROM

BISMARCK

TO

the forces of Mehemet

landed

AH,

CH.

in the

Morea

ii

and

capturedPylos,Navarino, and TripoHtza. Failingin an


attempt to surpriseNauplia,he began to devastate the
peninsulawith a view to ending resistance by the exterThe
effect of Egyptian
Fall of
mination
of its inhabitants.
still more
evidenced
in the
intervention was
strikingly
loiTghi,
which had excited the
Apr. 1826. case of Missolonghi.The defence,
admiring enthusiasm of Europe,ended when the besieged
of the sea, and
their command
could no longerrely on
Greece

capture of this fortress^western

the

with

was

Empire. The Turkish army.


the Acropolisof Athens
and
Fall of the turningeastwards,reduced
extended
the authorityof the Sultan to the
more
^^^^
Tune^827.
isthmus of Corinth.
Only in the Morea and in the islands
restored

the Ottoman

to

did resistance

continue, and

by

increased

ultimate failure was

Greeks, doubly fatal since

power

had

transferred

" 7.

counted
Po^^ers
cause

like

from

evoked

Byron,

Sultan's

the very
had

devoted

had

mainly

But

the

military

of

It was,

Europe

which

victory.
some

reason

first. The

assumed

flocked to

West.

of

of

their enemies.

to

intervention the rebels had with

volunteers
been

arms

dissensions

the balance

indeed, merely the tardy intervention

deprivedthe
Upon such
Policy

prospect of

the continued

of the

been

the

there

even

sympathy which
character.
practical

their lives and


the Greek

financed

by

governments

talents to

armies
loans
of

; and

Europe

were

influence,and

Men,

Greece

the

contracted

their

revolt
in the

not

fear

yet

of
greatly susceptibleto popular
inactive.
At
served to keep the Powers
a generalwar
Congress the Congressof Verona, the Greek
envoys, sent to excuse
the revolt,
refused a hearing. Soon afterwards,
or justify
were
is^^'^^"^'
and England induced
the
pressure from Austria
of the Tsar ;
Porte
concede
the privatedemands
to
Petersburgand Constantidiplomaticrelations between

INDEPENDENCE

THE

CH.ii

resumed

nople were

hints

though dark

; and

GREECE

OF

59

dropped

were

made, that Russohad confidently


Turkish
looked
to which the Greeks
war
Nor
did the
was
apparently postponed indefinitely.
of
accession
of Canning to the foreignsecretaryship
that

Great
His

remained

demands

more

Britain

produce
sympathy

known

subjectsof

the

be

to

immediatelybeneficial

any

for Greece
*

his

Porte, and

for the

and

insular

'

results.

Christian

character

which

of the Alliance,
disregardthe maintenance
caused the Greeks
to hope that England would
assume
the rdle which
Russia
had
rejected. Their hope was Canning
when
increased
he recognizedthe Greek
flag and so [he"Gr'ee
raised the rebels to the status of belligerents.
But itsoon
flag,
^^'
and that
appeared that his conduct was indeed insular',
the policyof Great Britain was
to be determined
by her
interest and not by sentiment
own
or
religion.
action did modify the situation Changed
None the less.
Canning's
The
to the
recognition of f,5'j*p"
advantage of the Greeks.
their flag,though dictated by the interests of English
sufficed to placethe revolt on a higherplane,
commerce,
since the acts of their captainswere
and
acts of war
now
not
mere
piratical
exploits. More than ever, therefore,
it impossible for the Powers
was
entirelyto ignore the
Greek question. Metternich
that the
himself admitted
establishment of the independenceof Greece
might well
led him

to

""

'

prove
no

to be

longerbe regardedas

Alexander

found

He
difficulty.
the

traditional

the Orthodox
and

evil ; in any

necessary

heretic
was

Balkan

'

himself

saw,

or

beyond
faced

But

blow
he

on
was

could

war

civilization '.

situation of extreme

danger that
Tsars
as
champions of
alien
be usurped by an
a

he felt that his continued

a fatal
inflicting

Peninsula.

the

would

Christians
and

by

paleof

fancied that he saw,

positionof

Power,

the

case, the

Russian
also

ity
neutral-

prestigein

reluctant

to

the

break

FROM

6o

METTERNICH

with the Alliance

Europe.

It

with

Conference agree

he

the

met
witz,
Oct. 1823. which
the

to

or

in the

was

Austria

sacrifice his ideal of

some

the courts

he

cii.ii

might

concert

be

able

of
to

line of action that

common

Czernowitz,a meeting of
reveal the fatal divergence
of Petersburgand Vienna.

Emperor Francis
only result was to

in ideas between

that

hope

to

as

BISMARCK

TO

at

Alexander,however, made yet one more effort to settle


^^^ Greek question
in union with his allies. He presented
*i^2K
to the four Cabinets a specific
proposalfor the division of
Greece into three principalities
under the suzeraintyof

Conference

burg

Petersburgfor the
for

while the Greeks


would

never

agree

governments

the

invited

Sultan, and

the

to

to

conference at

suggestion.But
their part loudlydeclared that they
the partition
of their country, the

discussion

addressed

of this

showed

little inclination

to consider

Canning bluntly refused to


take any part whatever in the conference ; and Metternich,
who was
supportedby Prussia and France,declined to
countenance
a
projectwhich was apparentlycalculated
in the Balkans.
merely to establish Russian supremacy
the

He

Tsar's

Powers

laid down

scheme.

that if Greece

to be

were

Turkish

rule,the interest of Austria


freed so completelyas to stand in

be

of

arm

the

Tsar.

In

freed at all from

demanded

it must

of the tecting
procircumstances, the

no

these

need

Conference

failed. A mere
offer of mediation,
naturally
was
presentedto
unsupportedby threats of intervention,
the Porte and treated with the contempt
For

the rest,the

was

to

lead

to

between
" 8. Death

The

I,

1825.

Powers

dead

almost

Alexander

open
and

this

that

he

itdeserved.

of the

Petersburgconference
the Grand
was
Alliance,and to
relations
rupture of the friendly
Metternich.

nature
sensitive,
high-strung

anderT pained by
Dec.

how

show
an

only result

which

and
failure,

reserved to

he

of the Tsar

was

angrilyannounced

himself

deeply
to the

of
liberty
complete
^
^

THE

CH.ii

INDEPENDENCE

in the

OF

GREECE

6i

Eastern

this declaration
Question. When
followed by an imperial
was
Progressinto southern Russia,
war
was
generallyconsidered to be imminent, and there is
doubt
that Alexander
no
was
reconsideringhis whole
of his death.
In his pursuit of
positionat the moment
the ideal of a united
the
Europe, he had abandoned
traditional policyof his familyand had trampled on the
of his people. He was
dearest prejudices
only too bitterly
conscious of his own
waning popularity,
only too fully
that he was
aware
regardedby his subjectsas little better
than the betrayer of the sacred cause
of the Orthodox
And
the supreme
Church.
sacrifice which he had made,
real in a man
of his peculiar
sacrifice all the more
a
action

temperament,

Europe
one

cared

accord

seemed

no

had

been

of

avail.

no

nothing for loftyideals

their

selfish

own

longer true

Powers

they pursued

and
interests,

the

to

The

creed

which

even

she

of
with

Austria
had

once

remained
alone,the solitary
ably preached. Alexander
world fast crumbling in ruins.
upholder of a political
And so he was
driven once
again to reconsider his ideals,
in the past by
he had been driven to reconsider them
as
the burning of Moscow
the baseness
of so-called
and
he ought not
whether
to have
Liberals.
He
debated
so

followed where

his

incurred the anger


the

ancestors

of his God

slaughteredsaints

questioned whether
devotee

of

had

to

cry in vain

'morality'and
to

he had

by allowing the

the Austrian

been Satan's instrument

led,whether

blood

for vengeance.

not

of
He

siastic
chancellor,that enthuhad not
religion',
the path of duty the

'true

lure from

champion of the Christian faith. In the midst of


relief.
such searchingsof heart,death came
a welcome
as
Broken
tormented
in health and
by visions of his
spirit,
of happier days,
murdered
father and by sad memories
abandoned
by his former friends and alienated from the
chosen

FROM

6a

METTERNICH

TO

he loved,thwarted

where

peoplewhom

where

deceived
down
him.
had
been

life which

succession
in Russia.

intolerable

an

found

idealism

an

burden

to

mistrust

; he

His enthusiasms

had

at the

; and

himself alone in the world

which

close of

had

failed

unsuited to it.

all immediate

His death removed

Doubtful

become

sought sympathy and


desired love and gained hatred.
quenched,his dreams shattered

understand

hoped, and
gladlylaid

trusted, Alexander

had
had

CH.ii

he had

had

He

lifehe found
to

he

BISMARCK

danger of

if such

war,

danger existed,since it plunged Russia into the throes of


and
severe
a
peculiarcrisis. The natural heir to the
who
had
the late Tsar's brother,Constantine,
throne was
for
The

some

own

Alexander, for
continued

to

Tsarevitch ;

Polish

obscure

nor

the

to

death

had

; the

Grand

made

after the

murder

him.

followed

of Aurelian.

had

whom

of
the

acquaintedwith
As
a
result,the

by a strange
sacrifice,
hardlyparalleled
except in the
was

Duke

Nicholas,upon

devolve,been
awaited

concealed,while

receive the honours

title and

had his brother

high destinywhich

Tsar's

reason,

renunciation

bear

thus

was

some

accepting,this

the

in Poland.

lady,and some
appreciation
for government, had led him
utter incapacity
deed
a
renouncing his rightsof succession.

execute

crown

of the army

commander

fascinations of

of his
to

been

years

contest

of self-

Roman

Empire

Constantine

was

at

once

proclaimedby Nicholas at Petersburg; with equalalacrity


Nicholas was
proclaimedby Constantine at Warsaw ; each
brother

hastened

to

assure

the other

of his unalterable

while
allegiance
explanations were
; and
received,the Russian
Empire remained
determinate
Disturb-

ances
in

Russia.

given
without

and
any

head.

disaffected elements

hastened

profitby this
Liberal periodof Alexander's reignhad
confusion.
The
periodhad failed to crush,secret
favoured,the reactionary
The

to

INDEPENDENCE

THE

CH.li

GREECE

OF

6^

prepared to realize their aims.


and in the southern
Militaryrevolts occurred in the capital
provinces. Soldiers,by the direction of their officers,
these

societies ; and

'Constantine

demanded
clear
one

or

he

was

now

understandingas
the other.
indeed

that he

was

earliest

days

why they should

to

But

no

he

to play the part


qualified

all that

showed

which
were
courage
life. After one
brief moment
in the

Petersburgended

at

the

realized that

Russia,than he proved

rule

to

of Tsar

iron resolution
mark

to

of

much

desire either the

had Nicholas

sooner

called upon

well

Constitution',without

and

him

in his

and

domitable
in-

throughout

doubt, the insurrection


of the rioters and

submission

their

and
the southern
ringleaders,
outbreak
to an
more
came
even
ingloriousconclusion.
The
'revolution of December'
produced little tangible
Tsar a profound distaste
result except in giving the new
for Liberalism
and confirminghis constitutional belief in
But it had sufficiently
the merits of strong government.
illustrated the fact that the new
much
more
reign meant
than a mere
of the rulingsovereign.
change in the name
A

of

execution

of iron had

man

succeeded

of almost

man

feminine

softness.
In

direction

no

the

was

effect of this

change

wit of

had
to

remained
ceased

never

pursue

from

policies.But
to

it.

concerts

He
of

to be

time
Nicholas

was

qJ^^^^^

the

that it

passed the

Question,

Emperor

the end

Alexander

of the Tsar's

would
life; he

conflicting
emotions,
two
to time
mutually destructive
took his decision and held firmly

resolved

Europe

the fiasco of

to

true

country'sinterests.
and

of Mettemich

dictum

to foretell what

man

do next

The

" 9. Nicho-

the Greek

apparent than in the attitude of Russia towards

Question.

more

torn

that

should
And

by

as

two

no

stand

consideration
in

the

the conference

of ideal

of his
way
of Czernowitz

indicated
Petersburg had clearly

that he

64

METTERNICH

FROM

BISMARCK

TO

CH.li

the co-operation
of Austria,he
hope to secure
turned
He
believed
to England.
then, as he believed
thirtyyears later,that if only Great Britain and Russia
could understand
each other and act togetherthe problems
be simplicity
of European policywould
itself.
could

Protocol

He

of

Ap"1826

not

^^

did not

this time

at

experience in

later to

^^^

on

the

meet

eve

of the Crimean

with

any

somewhat

such

rebuff

similar

War.

as

stances
circum-

Canning,satisfied

dissolution of the Grand Alliance,was


practical
an
not unwillingto reach
understandingwith the Tsar,
he had already made
and
tentative advances
some
to
His eagerness to prevent isolated action by
Alexander.
Russia, the dominating factor in his Eastern policy,
was
increased by the accession of Nicholas, and Wellington
of
sent
to
resume
was
negotiationswith the court
Petersburg. His mission resulted in the conclusion of a
protocolby which the two Powers agreed to offer their
mediation
the creation of an
to the contending parties,
Greek
state being accepted in principle.
autonomous
Further
the solution of the problem
Treaty of
progress towards
^^^ ^ while interruptedby the outbreak
of a war
^^^^
182T.'
Oct
between
Russia and Persia,which gave Canning cause
to
hope that there might be no need for him to conciliate
the Tsar.
This hope was
falsifiedby the unexpectedly
of the Russian arms,
and it was
changed into
rapidsuccess
ing
Availgrave alarm by the vigorous policyof Nicholas.
with

the

himself

of

the

fact

that

the

destruction

of

the

had left the Ottoman


Janissaries
Empire without means
he presentedto the Porte an ultimatum
of resistance,
on
the

matters

Mahmoud

in
had

dispute between
choice

but to

the

two

Governments.

By

the

Treaty
all the demands
of the Tsar,
he conceded
of Akkerman,
more
agreeing to recognizethe autonomy of
especially
Servia and to evacuate
Wallachia
and Moldavia, which
no

give way.

METTERNICH

FROM

66

TO

BISMARCK

ch.ii

grity
King'sSpeech,seemed to him to threaten the inteof the Ottoman
stone
Empire and thus to shake the keyin the arch of British foreign
policy. His apologetic
attitude encouraged Mahmoud
to assume
an air of injured
demands
that he should accept
innocence,and to answer
for reparation.
the Treaty of London
by counter demands
Nicholas
leftConstantinople,
And
though the ambassadors
in vain urged that the victoryshould be followed up by
on
a jointattack
Turkey. He was left to undertake the
of those
and it was
only one
strugglesingle-handed,
quixoticimpulses,which moved him from time to time,
that led him voluntarily
to free his allies from the natural
Great
To
of their instability
of purpose.
consequences
in the

Britain he gave

an

assurance

that his fleet would

Mediterranean,and to Europe
gain no privateadvantage,while

in the
he would
the French

should be allowed to undertake

of the Morea.
the
and
Treaty of
Adnano-

On

these conditions

began

not

rate
ope-

generalthat
he agreed that
the pacification

in

that

war

which

of Europe had so fearfully


anticipated
diplomatists
so
earnestlylaboured to prevent.

The

dread

of

Russo-Turkish

conflict had

been

due

expectationthat it would result


of the Ottoman
and
complete overthrow
other occathe Sick Man, as on so many
sions
and as
before and since,showed
astonishing
vitality,
skill of Nicholas
the military
did not equal his martial
far from enjoyingthe
was
enthusiasm, the Russian army
hoped-forparade to Constantinople. Indeed, the first
campaign turned rather to the advantage of the Turks,
the invaders being severely
repulsedbefore Silistria. That
marked
the following
by a change in fortune was
year was
to the successful rashness of Diebitsch,
due almost entirely
who
in place of the Tsar.
had assumed
the command
After takingSilistria,
he boldlyiorced the passage of the

largelyto the
Sept. 1829.in the rapid
Empire. But

confident

INDEPENDENCE

THE

CH.ii

GREECE

OF

67

appeared at Adrianople.His army was weak


illbut Mahmoud
was
and his situation in truth desperate,
served by his intelligence
department.He imagined that a
tinople
about to form the siegeof Constanvast Russian force was
and hastened to conclude
By the Treaty
peace.
of Adrianople,
that of Akkerman
was
confirmed,and in
Balkans

and

and
acceptedthe Treaty of London
by consequence recognizedthe independenceof Greece.
and to
It now
remained
to providefor the government

addition

the

settle the

Sultan

boundaries

of the

state.

new

; both

war

speciesof

days

of the revolt.

found

to

The

able
presentconsider-

rather than enjoyed,


possessed,
constitution since the early
republican
self
who had consoled himCapodistrias,

difficulties. Greece
a

were

11.

questionso/cfree^.
during the

Both

had occupiedthe attention of the three Powers


progress of the

"

for his dismissal from

had

the Russian

service

by

ing
embrac-

had secured
strugglingcompatriots,
the presidencyof the republic.His position
had been
somewhat
and its advantages few ; he was
tremely
exprecarious
reluctant to resign
his power at the very moment
But
when
its sweets
seemed
to cease
to be bitter.
likely
the

cause

of his

the memory
stilltoo strong
of the French Revolution
was
for the Powers to tolerate the establishment of a republican

state,even
as

an

ex-minister
of

to

if Capodistrias
had
of the Tsar.

was

to them

on

dom
king-

could only labour


president
by paintingin the gloomiest
find himself
a King would

of power

colours the situation in which


with

suspect

resolved

Europe

Greece, and the Greek

prolonghis tenure

been

not

and an
inadequateterritory
empty treasury. ^^^
successful in frightening
Leopoldof Saxe-Coburg,who

had accepted the throne,into withdrawing his acceptance


on

the

pleathat the

proposedstate

was

supporting.It was perhaps only


sination of Capodistrias
which
at
"

Murder

of

Capodis-

Apri'i
1832.

too small to be self- otto I,

the

opportune

last induced

assas-

Otto

^"f^"^

of 1833.

68

FROM

METTERNICH

Bavaria, the
had

He

BISMARCK

TO

ch.

ii

selected candidate,to land in Greece.

next

meanwhile

secured

slightly
improved frontier,
the boundary being traced from Arta to Volo, and the
loan necessary
its
to enable his kingdom to enter
upon
a

life.
political
The

Independencehad thus ended in the


wT/of*addition of a new member to the family of European
Greek
nations,and in the first trial of one possiblesolution of
the perennialEastern
dence.^"
Question,the gradualexpulsion of
Tmpor-

War

of Greek

the

Turks

from

Christian

states

Europe by
in

the

the

creation

Balkan

of

independent

peninsula. Yet

it

is,

perhaps,in neither of these facts that the real interest or


importanceof the struggleand of its issue is to be found.
Rather
of these events
tration
the significance
lay in the illusthey afforded

which

of

the

hollowness

of

the

of
Quadruple Alliance and of the ultimate impossibility
of the Great
of a concert
Europe by means
controlling
The
Powers.
the attempt to settle the affairsof
Alliance,
the Continent on the basis of maintainingthe status quo
both the
weathered
created in 1815,had in a sense
as
of iSaa ; it
Italian gale of 1830 and the Spanish storm
had

lost Great

before the hurricane

down

system.

but

the

Canning had brought the


pale of civilization ',and when

Austria
at

it still subsisted.

in the Near

When

Decline
Mettemich

Britain

and

had

Russia

Czernowitz

and
in

Alliance,even

been

It went

East.

questionwithin
close friendship
of
to breakingpoint
of the Quadruple

Greek
the

strained

Petersburg,the doom
its modified
form, had

been

sealed.

of the three absolute


dictatorship
monarchies, England, France, and Russia stand forth as
and Prussia can
the leaders of Europe ; Austria
merely
the changed situation
grumble and be still. Nor was
illustration. The overthrow
a dramatic
long in receiving
of the
Bourbon
monarchy and the establishment of
In

place of

moral

Allies
not

always
to

to

the
but

and

battle
fall

of
of

that

and

the

fail.

had

Navarino,
Metternich

mark

once

the

system

and

was

indeed

were

London

the

liberty

Powers

of

to

that

for

Circumstances

Treaty

partly

shown

struggle

Eastern

three
the

69

attributed

be

which

Greeks,

bound

accord,

close
the

decline

the

bring

alike

may

divided

were

destined
into

of

success

GREECE

OF

independence

Belgian
the

INDEPENDENCE

THE

CH.ii

more

its

first

stage

in

Europe.

terpart,
coun-

in

the

CHAPTER

REVOLUTIONS

THE

"
"

The

I.

"5.

The

"

"

1.

Metternich

The

The

Significance

II.

P^^*^ harmony
of"Verona
Oct.

1822.

mainly

to

he

intrigue for
for

appeals
and

help

resistance
the

the

election

to

more

from

this

served

the

crossed

they fortified.

prevent

confined

of

of the

hour

very

had

not

the

of

to

of

Europe,

of

the

Ministry

from

his
his

and
that

ceased

attitude

passive

ling
quelAnd

kingdom.
followed

by

assembly,

the

was

partisans
people.

royalists, who

They declared

the

Pathetic

courts

first Cortes

frontier

of

power.

the

of the

in which

an

openly urged

band

and

Spain

establishment

in

representatives of

appeal,

Bayonne,

to

Congress

been

had

all the

of

the

discussion

violently revolutionary

less

or

to

had

general

of his absolute
sent

com-

Powers,

at

VII

disturbances

dissolution
of

the

adoption

incessant

the

been

the

had

when

him

had

the

Ferdinand

restoration

home

at

King

the

for

state

From

sanctioned

1812,

of

Constitution

Great

Congress

of the

implied

it

as

four

the

that

king.

reluctantly

had

far

so

in

"

1830.

primarily

Europe,

of its

condition

sad

Disturbances
f loT)

appreciable shock

an

consideration

in

all

between

affairs of

of the

Year

Louis

of

Independence

The

8,

Spain.

Polignac.

Accession

Rebellion,

of the

Assembled

of Verona.

"

system,

sustained

already

Revolution.

in

and

Martignac

"6.

Polish

The

of

1830

intervention

French

1830.

July,

Belgian

"9.

Belgium.

Italy. "

of

7. The

"2

Ministries

4.

Revolution

Philippe.
of

"

X.

OF

of Verona.

Congress

Charles

3.

III

had

seized

they had

In

to

protect
response

collected
a

town,
come

at

which
to

save

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

Ferdinand, and

manifest

made

was

created

'

of which

regency

71

the

character

the

exploitof

so-called

was

'Apostolic

mutiny in Madrid and to the formation of


a Liberal
ministry,neither of which events served to end
the anarchy in Spain, since the King was
the less
not
determinedlyhostile to the revolution and its outcome.

Party

led

1830

the fact that its chief member

by

This

Mataflorida.

OF

the

Powers

circumstances

In these
and

to

agents of Ferdinand
not

abandon

to

appealcame

at

returned

his earlier

to

in

intervention

in

He

that

which

to
willingness

to

certain

result of the

the

extent

Metternich

moment.

recent

had

intervened

in

of

those

of
in

'

forms

existence

action

the

of

in

'

Treaties

internal

18 15.

His

Spain, or at least
action,was
partlydue to
in

his

such

hope that in this


Question might

all discussion of the critical Eastern

too, had

by

indefinitely
postponed. Alexander,
been cured of all tendency to coquet

; he had

to

was

while the three Eastern

listen favourablyto the

France

and

England

far from

was

wishing

to

more

were

dubious.

involve

regime ;

was

William,

as

henchman.
thus
the

prepared(1^)
Policy

attitude of

in

Liberals and too

policy

obviously

he believed that his aim

respects the work

"^ ^^*""=*-

Vill^le,
indeed,

his country

reminiscent of the ancien


many

devoted

king'sprayers,

French

undoing in

Frederic

Powers

thoroughlydistasteful to
of

that he

already announced

prepared to assist Ferdinand, and


ever, played the part of the Tsar's
But

his

be

now

with Liberalism

Eastern
Powers,

had

readiness to consider
way

(")policy

longer oppose

any

maintenance

were

agree

Qyegjion

the

appeal to

The

contrary,prepared to champion

maintenance

requiredthe

To

policyas

the

met.

legitimatesovereignto the

the

on

Verona

last

one

Italy,nor could he
Spain since Austria

was,

doctrine

government

made

opportune

an

disturbances

Naples.

Congress of

of his misdeeds.

consequences

the

the

of the

Revolution

METTERNICH

FROM

7a
would

be

clearly. But Villele was


of his colleagues.The
of

an

'

if it

easilysecured

more

former

ch.

revealed

not

were

neither of his party

master

of observation

army

BISMARCK

TO

secured
'

the

on

hi

too
nor

the establishment

Spanish frontier,
spread of cholera
to act effectively

in order to guard againstthe


ostensibly
into France, really
that it might be able
and more
soon
as
as the
signalwas given. The latter,
Montmorency and Chateaubriand, the French
especially
at the Congress,were
ardentlydesirous of
representatives
using the army, created by St. Cyr and financed by
Baron
Louis, to win prestigefor the monarchy by
of the royal family.
championing the cause of a member
It was
clear that the policyof France would be governed
largelyby circumstances.
The

(":)
Policy

attitude of Great

her
of

terms

in

at

more

once

and less

Spain.

at

that she would

announced

now

was

cated
Troppau and Laibach she had indiof the
oppositionto the Austrian interpretation
the Quadruple Alliance,and her ambassadors
Both

uncertain.
,

Britain

On

the

never

assent

to intervention

Metternich

confidently
believed that he had converted
Castlereaghto his own
He thought that whatever might be the characviews.
ter
of the statements of policyissued priorto the Congress,
the British foreignminister would act like a
moral
man
other

hand,

as

soon

as

had

he

fulfilled his

declared

'

intention of

As
it turned out, the
appearing in person at Verona.
suicide of Castlereaghon the eve of his departure handed
the direction of English policyto a man
who was
over
insular than European *. Whether
it is true
more
or
no
that Canning merely followed out the line which his predecessor
would have pursued, it is certain that from the
*

very

firsthe

determined

was

Wellington,who
limited powers

was

and

sent

to break

to the

suppliedwith

with

Congress^was

the Alliance.

givenonly

very definite instructions

74

FROM

METTERNICH

example,was

TO

preparedto

rather than

tolerate

risk

BISMARCK

CH.lli

increase of French

an

continuance

tige
pres-

of

revolutionary
In the second
disorder.
place,France appeared to be
followingtimidlyin the wake of her more despoticsisters,
seemingly anxious but afraid to pursue the strait path of
absolutism, tentatively
returningto the foreignpolicyof
the eighteenth
of a
Family
century and to the dream
Compact '.
the breach between
And finally,
Great Britain and the
Allies was
complete. Indeed, Canning took occasion to
emphasize the insularityof his attitude,and to leave
a

'

Canning
and the

Spanish
Colonies.

'

'

no

doubt

as

to

his resolve

to

free his country from

of the European
leading-strings
actuallyintervene to prevent the
in Spain,but he declared in no
would not permit the Powers
to

Monroe

Doctrine,

1823

He

would

not

restoration of absolutism
uncertain
extend

services to the recovery of the revolted


Monroe
As
President
held the same

The

Dec.

Concert.

the

terms

that

he

their benevolent

Spanish colonies.
language in that

Congresswhich contained the doctrine


the more
the English protest was
that bears his name,
American
The
into
effective.
South
republicscame
and a happy era of
well as actually,
as
being officially
the new
and revolutions dawned
constant
on
world,
wars
redress the balance
which
Canning fondlyhoped would

famous

message

to

'

'

'

of the old '.


Canning
and

gal,
Portu-

1826.

if its results

Atlantic

hardly
the decision of Great Britain had the designed
gratifying,
followed
effect in Europe. It was
by the despatch of
a fleet to the Tagus in support of the constitutional regime
But

had

across

established

which

Pedro

of his

daughter Maria,

and

when
which

were

he abdicated
had

been

in favour

attacked

by

leadershipof Miguel,the regent,


taken together,
and uncle of the Queen. These two facts,
showed plainlythat the Alliance could no longer be held
the absolutists under

the

the

to

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

include

all the Great

of the Continent

Powers.

believe

to

passivethe

friend,however

that

OF

1830

They
they

led the
had

75

least

at

attitude of that

Liberals

friend

one

might

be.
generally
the

After

Congressof Verona, therefore,it


the Metternich

whether

to prove

despitethe

tained

destruction
the

of

the

" 2. French

be

Jfo"[n""

main-

of the Spain.
solidarity

despoticmonarchies, with
such help as France
might give them, could continue to
policethe Continent in the interest of reactionarygovernment.
So far as the immediate
questionof the moment
tive.
was
concerned,the answer
appeared to be in the affirmafollowed
ambassador
The French
at Madrid
finally
his passports;
and demanded
the example of his colleagues
of the delivery of the joint note, Jan, 1823.
and within a month
Louis
XVIII, with the cordial approval of his allies,

Alliance

declared

; whether

system could

remained

The

war.

three

Eastern

admitted

Powers

that France

priorrightto undertake the noble task of coercing


in order to restore the absolute
the Spanish Government
power of the SpanishKing.
Of the ability
of the French
to perform this task there Angouleme
doubt.
was
no
Spain was in no condition to resist attack,l^^^^j^
had

if she had

even

been

if Ferdinand

even

paralysethe
neglectedto
force which
after

now

assisted

by

march.

the

with

cope
the

hints

had

army
the

been

Duke

Within
of

having been
progress
which
Wellington had

of the

so, and

too

Apr. 1823.

to

long

splendidlyefficient

frontier.

Bidassoa, the
his

the character
At

to

crossed

crossingthe
Madrid,

to

Her

do

to

all in his power

done

not

executive.

entered

as

had

be able

in her desire

united

country and

the

month

Angouleme

generally
given him
best

line of

approach,the Spanish ministers retired,


draggingthe wretched King with them, first to Seville
and then to Cadiz.
to the latter place,
During their flight
his

METTERNICH

FROM

76

they put
be

must

and

forward

the

mad

desire to

to

lii

CH.

theory that Ferdinand


dispense with their services,
Constitution theyproclaimed

convenient

with

in accordance

BISMARCK

TO

the

provide for the defence of the country.


But
not
the Spanish people were
yet cured of their
inveterate loyaltyto the throne.
Angouleme was joined
of Spaniards and, so far from meeting with
by numbers
hatred as an invader,he everywhere won
popularityby
and
the
services
which
conduct
his conciliatory
he
by
was
renderingto the King. His advance from Madrid
southwards
much
was
as
a
parade as his advance from
the frontier to the capitalhad been.
Cadiz surrendered
Fall of
from the
and in less than six months
^^^^^ ^ short siege,
Oct
182^
free
more
once
was
beginningof the invasion,Ferdinand
and in full enjoyment of the plenitudeof absolute power.
Angouleme, who had already found it necessary to
Tyranny of
Ferdinand.
f-Qj-ji^j^j
^j^g arrest of Liberals except by French
troops,
be
that the victory should
used
with
recommended
a

to

regency

But his advice fell

moderation.

he

left the country

to his vengeance.

abolished ; the

prominent
who held
Justice,
to
given his name
the

zeal with

Beginning with
fatuous Riego,a
or

rather

Constitution was,

Council

member

the

almost

The

it.

ten

again
Its

restored.
Minister

years

and

of
has

of his late tormentors.

deserved

execution

of

the

of the Liberals,
proscription
devoted
not
were
ultra-royalists,
the sole business of
practically

wholesale

the Government.

marked

next

for the destruction

of all who

mild

of course,

Calomarde,

was

full rein

periodof Spanish historyowing to


his
he carried out, or anticipated,

became

been

was

gave

while

this

place and

took

of State

office for the

which

master's wishes

disgust,Ferdinand

The
old

most

in

deaf ears, and

on

rule of Ferdinand

by comparison with

the

had

in the past

severitywhich

now

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

OF

1830

'j^

severitythat Russia and State


France entered solemn
protests,and Angouleme, repenting
of his share in producing such a situation,
devised
of his repentance by
schemes
for proving the sincerity
In the face of
undoing the work which he had done.
such foreignpressure, Ferdinand
publishedan amnesty,
that
to which, however, the exceptions were
so
numerous
little more
than nominal.
The
it was
King, who was
boast of his victory over
accustomed
to
his subjects,
resolved to destroy the possibility
seemed
of a further
the
whom
over
triumph by leaving himself no one
On the other hand, his conduct
triumph might be won.
far from excitingthat generaldisgustwhich it might
was
enthusiasm
have been expected to produce. The
with
which
he
welcomed
was
during a progress through
northern
remarkable.
be true that
It may
Spain was
those
more
devotedly loyal than the
provinces were
remainder
of the kingdom, but it is certainly
also true
that the people as a whole still preferredto be ruled by
absolute
The
chief oppositionto the
monarch.
an
So

Government

not

to

da-fe.

those

from

came

who
repression,

more

in

that

great, indeed, was

who

lamented

desired

less but

not

the softness of the

King
ing
display-

fullyand in not
restoringthe Inquisition
of
happy crowds the delightful
spectacle
A

party

of his fatal

arose

which

wished

which

leniencyand

of

to

formed

auto-

Ferdinand

cure

the

an

basis of the

later Carlist movement.

Meanwhile, across
the
too

House

of Bourbon

successful

the

Pyrenees, the

suffered

intervention

Despitethe fact

that

the

the

elder

branch

consequences

in favour

of

the

of"3-

of its

182^4-30

younger.

sympathy of at least a large


section of the Spanish people had greatlysimplified
the
task of Angouleme, the returned
soldiers were
hailed as
heroes in France, and the result was
in the issue of
seen

'

FROM

78

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.iii

the

generalelection. Less than twenty Liberals secured


rather the Ultras,found themselves
or
seats, and the Ministry,
in possessionof so overwhelming a majoritythat
La

the

Ketrouv^e.
Feb. 1824.

Chamber

Chateaubriand
come

nicknamed

was

regarded the

of his work

at

Verona

Chambre

La

situation
and

as

as

Retrouvee,

the direct out-

proving to

the hilt

his

theory that,if the dynasty could but once


acquire
be not
would
return
to absolutism
a
militaryprestige,
merely quite possiblebut even
highly probable. He
began to press for a more
vigorous foreignpolicy,
dreaming of a recovery of the Rhine frontier and of
of Louis XIV.
But he met
a resumption of the schemes
with
firm oppositionfrom
had
clearer
Villele,who
a
appreciationof the dread with which any sign of French
aggressionwas regarded,and who was anxious to use the
the ancien regime
majorityto realize his aim of restoring
and in a parliamentarymanner.
by cautious legislation
in his intriguesagainst his
Chateaubriand, detected
and at the moment
nominal leader,was
forced to resign,
XVIII
Villele appeared to be
of the death
of Louis
and his policytriumphant.
supreme
Accession
Charles

But

the accession
The

of moderation.

of Charles
new

King,

was

who

fatal to all counsels


indicated

his views

Dauphin, had
long been the true leader of the most violent royalists,
thus encouraged to press upon
and the Ultras were
Villele the adoption of definitely
reactionarymeasures.
The minister hoped to retain office,
if not power, by concessions
to the extremists
; perhaps he hoped also to save
his country from the results which would
ensue
inevitably

Sept.1824. by revivingsuch

if the

control

ancient

of the

titles as

government

that

of

fell into the

hands

of

royalists.In deference to the King, his


a
markedly ecclesiastical tinge. While
policyassumed
Charles
rites by
to ancient
displayed his attachment

the too

zealous

solemn

consecration

passed,so
such

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

sincere

Rheims,

at

stringentas

to

Catholics

OF

as

law

the

rouse

1830

79

of

was
sacrilege
oppositioneven of

Chateaubriand.

Nor

were

the

Law

^^^^j.^^
1826.

for the Church.


emigres forgottenin the enthusiasm
of compensation for those who had lost their
A scheme
result of the Revolution
had
lands as
a
long been
a
darling project with Villele. He believed that he
could win general acceptance for it by pointingout that
it would
for the
mean
incidentally
security of tenure
holders

of confiscated

But

property.

when

the

measure

Compensa-

opposed on all sides,beingattacked */""^"^


by the Liberals as too reactionaryand by the Ultras as 1825.
not
being reactionaryenough. It passed into law, but
by a majoritywhich showed that the hold of the minister
introduced

was

upon
And

it was

the Chamber

not

was

so

firm

as

had

supposed.
majority of

been

warnings appeared to show that the


Deputiesdid not represent the majorityof their countrymen.
An

attack

by

the

Ultras,was

at

the

funeral

An
the

of

the Liberal

on

followed

by

press, forced on Villele


popular demonstrations

of his most

vigorous opponents.
attempt to establish primogeniturein defiance of all
cherished sentiments
of the nation was
most
actually

defeated amid

one

universal

and dailycomplaints
rejoicings,
despotism of hypocrisy which the
grew louder at the
Government
was
allegedto be creating. The position
of Villele was
not
improved by the indiscretion of
Frayssinous,minister of religionand education, who
admitted the existence of the Congregation and justified
the return
of the Jesuitsto France.
As a matter
of fact,the minister now
hastened
to his Fall of
fall. Against his own
wishes,but in accord with those \^l^^'
of Charles and of the majorityof Deputies,he introduced
a measure
to prevent the publicationof any newspaper
or
pamphlet which had not been authorized five days
'

'

'

8o

METTERNICH

FROM

beforehand.
but

It was

TO

amended

BISMARCK

CH.

passedby the Chamber,


So unpopulardid the

and

by the Peers.
rejected
Ministrybecome that it was found necessary to disband
the National Guard,which had been filled with picked
and which
the
men
might be regarded as reflecting
the
general trend of publicopinion when it demanded
while the reactionarypolicy
dismissal of Villele. And
of the Ministryproduced more
and more
in the
hostility
the extremists.
it still failed to satisfy
country at large,
They formed an alliance with the Left,which threatened
the ministerial majority.As a finalexpedient,
to destroy
Villele dissolved the Chamber
and attempted to swamp
creations. His
of the Peers by lavish new
the opposition
action was
approved by the King, who was deceived by
his personalpopularity,
and was
partlydue to the hope
was

that the
Elections
Nov.

1827

news

candidates.
"^ *^^

the

that of

violence

extremists

would

assist the Government

But the election resulted in the utter defeat

Ministry,and

like
failure,
to

of Navarino

of

for any

Villele

forced to

was

Decazes, must
faction and
trace

of

resign. His
attributed largely

be
to

the

hatred

of the

moderation, rather

than

on
particular
objectionto his actual measures
the part of the Deputies or in the country. France,
rapidlygrowing rich and prosperous, was content to
tolerate reaction,
providedthat it was not too excessive.

to

But

any

within

popular,and

the Chamber

extreme

the fall of Villele

measures

proved that

over
any rate, could not be won
had
made
sacrifices to
constant

at

by

were

alone

the Ultras,

conciliation.

He

but
prejudices,
because he would not adopt their policyin its entirety
of political
because some
measure
wisdom, some
political
him.
caution remained to him
they destroyed
far from profiting
And
at first they were
by their
Chamber
unwas
victory. The majorityin the new
their

"

"

"4. Minis-

FROM

83

METTERNICH

determined

TO

of

assertion

the

BISMARCK

CH.iii

royal prerogative. As

trusted
preliminaryto the adoption of this new system, he enafter his own
heart,with the
Polignac,a man
choice
task of forming a ministry. No
could
have

indicated
Chamber.

Polignac was
than

the

as

open

more

of his

any

of

incarnation

defiance

of

the

wishes

of

the

probably more

popular
profoundlyuncontemporaries; he was regarded

treason

to
*

his country, as the


Coblentz ! Waterloo !

of national shame.
personification
his watchwords, implying
said to
be
1815!' were
sympathy with the emigres who had borne arms
against
France
and with the foreignenemies who had closed the
most
gloriousperiodin the militaryannals of his country
and who had reimposed upon her the dynasty which
she
had expelled. Such a minister was
bound to rouse
position
opand

it

therefore somewhat

was

unfortunate

for

monarchy that Polignac was


eminently
roused.
unsuited to defeat opposition
when
He possessed,
the most
other moral virtues,
charming sincerity,
among
of the other
and with this political
vice he coupled most
To short-sightedness
faults which are fatal in a statesman.
he joined dullness
and
and over-confidence
obstinacy;
capacity
into a great capacityfor annoying he united a striking
the

Bourbon

for the exercise


Growth

of

of tact.

The

of his appointment was


underclearly
significance
|3Q^1^ jj^ France
and
in Europe generally. To
Metternich
it was
counter-revolution ',worthy of all
a
praiseif brought to a successful conclusion. To France
than an
it was
insult and worse
an
insult,a disgrace.
since the certainty
of
Oppositionwas rapidlyorganized,
attack on constitutional government was
and
an
realized,
whether the Bourbons were
men
now
seriouslyquestioned
with the attractive
not in truth impossible.A
society,

opposition.g^QQfj

'

title ^Aide-toi,
le del t'aidera',which

had

been

formed

to

OF

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

1830

83

itself to

began to devote
libertyin general,
promotion of a change in government
undecided
as
though at present it was
defend

the

in

particular,

to

what

that

of its
government should involve. While some
already advocates of an
members, such as Guizot, were
Orleanist monarchy, others,such as Cavaignac,were
equally
republicans.All its members, however, were

change

of

convinced

that the elder branch

of the Bourbons

had forfeited

this conviction
Nor was
any claim to consideration.
societies in Paris.
confined to mere
Lafayette,
political
southern

journeyingin
with
he

enthusiasm;
felt to

was

threatened

with

such calm

Even

be

France,

everywhere hailed
of the Revolution,'

was

'the embodiment
a

the

potentialsaviour
restoration

of

of

and

observers

men

his

of

the

ancien

matters

as

country,

regime.

rand
Talley-

Baron
Louis
as
experiencedstatesmen
that the substitution of Louisand not silently,
recognized,
than merely within the
Philippefor Charles X was more
politics.And in face of such general
range of practical
did nothingeffective. A few
the Government
opposition
changes in the personnelof the ministrywere
made,
the
of
with
idea
reassuringthe mind of France,
apparently
a vain attempt as
long as Polignacretained his position.
It would, perhaps,have been
wiser policyto have
a
and

such

silenced the oppositionPress and


electoral law
not

become

the cabinet

Guernon-Ranville, minister
resisted all decisive action.
particular,
Thus

when

modified

the

by royalordinance,since the ministrycould


popular and could only hope to succeed in

defiance of publicopinion. But


united

have

to

the Chamber

met, the

of

was

not

even

education, in

ministryhad

to face The
"^

itwithout

havingtaken any precautions


^^f^
againstexhibitions fj,g
of hostility
or made
as to its line of action March
any provision
in the crisiswhich
moderate
a very
political
intelligence
F

FROM

84

METTERNICH

have

could

foreseen.

TO
It relied

BISMARCK
on

chance

CH.

and

on

in

the

expeditionwhich it dispatchedto punish


the Dey of Algiers for his disregardof the majesty of
of the ministrymastering the
France ; and the chances
Chamber
that
were
even
slighterthan the probability

result of the

mere

victory over

half-civilized Arabs

lead

while his country


forgetthat Polignachad rejoiced
flected
wept at the defeat of her hero. The King'sspeech reblindness of the Government, being
the political
calculated to offend any who were
not alreadyoffended.
It expressedthe royaldetermination to meet
tion
any opposiby an appealto that sentiment of loyaltywhich had
always characterized the French nation. It might be
those
true that the words of Charles were
constitutionally
but the definite assertion of an intention of
of Polignac,
the views of the parliamentary
majoritywas
disregarding
the fact that the ministry,
And
in
at least injudicious.
took as their battle-cryThe throne in danger !
effect,
simply served to draw the monarchy, as an institution,
of political
conflict. From
the very first
into the arena
the oppositiondeclined to be terrorized. Under
the
direction of Royer-Collard and Guizot,an address was
to the speech from the throne; it
prepared in answer
that the ministrywas
defying the
complained bitterly
electorate and troublingthe peace of France ; and it
gainedthe support of 221 Deputies.Though expressions
of loyal devotion
duly appeared in the address,Charles
identified himself with his ministers and chose to regard
the attack on them as an attack on himself. Despitethe
warnings of Metternich, a sincere friend to a king so
likelyto prove a valuable upholderof the status quo, and
of Nicholas I, always ardent in defence of divine right.
the Chamber
was
prorogued. Prorogationwas followed
and the whole influence of the Crown
by a dissolution,
men

to

'

Dissolution
"^*^*

would

'

directed

was

OF

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iil

to

ensure

85

1830

victory. Thus

ministerial

the Chamber,
^^

pointat issue was whether the constitutional monitself into a


be permitted to transform
archy should
despotism. Only the King and Polignac doubted what
of
the result would
be ; Talleyrand,always a master
summed
phrases,
up the situation by announcing that he
real

about

was

property in Switzerland.

in landed

invest

to

who had to contend


popular
Liberals,
merely againstan unwell organizedto have
minister,were
sufficiently
and their cry
Re-elect the Liberal
overcome
greater difficulties,
! was
received with enthusiasm in the country. Only juiy.
221
The

'

'

nineteen
defeated
two

to

came

of those
;

which
ances

the

for the

voted

itselfin

influence

the

Charles

encourage

address

minorityof

were

almost

capture of AlgiersFall

The

Chamber.

new

late to

too

had

ministryfound

in the

one

enough to
He

the

who

election

in his chosen

'

of
'

it

soon

came

line of

juiy.

duct.
con-

provisionof the Charter " 5- The


allowed the King to make
and ordin- o/july
regulations
for the execution of the laws and for the securityof ^^3onow

availed

himself of

'

State '.

abolished the

Four

Ordinances

libertyof

the

issued.

were

The

firstThe

Press

Ordin-

by instituting
pre- juiy 26,
renewable
liminary authorization of all publications,
every three months.
By the remaining three the newly
elected Chamber, which
had
not
solved
diseven
met, was
;

and

as

payment

the
the

number

of

franchise

of the

land

Deputies was
was

tax, the

made

to

reduced

depend

manufacturers

and

to
on

259

the

indeed

nearly three-fourths of the electorate were


deprived of
their votes ; September was
fixed as the date for new
elections. Such regulations
amounted
to a coup detat^
but no
taken
crush
resistance.
to
precautions were
Charles believed that the capture of Algiershad revived
the popularityof the monarchy, that the growth of

86

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

iil

prosperityhad led to indifference on political


rise in
and that the Paris mob
would never
questions,
the votes
of the bourgeoisie
order to save
to preserve
or
it could
read.
which
not
Encouraged by
newspapers
Polignac'soptimism, he lulled himself into a state of
false security.
it
Revolution
His disillusionment
not long delayed,and when
was
came
was
singularly
complete. Within a week his reign
July^26-29.
he and his familywere
had ended ; within three weeks
with such
refugeesin England. Events,indeed,moved
The
rapidityas utterlyto disconcert the Government.
Ordinances were
publishedon July 26, and on the same
issued a declaration,
drawn
day the journalists
up by
the restriction of the Press ; this protest
Thiers, against
was
approved by the lower courts of law. On July 27,
and
the populace began to move
barricades
to rise.
Paris was declared to be in a state of siege,
but in the
which followed,the soldiers suffered
desultoryfighting
severelyenough to lead Marmont, their commander, to
material

urge

King
and

the merit
at
more

of concession.

St. Cloud

on

July 28

urgent request for

His
and
some

message
was

reached

ignored;

the

second

definite instructions

that he should wait until the


only evoked the answer
followingday. By the followingday it was too late for
concessions to be of any avail.
In the meantime,
mere
the Revolution
had
developed under the direction of
masters
Cavaignac. On July 28 the rebels had become
of eastern
Paris,the tricolour had appeared, and the
loyaltyof the troops had begun to falter ; before the
had been defeated and
afternoon of July 29, the military
lost to Charles.
the citywas
Angouleme, who had been
appointed to replaceMarmont, recognizedthe hopelessness
of the situation ; his father, who
had
previously
of
relied on
the reassuring
Polignac,became
messages

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

that he must

convinced

OF
The

give way.

87

1830
Ordinances

were

ministryreplacedby one of a more


nor
popularcomplexion. But neither these concessions,
the

and

withdrawn

of

subsequentabdication

the

for the elder branch


Revolution

on

change

'

the

save

crown

^ug.

2,

The leaders of the ^830.

of the Bourbons.
resolved

had

Charles,could

Abdication

of

dynasty;

by the National Guard towards Ramterrifiedthe royalcharles


where
the King yet lingered,
bouillet,
family,and Charles,trembling for his life,fled to the leaves

demonstration

France

thence

and

coast

The

to

England.
had

demonstration

producethis
Duke

result and

of Orleans

Aug.

to

facilitate the

to the vacant

unanimous
nac,

had

whom

upon

the

not

obvious

to

situation that

the desire of

leadershipof the movement


and
declared
a
republican,

the

and
said,to necessity
him

Philippe,

opponents of Charles X

acceptance of the Orleanist

he himself

been

this should

lquIs

support of Louis-Philippe.Cavaig-

first devolved, was

eventual
as

in their

were

had

to " 6. Acces-

of the

accession
That

throne.

be the issue of the Revolution


its original
authors,nor

intended
deliberately

been

and

to

all

monarchy

not

sober

to choice.

observers

his

due,

was

It was
of

the

possible.
republicwas imThe
Powers
would
be suflficiently
angered and
alarmed by the mere
of the reigningking ; it
overthrow
such
would
be fatal to excite their suspicions
as
further,
action would
only lead to an invasion of France by the
armies of the Quadruple Alliance.
fully
skilThis fact was

the

establishment

of

ette,
by the leaders of the Orleanist party, Lafayand their friends. They had
Laffitte,
Casimir-Perier,
utilized

formed

provisional
government at the Hotel de Ville ;
and their positionwas
the stronger since they had the
support of the regimentswhich had deserted MarmontWhile they took care
to exaggerate the differences which
divided Charles X from his subjects,
refusingto receive
a

14.

88

METTERNICH

FROM

his offers of concession


Manifesto

July

shcd the blood of

had

30"'^"

^^^

and

^o^t^ *^^ claims


to

the

the fact that he


on
insisting
Frenchmen, theyemployed Thiers
of Louis-Philippe
to the affection

government

Orleanist branch

elder line of the

the

of the

Louis-

was

House

able

an

tion
by tradition and inclinadistinct from
essentially
of Bourbon, and that its

Revolution
was

In

nation.

that

deserved
present representative

sympathizerwith the
the ground
While

CH.iii

and

pamphlet, he pointedout
the

BISMARCK

TO

well

of

of

France

as

1789.
prepared,the

being thus

pro-

visional government conferred the office of LieutenantGeneral' on


to Paris.
Louis- Philippe and invited him
'

Lieutenant-

Generai,
July

30.

He

capitalon the followingday and was


the
received by Lafayette at the H6tel de Ville, on
The
enacted.
was
balcony of which a touching scene
two
appeared locked in a close embrace and affectionately
kissingeach other to the accompaniment of popularapplause.
The
embodiment
of the Revolution
had accepted
the Orleanist monarchy, and from this moment
the accession
of Louis-Philippe
assured.
The duke formed an
was
interim ministrywith Guizot
at its head and summoned
the Chambers
the day originally
to meet
on
appointed,
as
though no dissolution had taken place. He opened
the session with a speech in which
he mentioned
the
abdication
of Charles
and of Angouleme, but omitted
reached

the

'

'

Meetingof
Chambers,
Aug. 3-

allude to the fact that these

to

been

executed

to

or

his

own

in favour

of the infant Duke

attitude
equivocal

he had assured

of renunciation

acts

of his devotion

had

of Bordeaux

his cousins,whom

towards

the better to

betray them.

The

Chamber, as if anxious to show that there had


been a revolution,
to work
to revise
set zealously
CharterI'^^lly
the Charter,which
it declared
to be
imposed and not
Revision

'

'

granted'.

the

The

substitution of lifefor

abolition of the

censorshipof

'

hereditary
peerages,

the

Press and

of the

90

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

I^^

ill

cline of

teenth
Spanish power in the second half of the sevencentury, by creatingan effective barrier against
French
more
aggressionin the Low Countries. And
than this,it seemed
to promote the interest of those most
The
concerned.
Dutch
were
mainly a commercial,the
Belgiansa manufacturingand agricultural
people; to
unite them
would
assuredlybe to create a prosperous
and
of
self-supporting
community. The diplomatists
Vienna
might well consider that they had with success

combined
Grievances

Belgians.

national

and

international interests.

But

failed to make
allowance
they had unfortunately
^^^ ^^^ most
important factors in the situation. Race,
language,and tradition divided the two peoples
religion,
which the Powers had united,and this moral division led
sentimental
to much
union.
objectionto political
King
William
those
aspiredto be the sun that should dissipate
clouds of superstition
the lives of his
which darkened
but the
Belgiansubjectsand obscured their intelligence,
Belgiansgreatlyloved the darkness and showed no desire
the lightof the sun.
to see
They hated also the harsh
accents
courts

of that Dutch
and

in the

tongue which

States General

hated to find The


historic

Hague exalted
capital.Nor were

was

of the
at

in the law

heard

kingdom

the expense

they

of their

their

griefspurely
The
sentimental.
Constitution established by William
of power
of the
to the representatives
gave the shadow
united nation ; it carefully
the substance to the
presei-ved
and his considerable
King. He controlled the executive,
share in legislative
increased by the fact
was
power
that the southern
provinces,with twice the population,
number
returned onlythe same
of deputies
as the northern.
Indeed, the south was
actuallyin a perpetualminority,
own

since its members


unanimous

were

in their votes

not, like those


and

opinions. The

of the north,
Dutch

were

OF

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.m

1830

91

the allegedfault
legislation
and asking
of their commercial
policy,giving too little,
too much
penalized
; and while the incidence of taxation
of the trade of
of the south to the profit
the agriculture
into

to introduce

thus enabled

'

the

north, the north

in the distribution

also favoured

was

the
loaves and fishes. And
as
political
tendencyto
displayeda constantlyincreasing
of

welfare

and

consult

to

the

views

Government
consider

the
and

of its Protestant

Belgian subjects,
a
Spiritualand temporal
powerful opposition arose.
combined
to produce
interest,patriotismand prejudice,
alliance between
the Church and the Liberals. It only
an
needed a favourable opportunityfor this coalition to lead
the nation along the path of revolt.
Dutch, rather

Thus

the

of its Catholic

the

T.

"

revolution,
already smouldering,burst
A

Outbreak
ofRevolu-

"

when
it tion,Aug.
Belgian capital,
known
that five vivid days had sufficed to accomplish^^^"'
destruction of the monarchy of Charles X, the fire of
Paris

reached

and

of the failure of attempted

the glorious news

when

despotism at
was

than

riot

became

soon

into

open

rebellion ; the standard

flame,

of Brabant

was
adopted as a national flag; and the movement
assisted by the dubious
attitude of the Crown
Prince,
of
his
father.
He
was
nominally the representative
pleasedat the thoughtof an independentBelgium,
secretly

was

since he

was

ultimate
secure

he

the

rather

side,failed

to his immediate

flattered himself

and
interests,

filled him

at

devoted

more

that

he

to

his

would

Posing as a mediator,
encouraged than opposed a revolution which
the King, on his
with deceptivehopes. And

crown

of the

to grasp

new

the need

firstonly demanded

state.

for conciliation.

speciesof home

of this demand
that led to
rejection
swarmed
separation.French agitators
to

than

support the

more

violent

party

; the

The

rebels

rule ; it was
cry
across

for

the

complete

the frontier

bombardment

of

FROM

92

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

TO

CH.iir

Antwerp by the Dutch completed the alienation of the


Belgians. By the time that William had made up his
Antwerp,
Oct. 1830, mind
the two
to accept a merely personalunion between
Belgian
countries,a national Congress at Brussels was
already
constitution
for
an
independentstate, and
Congress, drawing up a
Nov.
1830. royal authority in the south had
been
tinguished.
expractically
Bombard-

That
of the

assent

it should

by force

of

with

restored

free

the

unthinkable; that

Belgian people was

be restored

could

be

arms

the

doubtful ; and

was

it

King was thus led to trust in action by the Powers of


Europe, to whom he addressed a formal appeal.
This
dictated
both by interest and by
" 8, The
appeal was
dencrofii^cessity.Apart from the fact that he was related to the
had some
Belgium. Tsar and to the King of Prussia,William
reason
be favourable to
would
to hope that
any intervention
The
him.
ment
BelgianRevolution attacked both the settleof Vienna
the divine right of kings. To
and
maintain
who

the

former

stillcontrolled the

the latter was

the

the life'swork

of

policyof Austria

was

greatest enthusiasm

disposedof all the might

of Russia.

Berlin

would

follow where

could

count

on

monarchies.

the

that

of
And

of

sympathy

the

to

maintain

Nicholas,who
as

of Vienna

Metternich,

the Court

of

led, Holland
three

eastern

expected that Great


Britain would tamely permit the disruption
of a kingdom
in the construction of which she had playedno small part.
Such a disruption
would
naturallytend to increase in the
Low

Nor

Countries

combated

to

William

not

was

the settlement

her

P'rench

stillhave

and
source

reluctant

of the

fact,however

would

that

for centuries

always been

of

it to

was

be

influence
any
of

which

increase

she

had

of which

had

profound alarm.

that the Powers

should

Thus
have

Belgianquestion,
though,as a matter
great his reluctance might have been, he
been compelledto acquiescein European

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

The

intervention.
arrange

Conference

affairs of

the

revolution began, and

Accidental
Dutch

At

King.

and

it at

once

as

the decision of the

the
sittingwhen
proceeded to take this

Prussia

hopes

the

weakened
dared

not

the Impossi-

of^Jj^*^^j

interincreasing

influence of

the
act

of

outbreak

of the Tsar

without

questionfell into the hands


Of these the attitude

Powers.

to

was

the critical moment,


tied the hands

; and

93

assembled

London,

falsified the

Italian disturbances

Metternich

western

Greece,

circumstances

revolt in Poland
age

of

1830

consideration.

problem into

new

OF

allies,

of the two

of Great

Britain

The French
by that of France.
people
enthusiastic
for
and
their
were
Belgian independence,
King,insecure on a throne which he owed mainly to good
luck,could not afford to risk his positionby defying the
will of his subjects.Hazardous
as war
might be, it did
was

determined

not

involve

fallen on

that

him

certain

destruction which

would

have

permitted the restoration of Dutch


therefore,was
Louis-Philippe,
by Englisharms.
power
bound
do anything rather than allow the Belgian
to
revolution to fail,
and as Great Britain was
not prepared
of the United Netherlands,
to fight
to prevent the disruption
the annexation
unless that disruption
to mean
was
of the provinces
by France, armed intervention in favour
of the House

if he had

of

Diplomatic
Conference
scope

Orange

was

intervention

of London

of its work

was

out

of the

remained,

turned
limited.

the most

and

its attention.
In view

France, the independenceof Belgium


in

question.

was

to

Even

this

the Diplomatic

so, the

^ntTon.

of the attitude of
at

once

accepted

importantmatter was thus settled


beforehand.
Details alone remained, but they presented
of
unexpected difficulties. To the impossibledemand
Holland that the kingdom should be reunited,Belgium
for the frontier of
opposed an equallyimpossibledemand
and
principle

94

METTERNICH

FROM

the duchies of

the Scheldt and


The
Protocols

TO

of

strikinga
two
occupiedsome

process

extremes

1831T sion,the

Powers

gave

with the addition of

accepted by
declared

Luxemburg

CH.

and

between

mean

"1

Limburg.
these

two

By their firstdeciyears.
the Dutch their frontier of I79c:^

Luxemburg,

William.

BISMARCK

But

and this settlement

the

Luxemburgers

was

had

for

in the new
state, and the
incorporation
BelgianCongressprotestedthat the wish of a people

should override all other considerations.

Desiringto

elect

of their cause, they


king who would add to the strength
turned first to France, offering
their crown
to
naturally
for his second son.
But though that
Louis-Philippe
father eagerlydesired to advance the material
devoted
a

interests of his children, he

dared

not

accept

an

offer

brought upon him the wrath of all


Europe. Repulsed in one
quarter, the Belgianshad
Election of better fortune in another.
They elected Leopoldof Saxeprince,especially
agreeableto
Tune 1831. Coburg, a cosmopolitan
Great Britain and Prussia and objectionable
to no
one.
The effectof this politic
election was seen in the terms of
the Treaty of London, by which the original
settlement
First
of
Treaty
f^j. modified that the Luxemburg question
^^g
g^
was
to be exchanged,
June 83 postponed for future decision,enclaves were
and the national debt of the united kingdom to
be divided equitably
between the two new
states.
inDutch
Meanwhile, however, the Dutch had been encouraged
by the obstinacyof the Belgiansto hope that the latter
B^i'^um^
Aug. 1831. had alienated their friends and that Europe would permit
Netherlands by force of
the restoration of the United
arms.
Belgium was invaded and several victories won,
Antwerp and other placesbeingoccupied; thoughFrance
turned the fortune of war
soon
againstthe Dutch, the
which

have

1,

Powers
Treaty of

would

were

Conquered

not
cause.

slow to prove their lack of pity for the

By

the

second

Treaty

of London

THE

CH.iii

REVOLUTIONS

OF

Luxemburg

and

of force

Englishfleet and

1830

95

divided between the two London,


Limburg were
with less regard for ^^^' ^^^^'
kingdoms,the debt was
partitioned
and more
regardfor Holland, and the Dutch were
justice
granted tolls on the navigationof the Scheldt. The
Belgian Congress protestedand submitted ; William resisted,
since the Tsar declared that he ought not to be
coerced, and refused to evacuate
Antwerp. But Russia
could not maintain her opinion by the effective argument
; an

French

army

came

to the Fall of

help of the Belgians; the garrisonwas compelled to sur- DecTiTs'


render,and the kingdom of Belgium was at last constituted
the lines laid down
in the second Treaty of London.
on
The
failure of Nicholas
more
activelyto assist his " 9. The
relative was
not
merely the result of the hard facts of beuSi^^
also tied by the rebellion of 1830-31.
geography ; his hands were
Poland.
Declared a kingdom in 1 8 1 5, ithad been granted
a constitution by Alexander, who
nowhere adopted Liberal
with higherhopes and nowhere
held more
courses
firmly
to

them.

But

he

suffered

Conscious
understand

from

of his

own

the

defects

of his temperament.

he could
sincerity,

not

devised
oppositionwith which measures
by him for his people'sgood were
met, and he was cut to
the heart by the ingratitudeof the Poles.
In the speech
with which
he opened the first Diet he used words
in- First Diet,
^^^^"
Kriidener ; in
spiredby the Bible,according to Madame
the opposition
the
on
closingthe session he congratulated
fact that it had
opposed. Even in his address to the Second
*^*'
second
was
Diet,which met when Kotzebue
alreadydead,
of Metternich
Alexander
only mingled the sentiments
with those of Christian Liberals.
But he was
irritated by
the continuance
of opposition
and by the growth of secret
and the third Diet,at which he did not appear. Third Diet,
societies,
interference with elections and enough terrorism by ^^^5saw
Government
to silence all discussion.
By the end of
the

'

'

^"

96

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

ch.tii

Alexander's

and
reignthe Polish Constitution had failed,
Coronation though Nicholas swore
to observe it,
to a coronation
assenting
of Nichoand openingthe fourth Diet in person,
at Warsaw
las,
1829.
Fourth
of the coming storm.
there were alreadysigns
The Polish
Diet,1830.
not employed in the Turkish war, and this fact,
was
army
due to Constantine's fear that it might spoil
the uniforms
taken to indicate suspicion.The
of his soldiers,
was
marked rather by absence of open hostilcoronation was
ity
than by the presence of enthusiasm,and Nicholas,
who
his first visit to

on

on
offenders,
political

Warsaw

his second

had

full amnesty

to

complain
more
were
polite.
But the blame for the failureof the experimentdoes
not rest wholly,or perhaps even
mainly,with the Tsars.
of fact,
the Poles had no real wish to make
As a matter
not be satisfied
the Constitution a success
; they would
with anything short of complete independence.This
fanned by the secret societies; divided in
discontent was
their methods but not in their ultimate aims,the Whites
placedtheir trust in constitutional agitation,
hopingto free
Poland by means
of legislation
in the Diet and failing
to
that the Poles

The Secret
Societies in
Poland.

refused

cause

to

than
patriotic

'

'

understand

that the

Constitution

was

so

much

waste

paper compared with the determination of Russia to hold


'
the kingdom. The
Reds
were
fullyalive to this fact,
'

and

believed that

and

prove
enemies ;

their cause
they could best popularize
its justice
by the wholesale murder of their
of
libertywas to be reached by the avenue

assassination.
Outbreak
of

revo-

But

the two

enthusiasm
lution.

the

sections
news

were

of the

united in

welcoming with
Revolution of July and in

the standard of constitutional rebellion.


at once
raising
A provisional
and while Congovernment was organized,
stantine,filled with groundlessfears that his brother
would prove weak, hastened to Petersburgto rouse
him

"

lo.

Dis-

METTERNICH

FROM

98

Francis IV
of Modena.

rebellion
Modena

than

more

of Modena

CH

good manners, Italywas the scene


disturbances. The governjustifiable
ment

better
patriotism

of similar and
in'^ltaiy!^

BISMARCK

TO

and

againstit

almost

was

at firstcrushed

a
vigour,creating

Papal States

of the

virtue.

that

such

Francis

with

the Carbonari

tribunal of which

was

IV

of

exceptional

the sole function

was

disaffected. But
politically
when he had been disappointed
in his Jjopeof replacing
Chay1f"^-^Alhen^-7^"^4^eir
tr" thg^^rdint^'n
throne,the Duke
resolved
immoral
to adopt all the
practicesof his
successful rival,
rewarded,
that,as virtue went unapparentlyfeeling
vice was
doubly attractive. A tyrant became
to
a Liberal ; the persecutor of the secret societies aspired
lead a crusade for the realization of their aims, Metternich,
to

try and

to

put

to

death the

'

however, could

not

fatherlyadmonitions
But

The

to

the Modenese

allow
soon

fallfrom grace, and his


lamb.
reclaimed the straying

such

the
Liberals,

salvation

of Francis

was
appearedto be apostasy ; and when their persecution
embittered by the memory
was
resumed, their resentment
of brief immunity. The duchy was soon ripefor revolt.
Papal
Yet Francis IV had at least the merit of promotingthe
industrial prosperity
of his dominions,a remark which does
not apply to the government of the States of the Church.
Leo XII and Pius VIII cared more
than
for the spiritual
for the temporal welfare of their subjects.They had
neither the capacity
the virtues requisite
for earthly
nor

rule, and

the

cardinals

were

ill-suited to

administer

no
provinces. Here, it is true, there was
questionof
of apostasy ; the Papal governwavering,no suspicion
ment
slack in the work of repression.But its
was
never
not
to love by the thought of its
subjectswere
won
admirable consistency
; they were, on the contrary,ready
to welcome
rule which offered hope of
a more
capricious
intervals of leniency.

As

in

OF

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.III

in

Belgium or Poland, so

pressionin

his sympathy
Lafayette
professed
Laffitte declared that France
and
intervention,
Liberals drew

would

from

would

of the
find

to

immediate

direct and

more

99

news

the

rebellion,
though here

open

rather

received

the
Italy,
discontent

caused

Charles X

of

overthrow

1830

"83i.
Italy?

movement

with the

project
;
tolerate foreign

never

the Italian

the incorrect conclusion that Louisthe power

jn central

ment.
encourage-

this latter statement

their

ex-

Outbreak

Philippe

of the Austrian

darlingfrom
the
set the example ; Bologna, where
dog. Modena
the amiable
Pope was
deposed, and Parma, whence
save

Marie-Louise

three districtswere
once

'

more

'

enslaved '. France,after all,


would

Laffitte would
for

followed it ; in
free '. Within a month,

driven,soon

was

have

I and

suffered
Philippe

they
not

and
kept his half-promise,

Franco-Turkish

of Francis

week

were

move.

scheme

Alliance,reminiscent of the days

Charles

V,

littlefrom

of the

the

was

But

mooted.

Louis-

delusions ; he realized that

compelled
the resignation
of his minister,who left office lamenting
that he had believed in a middle-class
king. Casimirwho succeeded,soughtpeace and ensued it ; as far
Perier,
as he was
concerned,the Italians might work out their
salvation. In the peninsulaitself,
disorder did not
own
spread. Tuscany remained passiveunder the lazy,kindly
war

out

was

rule of its Grand

and
question,

Duke

the Two

induced

or

Sicilies had

no

desire

in
of 1821 ; an outbreak
experience
again the sorrows
Piedmont was
happilyquelledby Charles Felix. Nor
did the rebellious provinces
defence ;
organizea common
Modena
and the Papal States each set up an individual
to

In such
government.
circumstances, the inevitable
Austrian intervention was
speedilysuccessful. On the

requestof Gregory XIV

an

Louise

to

was

borne

back

army
Parma
G

crossed the Po ; Marie; the

Modenese

levies

FROM

loo

BISMARCK

TO
where

CH.

in

the

revolutionary
ment
governof the Papal States had established itshead-quarters,
order was
forced to capitulate
everywhere
; and

defeated ;

were

Mar.

METTERNICH

1831. was

Ancona,

restored.
"11.

Signi- The

the Year

1830.

^^^

year
abortive

1830 was thus marked by


revolutionary
movements,

consists in the latter

overthrow

of the

no

restored

less than

two

successful and

and itssignificance

in the former.

Bourbon

monarchy

and

The

the

of the kingdom of the United Netherlands both


disruption
since theywere
appearedto be events of primeimportance,
of the Treaties '. That the
both serious infringements
in favour of Charles X, that they
Powers made no move
showed
accepted\hQfaitaccompliin the Low Countries,
and indeed buried,
that the Eastern Questionhad killed,
the Quadruple Alliance, But otherwise the importance
of the revolutions in France
and
Belgium has been
exaggerated. The former country had never quitecome
into line with the despoticmonarchies
; she had never
pect
quiteceased to be a Liberal Power, or to be rather susin the eyes of Metternich.
That her king should be
deposed was an attack on the settlement of 1815 ; that
was
nothingworse occurred, that monarchy was retained,
evidence
of the continuance of that anti-revolutionary
order mainly
spirit
upon which the friends of the existing
of the United
relied. In the same
way, the disruption
from Metternich's
Netherlands
was,
point of view, an
of less gravitythan might have been supposed.
event
The
kingdom had been a constitutional state, and its
fall struck only at the territorial settlement of Vienna
and
ment
not
at the root
principle
upon which that settleFor 'stability',
based.
was
though the hindering
of French
mately
aggressionmight assist its maintenance,ulti'

'

'

rested

long

as

the

on

the

domain

one

of

foundation of absolutism.
absolutism

was

not

So

invaded

REVOLUTIONS

THE

CH.iii

the Metternich

OF

had

system

chance

1830

loi

least of

at

partial

survival.
It is because

of this year, and of those which

the events

Liberalism
"^*

immediately follow,defined the limits of that domain


Henceforth
West
that they are
extremely significant.
and East are definitely
ranged againsteach other in the
is pledged to Liberalism.
conflict of ideals : the former
By the overthrow of Charles X, the reactionarytendency
in France was
checked,and the change of French foreign
The Austrian
policyappears in the incident of Ancona.
order had been
troops had left the Papal States when
the renewal
of disturbance,
restored ; they returned
on
their
intended
and a suspicionarose
that Metternich
to be

presence

allow.

Casimir-Perier

rebels ;

he

declined

aggression.
the

rightof

Italian

But

permanent.

French

their

declined

equally to
was

army

country

to

to assist the

pass
sent

share

would

Italian

Habsburg

over

to Ancona

in the

not

French

orAncona
1832.

to assert

settlement

of

drawal
by the withof all foreigntroops from the Pope'sdominions.
But while the government of Louis-Philippethus Reaction in
followed,however cautiously,
along the path pointedout e^^qJ^
by Canning,and united with England in the support of
Liberal ideas,
held firmlyto the
the three Eastern Powers
policyof reaction. The Polish rebellion served to knit
those monarchies
together more
closely.By the Con- Convention
vention of Miinchengratz,
Austria and Russia came
to an "hra^tz
agreement on their policytowards the Ottoman
Empire Sept.1833.
and
them.

and
affairs,

had

this France

eWest.

thus

removed

was

the

chief

the Convention

By

her allies in

only

war

cause

averted

of friction between

Berlin,Prussia joinedwith
rightof intervention and in

of

the
reaffirming
the doctrines
of the
secretlyproclaiming once
more
Quadruple Alliance. It remained to break up this union
to weaken
or
its influence by spreadingthe theory of

Convention
q

f^'^s"'

102

'

FROM

METTERNICH

nationality

'

in

should

be

'stability'

would

this

what

showed

end,

it

Metternich

marks

the

dominions

the

done,
be

had

an

system.

to

BISMARCK

TO

assured,
be

done

important

the

of

in

of

order

stage

to

in

the
the

because

and

When

autocrats.

destruction

the

ill

CH.

ideal

of

year

1830

accomplish

this

decline

of

the

CHAPTER
THE

"

Character

I.

The

Monarchy

of Resistance.
Ali

the

on

FALL

of
of

the

" 5.

" 9.
Empire. "

overthrow

"

ii.

of

"
Louis-Philippe. "

3.

Party

Sonderbund

8. The

State

10.

of

the

Fall of Metternich.

still to

were

years

of the

attack of Mehemet

Second

Spain.

"

Socialism.

2.

4. Supremacy

" 6.

Ali.

7. Affairs of

Fall

"

1830-1848.

Years

Mehemet

Sultan.

Eighteen

METTERNICH

OF

Louis-Philippe. "

in Switzerland.
Austrian

IV

of the Metternich

system

before

pass

final " i.

the

char-

"^
effected,
eighteen^^^^ ^^^

was

of apparent stagnationand of actual 1830-48.


unreality,
preparation. In these years, mutteringsof the coming
heard ; men,
without
cipate
storm
are
quite knowing why, antithe approaching deluge ; there is a vague
sense
of foreboding,
a
understanding of the hollowness
vague
But
of the existing peace.
diplomatistscontinue to
intrigueand court labours to outwit court ; rulers and
for
their ministers fondly trust that treaties will endure
restrained by conventions
ever, that peopleswill be for ever
between
And
all the while,beneath
governments.
the surface,the volcanic flames of revolution
burn
daily
more
fiercely,
gatheringthat strengthwhich is to enable
years

of

them

to

them

to

when

the

consume

the
crater

slow
has

poor

music

marionettes
of

an

for centuries

who

Austrian
been

dance

pipe.

closed

above
And

as

the eventual

which
violent,so the very success
eruptionis all the more
appeared to wait upon the repressive
policyof European
rulers made
the cataclysm, when
it came,
all the more
terrible and all the more
complete.
For
was
politicaldiscontent, driven to hide itself,

I04
Effects of
repression,

METTERNICH

FROM

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

iv

might otherwise have been mere


Ljfjgj-^jg ^^^^ reformers,became
radicals and
extreme
revolutionaries.
To express an opinion even
complimentar
mildly unto government was
dangerous;to increase
the violence of the opinion did not greatlyincrease the
because it roused more
danger and was in itselfattractive,
intensified. Men, who

interest and

who

had

had

much

dramatic

more

to lose

flavour.

feared to take

And

as

those

risk,
decliningto

certaintyof present good for the doubtful


againstthe existing
prospect of future gain,the agitation
order
of men,
fell largelyinto the hands
desperate
because despairing,
in opinionbecause moderate
extreme
in intellect. They did not think of reconstruction ; to such
anathema.
enthusiastic minds, half-measures were
They
the more
would
overthrow, root out ; and they were
could it fall
eager, not countingthe cost, since in no case
sistible
irrethem to pay the price. To them, there was
on
an
charm
in such catchwords
as
Nationality and
and
the Rights of Man ';they
Progress', Freedom
greetedwith innocent and heartfelt applausesimpleplans
for the immediate
establishment of unattainable Utopias.
But as they had also suffered hunger and seen
poverty
drawn
face to face,as they had been very tired,they were
demanding
with the ideal,
to mingle the practical
insensibly
barter

the

'

'

'

'

'

relief from

distress

in the

sacred

name

of

discontent
political
gave rise to two
National
distinct movements.
The
in the study
first,
originating
ism.'
of the philosopherand lightedby the student's lamp,
soughtabstract rightsand claimed the inalienable heritage
The
Socialhuman, bom in distress
second, more
ism.'of mankind.
and nurtured
in the hovels and workshops of the poor,
and bathed in the blood and sweat
vitalized by agony
of
asked for bread and was ill-content to receive only
toilers,

Liberty.

And

material

so

'

the hard

stone

of

mere

enfranchisement.

FROM

io6

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

TO

ch.

iv

Liberalism became

and

view
of the

not merelyin the preidentified,


judiced
of Metternich,
and by the necesbut really,
sities

since repression
situation,
compelledthe

union

of all forces opposedto the status quo. And the


spreadof the doctrine was assisted by the convenient
of its exponents. They omitted
forgetfulness
a
people',and this omission enabled almost

to

define

any group
of individuals to arrogate to itselfthe name
of * nation '.
The cry for * national rightswas
thus popularized,
and
'

creasin
ina
gatheredforce,infecting
constantly

the movement
area.

Progressof
*""^

ism

Its progress, indeed,


almost surprisingly
was
rapid.
^^^^ years after the Congressof Vienna,it appearedin
its

new

constitutional dress in

Spain and Italy,being

definite in the former country than in the latter,


better understood the meaning of
because the Spaniards
more

parrot-like,
phrasewhich the Italians,
repeated.Ten
the Belgianrevolution and the
years later it inspired
and constitutional liberty'
Polish rebellion; nationality
blended.
Nor did the
beingin each country inextricably
Austrian Empire,the citadel of sobriety,
whollyescape

that

'

its drunken

embrace.

eagerlywatched
dreamed

across

of Polish
Poland

The

efforts of the Poles

the frontier;

Magyars and

and

visions of

success

saw

an

were

Czechs
pendent
inde-

imitated in

Hungary and Bohemia. The


recalledto reality
visionarieswere
by the fallof Warsaw ;
Paskievitch and Nicholas turned their dreams into nightmares.
But the danger of infection was
not the less
realized by the political
physicianof Vienna who still
laboured to preserve from disease the system which he
believed that he had broughtinto the European world.
"

2.

^^'""

Social-

the carefully
Unfortunately
appliedremedies of Metthan cured the growingillness.
temich rather aggravated
His repressive
policyled to an ominous alliance between

the two
the

'

FALL

THE

CH.IV

sides of the

nationalist

'

OF

METTERNICH

to
opposition

with

the

'

his methods,
'

socialistic movements.

107

combining
The

sophers
agitationwas for long inarticulate. While philostudents
and
c
lamoured
debated volubly
noisily
the masses
of the
the proletariat,
for political
rights,
filled with growing discontent,
and became
people,were
constantlymore
impatient.But their impatiencedid not
The
at first find expression in words.
masses
were
dumb, having no share in the franchise,no
politically
the very simplicity
of their
Press. And
no
organization,
harder.
would-be
its utterance
They desired,
prayer made
desire was
and realized that they desired,
to eat, but no
known.
It made
difficult to make
no
more
appeal to
sentiment, it urged no high ideals,it did not stir the
the suppliants
And
it
to
imagination of enthusiasts.
seemed
not to need expression
they desired to
; of course
did so and did so in vain.
all men
eat,and equallyof course
It was
hardly worth while to say anythingso obvious as
We want
bread ',and in the absence of speech,governments
be
if
indeed
might
they
expected to disregard,
could be expected to see, the gnawing emptinesswhich
afflictedtheir subjects.
It was
which made
the masses
articulate by Influence
repression
enablingtheir simpleprayer to be cloaked in the garment Journalis
of attractive verbiage. In order to silence opposition,
stifled the Press,and the ranks of the wouldgovernments
be eaters were
swelled by the inclusion of journalists
out
of work.
They became hungry also,and they were both
verbose as the philosophers
and as anxious to get bread
as
the masses.
than this,they were
as
More
of ingenuity,
men
quick to grasp the needs of the situation and to
devise means
for the gratification
of their craving. Alone
they were insignificant
; united with the proletariat,
they
would
be powerful. And
therefore they determined
to
latter

'

io8

TO

METTERNICH

FROM

BISMARCK

CH.

IV

exploithunger, to organizethe people,to make them


The
the necessary catchwords.
articulate by supplying
that the proletariat
well aware
would
were
journalists
with confidence,
frame simple syllables
would
nor
never
themselves by utteringphrases which they
they stultify
But
could understand.
they might be induced to cry
We
want
tive
',a cry which to them would be attracliberty
because
high-soundingand meaningless; and once
later be
or
they had cried,governments would sooner
affected by the mere
clamour
of numbers.
Nor
was
this all. To move
the proletariat
would mean
eventual
but the journalists
would
not
be satisfied with
success,
direct pressure must
a distant prospect of victory.More
be brought to bear on
the governments of Europe,
*

pressure

from
Such

taxes.

the

possessors
were

men

not

of
of votes, the payers
be influenced by the
to

thought of mere
hunger ; they were not bakers,that they
To appealto them, to move
should give bread to men.
idealisticarguments had to be urged. And
them, more
thus the journalists
wholesale the propaganda
took over
of the

'

nationalist

'

movement.

importance of the philosophic


agitationreally lies. Philosopherscould not agitate
of the two
ments. with success ; their feelingswere too delicate,their ties
with the world at once
too slender and too close.
They
had a natural repugnance
for the crudities of practical
that they belonged to the
politics
; they could not forget
classes ; their susceptibilities
too
were
easilyoutraged
No Government
has yet
by the violence of the masses.
Effect of
the union

It is in this that

the

move-

shown

much

fear of

mere

academic

discussion ; it is the

unintelligent
shoutingof a crowd which breaks in upon
the orderlysilence of a chancellery
and hurls ministers
from place and power, which
to tremble
causes
crowns
But the inventor of phrasesplays
and thrones to shake.

THE

CH.IV

his part.

reform

in

FALL

crowd

OF

have

must

England might
been

METTERNICH

109

Parliamentary
cry.
been
indefinitely
poned,
posta

have

for the convenient

'

phrase The
which
Bill,the whole Bill,and nothing but the Bill,'
chord in the great soul of the People
struck a responsive
by remindingit of a familiar feature in its everyday life.
ing,
And in contemporary Europe, the masses, greatlydesirto eat, obeyed the bidding of the journalists
; they
for
shouted
Justice', they demanded
Liberty and
'Rights'and a 'Constitution',in the full conviction
material and
that,by so doing,they would fill a most
silent as
as
aching void. As a matter of fact,they were
It was
the topicof their real need.
not that
ever
upon
that they had been taught the
they would not talk,now
The journalists
but that they could not.
value of speech,
if it had

not

shouted

; the

masses

'

did

'

little more

than

fulfil the function

of echo.

Nowhere

does

this appear

more

clearlythan

in the " 3- The

Louis-Philippe.The Paris crowds wanted ofToulsloaves of bread ; they received a citizen king, his family,Philippe,
This last item stamped the
and umbrella.
cash-boxes,
nently
emiMonarchy of July ; it was
eminently respectable,
dull,eminently middle-class,headed by a ruler
who was
far too obviouslyguiltyof the uninspiring
vices
of nepotism and avarice to make
any appeal whatever
of his people. In these
enthusiasm
to the sentiment
or
that the masses
it is not surprising
were
circumstances,
dissatisfied with the results of the Revolution
of July,
that they were
when
their jovialKing
calmed
not even
eagerlyaccepted glassesof wine at their hands,that they
continued to agitateand to shout the parrot-cries
which
they had learned. Indeed,the umbrella regime would
to
a
probably have come
speedier end, if it had not
been
that the people were
still imperfectlyorganized,

France

of

'

'

METTERNICH

FROM

1 10

TO

BISMARCK

CH.IV

that the

the
as
bourgeoisie
regardedLouis-Philippe
evil. France was
less
sole guarantee againstpositive

and

concerned

the
she

Red

to

him

maintain

because

his throne than to avoid

Republic ; she preferreda system


indifferent to

was

on

'

she feared.

one

Thus

she

which
the

to

which

feared,and

hated

archy
historyof the July Mon-

of the avoidance of revolution,


and of
history
for attaining
this end.
to the means
as
party quarrels
For the two parties
which disputed
political
supremacy
in the reignof Louis-Philippe
united in
were
cordially
oppositionto revolution : neither had any desire to
satisfy
populardesires. They differed as to the principles
is the

Political
in
parties
France
(a)the

party of
action

of successful delusion,
not
delusion.
to

On

the

one

hand, the

apparent concessions
abroad.

the

at

home

to the need

as
*

party of action

and

It believed

by seeming to

bow

for such

to

'

trusted

policyof

that it could

tige-hunti
pres-

delude

their

omnipotentwill,
to express in words the deep longings
of
by volunteering
soul. And
it hoped eventually
to stiflepolia people's
tical
and material hunger by creatingin the hungry a
thirst for national glory. On the other hand, the party
(d)the
of
party
of resistance ',while equallya band of mighty hunters in
resistance.
the sphereof foreignpolitics,
was
candidlyalarmed at
of the 'July days'. It had originated,
the outcome
or
which had been intended
at least supported,
a movement
and to remove
a few permerely to change a few names
sonages,
had developedinto an attempt to
and which
masses

to

effect far more

vital alterations. It

was

resolved that

no

should
calamityshould occur, that the proletariat
be taught not to intrude their vulgarclamouringsupon
the ruling
class. It would have the masses
learn to look
but above all very patiently,
to the operation
hopefully,
of the virtue of the 'Citizen King'. In a word, it was
determined that France should be governed'.
such

That

METTERNICH

OF

THE

FALL

France

needed

CH.iv

government

iii

admitted

was

on

all

Riots in

aris.iSso.

his
scepticism,
doubt would have been quicklydispelled
by the ocular
The
and
aural evidence
supplied by the Paris mob.
were
masses
disappointedand angered at the discovery
of the gloriousRevolution
that the much-lauded
glories
that however
rather than material, and
were
spiritual
completelythe beautiful phrasesof their self-constituted
their mental anguish,those phrases
guidesmight remove
tress.
were
singularly
inadequatefor the curingof physicaldisbeen taught that the ministers
And
as they had
of Charles X were
their most
deadly foes,they wished
It seemed
that hunger
to apply the lesson.
to them
continue
while a Polignacyet encummust
bered
inevitably
the earth,and they wished
to perfectthe remedy
by a sacrificeof blood,clamouring for the death of the

sides,and

had

been

one

any

inclined

to

'

'

late ministers.
In

this demand
itself,
; it became

moment

not

was

when

so

of supreme

matter

the clamour

disturbed

the

of the

journalist-given
king and of his ministers.
Such base ingratitude
could not be tolerated even
by the
party of action,which had at firstsecured political
power
for the services rendered
the just reward
as
the
to
repose

Orleanist

by

cause

protestedhis wish
work

to

themselves

leader of the

its

he

wished

and

he

had

to

his

was

the devoted

decide

the

idea

own

as

to

should

publicopinion,he
not

what

the organ
in the Paris mob, but in the revived

which

for the moment

adored

that he

of

of his
should

service,
be

the

with
of

expressed
that opinion,

National

its commandant,

^j^^^

1830.

accepting the theory

be in accordance

sought for

"^

July' to
professedlyonly the
of the public.
servant

conditions

'necessaryconsequences'.While
that government

It is true

allow 'the consequences

out, that he

Many,

But

leader,Laflfitte.

Repression

Guard,

Lafayette.

METTERNICH

FROM

112

Thus
to the

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

IV

favourable
publicopinionwas found to be entirely
Orleanist monarchy and to the ministryof Laffitte ;

and

when

was

no

need

rioters.

ascertain the

to

They

crushed

were

army,

called upon

king ;

the

to

of

revolution,there

grievancesor wishes
and dispersed
by the

rallyround

of the
citizen

the throne of the citizen

party of action defied the populace and

order ; and
embrace

in the wake

riot followed

and

thank

Louishis

'

Philippe could

stored
re-

dramatically

saviour '.

entirelyhappy in his state of


mitted
salvation,and it was
only with reluctance that he subi8^^*^^'
He wished to rule,
and Laffitte
to its continuance.
them was
had the same
that a conflict between
so
desire,
the disputewas
not confined to the
almost certain. And
questionof the real control of the state ; it extended also
which
the monarchy should
to the principles
rest.
upon
had
found
expressions of devotion to
Louis-Philippe
invaluable as Duke of Orleans ;
revolutionary
principles
he found them
unsuited to the lipsof the King of the
French.
Longing,as he did,to clear himself of the stigma
of beinga usurper, longingto become
reign,
a
legitimatesove-

Fall of

But

the

King

was

not

'

'

he

was

more

than

irritated at

the

conduct

the minister who

of

compelled him to glory in his shame,


who seemed
essential
in mocking at the most
to delight
points in the theory of Divine Right. Thus, from the
anxious to free himself from the
first,
was
Louis-Philippe
tyrannous service of his too powerful supporter,and he
seized the opportunity which
that supporter's
foreign
Poland
in
When
rose
policy afforded him.
Italyand
revolt,Laffitte proposed open action in favour of a sister
forced him
revolution ; the King,as his European position
evitable
and gladly accepted the into do, refused his sanction,
resignation.
That resignationinvolved the transference of political
.

FROM

114

METTERNICH

maintained

was

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

home, prestigecontinued

at

to

be

iv

sought

abroad.

of

the Minister's
resis-^'^^
and

tance.

for the

however,
Unfortunately,

Divisions

death made

less of the
And

out.

which

was

to

make

matters

party of resistance.
the

resumed
the Left

should

Those

be

chosen
;

from

the ranks

Constitutional

select the members

maintain.

King, though

Orleanist

been
Aims

of

PhUippe.

The

no

new

with

monarchy was
They allowed

The

their

task

taken

to

be

result

the

free to
was

mately
ulti-

desired

disputes,the

own

maintenance

mere

calculated

themselves

of action,disastrous

by

both sections

of false securityat home, and


course

party

bound

Charter, should

system which

Occupied

their powers.

on

to

of the dominant

Ministers failed to realize that the

sense

due

were

of the Executive.

fatal to the

the division in the

hand, the Right Centre,led

the other

on

Guizot,believed that the

the

rather

quarrelof the Restoration


period was
of
On
the
the
under
one
hand,
July.
Monarchy
held that Ministers
Centre,a group led by Thiers,

letter of the

to

divisions

unity

old

in the Chamber

by

carry
national

essential to the successful pursuitof

destroyedby

them

to

that

worse,

ideas,

with less capacity

needed
quick intelligence

riskyforeignpolicywas
cause

for men

room

of these

success

to be

abroad

because

no

to tax

of

all

lulled into
embarked
care

had

prevent disaster.

blame, however,

does

not

rest

wholly

on

the

King has also to bear his share. In many


is very similar to that
ways, the reignof Louis-Philippe
of George III.
In each case
the King wished
to rule
with a particular
and was
thus led to unite too closely
party ; in each case, after experiencingvarying fortune,
he seemed
at last to have
succeeded,only to find that
success
speltruin. In each case, also,short ministries
the King feels his way ; and
follow
each other, as
Ministers ; the

CH.IV

THE

FALL

OF

METTERNICH

115

to Rockingham, Bute,Chatham, and


parallels
suppliedby Thiers, Mole, Soult,and Guizot.

difference in the eventual

result

was

due

North

are

Even

the

rather to

ences
differ-

in the character of the two

tial
Kings than to essendifferences in circumstances ; Louis-Philippewas
a
coward, George III was not; and the superiorpolitical
and tact of the former did not make
foresight
up for his
in commoner
virtues.
inferiority
of the realities of the Succession
That he possessed some
sense
"'^
situation is proved by his choice of Thiers as successor
to tries
and his tactful geniality
illustrated 1832-40.
Casimir-Perier,
was
by his heartyuse of my dear Adolphe when addressing
'

his minister.

But

even

so,

when

Thiers

fell,Louis-

him by Mole, a personal


Mole,
Philippewent too fast,
replacing
^ ^
friend,and experiencingthe certain failure due to an
attempt at too direct personalrule ; a violent protest was
raised against Court government '. Nor was
the experiment
of a colourless ministrymore
Soult Soult,
satisfactory.
^
^^'
failed to maintain his position
despitehis militaryrepudriven once
to employ
tation,and the King was
more
Thiers. But when
he fell a second
time, the desired
minister was
found at last. Guizot was
Guizot,
Louis-Philippe's
'
of some
North, a man
abilityand pronounced personal '*"'
integrity,
willingto follow where his master led,and to
bear the consequences
of that master's possiblefailure.
Indeed,his own views were such that to obey the King's
wishes,to allow him to rule secretly,
to
was
altogether
follow his own
And
quity,
oblia certain moral
predilections.
curious in a man
noted for probity,
enabled him
so
to adopt questionablemethods
able
in order to secure
a laudresult. Guizot
relied,as Villele had relied,on
a mechanical
Villele
as
parliamentary
majority; he failed,
had failed,
to understand
that mere
approvalby any
chance collectionof so-calledrepresentatives
of the people
'

'

ii6

METTERNICH

FROM

BISMARCK

TO

ch

popularsanction. He therefore set


the only approvalwhich he considered
to secure
to work
The distribution of placesand pensions
to be necessary.
gained for him a perpetualmajorityin the Chamber, and
able to carry on
his policyof doing nothingand
he was
the reforms for which
rather than opposing,
of neglecting,
does

France
France

^^^^
,

ministry,

involve true

not

was

and

more

inclined to ask.

more

his success
was
considerable,and
Superficially,
atmosphere of profound restfulness was produced.
At
it was
heart the country
purely superficial.
bored

the

by

dullness

of life ; it wanted

any

an

But
was

kind

of

of
change,any relief from the monotonous
respectability
The
of the umbrella
shadow
had
the existingorder.
the monarchy and from it the monarchy,
fallen upon
despiteits best endeavours, could not escape. At the
'

'

time, annoyance

same

While

increased

was

by

the

situation

all

Europe was seethingwith delightful


and waitingonly for the signalto give way
unrest,
to
of political
saturnalia
seemed
to have
a
vice, France
her rightful
abandoned
volutionary
positionas the champion of redisturbance.
She was
caught in the slough
of conventionality,
from it only
and her efforts to emerge
involved her in chargesof ordinarydeceit without giving
her the pleasantreputationof being irreclaimably
immoral.
And
the ordinary vices served to leave her as
abroad.

isolated

as

serious

more

crimes

would

have

done.

successful

foreignpolicymight have saved the Orleanist


in foreignpolicythat it
monarchy, but it was
precisely
achieved
That

" 5.
Mehemet

its most

conspicuous failure.

failure may

be attributed in

character

of the

monarchy

Philippemight protest
in defence
he

was

not

of,not
the

that

he

had

to the

measure

itself. However

in defiance
less

some

loudlyLouisthe

assumed

crown

of,the hereditaryprinciple,

regardedas

usurper

by

the

auto-

THE

CH.iv

OF

FALL

METTERNICH

117

worshipped the theory of Divine Right. His


of generalalarm in Europe,
accession had been the source
and that alarm was
coupled with intense dislike in the
crats

case

who

of the Eastern

Powers.

of such

To

save

himself

from

the

ally was necessary, an


allystrong enough and of good enough reputationto be
the
able to cast the protectingaegis of its virtue over
of the Citizen King. And
while
questionable
reputation
consequences

hatred, an

clear that Great Britain alone

it was

to the

prot^g6. The
enthusiasm
horizon and French
political
All led to disregard
for the necessities of
That

tion
fulfilthe func-

stances
Monarchy of July, circumher prospective
alienated her from
which
the
Eastern Questiononce
on
more
arose

of social sponsor
arose

could

enthusiasm

had

of civilization produced

first been

aroused

for Mehemet
the

King.

by the
Egypt ;

veneer

First

war

in
it was
by Mehemet
Mehemet
increased a thousandfold by the militarysuccesses
which AH and the
the Pasha was
fortunate enough to win.
He
had felt 1832-33.
natural disgustat the result of his intervention
in
some
the war
of Greek Independence,for though he retained
the Morea.
Crete, he had failed to secure
Mahmoud,
Ibrahim
the pashalikof Syria
indeed,had half-promised
by way of compensation,but he had failed to keep his
word, and it was
primarilywith the idea of forcinghim
Ali began the war.
to do so that Mehemet
His success
was
as
rapid as might have been expected,when it is
remembered
that he possessedthe only real army
in the
East.
the Egyptian forces,
Ibrahim, who commanded
overran
Syria with ease, capturingAcre and Damascus
and crushingthe Ottoman
and Horns.
troops at Hama
Not
content
with these
victories,he crossed Mount
Taurus,descended upon Asia Minor, and at Konieh utterlyBattle of
routed the last Turkish army.
It seemed
not
improbablejg""*^
that he would overthrow
the Ottoman
Empire entirely.
'

In

.Appealof
Mahmoud
the
Powers.

the

result

to

had

who

TO

METTERNICH

FROM

ii8

path,however, to
stood Europe with

Greeks, called upon

drawn

the Powers

CH

achievement

the

Mehemet

called upon

BISMARCK

to

II

of such

Mahmoud,

sword.

to

.IV

save

him

from

the

save

him

from

the

appeal. And he received


original
who was
of sympathy from Nicholas,
that the Sultan should not be destroyed,

ultimate results of his

ready assurance
anxious
sincerely
a

however

interested the motives

of his desire may

have

to check
willingness
also
Great Britain,
and Prussia were
Mehemet.
Austria,
preparedto use their good offices on behalf of the Sick
of
the display
Man, viewingwith the gravest suspicion

been.

Russian

Nor

was

Russia alone in her

affectionfor the invalid.

But for the Powers

to

France
found to be impossible.
soon
was
effectively
to
to come
indeed,in efforts to induce Mehemet
joined,
to threaten
time she was
unwilling
terms, but at the same
action was
out of the question.
him and thus joint
really
It was, perhaps,
beyond the power of the Government
decided attitude. The
of Louis-Philippe
to adopt a more
capture of Acre had been magnifiedby the picturesque
beside
imaginationof the French into a feat of arms
of the past paled
which the greatestmilitary
exploits
It was
remembered
that Napoleon
into insignificance.
certain
himself had failedhere,and it would have meant
overthrow for a minister if he had suggested
takingaction
againstthat popularhero, Ibrahim. Thiers,therefore,
could not joinin any real scheme for joint
action,
though
unable to do anythingfor her protege.
France was equally
determined
that the Ottoman
Europe was fully
Empire
at
should be preserved,
and Louis-Philippe,
peace-loving
all times, could not be expected to enter upon a war
to all the
which would have placedhim in opposition
act

Reasons
for the
of
policy
France.

Powers.
Effects of

Russia
Consequently

alone

from
profited

the action of

FALL

THE

cii.iv

; she

France

OF

enabled

was

Mahmoud's
Constantinople,
and Paris brought him no
London
to turn to
wascompelledreluctantly
might be dangerous but was

arrival of

saved the

siege,and Mehemet, fearingthe


had already won, hastened
to come
the

Sultan's

allynow

to

demanded

the

signatories
agreed to aid each

two

if attacked

that Russia

of

lessened
altruism

to

claim

such

ships.

reward

the establishment

by

of

should
eyes

for his

Skelessi.
sea

on
assistance,

In the

he

Kutaya. Peace.of

at

further

was

the Dardanelles

war

Russian

all except

Ottoman

not

other

clauses,it

secret

would

that in time

amounted

by

capitalfrom

terms

the treaty of Unkiar

obtained

services and

The

loss of that which

But

as

least certain.

at

fleet and army

Russian

the

only real French


graduallydrew P"^'^ypatheticappealsto
effective help,and he
ship
Nicholas,whose friend-

to

nearer

119

it to pose
while Ibrahim

by

For

friend of the Porte.

METTERNICH

of

and

18^3.^^'

The

Treaty of

land

g^V^"^-

1833.
stipulated
condition

be closed

Europe,

protectorate

over

to

this
the

the alarm
aroused
much
was
Empire, nor
by the fact that Nicholas professedhis complete
and promised Mettemich
that Austrian mediation

should

be

invited before

the

treaty

was

put into

actual

operation.
Into actual operationthe treaty never
owing to " 6. Second
came,
the conduct
of Mehemet
Ali.
Despite the fact that by Mehemet
the
the peace of Kutaya he retained Crete and acquirednot Ali
the 1839.
and
only Syria but also the district of Adana
of the passes into Asia Minor, his ambition was
command
while Mahmoud, on his side,longed for
not yet satiated,
on

'

revenge.

Great Britain and


indicated the
immediate

cause

which

real

struck

at

feelingsof the

of renewed

troops, though
at

treaty, which

commercial

now

later date to win

led

war.

he concluded

with

Egyptian commerce,
the
Sultan,and was
Once

more

man
the Otto-

by Prussian officers destined


laurels aga;inst
France, were
quite

FROM

lao

unable

TO

METTERNICH
resist the

to

advance

BISMARCK

of

CH.iv

Ibrahim.

decisive

and
victoryat Nisib opened the road to Constantinople,
the Egyptians advanced
rapidlythrough Asia Minor,the
apparent aim of their commander
being the overthrow of
the House

of 0th

father

his

Death

to

moudll

juncture,of

1839.

cause;

to

Sultan, a

mere

the transference

himself.

or

able

the

the

and

man

The

of the throne
this

death, at

critical

and

assisted his
wily Mahmoud
Turkish
rendered
fleet,sailingto Alexandria, surAbdul
Mehemet
Medjid, the new
; and
boy, was powerlessto stay the progress of

the invader.

Once

Interthe Powers.

Great

however, Europe

more,

Britain,
fearingabove

Unkiar

Skelessi would

be

all

the

to

came

thingsthat

rescue,

Treaty of

the

eager for concerted

invoked, was

the cooperation
especiallyshe hoped to secure
of France, that the Egyptian Question might
be settled as the Greek
Question had been before it.
Ibrahim
But
still the darlingof Paris,and so far
was
from
of the Court of
giving way to the blandishments
St. James, Thiers actually
proposed to assist Mehemet.
His warlike preparations
checked
were
by a curt message
from
would
LouisLondon, since in no circumstances
Philipperisk war ; the minister felland was replacedby
action ;

more

Guizot

and

France

either to hasten

Ottoman

Nicholas

the peace

Empire

party.

filled with

was

middle-class

make-believe

throne, and

he

even

at

the

cost

took
of

the
some

it was

to hinder

or

and

But

the
a

the salvation

downfall
most

the other Powers

Question.

of

her

late for
of the

protege.

hatred

cordial

for the

king who sat upon the Bourbon


opportunity to humiliate him,
sacrifice of his

which
Abandoning the specialprivileges
at Unkiar
Skelessi,he hastilycame
with

too

now

for the settlement

he
to

interests.

own

had

an

of the

secured

agreement

Egyptian

FROM

121

METTERNICH

which

not

between

began

Revolution

the

and the Viennese


the admission

secure

society of

Eastern

France

between

while the

For

disastrous.

more

TO

and

BISMARCK

CH.IV

correspondence,
semi-royalproduct of the
apostleof the status quo, did
eager

of the former

into the exclusive

autocrats, the growing friendship


Great Britain was
shattered. That

from which friendship


or at least a co-operation
friendship,
had been based originally
on
might develop,
community
of action and

interest in the Iberian

Peninsula.

nand
Ferdi-

VII, in his latter days, had been half-converted to


Liberalism,owing to the ardent love which he had
for his fair nieces,Carlotta and Cristina of
conceived
but
Naples. The firstof these ladies was his favourite,
was
alreadymarried ; the second was sufficiently
charming
and

Fourth

ambitious

of

influence
P^^^J^^e

to

VII, 1829. presentlyto

to become

his fourth wife.

mitigatethe
secure

the

Isabella,persuadinghim
The

and

measures

the Salic Law


sSon'*"
1833.

had
royalists

to

issue

She

used

violence of her husband


succession

her
and

for her

daughter,
to adopt mildly progressive
Pragmatic Sanction,revoking

in the interest of his child. But the Ultrathe

which
leniency
Ferdinand
had shown after his restoration by Angouleme,
and had long sighedfor the coming of that happy day
when Don
Carlos,his brother,should ascend the throne
and chastise their enemies,not with political
whips but
with ecclesiasticalscorpions.They were
by no means
content
to submit to the ruin of all their hopes,and the
which arose was
onlyincreased by the
strong opposition
while she acted as regent
Liberalism of Cristina,
displayed
united all
during her husband's illness. This opposition
the conservative elements in Spain: those who longedfor
the

continuance
to

see

the

alreadypainedby

of old

abuses, the ultra-clericalswho

restored
Inquisition
reactionaries who
longedto take

hoped
the

been

to

full power,

vengeance

on

and
the

METTERNICH

OF

FALL

THE

CH.iv

Liberals, all placed their

in

trust

123
Carlos.

Don

They

encouraged by the attitude of the Eastern Powers,


admit no
who at Miinchengratzdeclared that they would
the sacred
interference with
principleof legitimacy.
loyaltyof his brother prevented
Only the unfaltering
were

the outbreak

before

of trouble

the death

of the

only the accidental absence


his proclamation in Madrid

as

of Ferdinand

the

as

of

preventedvii/i833
king was

Pretender

soon

; Death

dead.
hastened
therefore,
Cristina,
order
was

to win

some

commissioned
he

was

more

adopt

Liberal

Zea

of support.

measure

to

to

frame

policyin
nately
unfortu-

expert in depictingpassionson

stage than in calming them

in

life.
political

The

the

Royal

Charter

translation of the French


Statute,a practical

Royal

,33^^^'

Bermudez

Constitution,but

The

of

of the

propertied
the rightto settle
of debate.
It marked
the subjects
a distinct advance
by
and taxation,
admittingthe doctrine of assent to legislation
and providingfor annual parliaments
; but it served
only to increase the troubles of the Government, whose
substantial concesfor more
sions.
allegedfriends clamoured

into the hands


all power
classes,while reservingto the Crown

814, threw

And

the Carlists had

meanwhile

taken

up

The

arms.

wedded
to any old ^^^r^^'
Basque Provinces,loyalto a fault,
tenacious 1834-39.
conservative because
abuses and instinctively
tender
of local privileges,
were
ardently devoted to the Preformidable
owing to the
; their resistance became
militarygeniusof their leader,Zumalacarregui. Indeed,

The

if it had
and

the

not

been

appearance

for the
on

incompetence
the

side

of

of Don

the

Carlos

Regency

of

military reformer, Espartero, the rebellion would


attack
As
it was, an
on
probably have succeeded.
and
Bilbao displayedthe weakness
of the Carlist army
the
when
cost the lifeof its general,justat the moment

METTERNICH

FROM

124

Government

Policyof
the Powers.

able

was

TO
to

The

war

the

more

the

themselves.
Spaniards

That

dragged on,

put forward

this would

CH.

be

certain,

was

left its decision

had

greater efforts.

but the eventual result

circumstances

as

so

BISMARCK

mainly to

firstseemed

likely,
While the Eastern Powers were
whollyin sympathy with
the Pretender,those of the West had shown
signsof
behalf of the nascent
Liberalism of
on
actingeffectively
the Peninsula.
The QuadrupleAlliance of Great Britain,
France, and the two Iberian kingdoms had driven Don
Miguel from Portugaland assisted Don Pedro to restore
his daughterMaria to her throne ; and Don
Carlos,who
had served in his nephew'sarmy, was removed
to England.
But when he returned to Spain to lead the rebellion,
the
conservatism
of Great Britain and her rooted objection
to
intervention

so

not

reasserted themselves

and Thiers,
who
action,
establish Isabella,
was

Philippewould
As

at the same

and

succeeded

not

legitimist
cause,

; she declined to take

proposeda French expeditionto


obligedto resign,since Louis-

further alienate the Eastern

Powers.

the inevitable,
recognized

time Metternich
in

at

the zeal of his allies for the


restraining
left to work out her own
Spain was

salvation.
Anarchy in
bpain.

She

did

success.

task with any particular


the danger from the Carlistspassed,other

accomplishthe

not

When

1840.

dangersappeared. Cristina was driven from


by a militaryoutbreak ; Esparterobecame

Constitu-

produced

Fall of
'

"

"^

j'g

nunciamentos

new

Constitution

were

and

frequent,and

more

the

the country
dictator and

confusion ; proremainder

of the

for
unceasingstruggles
the
the various distinguished
as
generals,
power between
alongthe thorny Constitutional
country travelled painfully
path. Nor did Isabella's coming of age give peace to
and
Guizot, pursuing an
Spain, since Louis-Philippe

Queen'sminoritywas

filled with

FALL^OF

THE

CH.iv

METTERNICH

125

in The
succeeded
advantage which proved to be illusory,
the Pyrenees. The fatherly
anarchy across
perpetuating
Melees
led him to desire the 1846,
affection of the King of the French
his
so
as
Queen'shand for one of his children,the more
eldest son, rejected
by an Austrian archduchess,had been
obligedto content himself with a minor German
princess.
And
his Minister was
overpoweringlyattracted by the
vista of illimitable prestige
stroke
to be won
by such a masterof diplomacy. An
intriguewas
begun for the
marriage of Isabella to the Due de Montpensier,the
King's fifth son, but the strong oppositionof England

proved fatal
With

to this scheme.

the consent

It

of Palmerston,it was

Luisa, should
Queen'ssister,
the understandingthat the
throne

should

therefore modified.

was

marry

arrangedthat

the French

succession

to

the

prince,on

the

Spanish

be first secured

by the birth of an heir to


Isabella.
Guizot,however, thought that he might yet
his end without
secure
breaking the letter of his bond.
He
secured
the marriage of the Queen to her cousin,
Francis d'Assisi,
known
to be unfitted for marriage,
a man
and on the same
day that of Luisa to Montpensier. The
sharp practiceof Guizot did not produce the intended
result of securingthe Spanish succession
for the descendants
of Louis- Philippe
France
; instead,it disgraced
by making her break her word and appear as a party to
scandalous
a
marriage,and it isolated her in Europe by
her only friend,England.
alienating
The

alienation,
indeed,was

desired
and

nothingmore

his

than

opportunitysoon
its original
Constitution
had

graduallybecome

the

Protestant and

complete that Palmerston " 8. The


Guizot, ?^^^[^
revenge himself on

so

to

Since the restoration

came.

in

1815,the

the prey

Catholic

Swiss Confederation

of the divisions

cantons.

of

The

between

former

Liberal and desired the expulsionof the Jesuits,


who

were

were

Switzer-

^'"''''
^^'^'^'

126

FROM

METTERNICH
to be

supposed
their stand

TO

the

of

Vienna, forming a league,


head-quartersat Lucerne, to

Sonderbund, with its


resist all change. War
broke out
soon
partiesand the attention of Europe
since the federal Constitution
attracted,
guaranteed by the Powers.
This

Failure of

fact seemed

of hope.
poHcy!^

to

Intervention

proposed
He

congress

believed

that he
the

by appearingas
reconcile the

posing as

could

to

the

fallen and

the

tardy assent

assent

was

now

assemble

had been

tively
defini-

situation full
it

the

thus

increase

French

Europe, and
of

prestige

that he could

with the Eastern

advocate

Powers

rule.
legitimate

by
But

by Palmerston,who, while urging


hasten their operations,
delayed his

invitation

had

necessarily

was

hardlybe avoided,since

leader of

ruined

the Swiss Liberals to


answer

could

July Monarchy

was

the two

Treaties ; he therefore
to discuss the affairs of Switzerland.

the foremost

his scheme

between

Guizot to produce

actuallyprovided for by

was

CH.iv

; the latter took

acquiringpolitical
power
the Treaties

on

BISMARCK

until it was

the Sonderbund
of Great

had

Britain

since
valueless,

it

too

been
was

was

late.

Lucerne

dissolved

before

received,and

hardlyworth

that
while

formal

Congress in order to accept a faii


accompli. Thus Guizot had merely contrived to make
himself the laughing-stock
of Europe and to bringodium
France
without
tage
gainingany compensating advanupon
of Louis-Philippe,
in fact,had
; the Government
the fatal crime of championing an unpopular
committed
to

and
"9. Fall of
Philippe

defeated

cause.

especiallyserious since the internal


policyof the Minister was dailywinning a largermeasure
had
Government
of unpopularity. The
never
really
of its accidental creation ;
escapedfrom the consequences
had particularly
desired its birth,except a few
no
one
and it had never
journalist
agitators,
gained the affection
This

crime

was

CH.iv

of

FALL

THE

OF

METTERNICH

127

the old
bourgeoisie.While
legitimist
party, after a futile outburst in La Vendee, had
fallen into a state of grumbling submissiveness,
the masses
continued
for the satisfaction of their material
to agitate
needs.
such as the great outbreak
of Riot of
Open disturbances,
Weavers
at
at Lyons, filledthe firstnine years of the reign,
weavers
and were
met
the part 1834.
on
measures
by severelyrepressive
of the Ministers,who
Laws
of September
by the
Laws
of
silenced all open criticism of their conduct, u^^^^j^'
effectually
While the Press was
thus placedunder restrictions more
complete than any which had existed in the periodof the
Restoration Monarchy, the Government
only succeeded
in proving the non-revolutionary
character
of a regime
based on revolution.
ostensibly
Superficial
good order,
of
indeed,was produced by the Ministers' abandonment
but the agitation
consistency,
greater, rather than
grew
below
the surface and
less. Driven
deprived of its
it became
violent
ordinarysafety-valve,
constantlymore
in character.
The
such as that of the
secret
societies,
breaks,
Rights of Man ',which had organizedthe earlier outany

class

except

the

'

'

"

became

more

secret,and

from

and more
acquired increased popularity
Those
marked
soon
opinions were

tendencies.

change

While

there

were

many

increased secrecy

opinions.

extreme

by
who

'

Socialistic

only

wanted

'

Growth

in"France

of

ministry,and many who would have been


with a commonplace republic,
content
others,such as
of
dreamed
Cavaignac,
sought a new Utopia and actually
And
attempts to meet the needs of the masses.
though
the
'social
revolution'
too
they preached
vaguely and
to win
much
philosophically
support from crowds who
could not understand
not
them, it wa"
long before the
theories were
clothed
new
in language of transparent
clearness. Louis
Blanc
publishedhis Organizationof j^^^^q^
Labour, which laid down that the Right to Work
izcuion
was

of

'

'

128

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.iv

of all citizens,
inalienable privilege
and that the
ofLabour, ^^
^^3i.
State was
morally bound to supply employment and
That their rights
satisfactory
wages to all its members.
the workers should organizetheir
might be recognized,
forces in oppositionto the tyranny of a selfish and
The Parisian artisan listened
capitalist
governing-clique.
and approved; here at last seemed
to open
a
long vista
of largerdinners,and though work might be a mixed
to eat was
blessing,
good.
altogether
yet to have much
The political
remained
but
a strong
sea
calm,
superficially
undercurrent of revolutionary
opinionbegan to flow,and
constitutional change but
towards
to flow
not
mere
of the whole economic structure
towards the remodelling
of society.
Even on the surface there were
of discontent,
ripples
Agitation
Qu^t^apart from six attempts on the life of that beloved
184^-48^""'
the King of the French.
An agitation
for Parliamentary
citizen,
Reform
began and with it an agitation
against
life. That
the prevailing
both
corruptionof political
reforms were
needed could hardlybe doubted,but Guizot
A mechanical
well content with thingsas they were.
was
majoritythrew out all motions in favour of change,and
able to soothe his political
the minister was
conscience,
which he never
allowed to pass out of his control,
by the
always received the best
thought that his conduct
sanction which a representative
system could giveit.
The
Consequentlythe reformers were driven to turn from
^^
and appropriately
Chambers
to the People,
enough
Ban^vTts
of banquets. The
1848.
they appealedto the latter by means
that the
to eat, should at least be shown
masses, desiring
reformers desiring
had no conscientious objection
to vote
to hearty meals,
Thiers,always an inveterate busybody,
Odillon Barrot,and Duvergierde Hauranne
and
their friends displayed
their eloquenceand appetites
to

METTERNICH

FROM

I30

BISMARCK

TO

CH.

iv

him
on
by
trulymerited the epithetof Atlas,'conferred
He was
indeed
his contemporariessome
years before.
a
Titan, strivingto perform a task which was
weary
was
rapidlybecoming superhuman. The national spirit
in the Austrian
Empire itself; Kossuth
spreading even
was
publishinga Liberal paper in Hungary, and the title
Croatian-Slavonic-Dalmatic
Journal',givento a periodical
indicates how
in the Illyrian
Provinces,sufficiently
fully nations were coming to realize their individuality
in Galicia
and identity.An actual risinghad occurred
and
had been quelledmainly by the Ruthenians, the
miserrimi
populi who hated the Polish patriotsworse
than the Austrian tyrants,since the latter might possibly
one
day sympathizewith the grievancesof the peasantry.
The revolt ended merely in the destruction of the freedom
had
been
of the city of Cracow, which
hotbed
of
a
annexed
revolutionary
agitationand which was now
by
'

'

Risingin
Galicia,
1846.

'

'

Annexaof
Cracow

tion
by

Austria,

1847.

Austria

of

to

the

libertyin England and


was
symptomatic of
A

but

made

his power

and

rebellion in

influence

master

had

were

who

been

had

secure

shared

in the
with

in the

an

smile

Metternich

result of age, but stillmore


As
circumstances.
long as Francis

the Chancellor

rence
occur-

weakness
increasing
Empire.

have

declining,
partlyas
to external

its very

the

few years' before,the reportof

province would

of

But

France.

of the

central administration
Position of
Metternicb.

protests from the devotees

of angry

tune

trian
Austemptuously,
con-

steadily
owing
H lived,

unswerving support

him

the

shame

and

perilof the days of Napoleonic supremacy, and who had


with him at the tyrant's
fall. The debt owed
to
rejoiced
Metternich
realized and paid both in kind and in
was
confidence.

But

changed for
popular,had

the
been

when
worse.

Francis
The

died,the situation
old

strong enough

to

at

once

Emperor, personally
leave all thingsto his

Minister

; his son,

without

the

remained

in

OF

FALL

THE

CH.iv

METTERNICH

Ferdinand

I, was

strengtheven

be

to

131
feeble

weak.

epileptic,

Metternich

but supported only by


office,

his

personal

and reputation.The Archdukes


and the Chancellor's
ability
resented the lingering
the stage of the
on
colleagues

their

old actor, since it made

parts

own

they understand the ideals


stillcontended,or if they understood
Nor

not

could

So

believe in them.

that

even

the Chancellor

undecided

himself

their lack of steadfastness

and

promise reforms,though not

so

was

went

far as

subordinate.

so

for which

Metternich

did
them, certainly
was

their

attitude,

infected by
slightly
far as vaguely to
so
to think of granting

them.
Thus

the fall of

led to a riot at
Louis-Philippe
Vienna and to a demand
by the provincialEstates of
of Metternich
Austria for the resignation
and for a Conhis colleagues
not
were
stitution,
unwillingto listen at
least to the firstpart of this request ; they urged the old
man

they

to

when

retire in order

watched

swarmed

with

towards

the

to

give peace

to his

pleasurethe crowds
chancellery
clamouringfor
the Chancellor

^f,^^^^
13,

country, and

secret

nich's life. At this moment

"11. Fall

showed

which
Mettermore

of character than at any other moment


in his
nobility
firmness. Refusing
long career, and all his accustomed
he awaited
to allow the doors of his palaceto be closed,
the mob in his study,
facingthem and daring them to lay
hands upon him.
They dared not, nor was he assailed
material than howls and hisses as he
by anything more
passed through the crowd on his way to the imperial
palace. There he made one last effortto rouse Ferdinand
to resistance,
it
declaringthat if emperors
disappeared,
until they despaired of themselves, and that
not
was

vigorous action would yet carry the day. But when he


hinted at a possibleconflict,
the Emperor'scheek paled;
I

1848.

FROM

132

METTERNICH

Metternich

saw

that

BISMARCK

TO

riot would

resigned. He

CH.

become

soon

revolution
)n',

II

compelled to leave
in disguise,
for the VienAustria and to hasten westwards
nese
Liberals provedtheir deep love for personal
liberty
by
his head.
There is a certain grim irony
a priceon
setting
in the fact that he could find no refugeexcept in England,
which
he had always regardedas the home
of the ideas
againstwhich he strove, and as the most bitter of his
and

bowed

was

soon

enemies.

in

fellPrince Metternich, who

Thus

Reception

for

nearlyfortyyears
Empire, and
than thirtyyears had been the most
ing,
imposthe most
noble,figurein European politics.

^^^ controlled the destinies of the Austrian


EuropI^
who

for

more

if not

life'swork

His

laboured

had

he

; and

been

place

gave

his name,
down

handed

in failure ; the peace

had ended

so

to

confusion

far from

worse

founded
con-

being honoured, has

symbolicalof all that

as

for which

in government, of all that is most

is most

oppressive
hostile to the

Enthusiastic Liberals throughrace.


out
progress of the human
the world greeted the news
of his overthrow
with

hymns of triumphantrejoicing
; their very children lisped
the joy-bringing
is fallen !
words, Metternich is fallen,
'

'

Nor

have

historians

failed to echo

this

contemporary

In the pages of many


books it is recorded that
he long held the fair goddess of Liberty fast bound
in
verdict.

iron ; that
those bruised and

misery and
from
Estimate
of Mettermen

in

To
^^^

the

Correct
never

more

by

his fall the chains

approvalof

struck

bleedinglimbs.
verdict of historyis always dangerous,

so

than

when

the verdict

work

Austria,

were

the most

vocal and successful

has gained the


*"
_

kind.
portionof manBut it may
be suggestedthat with all his egoism,
of mind, Metternich
all his love of phrases,all his pettiness
In the supreme
of crisis,
moment
at least sincere.
was
having faced the mob which thirsted for his blood, and

FALL

THE

CH.IV

them

awed
his

life

into

might

Devoted

he

also

for

the

of

of

unsurpassed

Empire

in

or

seem

politics

angels

of

her

the

the

ruled

prosperity
indeed

were

that
sometimes

light.

the

services

more

peace

political
of

an

valuable

of

glory
plished
accom-

physical

in

that

Empire.

than

of

it

then

Apollyon,

angel

the

either

increased
of

mere

Since

developed

hardly
the

or

her

steadfastness.

and

cup

by

diplomacy,

by

has

the

made

had

he
to

greatly

it

pitch

And

Great,

has

to

recourse

patience

feeling
he

her

had

at

the

dregs

he

annals.

having

office

the

to

raised

world

done'something

Napoleon,

long

personality,

Metternich

would

and

Frederic

which

power

If

all

national

day,

the

of

strength

lips by

without

of

methods

her

Europe
in

this

his

to

draining

was

haps
per-

of

Assuming

loved.

'.

Devotion

and

least

at

'

that

monarchy,

stability

had

them

word

one

Austrian
of

he
he

Austria

held

arbiter

the

ideal

which

when

shame

the
And

war.

country

moment

to

the

to

told

he

the

in

up

devoted

133

silence,

summed

was

from

delivered

METTERNICH

momentary

be

devoted

OF

darkness

are

of

bright

those

n
CHAPTER
THE

YEAR

1848

" 2. Mazzini.
" I. State of Italy: the LiteraryMovement.
Constitutional
Charles
Albert.
Pius
IX.
movement
"4.
" 5.
"3.
in Italy.!^
in the Austrian Empire. " 7.
" 6. National movements
The

Slav

movement.

" 8. Anarchy in the


Germany. " 10. The Ante-

" 9. Revolutions in
of the year 1848.
Significance
"

I.

L^t^
"

th

The

State

Movement,

^^^

fallof Metternich

"^

was

no

Austrian

isolated event

series of incidents which

Empire.

Parliament.

involved

the

; it

"11.

was

general,

though often temporary, substitution of political


angelsof
lightfor the servants of that Viennese princeof darkness.
ThroughoutEurope

there

revolutions ;

everywhere
the walls of reaction fellbefore the trumpet-call
of Liberty
and Freedom, national and personal.Nor
these
were
outbreaks the expressionof any sudden change in the
political
temper of the Continent. They were the result
of eighteen
preparatory years, and they had been so fully
anticipatedthat a biographerof the Austrian chancellor
had

been

Metternich

were

to write that
years earlier,
the certainty
of his ultimate
himself recognized

able,

failure.

And

fourteen

the

causes

far to seek.

not

The

'

stabilityhad been pursued


undermined the foundation upon which
'reposed.
stability
Europe had been givenpeace, or at least immunity from
serious war, and havingtasted the sweet cup of quietude,
of the danger of
she had been drugged into insensibility
trembled at the word
revolution.
Moral hearts no longer
Republic*,at Jacobinphrasessuch as the Rights of
Man
the People'sRule
was
no
longer
; advocacy of
And this calmness in the
by all godly men.
reprobated
success

very

with

which

are

'

'

'

'

'

'

face of the

spectresof the past

'

was

not

due

merely

to

YEAR

THE

CH.v

1848

135

the result also of


of fancied security. It was
feeling
growing independence of opinion,which took the lead out
of the hands of those who had much
and placed it in the
hands of those who
had
little. Just as in England the
a

Industrial Revolution

of political
power

balance
the

to

and

and

the Reform

Bill transferred the

the

holders of property

from

making it needful to cajole


and ligent
unintelto bribe with promisesan
incorruptible
less and
the Continent men
were
so
on
electorate,
of votes,

possessors

less inclined

to be

silent and

of the

stillin the presence

awful

they
majesty of constituted authority. Rather
listened greedilyto the flattering
phrases,the inspiring
compliments of the new
school,which, despite
literary
in
censorshipand opposition,
preached to the masses
their hearts by conjuring up
a
tongue which touched
dazzlingvisions of gloriously
impossibleparadises.
To
such
warm

enthusiastic temperament

the

heavenlymessages
of the south

sun

and
complete reality,

gained

double

clothed fantasies with


so

in

greatest hold

its

of unrest.

measure

appealedwith

of the

The

Italian race,
The

force.
the

movement
Italythe literary
and
produced the largest

peninsula,indeed,usurped

because
accepted ; of the first,
generalutterly
bad, the chances

because

the

opinion as

the

without

common

weak.

where

government

was

in

of any

ment
voluntaryimproveto be utterlynegligible
second,
; of the
might of Austria was overwhelming,because

to

methods

was

so

movTi^dl

garb of

place of France, stifled into good behaviour by the allpervadingumbrella of a most virtuous revolution. Gallic
and yet
idealism seemed
taken
to have
refugein Italy,
nowhere
better
the hopelessness
of such idealism
was
realized.
The futility
of reform and revolution alike was

seemed

The

divided,becausein

the
nationality,

national

was
spirit

country
what
some-

136 FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

ch.v

insuperabledifficultieswere
pointedout
d'Azeglio.by the writers of the period,
whose
note
was
prevailing
pessimismtingedwith that extravagant optimism which
utter
hopelessnesscan alone inspire. The pessimistic
whose posistruck softly
note was
tion
by Massimo d'Azeglio,
House
of Savoy
of the quasi-beneficent
as
a servant
possiblyinclined him to advocate those methods of peaceful
These

Massimo

almost

resistance

Cesare

Balbo.

Durando
and

Gioberti.

of which

he

was

the

exponent,

and

the

of
of which must
have
been apparent to a man
futility
in
his intelligence.
Cesare
Balbo played the same
tune
a louder
key. He argued that a kingdom, a confederaall equallyunattainable,
and that
were
ion,and a republic
until the dissolution of
wait patiently
Italian unitymust
the Ottoman
Empire should make it possible
by affording
Austria adequate compensation for the loss of the Lomhere the wild hopefulbardo-Venetian
ness
kingdom. And
of despairappears.
Balbo regarded the partition
of Turkey as probable,the renunciation
of their Italian
ment
provincesby the Habsburgs as not unlikely.The attainof Italian unity could be allowed to depend upon
the settlement of the most
difficultquestionin European
and upon the sudden
conversion to altruism of a
politics
unselfish dynasty.
by no means
That
Italian unity could only be the result of some
profoundchange was true enough,and the obstacles in its
path Austria,the Pope, and racial divisions were seen
"

"

by

the

more

conscious
he

sober observers.

of the

Durando, indeed, was

tendencies
centrifugal

which

so

existed that

only
proposedto humour them ; his unitaryaspirations
led him to hope for a triple
alliance of States,
corresponding
the Papacy, and
to the spheres of influence of Sardinia,
and up to a certain
Naples. Gioberti was more
optimistic,
point more
practical.A confederation of the existing
States would avoid the raising
of many perilous
questions

FROM

138
And

His
1

ea

ism.

METTERNICH

TO

of its sacred

profound conviction

^[f^^^ jjjgquest.
nich in his

Cromwell

Like

time,he

own

doing God

BISMARCK

believed

before

CH.v

character

him, like

dig-

Metter-

that
implicitly

most

he

from above,
sought inspiration
he was
faith in the creed which he
filled with unfaltering
mere
no
professed.It was
political
theory that he
self
and himpreached ; he was the apostleof a new
religion,
bearingan intolerable burden of anguish,he laboured
to give to others a lively
hope for the future. His faults
for his country
were
many, his mistakes frequent; securing
the shadow, he perhapsdeprivedher of the substance,of
unity. But it was his cry of God and the People',his
belief in mankind
dence
confiand his unbounded
invigorating
in himself,which
enabled him to rouse
Italy to a
of her own
the deadeningpessito overcome
sense
mism,
identity,
was

service ; he

'

to fillItalians

works

which

with that faith without

accomplished. Castingaside all half-solutions,


boldlyignoringthe difficultieswhich beset him, refusingto
Mazzini gave
and ever
see the practical,
pursuingthe ideal,
his countrymen
strengthto face death and to bear torture.
The very name
of his societyof Young Italy',and the
regulationswhich governed it, reflect his considered
confined to men
under forty
opinion. Membership was
perience
that the future was
to inexyears of age, Mazzini believing
cannot

be

'

and
obstacle

that the wise caution

in the

the reward

path

to

of

old

the

victory. Success
rashness,the

of enthusiastic

but

was

could

only

an

be

of deep

outcome

sentiment,
enthusiasm

^^^

^^

"^^

^^^

he

for the

inducements

^""'"

and

enthusiastic

all

his

blind
did not

to

the

merits

appeal merely to

side of the Italian nature.

soul-stirringaddresses, there

practicalnote.

of unsentimental

Austria

of all that is

the
At

the end of

sounds

represents,indeed, the

highest and

spiritual

best in human

more

tution
prostilife to

YEAR

THE

CH.v

but

aliens' lust for power;

the

denial of material

And

influence

that the
ennobled
of

his

generous

it was,

represents also the

she

of

agony

perhaps,to

of Mazzini

body

as

well

as

this side of his

agony

teaching

While

reallydue.

was

means

he

into them something


by infusing
he moved
while
own
deeply religiousspirit,
he
in which
hearts by the burning words

simple prayers

denounced

well

fetter the

to

as

139

people,her tyranny

to the

good

hungry children,it means


of mind.

1848

of the

advocate

that

system

strove

body,

poor,

he

who

as

all the

still above

was

friend of those

the

soul

destroy the

to

suffered

something
Through him, Italian unity became
than
creed of politicians
the mere
more
deprived of
of
than the dream
chances of distinction,
something more
the glorious
who
a few thinkers
saw
past of their country
reproduced in the future. It grew into a vital belief,
the poor with hope
moving the mind of the people,filling
for their
that in political
union they would find sustenance
starvingbabes and the happiness for which they yearned.
want.

And

it is in this that the value of Mazzini's

His very extravagance


a

situation
be

to

bounds
At
which

the

only

attainable
of
the

of service,
since in

was

faith which

could

bring
possibility.
there

time

same

bordered

upon

republicanism was

the

the

for all the


panacea
heir,he alienated many

believes

was

to

the

more
cause

which

impossible
within

the

which

he

to make

his country the heaven

on

vocated.
ad-

of government

Italian

flesh

was
was

failure of United

Italy. Indeed, he was not always blind himself


and though the virtue of the
danger of his teaching,
was

His

his
especially

possiblesympathizers,and

perhaps ultimatelyresponsiblefor

the

in his doctrines

much

particulartype
ills to

the

consists.
desperate

so

attainable

the

absurd, and

harmful

By making

work

to

the

masses

earth of which

he

he

virtue of

mere

princes. For

Albert

of Sardinia

had

which

been

on

formed

in the

place trust

to

believed that

he

moment

cii.v

might yet justifythe hopes


; for

of him

he looked

moment

disprovethe theory that Catholicism and


Liberalism
were
incompatible.
of these two rulers
The expectations
which he formed
But the King
shared by less enthusiastic minds.
were
was
easilyoutdistanced by the Priest in the race for the
foes of all clerical
favour of those who
were
ostensibly
IX

Pius

to

^^^'

occasion

dreamed,
Charles

"3. Charles

inclined

BISMARCK

TO

METTERNICH

FROM

I40

rule.
and

to

Charles

Albert

'immoral'

in

testimonials

his

his

eyes

of

conduct

the distrust with


He

lacked

to

reactionaries

the

Metternich,but

could

character

not

made
the

which

these

obliterate the

Prince of

as

peculiartemperament

overcome

him.

the

of his dubious

memory
And

to

suspect

was

Carignano.
for him

it hard

Liberals

to

regarded

the

livingfaith which can lead a man


onwards
without faltering
but scant
confidence
; he had
in his own
destiny,and his inherent pessimism caused
him
to realize very vividlythe difficultieswhich
faced
him.
His difficu

ties.

Nor

were

those difficultiesmere

figmentsof

morbid

'

national
the House
of Savoy
imagination. However
might have become as the result of centuries of rule in
alien state.
And
stilla partially
Italy,Piedmont was
while she was
with
viewed
misgivingsby patriotson
of the selfishness of her historical policy,
she had
account
from the other States of the peninsulathat jealousy
won
with which successful double-dealing
is generally
regarded
by less fortunate exponents of the deceptiveart. Nor
could the views of Austria be lightly
ignored; she was at
and
too
too
once
near
powerful a neighbour. Charles
Albert,for whose exclusion from the throne the Court of
'

Vienna

had

had
intrigued,

been

compelledat

the moment

YEAR

CH.v

THE

of his accession to

promise to

and there

was

no

doubt

1848
maintain

that Metternich

141

his absolute power,

would

be

quickto

the traditional
Finally,
policy of his familyhelped to deter the Sardinian king
To
absorb Lombardy like an
from any decisive action.
artichoke,leaf by leaf,was not an heroic line of conduct,
but it was
one
likelyto fascinate a deliberate and selfresent

any breach

of this contract.

distrustful monarch.
None

the less,Charles

Albert

never

ceased

to

aspireHis

leadershipof an anti-Habsburgcrusade,nor was '"eiorms.


in lookingon his king as a sincere
d'Azegliounjustified
of independence. But the path was
friend to the cause
distant. The
and the goal seemed
arduous
ever
more
King was obligedto labour to rehabilitate himself in the
and yet to adopt
fellow-workers,
eyes of his prospective
to

the

to

measures

secure

himself

from

immediate

danger.

The

appeared
marriageof his son to a Habsburg archduchess
the
Metternich fold,and his
to
as the preludeto a return
reforms hardly sufficed to counterbalance
so
an
specific
of the army,
of conciliation.
The
act
reorganization
the reform of the legalcode, a mildly Liberal tone
in
not
administration,
though admirable in themselves,were
the hesitating
the desired grant of a Constitution,
and
Mazzini's
King'was thoroughlyhostile to secret societies,
repressing
the agitationwhich
Mazzini
sought to foment by an gavoy
when
he at last ventured
incursion into Savoy. Even
to 1833.
^^'^
with Austria,though he gained ^?!j^
tariffwar
enter
a
upon
the plauditsof a congress
of politicians,
disguisedas Austria,
^^'^^'
he failed to satisfy
the leaders of Young Italy.
naturalists,
than to Turin, and Charles
They looked rather to Rome
Albert
sought wearilyfor a chance to follow the path
be
to
along which the Pope seemed
leading Italian
*

""

patriots.
For

even

sober politicians
inclined to believe that the

METTERNICH

FROM

142

Vicar of Christ

TO

BISMARCK

CH.v

heart the

and
champion of liberty,
the wildest hopes were
aroused by the apparentlystartling
No
change in the character of the Papal Government.
district had groaned more
heavilyunder the burden of
than
the States of the Church,
corrupt administration
nowhere
had
consistent,
repressionbeen more
tyranny
debased and debasing. Metternich himself admitted
more
that here reform
not
was
advisable,though he would
But when
the Holy Father.
coerce
died,
Gregory XVI
the hopes of Liberals suddenly revived.
They dared to
put forward a candidate for the Papal chair in the person
if moderate
of Cardinal
sympathizer
Gizzi,an avowed
"^^^h their ideas.
but the choice of
He was
not elected,
Election of
^^^ Sacred
who
for a while
College fell upon a man
^s^fi^^'
seemed
likelyto realize the dreams of Gioberti.
took
the
of
Cardinal
name
His
Mastai-Ferretti,who
reforms,
of his election
p-^^g IX,was almost unknown
at the moment
" 4.
Pius IX.

was

at

; his chief title to fame

governor
as

of Imola

his character

hopes
Signs

were

was

formed

was

duringthe

conduct

as

Austrian

occupation.Thus,
for speculation,
extraordinary

matter
as

his honourable

the

result of

his

earliest acts.

hailed with unbounded


sympathy with reform were
enthusiasm,and the Pope, perhaps affected by
his popularity,
travelled further along the same
path.
Cardinal Gizzi was
appointedSecretaryof State ; laymen
admitted
to
were
membership in the newly created
formed ; and
municipalityof Rome
; a civic guard was
mild enough in actual fact,
these measures,
acquired an
taken by the
because they were
exaggerated significance
the hero
of Italian Liberals ;
Pope. Pius IX became
demonstrations
in his honour
were
organizedthroughout
and
advance
when
not
even
was
so
rapid as had
Italy;
been
hoped, the haltingprogress of the Holy Father
was

of

attributed not to any

lack of will

on

his part but to

the

malign

of Vienna

Mettemich

was

which

in

Ferrara

conduct

protest from

So

of

But
Rome

alarmed

Pope that
plottingagainsthis

of disorder

afforded

of

to

the
to

pretext
occupy

principlesof ^,*^^P^*
only to draw 1847.
the English

all the

such violence
and

was

of the

seized

flagrantviolation

international law.

143

Government

Austrian
evidence

vague

the

at

actuallyaccused

the

life; and

1848

of evil advisers.

influence

the Court

YEAR

THE

CH.v

served

encourage

Liberal movement.
openly
support
Though the clear insightof Metternich led him cheerfully
declare
that a Liberal
to
unthinkable, this
Pope was
shared by less astute
not
optimism or pessimism was
Men
observers.
forgotthe eternal no7i possumus with
which
the
cries for radical
Papacy has always met
of the hopes formed
reform ; and as the illusory
nature
ambassador

of Pius
And

was
as

veritable

the

to

enthusiasm
realized,

not

it spread over

epidemic

Italy,it

grew

led to

apace.
the

of Constitutionalism.

outbreak

of 5

The

example
where a half-detected conspiracy
set in Sicily,
was
proved
successful and led to the proclamationof a Constitution
both at Palermo
and Naples. Leopold of Tuscany, who
had alreadyfreed the Press,was
terrified by an emeute
at
Leghorn into followingsuit,and finallya Fundamental
Statute was
issued to regulate
the temporal government

s-

movement

'"J^^o^^^

'

'

of the

States

established

at

of
Rome

the
and

Church.

Two

Chambers

were

of Ministers
responsibility

; but the

mitted
ad-

Collegeof Cardinals retained a veto and


most
a
disappointingmonopoly of all real power, Pius
declaringthat he could proceed no further along the
Liberal path. Then
at last a Constitution
was
grantedto
Piedmont, in the form of a royal Statute,embodying in
the main
those reforms
which
had
been
proposed by
Count Cavour, a journalist
risingto fame owing to his
articles in the Risorgimenio.There was
indeed a
resur'

9""'

METTERNICH

FROM

144

TO

BISMARCK

CH.v

'

throughout Italy,and only in the Lombardohold its own.


Venetian kingdom did absolutism
State of
for representative
There
perhaps, less need
was,
the
in the Austrian
less need for Liberalism
at all,
institutions,
Austrian
provinces. provincesthan in any other part of Italy. Good
ment,
governof efficiency
and honesty of administration,
in the sense
for the well-beingof the people,was
and care
an
integralpart of the Mettemich
system, and if the
Emperor did draw a vast income from his Italian provinces,
that those provinces
this was
at least evidence
were
prosperingunder his rule. It is true that gruesome
of the Spielberg,
told of the horrors
the
tales were
confined,
dungeon in which exiles from Lombardy were
but those horrors were
endured as punishment for highsouled devotion to the task of overthrowingAustrian rule
in Italy,
which was
not really
a devotion
appreciatedby
victims. Nor was it the wish of Metternich
its prospective
such drastic measures.
He
would
to use
gladly have
to
employed softer agencies; having himself succumbed
the fascinations of an
actress, he hoped that he might
of Lombardy in a like sweet
calm the political
unrest
rection

embrace.

theatre

The

of

Milan

would

have

been

the

triumphs of the attractive Fanny Elsler,had


Milanese remained
lest
not the pleasure-loving
at home
they should be constrained to applaud an importation
Vienna.
from
Still Metternich
congratulatedhimself
remain
with
that a well-fed populationwould
contented
abundance
of good things,
and pay no heed to hungry
'.
patriots
scene

of the

'

Disaffec-

tion
in

Lombardy.

But

he had

failed to make

for the

influence

of journalists.
Viennese
activity
writing; in
censorshipfailed wholly to stifle political
and out of season
the cause
of abstract good was
season
of the present good which men
exalted at the expense
of sentiment

and

for the

allowance

146 FROM
Austrian
"^*'^^"

METTERNICH

TO

the ideal of centralization not


he had

wiselybut

too

in his search for


diversity

accentuated

his

BISMARCK

CH.

furiously
uniformity,
,

reaped the fruit of his unwisdom.


differences in race, religion,
Those
and language,
which
have alwaysbeen the bane of his dynasty,
had been constantly
deepened since his death,and now the removal of
the personification
of repose freed the pent-up stream
of
No sooner
than decorum
had Mettemich fallen,
'Progress'.
and all trace of political
sobriety
gave placeto licence,
vanished in a bacchanalian orgy of triumphantvirtue. The
whole machinery of government was
and while
paralysed,
in a maze
of
an
helplessly
epileptic
Emperor wandered
apologyand rebuke,the dominant and subjectraces of
his dominions
dancy.
ascencompeted for the prizeof political

and

successors

the Germans

While

the

strove

to retain their

historical

demanded

exclusive privileges
Magyars
the contest
equal rights,
producingan
atmosphere of entire confusion,in which perhaps only
one
thingappears clearly the completeselfishnessof the
and the profoundlyreactionary
exponents of patriotism

supremacy,
and the Slavs

"

character
And

of the

this is

more

ardent

Liberals.

evident
especially

in

Hungary, a country
which
dominated
by a dull and boorish aristocracy,
^^^ment
only rightlyappliedto a free
usurped attractive epithets
and freedom-loving
The Magyars formed a section
race.
clamorous
and turbulent,more
of the population,
more
The

conservative

and

corrupt,more

influential but

less

erous
num-

subjectraces over which they tyrannized.


cauldrons
in a Diet and many
They had a safety-valve
in which discontent might seethe in the shape of local
the ImperialGovernment
assemblies. Rather unwisely,
of
had shut the safety-valve
by suspendingthe sittings
the central body, and so political
agitationfermented
more
vigorouslyin the smaller gatherings.The effect
than the

THE

CH.v

YEAR

increase the power


who
like Szechenyi,

to

was
men

bridgeof

Buda-Pest

with economic

had become

Western

ideas.

147

of the less

leaders ;
responsible
the famous
suspension

devised
who

progress, were
of the type of

men
agitators,

who

and

1848

would

have

replacedby

been

content

advanced

more

Kossuth, Deak, and Eotvos,

filledwith Western

Thus, when

the

phrasesand pseudoDiet

was

revived, the

In the Upper
character.
new
a
opposition assumed
continued
House, the Magnates,the dominant
aristocracy,

only for the maintenance of their exclusive privileges,


done under Maria Theresa
and Joseph.
as they had
But in the Lower
of the local bodies
House, the delegates
advocated
moval
equalityof taxation,freedom of the Press, reof the peasants'
burdens, and, most importantof all,
Strenuous opposition
of Magyar nationality.
recognition
ment
of Latin in the Diet led the ImperialGovernto the use
in the Hungarian
to permitdebates to be conducted
followed by a strengthenwas
ing
tongue ; this initialvictory
of opposition
the part of
error
as the result of an
on
to press

Metternich.

Resistance

first rather

been

at

could

not

the

to

Court

half-hearted

of

because

Vienna

had

its leaders

assemblies

the Diet or the county


agree as to whether
life.
should be made
of political
the centre

But when

the latter bodies

by

nominated

Austrian
anger,

were

administrators

on

dissolved

and

replaced

the instructions

all sections united,and


Chancellor,
Kossuth
found his opportunity.

of the

sal
in the univer-

patriothad first figuredas editor of a Kossuth.


Liberal paper, the Pesti Hirlap^ and, being fortunate
enough to annoy the Government, was for a time imprisoned.
This

ardent

On

an

in
as

his

he availed himself of so excellent


release,
and
opportunityfor entering upon a political
career,
this new
invaluable,both
sphere his eloquencewas
of rousing enthusiasm
a
means
and as a convenient
K

148

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

cloak for his

inconsistency.Ostensiblyhe was
Liberalism in general,
joiningwith Deak

of

definite programme

CH.v

pion
the chamin

setting

reform, which
proposed
taxation
for all classes,
yearly Diets, triennial elections,
more
representationfor towns, and the abolition of the
out

disabilities of

the

of

peasants. Actually, he

stood

for

Magyar predominance ; there was nothing reallysincere


in the baptismalspeech in which
he urged all friends
'

'

of progress
interests

in which

he

insisted that their

identical.

were

firstappearedin his attitude towards


inconsistency
of the
^j^g parallelagitationamong
the subjectraces
Austrian
divided
into two
lliyrian
Empire. The Slavs were

" 7. The
Slav
the

unite,and

to

His

move-

provinces ;

j^^jj^ sections,
the Czechs

of Bohemia

Croats of the

south-western

capitalof

former

the

and the Serbs and

provinces. Prague was

the latter found

more

the

dubious

But
Diet.
provincial
Croatia and her allied provinceswere
attached to the
Hungarian monarchy, and were
duly repressedby the
dominant
Magyars, repressionbeing the more
easy
thing
somewas
since,despiteNapoleon, lliyriannationality
elusive for the uneducated
too
imaginationof the
backward
races.
more
Gradually,however, a sense of
lliyrianGazette' for
Gaj publishedan
identityarose.
in an attempt to stimulate the new
the provinces,
unitary
But
sentiment.
the Magyars rose in defence of
at once
their sacred monopoly of
'. They induced
nationality
the Imperial Government
to order that the title of the
be so changed as to emphasize differences
paper should
centre

in

Agram,

the seat of their

'

'

'

rather than unity ; and when

Serbs and

Croats

claimed

to

Hungary, their demands were


pointedout that Liberty could only
rejected.Kossuth
of Magyar supremacy,
the maintenance
and, as
mean
of fact,the patriotic
a matter
party placedthe delegates

share

in the

new

freedom

of

THE

CH.v

Agram
burg. When
from

the Croatian
a

foreignand
It

149

hopelesspositionin the Diet of PressLatin ceased to be the language of debate,


were
obliged either to learn
representatives
in

difficulttongue

this insistence

was

1848

YEAR

or

to remain

by the Magyars

on

for

ever

silent.

the supremacy

(ii)in
^o*^^"'^-

language which led to the development of


at once
the Slav agitation.Bohemia
a Slav
was
country
and unified ; she had the advantageof a definite historical
existence
or
Hungary. In
apart from either Austria
her populationpatriotic
addition,she numbered
among
with a taste for forgery; she was
soon
supplied
professors
with an adequate Czech
and enough archaic
literature,
on
a
literary
produced to place Bohemia
poetry was
equalitywith Hungary. And findingto their surprise
of their

own

that their ancestors


roused

were

to

had

veritable heroes, the Slavs

been

enthusiastic

oppositionto

exclusive

the

of the

into being,
came
Magyars ; Pan-Slavism
the struggleof nationalities began to divide the
and
to the ImperialGovernment.
opposition
Had that Government
possessedeven a moderate degree " 8.
of competence, it might have used the rivalrybetween
^^^g^
Magyars and Slavs to establish its own
; it Austrian
supremacy
"P''^"
had
rarely had a better opportunityfor putting into
Divide
et
practicethe Habsburg motto
impera. But
the fall of Metternich
rather
or
political
power,
gave
The
of utter
nonentities.
to
a
office,
political
group
Administration
not
consistent in submitting to
was
even
the terrorism of the Vienna
mob ; it nullified the possible
merit of concession by a half-hearted return
to the principles
tendencies

of the fallen Chancellor.


of

sanity,contradicted

when
the
and

last he had

Ferdinand, in

the orders

which

he

one

had

interval

given

capable of givingorders at all ; in


more
frequentperiods,during which he was a mental
imitated his example.
physicalwreck,the Archdukes
been

I50
A

FROM

METTERNICH

constitution

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

Windischgratz wasas
concessions were
appointeddictator ; more
proposed,and
when the offer of a Constitution to all the Habsburg
finally,
dominions
except Hungary produced a riot,Ferdinand
Flightof

fled to Innsbruck.

Ferdinand,

promised

was

From

this safe retreat

but no
attempt was
May 1848. promises,
their observance
to make
or

Government

of Vienna

made

he issued

either

unnecessary.

to

keep

more
,

them

Indeed, the

to
complete inability
at all ; terrified by unexpecteddisorder,
adopt any course
it would
realize the true strength
of its positionas
not
nationalities ;
potentialarbiter between the two conflicting
it could not
gather courage to play off Slav against
Jellacic, Magyar. Thus, though it recognized
ardent
an
Jellacic,
',as Ban of Croatia,without waitingfor approval
Illyrian
Croatia,
Mar. 1848.
fj.Qj^j
^jjgHungarian Diet,it nullifieditsaction by granting
to
^ responsible
sible"'^"
Ministryto Hungary. This amounted
Ministryin a practical
acceptance of the disruptionof the monarchy,
it may have been for the Emperor
impossible
Mar. 1848. and however
at this junctureto coerce
his loyalsubjectsbeyond the
Theiss,it would have been better by far to have faced

showed

'

even

civil war

at

once.

As

it was,

the

weakness

of the

the revolutionary
over
legality
proceedingsof the Magyars.
But in the circumstances nothingelse could be expected.
State of the
^^^ Vienna
and being
mob
controlled the situation,
really
June'isls
Government

threw

itself infected

with

shadow

of

Pan-Germanism

eager to foster
the sacrifice of the nonwas

likelyto lead to
Teutonic
alist
dominions
of the Habsburgs. Thus the nationviolent,and within six
daily grew more
agitations
months
the Austrian
of Metternich's fall,
Empire, which
been saved by his resignation,
to have
was
appeared to
stand upon the brink of ruin.
Ferdinand was
powerless
for good and extremely powerfulfor evil ; sane
enough to
make
appallingmistakes,he lacked the sanitynecessary

any

movement

"

him

enable

to

made

of those

Austria

him.

of

control

the

1848

realize either

to

the hollowness

or

alarmed

so

YEAR

THE

CH.v

151

mistakes

the

Liberal

itselfwas

which

which

triumphs

thus allowed

he

fall

to

ignorantand

mob,
unpatriotic
the
which had received an excellent musical training
as
and the geniusof
result of thecare of Metternich
Beethoven,
secured
but had
even
never
a
acquaintance
superficial
with the art of politics.In Hungary, an independent
touches to its sepaMinistry laboured to put the finishing
ratist
of
work
and to establish the complete domination
the Magyar race.
In Croatia,Jellacic,
abandoned
by the
under

in

Emperor

of

star

fear,ruled

as

tical
prac-

ready to fightto the death against


the
elsewhere
Hungarian aggression.And

or
'

of distrustful

moment

dictator and

German

an

was

Austria

fortunate

'

seemed

be

to

waxing dim.

ful
Italywas in revolt and the issue of the struggle
yet doubtappeared to have passed for ever out of
; Germany
Habsburg tutelage.
The

Austrian

itself with

concern

the

federation,especially
as
been
had

exercised
found

tendencies
mind
his

would-be

Ernest

influence

was

less able

news

check

to

with

William

little cordiality
to
And

mentor.

of

was

growth

the

had
apostleof stability

up

warnings

the

even

of

'

in

'

Progress

south

like mushrooms

and, worst

shone

of

Constitution,the

seek.

Revolution,

fallen

the

of reaction, such

atmosphere,in

institutions sprang
of the latest French

ill-balanced

there

though
few bright particular
stars

cry,

the

IV, whose

'

the

long

Metternich
increasing difficulty.

Hanover, the destroyerof


morality of most rulers was sadly to

as

Q^^^^y,

Con-

it had

over

to " 9. Revo-

protestedvainlyagainstthe pernicious

Frederic

responded

her

time

no

Germanic

affairs of the

less and

; he

of

Germany
*

with

himself

of Liberalism

indeed, had

Government,

; representative
on

before

the
the

nationalist
all,

METTERNICH

FROM

i5a

sentiments

and

And

loudlythrough the

^^

Berlin^disguiscthrough the
Mar.

1848.

as

Saxony,

and

Viennese

had

once

of

that

federatio
Con-

the

States.

life,fled

in

him

welcomed

Bavaria,
reaction,
the

of the

waves

William

Frederic

storm.

of

German

before

way

ch.v

for his

last bulwarks

Prussia,gave

alternatives

same

land which

',the

Messiah

new

reform

Metternich, hunted

while

for the

demands

echoed
Distur-

BISMARCK

TO

IV, faced by the


Ferdinand, was
equally

faced

riot at
a
struggle. When
Berlin had resulted in bloodshed, he promised a United
Diet of his dominions ; and
wandering star as he was, he
further and gave signs of approving a
presentlywent

unwillingto

enter

upon

'

'

directed to overthrow

movement
root
"

10,

The

ParHament
Mar. 1848.

and

the Metternich

system

branch.

For

while the pressure of publicopinionsecured the


advanced
''^P^^^of the Carlsbad Decrees, the more

progressivesattempted
which

had

been

to

advocated

the theories
put into practice
in their many

earlier

ings.
gather-

The

of
Ante-Parliament,a speciesof committee
prominent Liberals, containingmost of those who had
suffered persecutionduring the years of repression,
was
stitution
assembled,and its advocacy of a revision of the Conseemed
The

Holy

King

to win

decorated

the favour

himself

of Frederic

in the

colours

Roman

'

in

the

of the

old

absurd
Empire, took part in a theatrically
and
procession through the streets of his capital,
gave
He
to
to some
vent
wrote
even
equallyfutile remarks.
Nicholas,expressing his delightat the gloriousGerman
Revolution
which
in progress, and though his wild
was
for serious concern, it was
conduct was
not matter
perhaps
the
which
divisions
of
the
reformers
only
preventedsome
substantial reforms from beingaccomplished.
But those divisions were
in
acute, and appeared clearly
^j^g debates of the Ante -Parliament,
though the session of
'

Divisions

William.

FROM

T54

bution

TO

METTERNICH

fell upon

BISMARCK

laughterof
turned to bitterest weeping,the effect
Liberals was
speedily
of the momentary
victoryremained.
Europe had stillto
wait many
a Mazzinian
heaven,
years to see Italybecome
vision of united Germany, to rejoice
the dazzling
to behold
with the high-spirited
Magyars in their freedom, and to
congratulatethe Czechs on the unfettered use of their
the less
language. Yet the Metternich system was none
destroyed. Based on honesty, in so far as its author
never
permittedhimself to play at Liberalism or claimed to
represent the sacred sovereigntyof a free and enlightened
people,it could only rest upon one permanent foundation,
the voluntarysubmission of the Many to the direction of
its

authors,and though

CH.V

the

'

'

the Few.
Growth

of

indepen-

dence
of
opinion.

such

And

longer be secured.
had tasted of the tree of political
Men
knowledge and
had learned that they might eat of it and not surelydie.
Henceforth
and
they would debate,they would speculate,
would
win conviction
from their debates and speculations
of their monopoly of political
virtue,of their superior
knowledge of the art of ruling. Such experts could not
of all voice
be expected tamely to submit to deprivation
in their
no

ment
by

But

rule

force and

Thus
while

by

fear

and

consent.

on

be based

deception.

could

government,

own

longerrest

it must
Govern-

submission

either

thus absolute

If it were

force

is at best

terror

can

on

never

no

or
a

to

could

power

continue

at

all,

fraud.

temporary expedient;

be the permanent

basis of

State.

only alternative to genuine populargovernment,


their own
the Many so greatlydesired to manage

the

found

affairs,was

in that

fraudulent

system

of which

giftedexponent. The people


of
deceived, given a semblance
to be flattered and
were
omnipotent power, sedulouslycorrupted,and skilfully
all acts ; the voice of
should justify
A plebiscite
debased.
Napoleon

III

was

the most

the

people

But

the

ruler

of
of

wishes
The

system.
led

and

of

the

trained

the

hands

his

And

deception,
and

betrayers.

ever

meanwhile

and

the

eagerly

embraced

toiled,

fought,

cold,

to

sick
had

new

should

be

and

weary

endured,

died

as

further

preached

idealism
and

all
for

welcomed

eagerly

endured,

of

disregard

ignored,

masses,

the

the

in

vote

substituted

they

the

in

good

honest

longer

obeyed.

repression

was

which

as

learn

his

and

words

frank

there

no

heard

speak

must

subjects,

disappointments
as

to

feeling,

popular

155

be

Metternich's

democracy,

used.

hungry

them,

1848

occasions

be

For

way.

manifestations

all

on

must

the

right

one

should

voice

of

ears

the

YEAR

THE

CH.v

for

to

their

VI

CHAPTER
RESTORATION

THE

"

The

I.

The

The

"

Republics.

ID.

Louis

2.

"

Sardinia.

5. Restoration

"

"

Affairs of Prussia.

Napoleon.
The

4.

of order

7. The

Fall of

Restoration

" 3.

Venetian

in Austria.

Hungary.

"

The
and

" 6.
8. The

Parliament.

of the Frankfort

9. Failure

"11.

ORDER

of the Germanic

federation
Con-

hardly an exaggerationto say that the masses


have rarelybeen so effectively
betrayed as they were
by
Republic,
the leaders of the movements
of 1848. They had been
induced
to enter
paths of conspiracy
upon the hazardous
revolution
and
by an appeal to their most
deep-seated
emotions
; and they had found that these paths led not to
where they would
the haven
be, but to a goal hardly to
be distinguished
from the starting-point.
They had been
and
Tweedledum
taught that if only they would remove
be
accept the rule of Tweed ledee,then no Utopia would
beyond realization ; any dreams might be translated into
"

I.

It

and

Croats.

Parliament.

Frankfort

"

Austria

Magyars and

"

Republic.

Second

between

War

Roman

OF

facts.

is

But

whether

preached the

Lamartine

or

Mazzini

or

Kossuth

might be the chosen


left unspoken. Theories
was
never
text, one final word
of politics
and
ideas of
nationalitywere
expounded
institutions
of representative
freelyand fully; the glories
and the value of popular rights were
set forth in glowing
But those who heard interpreted
all such teaching
terms.
in the lightof the material
idealism of a Louis
Blanc ;
knowing only the good of a bountiful table,the Many
could not understand
that, on the lipsof a poet or a journalist-p
the promise of all good things merely
sermon,

and

whatever

'

'

'

'

'

OF

RESTORATION

THE

CH.vi

full rights
of

of the
implied the blessing

producersof

157

citizenship.The
of

Italian maker

artisan, the

Parisian

ORDER

macaroni, the

beer-mugs of the
of liberty,
alike chamthe cause
pioned
happy, alike embraced
because they saw
the sunken
of peoples,
the rights
cheeks of their children prospectively
shiningwith rudest
in the close
health, because they believed implicitly
between
nationalityand bread, between
relationship
representative
government and cheese.
their leaders altogetherreluctant that they ExpectaNor
were
Austrian

German

and

'

'

should

hold

the

belief.

convenient

this most

Whether

sin-

*^^

y^^^^jf

miracles was
people,
cerely or no, the approach of economic
little hesitation in proforetold ; there was
persistently
phesying
of
carnal
millennium.
the coming
More
a
did Lamartine
depict in most brilliant colours
especially
of which his poeticrepublicanof that paradise
the glories
ism

dreamed, and when

Louis

could

poet into prose, the Many


to

the

fishes would

of the Orleanist

people had

monarchy

been

freed for

the

providerof
that most

an

Second
abundance

desirable

ever

longerbe in doubt
Elysium. A heaven

to them

when

removed,

from

the burden
Charles

of

the incubus

been

when

as

when

the

of aristocratic
had

been

anticipateda series of
had hired his
when Louis-Philippe
acclaimed
the
as
Republic was
of generous

result

Administration,which

as

mistranslated the

had

masses

Gargantuan feasts,so
fatal cab, the

had

And,

government.
forth

be open

had

no

essential features of that

loaves and

driven

Blanc

was

to

dinners.

To

secure

be the task of the

new

appropriately
composed of
elements
so
divergent that it was assuredlybound to
accomplishall thingsor nothing.
In it,cheek
by jowl,sat Lamartine, whose food was Lamartine
ambrosia
filled with godlikedreams, B"anc^""*
and whose mind was
Louis
and
of butchers' shops
Blanc, thinking in terms
was

158 FROM
and

METTERNICH

artisan

would

end

all

not

And

for his distress


distress,

the

second
social

was

of value

conceive
both

BISMARCK

was

well

as

in

CH.vi

firstbelieved that

dwellings. The

happiness;
revolution

TO

was

as

republic

ideal

firmly convinced
since
as
political,
Constitutional

mere

as

that

his

the

he could
advance.

possessedof exemplary sincerity,


to that sincerity
they and their Republic and the masses
fell victims.
For they strove to redeem
the pledgesgiven
by the makers of the revolution to their agents, the Many,
and would
not realize until too late that redemption was
that poverty and unemployment will yieldto
impossible,
no
political
magician,however sweet his accents, however
The
brutallydirect his methods.
poet, upon whose lips
all France
for the moment
hung, could not deny the
fore
omnipotent virtue of his chosen panacea ; he was thereas

men

were

led to unite with


advised

and

disastrous

Louis

Blanc

of many

in

one

futile

of the most

after
strivings

illthe

of honesty in politics.
perfection
The
that
For the rulers of the Second Republic were
aware
desired material blessings,
and as honest men
the masses
Works^ops. they could not refrain from attempting to gratifythis
Louis Blanc had his remedy ready to hand :
desire. And
of distress was
the source
unemployment, citizens had the
rightto work, the State the duty of supplying work to
Thus the National Workshops came
into being,
be done.
produced by a brain ignorantof economics and sanctioned
by a genius dwellingever in an atmosphere of unreality.
ment
To the Parisian artisans,
clamouringfor bread, the Governof affording
answered
that it acceptedthe obligation
with
it,that it would employ all seekingemployment. Forthfrom east and west, from north and south,hungry
had
flocked to share in the cornucopia which
crowds
been so miraculouslydiscovered ; not the capitalalone,
'

but all France

wished

to

eat

and

be

filled. The

result

CH.

VI

was

as

might have

scheme

foreseen,had

been

condescended

even

ORDER

OF

RESTORATION

THE

the devisers
the

examine

to

159
of the

working

of

of the abolition
blessings
all the agents
Not controlling
of the workhouse
test.
could
not
of production,the Government
organize
labour or put an end to the evils of competition; the
for the success
of such a socialistic project
first necessity
if some
even
was
magic wand had been in the
lacking,
in an instant to produce
hand of Lamartine
to enable him
of labour.
Restraint of immigrationto
complete fluidity
takings,
Paris,the completion of all half-completed
public under-

Gilbert's law in

the

and

England

'

'

the

merely of

payment

the scheme

make

National

of

state

ruin

the

the

; France

employees

not

the

in the

in thousands

but

was

the alternatives of financial and

of its most
It chose

Soon

and

insufficient to

were

numbered

were

labour

of

into
rapidlydrifting
and the Government
bankrupt pauperization,

of salvation

or

hours

half-day wage

of thousands

faced with

was

of the

workable.

Workshops

in hundreds
a

reduction

breach

by

obvious

of faith and

economic

the abandonment

title to existence.

latter course,

as

it was

bound

The

to do.

Dictator-

National

closed,and when the disap-Cavaignac,


Workshops were
crushed
pointed hungry rioted,they were
by Cavaignac,J'^" ^^^^'
invested with dictatorial powers for the purpose.
Order,
economic and political,
and the country
was
re-established,
saved

from

financial maelstrom

the

plunged headlong.
did
to

give

not

bread

escape
to

men

But

none

the

shipwreck.
and

cheated
therefore,

it had
of their

into which
less the
It had
not

done

it had

Second
been
so.

public
Re-

created
To

the

hoped-forparadiseas
they had been cheated by the umbrella of Louis-Philippe,
the existing
order ceased
it needed
to appeal,and
only
to seize the opportunityfor another
a man
coup diktat.
Cavaignac might have played the part, but he was

masses,

t6o

METTERNICH

from

obsessed

the conviction

by

dictator who
his work

so

trulyloved

done, he laid down

left the field open


virtue
political
such

Puritan
"

2.

apo

Yet

Louis
eon.

for

and

BISMARCK

CH.vi

that he resembled

the Roman

his

plough. Like Cincinnatus,


his office unmurmuringly,and

who

one

care

more

should
for his

have

less zeal for

welfare.

own

And

hand, ready to profitby misplaced


self-abnegation.
this man
not
was
easilyrecognized as being desman

was

at

Cavaignac would

^j^j^h
^j^^^.

^j^^^^ ^^ j^
was

to

littlethought that the destruction

by

the

Lamartine

eloquenceof
calculated

epithetwell

not

of

and

do.

There

fied
regime,fortidignifiedby an
mind the politically
a

bring back to
be
luscious orgiesof the Reign of Terror, would
low-comedy
completed by a prominent,but unsuccessful,
of destiny,was
And
Louis Napoleon, the man
actor.
regardedat first as a very second-rate performeron the
France
political
stage. He had twice attempted to rouse
of his capacity
each occasion,
to a better appreciation
; on
his only reward
had been to bring a smile to the face of
But he had the qualityof percriticalof wit.
a nation
severance
and he had also a valuable asset in the growth
of a most abidinglegend. Under the Orleanist Monarchy,
of
the name
it had ceased to be improper to mention
Napoleon. On the contrary, his ashes had been brought
back to France and reinterred amid the jeersof Thackeray
of Paris ; and a tradition had rapidly
and the enthusiasm
fictional works masquerading
arisen,partlyas the result of some
as

to

histories,which

converted

of evil,into the
Tyrant ',personification
an

amiable

His

the

Little

Corsican

Corporal',
military

possessingconsiderable

would
which
qualities
probably have disgustedtheir supposed possessor.
And
Louis
qualifiedto profitby the
Napoleon was
He
certainlydid
advantage thus conferred upon him.

skill and

character.

gentleman

'

collection

of virtuous

i6ii FROM

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

TO

CH.

France, humbly askingto be allowed to helphis beloved


would

men
profit
by the affection of Frenchhis positionby permitting
they had legalized
of his family. Such calculated modesty was

country, nor
until
the return

effective

as

as

he

and elected
the

Government, he

to the

virtue

to

And

He

patriated
re-

was

of the

member

seemed

wished.

been

be

peoplehe rapidlybecame the


of the first Napoleon without

vice of ambition.
the

have

could

To
legislature.
harmless nonentity
;
of the

embodiment
his

one

undeniable

thus, while his candidature

for

of amusement
presidencyof the Republicwas a source
to more
to those who
were
superficial
observers,

choose

to

the

it was
of admiration
a source
president
; for
where he might have demanded,
a
Napoleon to solicit,
indeed most delightful
The honest Cavaignac,
was
flattery.
the socialisticLedru-Rollin,
had

no

prospect of

success

such a forcible appeal to


againstsuch subtle hypocrisy,
imagination.Louis Napoleon was elected President by
an
overwhelming majority,and France ceased to be
certain
a
Republicexcept in name ; nothingwas more
than that the formal restoration of the Empire was
only
of time.
The new
ruler was
a question
content
perfectly
to wait,usingthe interval to reassure
the bourgeoisie
and
Europeas to the meaning of the Bonapartismwhich he
and to reduce to order the factious elements in
preached,
France.
Thus

" 3. The

the election of

b^r

victoryin

Austria and

idealistic

the

cause

Louis

of reaction

Napoleon
and

was

good

reallya
order.

An

en

inia.

"

'

RcpubHc had been tried and had failed ; it


culminated
not in a popularly
governed Utopia,but in
to the most
a return
despotic
regimethat had ever existed
in France ; sentiment had failed as the basis of political
found
it was
in
equallyunsatisfactory
society.And
where it proved inadequate
to make
Italy,
up for the lack

CH.VI

THE

OF

RESTORATION

ORDER

163

strength.The struggleagainstAustria
was
begun with hopes rather than with resources
; the
prevalentdespairproduced that wild optimism which is
Charles Albert, in particular,
its usual outcome.
having
and having
for a moment
depression,
escapedhis extreme
for once
taken a definite resolve,
permittedhimself to
ignoreall difficultiesand to forgetthe criticalsituation in
which he had placedhis country, his friends,
and himself.
Because loud-voiced Liberalism had destroyedthe oppressive
because no one
talked of any issue
silence,
political
for the struggleexcept complete success,
the
because
Austrians worked
in silence,
the King believed that all
and that unanimity
Italywas united in the sacred cause
of opposition
to the Habsburgs reignedthroughout the
peninsula.
whatever else they might be, Allocution
Actually,the Italians,
not unanimous,and the example of making an agree- AprT848.
were
with Austria and with reaction was
ment
first set by

of

more

material

the Vicar

of Christ.

of the clash of

arms

Pius

XI

had

that

sincere

horror

befitted his sacred office ; he

which

aspiredto play the role of peacemaker, nor would he


sink the priestin the politician
perhaps he feared
; and
also for the future of the Holy See if patriots
of doubtful
orthodoxy should gain a complete triumph. Thus, as
it
the hour for decisive action arrived,as soon
soon
as
as
clear that not even
the moral prestige
of the Papacy
was
could induce men
their righteousanger, the
to moderate
the champion of
temporary hero of the Liberals became
reaction.
he
Pius
issued
an
Allocution, in which
announced
in definite terms that he was
unable to sanctify
with his blessing
the Holy War
againstAustria,and the
of Rome
the side of the legitimists
on
appearance
strengthenedthe hands of that seeminglyrouted party.
The cause
unless
of liberty
and nationality
doomed
was
L

i64 FROM

METTERNICH

its leader could show

TO

remarkable

BISMARCK

CH

vigour and

.VI

remarkable

capacityfor leadership.
Charles
remarkable
Incapacity And
as
Albert, though certainly
of Charles
a
not
leader, was
distinguishedby any exceptional
Albert.
or
capacity. He failed entirelyto understand
energy
that time
was
fightingfor the Habsburgs, that the
Austrian
dissolved.
The
Empire was
by no means
loyaltyof the imperialarmy was unshaken, its devotion
to the Emperor unabated,and in its ranks the rivalries of
different nations
the

nationalist

wish

movements

the Government
Italian

forgotten.

were

of Vienna

when

patriotism. Kossuth
of the Hungarian army

weaken

to

hand

the

of

dealingwith mere
tention
supported the re-

it was

himself
in

leaders of

did the

Nor

this

Italy,and

action,
he

had
partly due to the Constitutional pose which
adopted, and partly to his wish to be free from the
embarrassingpresence of national,but Croat, regiments,
also due

was

his

King.

in

And

as

because

Austrian

was

its possessor

ridiculous

marshal

government which

Sardinian

and

Charles
a

buffoon.

up

made

and

stores, without
for his

The

down,

while the

for all the world

of York.

Albert,indeed, had
up

his

organized
strength and reto the form
as
quarrelled

entered

on

the

consideration.

without

war

He

in actual resources
inferiority
the Austrians, while they were
on
fallingat once
of the rising
disheartened
at Milan.
by the success
at Goito,he
though he gained an initial success

have

suspected,
un-

his

and
they should establish,

king marched

plan,without

because

regarded by

was

half-witted

concentrated

like the historical Duke


Course of
the War.

valuable

more

it,while the Italians


of

of respect for

sense

Imperialforces were not weakened,


their commander, Radetzky,had full

superiorskill of
play ; and that skill
as

the

the

enemies

to

measure

some

might
by
still
But

failed

RESTORATION

THE

CH.vi

ORDER

OF

165

to profit
by this advantage. While he aimed at
altogether
cmshing the republicanelement in the revolted provinces

inducing them to accept union with Piedmont,


aid
and while he strenuouslyrefused to receive French
the
admit British mediation, he did nothing to justify
or
and

at

confidence which
lack

utter

he demanded

from

the

of idea enabled

His

his supporters.

Austrians

consolidate

to

Quadrilateral
; the victoryof Curtaof the Imperialarms
tone
restored the prestige
; and the
both gave back
of the papal forces at Vicenza
capitulation
an
importantfortress to the Habsburgs and damped the
their

positionin

the

leader.

their Sardinian

It

not

was

revived

the

by

theories
original

of his

that leader gave

which

of the other Italian States for

faint enthusiasm

somewhat

Curtatone,

proof

the art

on

by layingsiegeto the almost impregnable fortress


Indeed
the Italian cause
of Mantua
without
artillery.
and the useless marches of
rapidlydrifted to destruction,
culminated
in the utter overthrow
Charles Albert presently
of

war

of Custozza.

His

1.

was

compelled

and

to evacuate

the

But
was

the

for

to

his

heaven-sent

of

the

he

led him

an

enthusiastic

plan

hastened

confirmed

he Custozza,
Aug. 1848.

T,^.,

Milan

optimist;

he
inevitable,

had
to

Habsburgs might

the visions of

expired,he

for all practical


purposes

and

strengthand

Hungary

of the

to

which

the task

revolt of

.-

armistice,to abandon

an

become

had

yet reconciled

not

'

Lombardy,

King

recognizethat

beg

ended.

was

war

to

practicallyannihilated

was

army

would

not

capacitywere

alike

undertaken.

The

hope

that

be turned
nun

yet

Second

is"^^'^'

equal
un-

open
the ments
embarrass-

to his

in
oflfered,

of

campaign.

to

put into the field an

When

he

advantage;
his

the

opinion,

armistice

army

posed
com-

unwillingconscriptsand untrained recruits,


commanded
by an unpopular alien,and without any
adequate resources.
Radetzky hardly troubled to plan

i66

FROM

METTERNTCH

defeat of

BISMARCK

TO

CH.VI

contemptiblean enemy, and had the


Sardinian king'smilitary
capacitybeen even half as great
his optimism,the Austrians
as
might have sustained a
serious reverse.
But the marshal was
by results.
justified
the

Novara,
Mar.

Novara, the

j^^

1849.

so

decisivelythan
driven to
Abdication
^^

and

and

ROTian

make

; the

for peace, but

sue

his

for the

defeated

were
1

Lustozza

at

he laid down

could
Albert."^

" 4. The

Sardinians
"

crown

King
his

now

more

even

Tr.

hope

more

once

was

vanished

had

the last sacrifice which

as

wiselybut
quitewell. While his son and successor, Victor Emmanuel,
inauguratedhis reignby the conclusion of a humiliating
peace, and while the last trace of oppositionto Austria
Charles Albert
removed
was
by the surrender of Brescia,
left Italyto die,the broken-hearted victim of indecision
and of hopelessoptimism.
Vain optimism,which believed that sentimental ardour

most

he loved not

up forthe lack of material resources,

^ould make

Republics,fatal to

cause

which

he

the

Italian

and Rome.

The

with Milan, but


cityhad revolted simultaneously

effort was

made

to unite the two

action to cut the


Vienna.

the

On

direction

communications

movements

between

the contrary, the Venetian


of

Manin,

indeed

and
throughout the peninsula,

cause

fatal at Venice

of all it was

was

or

former
no

real

by joint

Radetzky

and

revolt fell under

eloquent and

patriotic
somewhat
obscured
was
by his
lawyer,whose good sense
To him, as to Mazzini,a republic
the one
idealism.
was
thing needful for any true progress, and he rejectedat
firstall idea of compromising his Utopia by admittingany
sort of agreement with the Sardinian Government, which
And
thus he was
was
degraded because monarchical.
viewed with suspicion
by Charles Albert, and not less so
because

he showed

marked

most

inclination to lean upon

the

of France.
The
progress
support of the sister-republic
Manin's
ideas
somewhat
modified
of the Austrians,
indeed,

the

on

RESTORATION

THE

CH.vi

of

morrow

OF

Custozza, when

ORDER

the

167

step

longer

no

possessedany value,and when the Imperialforces were


city,Venice
already beginningto close round the doomed
for union

decided
late

heroic deeds

some

the presence

it

too

now

was

was

able to devote
how

covering
Failure

to

of

chance

it secured

and

invested

with

interest

was
Garibaldi,
hopelessfrom the first.
and Manin, a refugee in Paris,Fall
capitulated,

citysoon

But

of

The

won

Piedmont.

nalized
prevent the catastrophe; the defence,though sig-

to

by
by

with

his

remaining years
his

misplaced was

success

which

the rebels

the defeat of the

only

Y^"*'^^'

pursuitof perfection.

Sardinia

co-operate with

to the task of dis-

of

had

destroyed
have

might

which

army

any

had, since

might

have

victory.
the shock of the Sardinian defeats

And

in Central
of the

Italy. The

rebellion

battle of Novara

in Tuscany,

where

was

felt equallyThe

decided

Mazzini

the

fate

STe'^*'"

intensified Central
States

grand-ducalvengeance by the extravagance of his propaganda


The arms
in Parma.
at Leghorn, in Modena, and
of Austria bore the expelledprincesback to power, and
since the

Governments, after

rather

whole

more

their

were
restoration,

tyrannicalthan before,the

on

the

situation

hardlychanged for the better. Habsburg ascendancy


rather more
conscious of the
was
complete,for the rulers,
lack of love in the hearts of their subjects,
depended more
than ever
upon foreignsupport, and only the operationof
international jealousy prevented Austrian
control of the
whole peninsula. As it was, not Imperialbut Republican
kindness
the
back
to
Pope his lost temporal
gave
authority.
That
Pius IX Flightof
authorityhad been destroyed when

was

ceased

to be the adored

gem

of

the

war,

of all Liberal

progressivevirtue.
the

Pope

had

for

adorers,and the very

Despite
a

while

his condemnation

continued

to

of

attempt

j^^^

,^'3

i68

FROM

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

TO

CH.vi

impossibletask of maintainingthe existingcontrol of


his dominions
and avoiding any open
by the cardinals,
breach with orthodox and reactionary
Governments, while
making concessions to the reformingspirit.But he soon
found that this policywas
too
to be successful,
illogical
the

that

and

he

was

bound

follow

either to

in the

train of

possibly atheistical revolutionaries or to sacrifice his


pleasantpopularityby enteringinto a contest with his
which he must
people. Any hesitation as to the course
adopt was removed by the murder of his minister,Rossi ;
such violence appalled the gentlebishop, and he fled
from his blood-stained capital
of the King of
to the arms
Naples at Gaeta.
The
His flight
was
populace as
regarded by the Roman
of his temporal power.
A
to abdication
Republic, tantamount
Feb. 1849.
Republic was
proclaimed; a somewhat
disorderlymob
assumed

control of the

city;

and

the inevitable Mazzini

and to clothe in high-sounding


appeared to givehis blessing
Government.
He was
languagethe new revolutionary
joined by another subjectof Charles Albert, Garibaldi,
whose
services had been declined by his king because his
and who became
from
opinions savoured of the irregular,
that moment

Committed

free-lance in the noble


to the

in this way
and

care

of

the
captain,
guerrilla

army
a

of liberators.

hare-brained

fate of the

thusiast
en-

Roman

strengthenedby
Republic was sealed ; and the seal was
the triumph of Austrian arms
in the Lombard
plainand
of Habsburg power.
While
the revival of French jealousy
the Imperial forces occupiedFerrara and advanced
upon
Rome
at

from

the

north, an

Civita Vecchia, and

contended
republican,

The

French

of Novara

won

expedition from France landed


two
one
Powers, one
absolutist,

for the honour

of

restoringa Pope.

in the contest, partlybecause

distracted

Austrian

the incident

attention,
partlybecause

FROM

170
Windisch-

Austrian

gratz
takes

METTERNICH
commanders

Prague and

upon

TO

Prague,
the Czechs
June 1848

had

lacked

was

been

BISMARCK

; he

turned

CH.VI

his

artillery

able to report to Vienna

soon

converted

once

into

more

that

loyaland

peacefulsubjectsof the Imperial crown.

State of
Vienna.

The

methods

appliedalmost
still

lacked

more

reconciled
not

to

the

had

lacked

'

if concession

revolution '.
allowed

capitalwas
Cabinet

decision of

character,and

was
leadership.Ferdinand
idea of meeting violence by

yet learned that

riot becomes

the

employed might have been


immediately to Vienna also,had it not
he

that the Ministers

been

had

which

to

Thus

the

be

that

yet

force ; he
to

riot,

real control of the

fall into the hands

openly admitted

made

not

it could

of the
not

mob

maintain

Safety,created with its


The
consent, reallygoverned Vienna.
Emperor lay in
his palace,
the victim of fear and illness,
not daringto fly
from
situation which
he could
not
a
face,a pitiable
the Austrian
and weakness
spectacleof incapacity
; and
Parliament
was
equally powerless to organize any
systematicgovernment.
The rising
This state of practical
in another
anarchy culminated
of Oct.
violent outbreak.
Hunger had been increasingamong
the poor of the cityas the year advanced, and the ranks
of the disaffected were
swelled by soldiers unwillingto
obey orders to march
againstthe Hungarians. More
of War,
was
rioting ensued ; Latour, the Minister
murdered
bling
by an infuriated crowd ; and Ferdinand, tremPlightof
Ferdinand
hurried by his advisers,
than ever, fled,
more
was
or
to Olmiitz.
to Olmiitz.
Though the Assembly continued formally
to sit,and
though the presence of a solitaryMinister
semblance
of legality,
to invest it with some
might seem
all government
was
really at an end ; the Cabinet had
of Deputies
followed the Emperor, and a large number
had imitated this example.
order,and

Committee

of Public

THE

CH.vi

In such

RESTORATION

OF

ORDER

situation,
Windischgratzfound

171

opportu-

an

Windisch-

Declaringthat he was determined f^t^^cks


to restore
the authorityof Ferdinand, he advanced
upon Vienna.
Vienna and received on his way belated Imperialsanction
for his action.
The task which he had so boldlyassumed
rendered
of accomplishment by the
more
was
easy
conduct of the Assembly, which he had resolved to crush.
In place of seekingthe help of the Hungarians, who
might have saved them, the Deputies indulged in some
mild play-acting.They could not believe that the rude
hands of a soldier would touch their sacred persons ; they
filled with an
almost
were
patheticconfidence in the
of mere
forms and words.
efficacy
Brought face to face
with facts,
when
Windischgratzapproached the suburbs
of the capital,
they called upon Hungary to save them ;
defeated the advancingMagyars at Schwechat
Jellacic
; Battle of
and a short bombardment
placedVienna at the mercy of oct. 1848.
the conqueror
of Prague. A
was
militarydictatorship
and its character pointedlymarked
established,
by the
nityafter his

execution

of

ambassador
bear

to

death
It

was

the

heart.

Blum,

of the Frankfort

was

dramatic

clear

enough
house

own

champions of

The
ceeded

who, havinsf

his part in the

their

set

own

process

in

Parliament, had

defence

warning

that

as

anarchy,and

to

German
the

as

order,they
in

would

Habsburgs

of

using

Parliament
to

that

found
militarystrength,

strengthwithout

in order

now

as

promore

also

hesitation.

The

Jfremsier
Parliament,

"

man

capable Nov.

1848-

the^"-^^^9-

While

requested to transfer its valuable


Kremsier, an obscure Moravian
town,
was

1848.

had

take the field

rapidly,for the Government, possessing:once

necessary

nqv.

whose

nationalists.

the

Execution

Germany.

settingthat house

as

remained

of

soon

conservatism

of

Vienna

to

come

rations
delibePrince

Schwarzenbergassumed the office of chief Minister.


was
fullyalive to the realities of the situation ; he saw

He
that

FROM

172

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

TO

CH.vi

tremblingEmperor, the Empire would also tremble


and therefore his first
always on the verge of dissolution,
efficient substitute for the incapable
to find an
care
was
invalid was
The imperial
Ferdinand.
induced to care for
Abdication
infirmities in a less prominent position
than on
^*^ many
Ferdinand
Dec. 1848. the throne
of the Habsburgs ; the next heir resignedhis
passed to Francis
rightsof succession, and the crown
Joseph,who was young enough to make it reasonable to
expect that he would
reign under the guidance of his
Minister.
Having thus removed the most tryingobstacle
in his path, Schwarzenberg dissolved
the
Kresmier
Parliament
and published the Unitary Edict, by which
The
Edic"^ equal constitutional rightswere nominallyconferred upon
Mar. 1849. all dominions
This concession,
of the House
of Austria.
however, was
hardly intended to disguisethe military
rule which was
and even
had it been
to be established,
of reform,its working would
meant
as a serious measure
the less have
been
none
impracticableowing to the
attitude adopted by Hungary.
For
the practical
to the Unitary Edict
answer
was
" 6. The
under

Magyars

Kossuth's

of

declaration

Hungarian

independence,

and

and Croats.
...

the

partialunion

of

those

elements

ImperialGovernment
it pursued any consistent plan.
which

nor

the

firmness had

Vienna

towards
;

since the

But

characterized the
the

agitationsin

recognitionof

,,...

the division of
upon
had relied,
in so far as

neither

policyof
the

consistency
the Court

non-Austrian

of

vinces
pro-

the

responsible
Ministry
two
perpetuallybetween

Hungary it had vacillated


At
seemed
courses.
one
time, Ferdinand
conflicting
resolved to abide by his promises and loyallyto support
the Magyar Ministers,
when
even
they left Pressburgfor
Pest and so fell under the influence of disorderly,
siastic,
enthuhalf-educated
At
another
students.
time, he
appeared to placehis trust in the services of the Ban of
in

to be

Croatia,and

173

ready to use them to crush the growing


Hungary. The truth is,perhaps,that

independenceof
as
Jong as the Italian

continued,it was
retain in Lombardy

war

importance to

paramount

ORDER

OF

RESTORATION

THE

CH.vi

felt to
every

of

be

able
avail-

regiment,and for this purpose to conciliate both


Magyars and Croats.
Ferdinand
Thus
constantlygave way to the pressure Indecision
He
of those nearest
to him.
granted all the prayers of Emperor.
Batthyany, the Hungarian Premier, when he complained
that the Ban was
over
threateningMagyar domination
Slav
non-Magyar provinces and dignifyinga mere
he turned
national
by the sacred term
; and
agitation
when
of Jellacic,
he
accents
a
ready ear to the persuasive
pointedout what services he could render to the cause of
At
one
moment,
Hrabowsky,
Habsburg supremacy.
commanding the Hungarian army, was ordered to reduce
defeated by the revolted
the Slavs ; when
he had been
Serbs, the Imperial Government
cautiouslyapplauded
'

'

successful resistance
But
soon

tide

a
as

to its

orders.

determined

more

attitude

the battle of Custozza

againstCharles

had
While

Albert.

became

possibleas
the
turned
definitely
Kossuth

at Pest

Effect of
Cnstozza.

was

the Adriatic
of repressionacross
advocatingthe cause
for destroying in other
and findingplausibleexcuses

lands that

national

for his

convincing

the

friend.

truest

advanced

into

existence which

he

claimed

had
country, Jellacic

own

Imperial

Ministers

Recognized
Hungary ; the

as

that

ruler

Court

of

so

quently
eloin

succeeded
he

was

their

Croatia, he
Vienna, far from
of

disowning him, declared that the Magyar Ministryhad


and sent Lamberg
to Buda-Pest
no
that,
legalstanding,
the command
of all the forces of the
by taking over
Hungarian Monarchy, he might make resistance to the
Ban

impossible.

The

murder

of the

new

commander

Murder

of

METTERNICH

FROM

T74

did not

the

cause

TO

ImperialGovernment

Lamberg,
it led Ferdinand
Sept.1848, contrary,

steps of his
Dictator-

ship
of

Jellacic,
Oct. 1848.

BISMARCK

most

to

take

one

CH.vi

to falter ;

the

on

of the few decisive

indecisive life. While

Parliament

the

abolished,the dictatorshipof that


and the Emperor
conferred upon
Jellacic,
country was
definitely
joinedthe side of the Slavs. But such vigour
of

Hungary

did not

meet

v^^as

with

its merited

reward.

The

Croats

were

speedilyexpelledfrom Hungary ; the October riots in


Vienna
prevented further action againstthe Hungarians,
and
that people now
fell,with the retirement of the
moderate
Batthyany,under the guidance of Kossuth and
the extremists.
Prepara-

tions
for

Though a formal proclamationof independencewas


delayed it was
already frequentlysuggested,and the
refusal of the Parliament
of Buda-Pestto
recognizeFrancis
declaration of war against
to a practical
Joseph amounted
Austria.
Forces, indeed,were
organizedby both parties.
Windischgratz and Jellacicprepared to attack Hungary
sides ; the Roumans
of Transylvaniamade
two
on
ready
themselves

to revenge

on

their hated

tyrants.

To

meet

overwhelming an attack,the strength of Hungary at


first proved insufficient ; not even
the capacityof Gorgeif,
commanded
the Magyar forces,could compensate
who
so

Windisch-

gratz takes

Pest, Jan.

1849.

for the divisions in the councils of the rebels.

gratz
Windisch-

at Prague and Vienna ;


repeatedat Pest his exploits
Kossuth, jealousof the independent attitude of Gorgeif,
substituted
an
incompetent Pole, Dembinski, in the
command
gainedsuccess after success, and
; the Austrians

flattered themselves

that the reduction

of the country

was

complete.
" 7- The
fall of

Hungary.

It

this

that

Unitary Edict was


issued,and forthwith the Magyar cause
began to revive.
Hitherto
in the Hungarian kingdom
the subject-races
had looked to the Habsburgs to save them from tyranny ;
was

at

moment

the

THE

RESTORATION

it became

evident

CH.vi

now

OF

ORDER

175

might

that, whatever

be

the

Schwarzenberg,he was at least not


true
the devoted
champion of Slav nationality.It was
institutions had been promised in the
that representative
Parliament
Edict, but the dissolution of the Kremsier
far more
was
a definite act
convincingthan any words.
for a moment
Nor could the nationalist agitators
accept
between
the different races
the establishment
of equality
;
for
for
but
all,
one,
they desired not liberty
supremacy
agreed in wishing
people,and Croats and Magyars were
The Slavs began to desert
to tyrannizeover
some
one.
the cause
of the Emperor and to support that of their
ultimate

intentions of

late enemies.
In these

circumstances,if Kossuth

had

possessedmore

Successes

it is possiblethat Hungary might yet


foresight,
political
have
.

secured
.

recognition of her

the

r-.

semi-independent
f.
,

alienated
now
subject-raceswere
from Francis Joseph,the rebel generals
had littledifficulty
in recoveringthe ground lost. Bem
sylvania,
reconquered Tran-

position. Since

in

the

"

Hun-

garians,
Apr. 1849.

which

the

Roumans

had

for

moment

in command,
Gorgelf,once
more
defeated Windischgratzand drove the Austrians across
the frontier. The cause
of the Habsburgs,which seemed
few
months
before
have
to
a
triumphed completely,
seemed
lost. But it was
to be as utterly
saved by
now
unwisdom
the ambitious
of a journalist-politician
and the
intervention of a champion of legitimacy.
Kossuth
seized such an apparently
favourable opportu- DeclaraHe H""ngari
nity for accomplishing his long-planned scheme.
state,
had always aspiredto be the founder
of an
independent""Redestruction
of the Apr. 1849.
always aimed at the practical
ties which bound
Hungary to Austria ; it is possiblethat
alive to the fact that such a benefactor,as he
he was
would
thus
be, might expect to receive his merited

secured

supremacy

176 FROM

METTERNICH
When

reward.

BISMARCK

TO

CH.vi

the

Unitary Edict had been issued,his


the proclamationof Hungarian indeinfluence secured
pendence,
and thus was
ultimatelyresponsiblefor the
failure of the cause
which
he had so dearly at heart.
The
of the
in general loyal to the person
was
army
Emperor and to the tradition of Imperial rule; it was
far from desiringto see
the government
of the country
transferred to a mere
editor with a giftfor
newspaper
writingand speaking,and a lamentable ignorance of the
Thus
forces were
reduced
the revolutionary
art of war.
in strengthby desertion,
and to make
the
matters
worse
Slavs were
hopelesslyalienated. For a moment, the
had
believed that their late tyrants had
subject-races
been
it
miraculouslychanged into gentlefriends ; now
clear to them

was

made

the

Austrians,they

that

would

if

continued

they

experiencethe questionable

to
over
blessingof being handed
mercies
of the Magyars. Any
fate

the

this, and
endure

it.

assailed

by

Croats

At

the

power
internal dissensions

Serbs

and

she could

which

made

were

inhabited

"^

Russia"later

have

was

preferableto
resolved

not

when

Hungary

not

her
resist,

to
was

own

the dissolution

by

the various

peoples

her borders.

It is indeed

Inter-

uncovenanted

fatal

more

of the short-lived alliance between

who

the

were

moment

very

resist

to

probable that Austria would

subdued

the

revolt

even

if she

sooner

or

relied

had

of
the success
But
resources.
entirelyupon her own
Gorgef alarmed the Imperial Government; the task of
reducing Hungary seemed to be beyond its power, and
thus Francis Joseph was
offer of help,
led to accept an
which

had

for

while

Nicholas

of Divine

devoted
to

watch

been

made

to

before

Ferdinand

politelydeclined.
champion of the cause
the general overthrow

of

him
I

was

and

then

far too

Right patiently

rule
legitimate

; he

178 FROM
which
the

METTERNICH
to be

was

Great

Austrian
that

many

'

would

On

the

other

confine

to

the

Frankfort
Parliament,

the

On

embodied

have

hand,

one

the

whole

proper

when

Little

'

'

Germans
own

and

certainlybe excluded.

German

the

the

hand,

blessingsof unity to their


might be included,Hungary

other alien districts must

And

CH.vi

of the fact
Empire in the new state, regardless
provincesof that Empire were
entirelynon-

people; Austria
Debates

BISMARCK

called into existence.

Germans

German.
wished

TO

National

Assembly met at
F^'^^^fort this division of opinionserved to paralyseits
action. If ithad availed itselfof the prevailing
enthusiasm
in Germany, and immediatelyproduced a definitive Constitution,
it is possiblethat moral
strengthmight have
for angry

matter

were

But the details of the

its success.

secured

genius of the

German

debate, and

in

Constitution

new

has

case

no

the

people for delay appeared more


discussions
the first principles
on

clearly. Interminable
the
science wasted
the time and exhausted
of political
of the deputies,while
the forces of reaction
energy
the election
as
measures
gatheredstrength. Such practical
of an
of the Empire', in the person
Administrator
of the Habsburg archduke
John, and the formation of
rendered
a
nugatory
Ministryunder Schmerling,were
by the constant
ignoringof the lack of all compelling
force,other than sentiment,behind the assembly. The
'

result

Frankfort
Parlia-

it

was

led to

destroy

its

credit,as

own

area.

the

to waste

as

Schleswig-Holstein,a

crown,
(i)the
Schleswig- Germanic

question,

that

preciousmonths in which something


reallyeffective might have been done.
first impairedby its attempt to exIts reputation
was
of German
^^"^ ^^^ blessings
unity to the widest possible

well

" 9. Failure

was

had

declared

body

in favour

; its adhesion

deputieswclcomcd

of

had

by the national

union
been

Danish

the

district under

with

the

accepted

Parliament

at

and

new

its

Frank-

OF

RESTORATION

THE

CH.vi

fort,but the King of Denmark


to such

of his dominions
partition

champion of the

the

appearedas

the duchies

entered

and

prevent it. Forthwith

force to

army

declined

ORDER

179

to submit

tamely
ploy
proceededto emFrederic

German

cause

William
a

Prussian

support their freedom.

to

But

justas the Frankfort Parliament seemed to be about to win


itbecame
a triumph through the loyal
support of Prussia,
apparent that the King'saction was not dictated by real
sympathy with unitaryideas. Already tendingtowards
himself,and

reaction

alarmed

the

at

national
prospect of inter-

he concluded
the truce of Malmo
complications,
with Denmark, by which Schleswig-Holstein
to be
was
administered
provisionally
by the Danish Government
with

Prussian

assistance.

such
rejected

The

sacrificeof

it refused to sanction the truce


But

its decree

Frankfort

^^^""o
o

dignantly
in-

popularaspirations
;

decreed

and

of

intervention.

paper ; it had no army


stillin process of construction ; and it
and its fleet was
consequentlyfound itself in the humiliatingpositionof

havingto
was

it had

As

weary
.

acceptingthe

its

It

not

was

master

even

debates
philosophical

,.

at its failure to

own
in its (ii)Dis-

dragged

months, the citizens of Frankfort


/

ment
arrange-

repudiated.

this the worst.

house.

through

waste

confess its impotenceby

which
Nor

so

was

much

Parliament

Truce

began

on

^^

to Frankfort,

Sept.1848.

accomplishanything ; they rose


in revolt and the very lives of the chosen representatives
of the German
in danger. It was
evident
peoplewere
that so far from being able to control all Germany^ the
Parliament could not even
keep order in a singlecity; it
done
was
equally evident that unless something were
towards
the practical
solution of the problems which
it
murmur

had

met

to

solve,itsexistence would

be ended

from

mere

at its inactivity.In these circumstances,the


annoyance
discussion of political
theorywas abandoned ; a ConstituM

^""^

i8o
Issue of

FROM

tion

was

debate
tion,^jan.

as

METTERNICH
at

last

to

the

favour of the

1^49-

ruler

BISMARCK

TO

its second

produced. By
of the

extent

Little Germans

governed both German

state

new

CH.

vi

article,the
decided

was

in

'; it was
and

providedthat if
non-German
provinces,

only the former should be included in the new Germanic


ship
body. And the equallycriticalquestionas to the headof the federation,
which point violent debates
upon
had occurred,
solved by a decision in favour
was
tentatively
of a singleman
bearingthe title of Emperor.
Had
this decision been reached some
months
it
"io. Affairs
before,
russia.
hcLve posscsscdpractical
jj^jgj^^
utility.Now, however, it
too late.
Prussia had alreadyceased to champion
was
the German
cause
; her King had begun to realize that of
enthusiasms
that for legitimacywas
his many
probably
the very moment
of the meeting of
the strongest. From
been rampant
in
the Prussian Assembly, disorder had
Berlin,where the mob

people. And

while

terrorized the
Frederic

all revolution

of the
representatives

William

heart posed
opcarried
momentarily

and

at

was

only
by thoughts of leadinga popular movement, the
away
the King even
from himself
resolved to save
was
army
This last factor provedto be the death-blow to Liberalism
in Prussia. An attempt by the Assembly to interfere in
militarymatters angered the King,who placed himself in
the hands of Count Brandenburg,the Prussian counterpart
to

to

Schwarzenberg.

as the
principles

The

Austrian

new

minister

acted

the Parliament

was

the

on

same

ordered

to

Brandenburg and, when it resisted.


Dissolution was
expelledby the soldiers, A dissolution folforcibly
lowed, and as publicopinionwas conciliated by the grant
p^*^*^^.
aroused
no
was
Assembly, of a Constitution by edict,
great hostility
^*^" ^ '^
courses.
by the return of Prussia to mildlyreactionary
remove

from

Berlin to

"

German
offared to

But

that

return

since
tionalism,

was

fatal to the

it coincided

with

cause

of German

the revival of

na-

vigourin

RESTORATION

THE

CH.vi

the councils of the Court


tested

relations

the

ImperialGovernment
would

Austria

he

and

her

the

won

announcement

the

support

of Austria
to the

The

followed

the

of

the

retorted

William

offer

would

not

ical principles
as to accept

Habsburgs

was

far

so
crown

she

Germany,

the issue of the

German

that

When

states.

this

Unitary

would

never

the

and

race,

foregoneconclusion.

End

Parliament

at the hands

J""e 1849.

of

could

be valid

unless

his refusal of the

And
the

declaration

sanctioned

followed by the abandonment

by

all the states

except

mere

that

no

crown,

union

by existingstates, was

of the National

few minor

Assembly
Lack
principalities.

of

military force,and the violence


Dresden and Baden, proved the final

of

its

blow

to

partisansat
the Frankfort

deputiesof Prussia, Saxony, and


of the Assembly in vain
Hanover
withdrew
; the rump
removed
and when it was
to Stuttgart,
quietlydispersed
by the troops of WUrtemberg, not even a dog lamented
Parliament.

The

'

'

the downfall

of

body

the millennium
That

downfall

was

which
in

had

been

intended

to

augurate
in-

Germany.

welcomed

by

of the

depart from monarch-

representative
assembly ; he dared not face the hostility
of Austria,he feared to incur the anger of Nicholas, and
he was
and
more
disgusted with the
becoming more
seemed
determined
Frankfort Parliament,which
to flout

legitimate
government.
with
coupled as it was

1849.

by decreeingthe exclusion
the imperial
crown
offering

and

Germany

King of Prussia.
of this
rejection

Frederic

by

clear that

unification

from

of several

in

Mar.

the

which

by

system

any

Frederic

Parliament

exist between

predominance
legitimate

Parliament

Frankfort

Frankfort

should

to

agree

was

i8i

its subjects
; he announced

support

Edict, it became

ORDER

Schvvarzenberg
pro-

of the

which

and

never

deprivedof

was

of Vienna.

againstthe attempt

dictate

to

OF

Frederic

William, who

i82

"

II.

FROM

still hoped that

tion,

BISMARCK

he

tion to send

the
might become
requestedthe Governments
to Berlin
representatives

of

of

of

Saxony

empire. He
o/the^^^'^"
Germanic

TO

METTERNICH

scheme

these

and

two

union,and

secured

Hanover.

states

issued,several members

But

Austria

success
Austria."

was

for the discussion

the apparent adhesion


Prussia and

draft Constitution

was

of the dissolved Frankfort

free to

now

act, and

of any

projectof union an
Schwarzenberg proclaimed the

Diet ; Bavaria

other

William

Frederic
Russia

and

to

in vain
from

him

save

While

states

new

of the Confedera-

liament
Par-

expressedtheir approvalof the scheme, and


states joinedin supportingit.

minor
Inter-

of

monarch

leaguebetween

formed

was

CH.vi

the

this made

impossibility.Prince"
of

restoration

gave

appealed to
his

old

the

him

their support ;

the

good

the alternatives of

Nicholas declared

the

offices of
liation.
humi-

or

war

approvalof

Austrian

policy,an emeute in Hesse-Cassel afforded the necessary


tion.
opportunityto the Court of Vienna for forcingthe situaBavarian

troops hastened

Elector,whose
adhesion

to the

the immediate

war

scheme
Interview

would

support their

at

Schwarzenberg presented
under
threat
Berlin,demanding
William's

of Frederic

abandonment

Manteuffel

Confederation
Thus

consideration from

of his
susceptibilities
accept nothing but
;

reaction,

to

the Prussian minister,havinghumbly


Manteuffel,
begged for an interview,hastened to Olmiitz in the hope

for the

triuniph of

Prussia

o^ securing
some
Nov.Tsro

Unreality

on

confederation.

new

ultimatum

an

of

people relied

support of the

the

to

at

the

taction,the
faded

away

from

the

was

gave

dream

Baltic

way,

most

and

Schwarzenberg

unconditional
the

mission
sub-

Germanic

old

restored.

bidding

; the

But

master.

the

minister

the Austrian

of

of

united

old order
to

the

one

determined

Germany
appeared to

champion
seemed
have

to

of

have

triumphed

Straits of Messina, sentimental

enthusiasm

of

unrest

the

calming

was

the

of

semblance

of

rested

all

foundation

secure

way

to

exploit
his

own

of

heartfelt

of

of

up

political

fair

nationalist
in

visions

change.

of

in
of

peoples

For

delight

the

an

easy
as

the

of

dawning

of

feeling
he

that
in

the

prey
necessary

might
of

the

as

there
of

peoples
to

his

interest
forth

forthwith

the

revival

now

stands

no

deprived

the

realizing

cause

and

maintain

been

as

Napoleon

fall

had

intriguer,

long

Europe.

happiness,

it

certain

subtle

IV,
to

therefore

as

and

government

assent,

longings
Louis

the

quietude

the

France,

in

desiring
conjure

was

ambition.

champion
end

Nor

power
the

was

produced

Austria

sufficed

and

movements

day.

new

of

basis

any

by

however,

William

absolute

and

ever

calm,

of

Frederic

But

peace.

on

nationalist

of

for

had

union

Napoleon

Louis

of

caution

longer

fear

craven

The
which

the

moment,

force,

stilled

'.

sentiment

183

material

been

Stability

'

the

as

For
the

Russia,

of

ORDER

gross

have

to

influence

unrest.

before
'

Progress

'

deceptive

as

the

failed

have

to

the

OF

RESTORATION

THE

CH.vi

the

is

an

tinent,
Con-

those
outcome

who

CHAPTER
THE

VII

UNION

OF

ITALY

" 2. The Second


Napoleon.
War.
Empire.
" 3. The Eastern Question. " 4. The Crimean
of
Paris.
6.
Victor
The
Emmanuel
and
Cavour.
" 5.
"
Congress
Franco-Austrian
The
War.
" 8. Villafranca.
" 9. Garibaldi.
" 7.
" 10. The Kingdom of Italy. " ii. The Zenith of the Second
Empire.
"

"
of

I.

Among

The

arts
Louls*^^

Napoleon,

The

I.

Presidency

those who

of

Louis

secured

advancement

by

the

gentle

of

deception,who beguiled trustful nations with


gloriousvisions of the happiness which might be their
subtle and convincingwas
Prince
lot, by far the most
Louis
Napoleon. He professedardent enthusiasm for
altruistic devotion to the interests
Republican institutions,
of the

masses

; but

Presidency,he
Republic and to raise

to

own

the

absolute

power.

the

from

laboured
upon
And

subvert

to

its ruins
for

of his election

hour

very

Second

edifice of his

the

while

the

his

success

was

his

he was
and of insincerity
insincerity,
a past master.
Posing as the testamentary legateeof his
uncle's allegedpolitical
and possibly
ideals,
believingthat
he was
the man
of destiny',he used the legend
in truth
of the firstto obscure the ambition
of the third Napoleon.
The
Constitution was
the Republic overthrown,
violated,
the Second
with the expressed apEmpire established,
proval
of a people trained to worship at the altar of a
non-existent
deity,the giverof all political
good. In the
supple hands of this master-workman,
Bonapartism
to
proportionate

'

was
was

moulded
exalted

to

into

be
a

that

which

whose
religion,

the

artificer desired

blind devotees

it

hardly

i86

FROM

sentiment

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.vii

and to

and had promised specifically


enthusiasm,
that Utopia for which the Many hungered. And
though
the closingof the National
Workshops had been an
the failure of idealists as
on
object-lesson
practical
still more
than inclined
politicians,
yet the people were
to consider a true republic
an
experiment worthy of trial.
Before all things it was
that this tentative
necessary
But to check
preferencefor honesty should be checked.
it Louis Napoleon needed
and therefore turned to
allies,
the Catholic Church, never
friend to that anarchy of
a
opiniontowards which Republicanismalwaystends. For
this reason
undertaken
the expeditionto Rome
was
; the
Constitution was
professedlybroken in the interests of
French prestige
and as an incident in the secular contest
with the Habsburgs, but in realityin the interests of
obvious
of the event
was
Bonapartism. The significance
the alliance of Louis Napoleon with
enough. It meant
the

Church

little

care

guardian ;

; it meant

for the
it

President and

was

that

the

Constitution
a

declaration

the

head

of the

of which
of

war

he

state
was

between

had
the
the

Republic.
But the Republicans,
Overthrow
as
a
party, hardly realized this
^^'^ Louis Napoleon found
it easy to quell the
Republican ^^^^"
disorder
party.
fomented
extreme
by his more
opponents.
the
of
his
enemies
as
'demagogic
Representing
rioting
conspiraciesagainstall government, he secured the help
of every one who feared the
Red
Republic',and as had
revolution
been the case
twenty years before,so now
followed by the vigorous exertion of the executive
was
The
in the interests of law and
order.
leading
power
into exile ;
Republicans,includingLedru-Rollin,went
the Republican Press was
muzzled, political
meetings
forbidden,and the Many obedientlyapplauded such acts
France from anarchy.
as
precautions
necessary to save
'

'

THE

CH.VII

UNION

OF

Open force had thus crushed


were
; the Monarchists
opposition

ITALY
one

next

187
section of the "

overthrown

by

2.

The

Empke.

they had
rioting,
of Louis
to the temptingsuggestions
lent a willing
ear
majorityto
Napoleon; they used their parliamentary
the franchise and premeasures, limiting
venting
pass restrictive
of opinion.These measures
the free expression
served a double purpose.
used,as
They were certainly
the Monarchists wished,
to crush Republicanism
; but the
President used them also in a more
manner.
ingenious
He publicly
tendencies of
the non-democratic
regretted
the legislature,
that if onlyhe could
than hinting
more
have his own
way the Peoplewould not find themselves
Such
so
betrayed by their chosen representatives.
divided as it
too subtle for the opposition,
was
duplicity
into adherents of the elder line of the Bourbons,
was
Fusionists ',
and containing
and
Orleanists,
many inclined
the rule even
to prefer
of a Napoleon to that of the
could be made
to the
People. No effective answer
when he appearedas the champion of popular
President,
rights
againstlegislative
tyranny. A disputeas to the
of his term of officeembittered the conflict,
prolongation
and in it Louis Napoleon,
of a magic name, the
possessed
advocate of good order and of free institutions,
found the
In their alarm at the universal

fraud.

'

French
He

nation

on

his side.

thus emboldened

to end the

struggle
by a coup Coup
d'etat. Having preparedthe ground by givingofficeto ^f-^^
like Saint-Arnaud,Minister of War, and Morny, 1851.
men
Minister of Police,
whose devotion to himself was greater
than their scrupulousness,
and having won
even
over
of the
honest men, such as Magnan, commander
more
able to act with decision when
he was
garrisonof Paris,
the appointedday came.
One nightthe chief leaders of
the opposition
arrested ; the printing
were
quietly
presses

was

i88

were

METTERNICH

FROM

seized,the

force ; and

when

overawed

mob
a

BISMARCK

TO

few

by

harmless

ch.vii

displayof

individuals had

armed
been

the coup d'Etat had been accomplished.


killed,
accidentally
France, invited to decide by a popular vote, willingly
of democracy '. A plebiscite
Louis
accepted the embodiment
^pprovcd the revised Constitution which Louis Napoleon
Em^rorof
the French,produced,and
a
conyear later another vote definitely
IDcc*
verted the Republic into the Second Empire.
This result had been secured by fraudulent misrepresentation,
the basis
and fraudulent misrepresentation
was
of
which
the new
forms
system reposed. The
upon
popular government were
carefullymaintained ; the
Constitution,
though modelled on that of the Consulate,
the existence
admitted
of a chamber
directlyelected
by the people and established universal suffrage.But
taken to prevent the people from embarrassing
was
every care
the central authorityby any expressionof their
own
not
were
opinion. The debates in the Chamber
published; absolute secrecy was
frequentlysecured.
Government
candidates,supported by the whole weight
of officialdom,
appeared in all constituencies ; the electoral
devised to destroythe political
ence
influwas
carefully
map
'

'

of the artisans ; and


the ballot

boxes, could

unfortunate

accident

the mayors,

be relied
as

true

on

who
to

had

control of

prevent any such

expression of public
rely merely on such

opinion. Nor did Napoleon III


careful manipulation of the electoral machine.
The
Press, freed from censorship,was
hampered by the
thorized
regulationthat nothing might be published until auplaced under the control
; and its offences were
of courts
of summary
At the same
time,
jurisdiction.
carefullysupervisedby the
dangerous individuals were
who expressedher
old woman
secret police; a garrulous
belief that the vines might again suffer from blightwas

THE

CH.vii

warned

her

keep

to

control.

UNION

In

such

ITALY

OF

ill-omened

189
under

tongue

better

circumstances,all libertyof political

destroyed; selfish devotion to material


interests was
directlyencouraged, and the Emperor
relied upon his great public works to satisfy
his subjects.

thought

was

such

But

internal

support, and

that support had

foreignpolicy. Bearing a
ruler of France

ideas,the

his country
be

must

indeed

was

heir of the
do

unwillingto
offer

had

the contrary, he
the

of his sincere devotion

whose

the

of Louis

act

to be

Napoleon,

limitations of
the

to

for

while

subjects

used

to subserve

more

anxious

content

he did

long as
positionat
as

once

to

the

home
a

ruler

by

concern

forgetbroken

to allow

humiliation.

to

he

In short,a brilliant

and

with

his

found

its cost, the power of France


limited and there
was
a
prominence might lead to
danger that extreme

the

was

struggling

her eyes to be blinded.


of Louis-Philippe
the Government
had

promises and
as

watched

was

the Continent, was

; it

but
affairs,
of

champion
easilyconvince

reputationabroad, his
France, delightedto have

every

But

internal

to Liberalism.

foreignpolicywas

benefited.

glory of

anxious

was

m.

dull

his

maintain

the

certain

of
respectability
he saw
that the French nation might
Not
easilydeceived.
only would
to

Emperor, appearing as
peoples abroad, would more

internal aims

vigorous^"J'^^

'

the

active

that

Foreign
"^

involved

to show

in this way
be more
their attention be distracted from

and

in

merely safe in his hands


Napoleon III prove that he
Little Corporal'. Nor
was

On

so.

and
Louis-Philippe,

which

name

brilliant contrast

found

to be

external

some

than

more

and
increased,
the

needed

autocracy

limitations

cautiouslytowards

to

was

" 3. The
ouesaon.

astrous
dis-

Napoleon III was as fullyalive to


his country'smight as he had been
of his own
as
genius; he advanced
his ultimate goal in foreignpolitics

FROM

190
as

he had

took his

METTERNICH
towards

For

affair of the
his friend

he had

Man's

not

determined

once

had

been

him

with

to act

the

here

overthrow

Reshid

to

by

the

fortune stood
form
with

of Mehemet

perennialproblem

While

inheritance.

shattered

he

restore

Question in a
startling
vigourand

Britain. The

solved

to

Eastern

by raisingthe

enabled

had

at

Spanish Marriages,and

the alliance of Great


Ali

CH.vii

the

cordiale which

entente

which

BISMARCK

of supreme
acquisition
power ;
firststeps with the fiiendly
hand of England

guide them.
that

TO

of the

Sick

Pasha

tempted
vainly atthe illness of the Ottoman
to cure
Empire
unsuited
reforms
the
to
by introducing
genius of a
Mohammedan
people,Nicholas,having humiliated the
middle-class usurper of Paris,sighed for the Treaty of
Unkiar Skelessi and wondered
whether he had not bought
his triumph at too dear a price. He reverted once
more
ot
to his idea of solvingthe whole
problem by means
co-operationwith England ; in conversations with the
British ambassador
he set forth frankly
at Petersburg,
his ideas for jointaction,
and, though these overtures were
he failed to understand
how
obsessed
were
disregarded,
twin
ideas of resisting
the Englishpeopleby the
Russian
the integrity
of the moribund
aggressionand maintaining
Ottoman
Empire.
He was
therefore led to take vigorousaction at Constantinopl
in response
to the Emperor of the French.
Napoleon HI had gaineda mild diplomatictriumph by
terrorizingthe wretched
Abdul-Medjid into conceding
Christians the guardianshipof the
to the Latin
Holy
Places ',a concession
which conflicted with the rightsof
'

the Orthodox
the
Mission
^

1853.

ot
"^'

Second

Monarchy ;
special
envoy

Church.

Empire

Nicholas
as

Menshikov
to assert

he
was

the

had

determined

humiliated

to

humiliate

the Orleanist

Constantinopleas
to
rightsof Russia in general,
sent

to

THE

CH.vii

UNION

ITALY

OF

191

Sepulchrefor the Greeks,and


of the Tsar's protectorate
the definite recognition
to secure
But it so
the Christian subjectsof the Porte.
over
the British
happened that Lord Stratford de Redcliffe,
the control of the

recover

ambassador,

was

convinced

of Russia

opponent

he

direction of Turkish foreign


practical
policy,
and the rejection
secured the grantingof the moderate
of the Tsar, and the refusal
demands
of the immoderate
Menshikov
which
of the ultimatum
rashly presented.
this moment,
between
From
war
England and Russia
of London
in sight; if the peace-lovingCabinet
was
of war.
would
Napoleon III
attempt the avoidance
the

assumed

that Nicholas

determined

was

fightor

the

from

blow.

While

of
Principalities
and

In such

action

But

settlement
refused

recover

occupied the
Moldavia, the EnglishFleets at
Bay in order to protect ^y |^i
troops

1853.
a

the

to

Russia

only be

part of Austria
decided

and

action

Vienna

at

avoided

did

was

by

taken.

indeed

The

Prussia,Not""^

and

for decision

questionone

such

no

conflict could

the

of ambassadors

jointnote

all Aug. 1853,


A

produce

Turkey, proposing a

vague

points at issue. But when the Porte


ceptance
note, the logicalstep of compelling its actaken ; instead, modifications
not
were

of the

the
was

introduced
were

on

might make

the Powers.

Besika

to

circumstances

conference

and

never

to

capital.

decided

which

would
prestige

Russian

Wallachia

fleets moved

French

the Turkish

by

that his

humbled

so

either be driven

should

which

actingin
the

bad

convinced
faith ; and

Ottoman

the

immediate

the Russians

retorted

forces

the

Tsar

evacuation

the

Powers

Omar

when
on

that

the

manding
Pasha, commanded
Danube, had de-

of the

Principalities,

by destroyingthe Turkish fleet at


Sinope. This action,justified
by the fact that the Sultan
had alreadyin effect declared war, was
hailed in England

192

METTERNICH

FROM

TO

BISMARCK

CH.vil

his pacific
views
Napoleon III,protesting
his bellicose attitude ;
in a letter to Nicholas,maintained
fleet was
ordered
the Russian
to return
to Sebastopolat
the bidding of the Western
Powers, and the inevitable
followed by the departureof the Englishand
refusal was
French
ambassadors
from Petersburg.

as

massacre

Even

now

might

have

" 4. The

the

seriousness

Crimean

War.

THE

CAMPAIGN

London

had

IN

been

objects.
her

if the

reduced

been

THE

content

Austria

intention

of

and

of the

duration
Courts

of

Paris

war

and

CRIMEA.

to

secure

mobilized

merely
an

their professed

and
nounced
anarmy
the evacuation

insisting
upon
defended
Principalities
successfully
; the Turks
Silistria against the
invaders,and
Nicholas, making
virtue of necessity,withdrew
his troops across
the
a
All immediate
Pruth.
to the Ottoman
menace
Empire
of the

FROM

194

METTERNICH

defenders

could

but

alliesnow
the

devoted
army

relieve it.

Balaclava, to

base

was

the

in vain

And

twice attempted
fortress,

the

the

Russian

heavy

to the
to

it became

hurled themBut

lines.

losses suffered

that

hope

Light Brigade.

columns

British

heavy

the

the

by

would

town

the latter
the

victors,

fall immediately,

for the allies to prepare

necessary

in the Crimea.

to winter
of

outside

againstthe

it vain
and

Death

and to this the


regularsiege,
themselves.
Menshikov, commanding
a

futile chargeof
brilliantly

battle,owing
made

mained
Nothing re-

own.

At

Inkerman,

selves

CH.vii

Balaclava,an attack on the English


able
memorrepulsed,the battle being rendered

by
Inkerman, At

BISMARCK

their

hold

than

more

undertake

to

Russian

TO

the rashness

the

proper

iron constitution of Tsar

Nicholas

^^^^ undertaken
M^f*i^8k'i;

became

with

which

expeditionhad
doubly apparent. Having no
the cold,and being ill supplied

now

protectionfrom
with
fell an
to the
food, the allied army
easy prey
ravages of disease ; perhaps the only redeeming feature
the opportunityafforded to Miss Florence
was
gale
Nightinthe devotion
of which woman
is capable.
to show
the English and
But the same
winter which decimated
French
The
forces also prepared the way
for peace.

Conference

the winter

his

made

death

result
'

March-

of
severity

Vienna,

April1855. ^j^ich

Seen

was

at

which

and

peace
in the

the

broke

down

bitterness

of

under

the

defeat,and

possibility.Its immediate
meeting of the Conference of

the allies formulated

the Four

Points

they regarded as the necessary basis of peace.


They requiredthe abolition of the Russian protectorate
of
the Principalities
and over
the Christian subjects
over
the Porte,the freeingof the navigationof the Danube,
the destruction
of Russian
and
predominance in the
Black
Sea.
Upon the last point negotiationsbroke
that he could never
down, the Russian Minister declaring

assent

that

to

with

interference

any

ITALY

OF

UNION

THE

CH.vii

195

control
country's

his

of

sea.

had
negotiations

failure of these

The

been

due

Fall of

very

crushed. poi^^se"
largelyto the fact that Russia was by no means
While
Sebastopolstill held out, the Turks had suffered 1855.
combined
in Asia Minor, and two
reverses
Anglo-French
fleets had failed to effect anythingworthy of note in the

Baltic.

If the Tsar

to be

were

humbled,

serious

more
necessary to inflict upon him some
and thus in the spring the allied army,

the

therefore

it was

damage,

strengthenedby

the
contingent, resumed
at first
campaign with vigour. Progress,however, was
rather slow ; Canrobert, the French
more
general,was
of

arrival

Sardinian

than

for personalcourage
distinguished
of

and

command,

owing

to

attempt

than

more

distracted

been

relief had

at

when

Tchernaya, and
the Malakoff

stormed, and

But

three

at

when
last,

frustrated

P^lissier had

Fort, the key

to

qualities

effort of the allies failed

one

counsels.

for the

replacedCanrobert,Tchemaya,
Russian

the

final

battle of

the

at

"^'

was
position,

followed

The

season

up

with

days

of the year was


too late for it
if Russia
decisive effect,and

sustained

heavy losses and if her strengthwere


exhausted.Napoleon III was
equally anxious
He

had

entered

the

upon

for the Second


popularity
him

either

inclined to

in

great

murmur

contest.
objectless

with

the

war

to

Empire

measure,

secure

; it had

and

the

the

longduration
Knowledge of this

at

Emperor, who

^^'

later the

long siege ended.


reduced by its defenders to a mass
of smoking
Sebastopol,
ruins,was
evacuated,and the objectof the expedition
apparentlyachieved.
But the success
was
singularlybarren of practical
" 5.
result.

'

was

well

aware

to

be

well-nigh

reputationand
hardlybrought
French

of

people
apparently

an

fact

was

that

of^pf^g^^

had

for peace.

decisive
discontent

The

FROM

196

METTERNICH

breeds criticism,
and

BISMARCK

TO

that the fraudulent

might easilybe exposed

government
examination.

He

determined

was

CH.vii

character

under

not

to

any

of his
critical

risk any

such

testingof his system and therefore readilyagreed to the


suggestionsof Austria and Prussia for the conclusion of
the war, conveniently
that he had entered that
forgetting
with an ally.
war
Austrian
For
it was
without
the consent
of England that
the basis of peace embodied
in the
to Russia, Napoleon accepted
Dec. 1855, ultimatum
of Vienna
which the Court
now
presentedat
Petersburg. The Tsar was
required to concede the
Four
Points ',under
threat of an
Austrian
attack,and
Alexander
of his father's obstinate
II, who had none
determination to resist to the bitter end, was
perhaps not
unwillingto bow to such a display of superiorforce.
And
the basis of peace had been accepted by
as
as
soon
Russia,the conclusion of a definitive treaty was not long
delayed. Napoleon III gained one more
advantage,such
it was, by securingthat Paris should
be the scene
of
as
negotiations; for the rest, he might well rejoiceat
deliverance
he had
from the complicationsin which
'

become
Peace

of

involved.

after

For

^^^
M^ar^'iS
6

ended

far from
the

in

the Crimean
years of conflict,
left the Eastern Questionas
which

three

some

peace

solution

territorial status

Ottoman

Empire
and

take

it

quo

the

was

on

Treaty of
between

as

of
integrity

laid down

action in future

of the Porte.

The

ever.

as

Russia

the

that the

behalf

Paris

latter

Powers

of the

restored
the

and
was

anteed,
guar-

would

Christian

subjects
granted

and Servia were


Principalities
the suzeraintyof the Sultan
under
self-government
excluded
from
the protectionof Europe ; Russia was
Danube
by a slightalteration of her frontier,and

Black

Sea

was

The

neutralized.

In

the

course

not

of the

and
the
the
next

THE

CH.vii

ITALY

OF

UNION

of this peace
twenty years the futility

197

trated
amply illusfound to be utterly
to maintain
impossible
; it was
of the Sultan's dominions
to ignorethe
the integrity
or
of his Christian subjects
or to prevent Russia
complaints
from usingSebastopol
as a naval base.
was

Indeed,the importanceof the Crimean War


lie in its effect upon

does not impor"^ ^^^


in its
even

the Eastern

^^'^

or
Question,
It did serve
belligerents.

trate
to illus-

effect upon the actual


of the French
the essential insincerity

Emperor,
Utrecht,acted

the example of England at


who, following
the
the negotiations
as
throughout

friend of his enemy.


hardlyneeded, and the interest

But such illustrationwas

lies rather in its influence upon the position


The
Court of Vienna had been guiltyof
of Austria.

of the

war

the fatal error


Russia

finalultimatum

; it had

struggle.And
Europe,and

failed to win the affection of the

since it had taken

Powers

Sardinia

alienated
effectually
and by its
Principalities

of the
its occupation

by

Western

It had

of indecision.

as

active part in the


remained isolated in

no

Austria
result,

the effect of her isolation at

secured

the

be

rightto

once

appeared.

at
represented

the

Paris in the teeth of protestsfrom Vienna ;


shared in the debates as the equalof the minister

Congressof
Cavour
of

the

Austrian
which
seldom

Habsburgs. And

it

isolation which

paved

followed in
committed

in

Italyand
a

more

this

was

knowledge

the way

for the events

Germany.

fatal blunder

of

than

State has
that

mitted
com-

Joseph when they


sacrificedthe invaluable friendship
of Russia to their
fear of that Power's aggression
in the Near East.
by

the

ministers of Francis

But the blunders


serious had

there

capableof turnmg

of Austria would
not

them

been

ready

to account

and in the interestsof the enemies

have
at

been

hand

far less " 6. victor

two

men

Emmanuel

the Habsburgs Cavour.


against
of that House.

Few

198 FROM

METTERNICH

kings have

ascended

circumstances

than

TO

throne

did Victor

His

father,crushed

and

country

at No

vara,

BISMARCK
in

Emmanuel

CH.vii

unfortunate

more

II of Sardinia.

had abandoned

his

crovi^n

sovereignwas compelled to begin


his reignby concludinga hasty peace with a victorious
foe,and was left to face difficultiesstupendous enough to
have broken

possessed
Somewhat

new

less steadfast heart. But Victor

the
cold

very
and

Emmanuel

in his position.
qualitiesneeded
rather
unenthusiastic,
clear-sighted

alive to facts rather than wedded


to
far-sighted,
ideals,he had all that firmness of will which had been so
And
this firmness
fatallylacking in Charles Albert.
enabled him, with a bankrupt treasury and a discredited
army, to adopt a definite policyand to hold to it through
all perils
and in the face of all evil report. Settingthe
of Italian unityand the securingof revenge
achievement
Austria before him as his ultimate goal,he prepared
on
the way by maintainingconstitutionalism in his kingdom,
despitethe blandishments of the Court of Vienna, and
in the affairs of Church and
by pursuinga Liberal course
State, despitethe complaints and threats of Pius IX
and the pessimism of such Conservatives
as
d'Azeglio.
And
he was
fortunate in findinga minister equally
attainable
uncapable of realizingnecessities and of sacrificing
ideals in order
to
secure
practicalgood.
Mazzini
excite admiration
by his loftyenthusiasm,
may
Garibaldi by his heroic daring,and both did something,
perhaps did much, to promote the union of Italy. But
that union would
have been very slowlyaccomplished
certainly
if it had depended for completion on
the efforts
of the journalist
it was
the coldblooded
and the free-lance;
statesmanshipof Cavour which brought a dream
within the range of practical
politics.The minister was
indeed the necessary
counterpart to the King. Rather

than

Cavour.

; the

THE

CH.vii

somewhat
idealistic,

more

Emmanuel,

he

enabled him

to

had

ITALY

OF

UNION

more

also

that

199

inspiringthan
calm
good sense

the limitations of Sardinia.

see

Victor
which

He

knew

well enough that the reputationof his country in


could

only be preserved by

that

any

memories

concession

of Charles

Albert

had

the

of

would

revive

Carignano which the


recentlyobliterated.

but

that

equally aware

was

Liberal
consistently

reaction

to

of the Prince

Italy
policy,

Sardinia

unaided

those

devotion
And

could

he

never

from

Lombardy, that an allymust


be
be secured,and that to secure
an
allya price must
paid. Thus the policywhich he adopted centred round
main points; the pursuitof Liberal ideals at home
two
and the gainingof the necessary alliance abroad.
the latter point that Cavour intervenIt was
in order to secure
War.
Some
obscure disputes
entered into the Crimean
Sardinia
altruistic solicitude for the in fhe
with Russia, or
even
an
welfare of the Ottoman
Empire, could not afford a rea- war.
belli; but the opportunityfor raisingthe
sonable casus
reputationof his country was too favourable to be lost.

drive

Austrians

If Sardinia
she

should

were

show

to

make

that

her

friends

it

was

and
friendship

necessary

that

enmity were
Tchernaya,

and this she did show.


regard,
and
to
some
extent, wiped out the stain of Custozza
Novara
trained by La Marmora, bore well
; the soldiers,
comparison with those of Victoria and Napoleon III.
here.
Nor
did the advantage of the intei-vention end
of Europe and
Sardinia attracted the attention
more
which
of England and France,the only Powers
especially
could
be expected to sympathize with her aims ; she
mission
gained a diplomatictriumph over Austria by the adof her representative
to the Congress of Paris ;
and most
of all,she was
able to raise the whole
question
of the state of Italy. In no uncertain language Cavour
alike

worthy

of

METTERNICH

FROM

aoo

pointed out
the

that the abuse

interest of both
Franco-

Austrian
War.

unpopular as it
government throughout

was

as

the sinister

to

while his tactful conduct

succeeded

minister

" 7- The

cH.vil

won

the Sardinian
diplomatists,
arousing the sympathetic

respect of the assembled

the

him

And

of Vienna.

of

BISMARCK

be attributed

mainly to

peninsulawas

influence

rule

that Austrian

severe, and

was

TO

in

the Western

Powers.

firstturned,
Cavour
England, to whom
that interest was
merely sentimental ; the Cabinet of
London
gave Sardinia good wishes,but confessed itself
material aid. Napoleon III,howunable to offer more
ever,
was
greatly impressed by the sad tale of Italian
In the

case

; the

wrongs

of

sentimental

side of his

nature

moved,

was

the

side saw
terest
chance of advancing the ina new
practical
of the Emperor of the French.
To go to the help
of Sardinia,
with Austria,might
to wage
a successful war
well gratifyFrench
devotion to
Liberals,prove his own
the cause
of the oppressed,
and displayhim as pursuing
At the Congress
the historical foreignpolicyof France.
of Paris he asked Cavour what
might be done for Italy,
from

and

that moment

he

drifted towards

alliance with

Sardinia.

always,he drifted slowly,


until an event
which caused Cavour
to despairhastened
Jan. 1858.
the imperialprogress. Orsini,an Italian,
attempted the life
of the French
were
Emperor, and angry remonstrances
Orsini's

But

and
hesitating

cautious

as

attempt,

addressed
murderer

Napoleon
he

Interview
of Plom-

to

Turin

from

had

indeed

intended,as

Paris.

But
he

for his failure to deliver the

would-be

declared,to punish
enslaved peninsula,

expectation. The Emperor


was
thoroughly alarmed ; he feared a repetitionof the
confirmed.
resolution was
In
attempt, and his faltering
an

was

successful

if the

interview

bieres.

May, 1858.vague

beyond

with

Cavour

all

at

Plombieres

agreement with the Sardinian Minister

he

came

; and

to

though

FROM

202

METTERNICH
before

Sardinia

the

TO

arrival

BISMARCK

of the

And

French.

victoryof Napoleon was


comparatively decisive. The

result the

Magenta, was
June 1859.
Milan to the allies ; that
Solferino, gave
June 1859. bardy from the Austrians
; and

CH.

vii

as

rapidlysecured and
victoryof Magenta

of Solferino freed Lom-

though both battles were


it seemed
inevitable that the pledgesof the
hard fought,
French
Emperor would be redeemed
by the conquest of
Venetia.
But at the critical moment
the instability
of
Napoleon'scharacter was revealed. He had shuddered in
the hour of triumph at the sightof the blood shed to gain
for hesitating
to
it,and he had more
tangiblereasons
complete a work which had approached completionfar
more
rapidlyand nearlythan he had expected. Not only
had his army
sustained heavy losses,but French
opinion
The Clericals viewed
with
was
turningagainstthe war.
alarm
which appeared to threaten the Papacy
movement
a
which promised the
; the rebellions in central Italy,
creation of a powerful state on the south-eastern frontier
France, roused fear in the hearts of statesmen.
Napoleon himself,who had aimed onlyat a moderate
of

And
tension
ex-

of Sardinian

the creator
not

to

face

was
unwillingto become
territory,
determined
of a reallyunited Italy; he was
for the sake of the
a
generalEuropean war

and the mobilization of the Prussian army


Italians,
of such
suggest the possibility

to
" 8. Villa-

Thus

on

the

war.

of Solferino the

morrow

seemed

Emperor

of the

franca.

French

betrayedthe

which

cause

he allowed

his

he had

allyto

of his intentions and to expect further


he had interviewed Francis
an

Truce

of

Villa-

franca,

that
the

before

Victor

cessation of hostilitieswas

terms

July 1859. peace,

armistice

Joseph at

acteristica
adopted. Charremain
in ignorance

military
operations
;
Villafranca and

Emmanuel
even

of the truce, later converted

Lombardy,

with

the

was

cluded
conaware

contemplated. By
into

exception of

definitive

Mantua

and

UNION

THE

CH.vii

Peschiera,was
it should

that

ceded
be

to

France

on

the

restored,and

be

confederation of

Napoleon

had

Italyunder

broken

Powers
the

that

of his hopes,resigned,
and
falsifying
Emmanuel

of the

ally and

by

truce

was

sane

the

value

it was

which

Sardinia.

But

of

peace

and

work

their
And

his

other
had

the

words,
ately
deliber-

the Adriatic '.


execrated

was

the

of

stern

Sardinia,

the acceptance

secured
the

Union

apparent jj^iywith

only the

fait accompli. He

might be the terms of


France, nothingwould undo
that

were

perament
King's tem-

he realized both the difficultiesof his

whatever

realized

was

favour

to

were

'

resolution of Victor

Modena

and

Italy from the Alps to


throughoutthe peninsulahis name
of a traitor. Cavour, disgusted at

And

understanding

Pope. In
his allyand

faith with

failed to free

as

the tacit

Tuscany

two

203

Sardinia; Venetia

transferred to

left to Austria ; the rulers of


to

ITALY

OF

the revolt

of the

absorptionin

his

central

knew

between
once

that

Austria

done, and

Italian states

he
volved
in-

projectedItalian kingdom.

by his acceptance of the truce


of Villafranca,
was
justified
by results. Though by the
Peace of Zurich the expelled rulers were
to be restored Peace of
and a confederation under the Pope to be established,
no
^o 18^0
taken to enforce either decision. Napoleon III
means
were
dared not go so far as to coerce
the rebellious provinces
;
he pronounced in favour of a plebiscite,
an
expedientwhich
had served him so well in France, and this pronouncement
central
to assent to the union of
was
equivalent
Italy
with Sardinia. Tuscany and Modena
voted for annexation
able to return
and Cavour was
by overwhelming majorities,
to office feeling
that after all his work
had not been in
vain.
Though Savoy and Nice, the stipulatedpricefor Cession of
the freeingof Italy,
had to be ceded in return
for Lom^ice^t^^
the less able to open France,
bardy,Victor Emmanuel
was
none
an

almost

confidence,shown

Italian Parliament

at Turin.

FROM

204

And
baldi.

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

TO

CH.vil

the rest of

meanwhile

Italywas delivered in a more


dramatic
and
Garibaldi
had
more
irregularmanner.
Thousand
raised his famous
',a corps of ardent enthusiasts
for the Italian cause, obeying no leader but the hero who
of a rising
in Sicily
he hastened
Conquest enlisted them. On the news
of Naples
the island in a few weeks,
and having mastered
and Sicily,thither,
May-Sept. crossed
the Bourbon
to
Naples and easilyoverthrew
i860.
was
government
organized,
monarchy. A provisional
" 9. Gari-

Garibaldi at its head

with

; Francis

II

forced to take

was

strongholdof Gaeta, under the guns of a


French squadron ; and the conqueror of the south prepared
to
complete the deliverance of his country by seizing
He
announced
that he would
Rome.
proclaim Victor
Emmanuel
in the Eternal City.

refuge in

But

Castel

Fidaido,

Sept.i860,

the

here

he

Government.

appeared

to

certainlyto
anxious

To

into conflict with

came

The

Pope

Cavour

that

war

with

to conciliate the

victoryat
mercenaries

the Italian

Kingdom
Italy.

of

on

Rome

Clericals whom

at

Ancona

his

would
was

he had

lead

already
alienated.

compromising the new form


invaded
the Romagna
army
and the surrender

gave
;

Victor

and the

Emmanuel

it

of
; a

of the French
control of

adventurer,alwaysloyal

King, consented to his proclamationin Naples and


and Venetia, all
Sicily. With the exceptionof Rome
Italywas united under one ruler as it had not been since
the days of Theodoric
the Ostrogoth.
But
of Italy was
without
Rome
real
the union
no
the difficultiesof Victor Emmanuel
thing,nor were
by
faced by the problem of the
He was
ended.
any means
the Pope and the new
between
relationship
kingdom ; he
of enthusiasts ; and at the
troubled by the unwisdom
was
The statescriticaljuncturelost the services of Cavour.

to

The

attack

Napoleon III, who

Castel Fidardo

the States of the Church

10.

an

protectedby France, and

prevent Garibaldi from

government,

"

was

Sardinian

the

THE

CH.vii

the

removed

death

man's

ITALY

OF

UNION

minister

one

205
who

might

have

Death

guided Italy safely along the path of constitutional


ment,
development ; no one could replacehim, and the Governunable to
was
deprived of adequate leadership,
cope

the earnest

Of those embarrassments
Mazzini

the

not

was

the

opinion

at

^uJ"
"gg,

embarrassments.

its many

with

of

for
least,

that
when

moment

very

Republicanismof
ardent patriotdivided
unityof opinion was

AsproAug.

1862.

even
an
unity. But Garibaldi was
political
serious trial. Believingthat vigorousdaring was
more
alone needed
the real completionof the work
to secure
begun, he invaded the Romagna with his volunteers and
and by
to intervene,
compelled the Italian Government
forcinghim to surrender at Aspromonte, to sacrifice
of its popularity.
much
Yet the real weakness
of the new
kingdom was neither Weakness
its lack of completion nor
the insubordination
of the
Kingdom
enthusiasts.
It was
due to the fact that united
Italyof Italy,

essential to

was

the

had

swept

was

to

weak

aid, and

patriotsmourned

they would

not

truce

enthusiasm
which

the

the Government
for

for this she

suffered.

Savoy

and

The
Nice

the

stern necessities of tical


pracregrettedbitterlythe acceptance of

of Villafranca.

of the south

of

among

the cession of

understand

politics
; they
the

Governments

burst

but it had not produced


partitioned,
Sardinia,strong enough to take the lead,
to compel obedience
; she had been forced

call in French

ardent

; a

been

union.
too

the

away

peninsulahad
true

of sentiment

outcome

could

not

alien

And
overcome

in these

circumstances

the latent

antipathy

dynasty,being less able to do so


because it was
obligedto burden the people with heavy
taxation for the maintenance
of the armaments
required
in order to free Italyfrom the too pressingattention of
her friend,the Emperor of the French.
As a matter
an

2o6

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

vil

of

"11. Zenith
Second

Empire,

fact,
though without French aid the accompHshment
of Italian unitywould
have been postponed,it
certainly
would
be questionedwhether
such postponement
may
not have been ultimately
beneficial to the Italian cause.
It would
in any case
have saved the new
kingdom from
lifeas the debtor of Napoleon III.
beginningits political
For Napoleon III regarded Italyas his own
creation,
^^id was
regarded in Europe as the liberator of that
the
that the end of the Austrian
marks
so
war
peninsula,
zenith of his power.
in
To all seeming he was
supreme
France, the effectual champion of the oppressed,and
potent factor in continental

most

motion

watched

was

with

of the Powers

Triumphant over
and

Austria

eager

politics.His

expectancy

yet thrilled

Republicanismat

abroad, the

saviour

at

his

home

every

celleries
; the chan-

word.
lightest

and

of the

the

over

Porte

Russia
and

the

guardian of the Pope, the generous protector of nascent


Italian liberty,
he had indeed risen far above
the lowly
plane of comic adventurer upon which he had stood some
ten
Real

weak-

years before.
But in reality
his downfall

beginningto
and anything in the nature
of truth was
detrimental
most
At home, the Clerical
to the Emperor of the French.
offended by
party, formerlyhis firmest supporters, were
his Italian policyand by a disregard
for the interests of
the Vicar of Christ impossible
Nor
in a sincere Catholic.
had
Napoleon found compensation in the affection of

Napoleon's^^^
position:
home.

alreadyapproaching;
appreciatehim at his true worth,
was

were

Liberals.
that

He

they

had

recalled

the

exiles

only

to

rather than
past injuries

remembered

discover

present

benefits,that they paid more


regard to the General
SecurityAct, by which their friends had been imprisoned
without
refused

trial,than
to

be

to

deceived

that they
imperialprofessions,
by the reiteration of their pet

catchwords,
to

the

disguised

And

to

situation

from

But

as

so

not

the

bore,

greatness

in

to

fictitious

expose
'

Man

to

in

of

magic
tear

which

the
In

the

by

Emperor

and

of

erected.

obsessed

of

away

Napoleon
all

its

puny

Destiny'.

Paris

fact

it

of

the
III

nakedness

able

partially

for

common

had

his

of

lost

Italian

the
distrust

doubts

which

he

had

man,

which

name

of

garb

the

fraudulent

clothed
the

he

raised

needed

only

had

he

image

that

been

by

and

golden

had

produced

and

purpose

venient
con-

England

devotion

suspicion

(H)

that

of

ardour
of

gained

substantiality

laboriously

the

infirmity

his

exposed
to

had

he

had

only

was

undying

the

it

reputation

Congress

winning

of

War

his

cooled

the

at

people.
had

had

He

which

parade

Emperor

sacrificing

by

chance

the

unsatis-

more

afforded

not

Austrian

the

which

conduct

his

had

military

provide

escape

reconciled

means

no

ahnost

was

War

glorious

intended

honesty.

position

Crimean

and

to

his

The

by

were

207

autocracy.

abroad

factory.

they

that

and

ITALY

OF

UNION

THE

CH.VII

figure

himsell
of

the

abroad,

CHAPTER
THE

"
"

I.

4.

Bismarck.

"

"

I.

"

Prague.

In

Bis-

order

Emperor
which

"

of Austria.

2.

AUSTRIA

OF

State

Dual

"

The

to

11.

tear

of the

it was

7. The

9. The

Confederation.

maick.

FALL
of

Seven

away

French

3. The

Convention
Weeks'

"

Monarchy.
Eve

"

Germany.

Schleswig-Holstein. " 5. The

State
of

VIII

"

of Gastein.

War.
10.

Zollverein.

The

"

8. The

North

6.

Peace
German

of Union.

from
that

the

puny

giant'srobe

figureof
of

deceit

the
in

deftlyenshrouded, and to expose to the


astonished gaze of Europe the insignificant
proportions
of that Colossus before whom
continent had trembled,
a
a
man
was
required dishonest enough to discover the
fraudulence of another and willingto reveal his discovery.
Such a man
found
in Otto von
was
Bismarck, Prussian
of the fictitious Man
of Destiny',
chancellor,unmasker
of a new
creator
destroyerof the empire of insincerity,
His very defects contributed
empire of frank self-seeking.
to his success, since they were
joinedwith and corrected
vision. Less sincere
by singularclearness of political
than
Metternich, he escaped the Austrian chancellor's
of allowinghis supreme
error
contempt for sentimentality
and for the rightsof peoples to blind him to the importance
and influence of enthusiasm.
Mazzini's
Lacking
loftiness of purpose,
he was
able, unlike the founder of
Young Italy',to realize that idealism,however exalted,
strive in vain if unsupported by material strength.
may
Deficient in ardour, he was
not guiltyof that rash contempt
for the devious paths of diplomacy which
acterized
charthe ardent Garibaldi ; inferior in subtletyto
so

'

'

Minister to Victor

been

TO

METTERNICH

FROM

210

have

BISMARCK

CH.viii

Emmanuel, Napoleon III would


would
the deliverer of Italy,
nor

appeared as
have distracted
the Pope by continued
residence in Rome
the new
kingdom. For Bismarck could wait ; he preferred
the most
heart-breakingdelay in gaining his
He was
objectsto their rapid but imperfectattainment.
determined
secured it should be real
that when unitywas
and
complete, founded on the sure basis of ultimate
of compulsion,the outcome
of superiorstrength.
power
His Germany was
to be no
palace of sentiment ; there
should be no half-measures,
no
no
concessions,
sharingof
land
help. Prussia would unite the Fatherpower, no foreign
by force ; she would dictate her own
terms, and
conciliate
rather than
overawe
oppositionwhich
any
thus a necessary
first step was
to
might arise. And
that commanding position
for the Hohenzollerns
secure
which should enable them
to work
their will in Germany.
never

"2. State of

But

at

the moment

of his accession

to power,

Bismarck

Uermany.

found

little in the

immediate

had

When

success.

and
spent itself,
ended

situation to
the

him

lead

hope for

of revolution

storm

the brief saturnalia

to

of

had

Liberalism

had

in the
run

triumph of Schwarzenbergat Olmiitz,reaction


riot in the Confederation.
Austria,no longer

satisfied with
Metternich's

that

'

'

moral

ideal,aimed

supremacy
at

which

had

been

complete ascendancy, and

found

ready allies in the lesser states who viewed with


mingled distrust and jealousythe recent self-assertionof
Prussia.

to the

Nor

did that Power

Court of Vienna.

of

offer any serious opposition


Frederic William
IV, never a man

had
powerful intellect,
pitiableweakness by the
; and

while

been

reduced

turmoil

Manteuffel

to

condition

of the year

feared to

enter

of

of revolutions
upon

any

vigorous policy,the King tended in his decliningdays


and more
more
to that curious fascination
to give way

THE

CH.viii

which

FALL

OF

the

Habsburgs from
neighboursof Berlin.

AUSTRIA

time

time

to

211

exercise

over

though the Constitution


of Prussia was
Liberals with
retained,it failed to inspire
than afford opportunity
confidence,and did little more
for violent strife between
the Progressiveand
Feudal
in the state.
parties
None
the less there were
signs of approachingim- PermaThe unitarysentiment,though repressed
and "enceofthe
provement.
discouraged,had not expired; the Frankfort Parliament sentiment.
had stirred the imaginationof a race whose
superficial
is but the cloak of a poetictemperament, and its
stolidity
failure was
than the hopes which
less remembered
had
its meeting. As
been built upon
covered
Germany slowly refrom the political
which had fallen on
paralysis
her with the return
formed
to reaction,leagueswere
to
promote the cause
apparentlyso lost. The 'National
Union'
undertook
the advocacy of a closer federation
under the leadership
of Prussia ; the Union
of Reform ',
unwillingto deliver the German
subjectsof Francis
Joseph into the hands of Magyars and Slavs,proposedto
include their Austrian
land.
compatriotsin the united FatherAnd
though such diversityof opinionsomewhat
the two
of the agitation,
impairedthe efficiency
leagues
served a useful purpose by keepingalive the idea of unity
Confederation
and by making the reform of the Germanic
their

And

'

theme
And

for constant
the

gibleresult

discussion.

prospect of such discussion producinga


was

soul of Frederic

appreciablyincreased
William

IV

at

when

last found

the

tan-

restless

peace

William
"

first

The government of
and then in the grave.
imbecility
Prussia passed into the hands
of his brother William, a
of sterner
mould
of character.
and greater stability
man
He
markable
repossessed neither strikingmental capacity nor
had been
his natural enthusiasm
originality;
in

Russia.

212

METTERNICH

FROM

TO

BISMARCK

CH.viil

by the advance of years; he was


perhaps
of
of
crusade.
a
incapable devisinga policyor
inspiring
with a largemeasure
endowed
But he was
of good sense
;
wise himself,he could appreciate
wisdom
in
not very
others ; and above all,he was
loyalto his servants and
diminished

steadfast in support of any course


which he had
of the
approved. Nor was the limited intelligence

Reform
Prussian
army,

i86o-3.

once

King

altogethera disadvantage.Had his m.ind been more


I, might have found it impossibleto
active,William
submit to direction by a minister ; as it was, he recognized
for his mental
Bismarck
content
superior,was
him and to co-operate heartily
in carrying
to relyupon
out the policyof his servant.
Such
abnegationwas more
easy because the Chanthe solitary
with his master
ccllor was
at onc
on
point
held decided
opinions.
concerningwhich that master
William, who
in the
to
were

the

hope

the Prussian

revealed when

againstNapoleon III.

all

in which

army,

it was

of the militaristparty

above

of revolution,was

days

reform

been

had

mobilized

Thus, even

to

thingsanxious
serious defects

support Austria

before he had

actually
ascended
the throne, he undertook the carryingout of
such changesin the military
system as might giveto the
monarchy that armed strengthwhich was the tradition
of the

considered
the

of Frederic

days
as

one

the

Great,and which

of the most

realization of his aims.


and
established,

was

refused to sanction
those

new

result of the
Forthwith

to
necessary preliminaries
A
scription
genuine universal con-

though

the creation of

none

the

Parliament

regiments,
as
a
provisionally
permanent

new

regiments,secured

were
mobilization,

Bismarck

the less embodied.

constitutionalcrisisarose.

The

Lower

House

that it alone could grant the necessary supplies


;
protested
and
the King fell back upon the theoryof his divine right
by him as war-lord '.
upon the powers possessed
'

It

to

was

Bismarck

solve

the

called

to

was

this task which


methods

and
office,

and

created, that
his

was

House

proceeding

to

in

success

His

of power.

permanence
'^

that the claim of the Lower

Constitution

it

'^

of

the

was

raise

the

with

revenue

borrowed

official candidates

Napoleon III;
the

he

army,

Press

and
stifled,

was

the

of
the
of

methods

the
forced

were

Parhament,

Upper House and by intervention of


he undertook
also the destruction
royal prerogative,
and inconvenient
an
opposition. Secure in
irritating
devotion

Prussian

declaring1862-3.
by the
unjustified

of the

assent

Bismarck

While

characteristic.

direct and

were

213

deadlock, thus
him

secured

AUSTRIA

OF

FALL

THE

CH.viii

on

torate,
the elec-

protests of
angry
This vigorousaction

the

enthusiastic

meetingswere ignored.
proved completely successful. Parliamentary resistance
of the
to his policyceased to be important; the reform
militarysystem was completed; Prussia became, beyond
in
all question,the possessor of the most
efficient army
for the attainment of
Germany, and one great requisite
his ultimate

aim

Yet, valuable
most

as

valuable

important

secured.
this efficient army

was,

it was

was

and

the

other

German

the " 3-

not

Still

possessed by Bismarck.
the Customs
the Zollverein,

asset

Prussia
soon

was

more

Union

states.

tween
be-

Founded

of the smaller
Congress of Vienna by some
been
of the Confederation,it had
gradually
until Austria
the only state which
stood
was

after the

members
extended

outside it.
instance

to

Her
the

non-inclusion
blindness

failed to understand

that

of

had

been

in the

due

Metternich,who

by allowingthe

had

first

long

Zollverein

to

preparing
aegis of Prussia he was
the way for her political,
by conceding to her commercial,
And
when the Court of Vienna
in Germany.
leadership
the danger, the questionof the non-German
at last saw
territoriesof the Habsburgs proveda bar to her admission,
develop

under

the

The

FROM

314

METTERNICH

despitethe

BISMARCK

CH.viii

welcome

of many
members
of the league to
her adhesion.
Protracted negotiationsensued,

but

influence of Prussia

the

futile.
ization
of
Reorgan-

TO

As

readiness

Austria

was

used

to

render

them

i860.

committed
to a policy
irrevocably
of high protection,the Zollverein
was
reorganized on
and this stroke was
a free-trade basis,
followed by
soon

Commer-

the conclusion

the ZoU-

verein,

cial
treaty

of the

with

1862.
states

and

commercial

leagueand

interests

France,

of

was

the

was

France.

thus

treaty between
A

the

divergencein

produced between

Habsburg monarchy,

while

the

bers
mem-

cial
commer-

German

able
Prussia,

to affect the material welfare of the Confederation,


decisively
possesseda powerfulmagnet by which to draw her
union with her.
neighboursinto political
gress
But though in this way she had improved her prospects
The 'Conof
of securingthe headshipof united Germany, the conduct
Princes ',
Aug. 1863. of Prussia served also to bring into relief the strengthof
ill content
Habsburg prestige.The smaller states were
than
to see their traditional leader treated less favourably
their traditional foe ; they lamented
that advantages,
accorded to mere
P'renchmen,should be denied to the
millions of good Germans
included
in the motley array
of nationalities under
the sceptre of Francis
Joseph.
And
their sympatheticgriefwas
intensifiedwhen Austria,
abandoning her old preferencefor reaction,appeared as
The
the champion of reform
in Germany.
Court of
Vienna invited the various princesto meet
at Frankfort
for the reorganization
and to consider a scheme
of the
Confederation,which was to be placedunder the direction
of six states, includingAustria, Prussia,and
Bavaria,
elective general
assisted by a federal council and
an
assembly. Twenty-four Governments
acceptedthis proposal
of
Prussia
with enthusiasm
obstinate
hostility
; the
her to appear
caused
of reaction,and
the advocate
as
necessarilyfailed,its production
though the scheme

to revive the

served

OF

his

experiences in the Federal


Austria,and who had become
her exclusion

find

AUSTRIA

215

waning popularityof

Bismarck, who

Germany.

in

FALL

THE

CH.viii

Habsburgs
had been early cured, by
for
Diet,of any partiality
supporter of

convinced

that

the Confederation,saw

from

the

he

must

breakingdown the sentimental bond which


united Germany with Vienna.
And
he found his opportunityin the reopeningof the
two
duchies, toSchleswig-Holstein
question. These
getherwith that of Lauenburg, were possessionsof the
King, but not part of the kingdom, of Denmark
; and
for

means

the succession

to them

Hoi^^g^

of

Frederic

disputed between

was

" 4.

Augustenburgand Christian of Gliicksburg.The latter,


of
who represented
the female
side the elder branch
on
the Danish
royalfamily,had been recognizedas heir to
in
all the territories of King Frederic VII by the Powers
the Convention
of London, and England and France had ConvenBut this L^ndJn
guaranteed the integrityof his dominions.
had

decision

claimed

of

dukedom

the

the

the

and

at

direct male

will of
of

1852.

Europe

which

the Danish

independence.

line.
was

And
plicated
com-

Schleswig-Holstein.It

autonomy,

centralizing
policyof

it aimed

duchies,which

prevailedand that
therefore rightful
heir to

declared

demanded

in the

Salic Law

the ulterior aims

by
desired

accepted

Augustenburg was
the
as
representing

this resistance to

by

been

that in them

Frederic
the

not

Nor

threatened

was

King

; in

this

was

reality

the

only

of the Germanic
complication. Holstein was a member
united
Confederation,and Schleswig was
indissolubly
with Holstein ; the Liberals of Germany wished to absorb
both

duchies, and

in

any

case

were

resolved

not

to

sacrificetheir compatriotsto the Danes.


Matters

despitethe

therefore

Convention

remained

in

of London, and

critical condition
on

the

death

of

Death

of

yj^j
^^s6i.

FROM

2i6

JICH

METTER^
VII

Frederic

BISMARCK

TO

While

crisis occurred.

CH.viil

Christian

duly proclaimedat Copenhagen, the duchies


favour of 'Frederic
VIII' ; they insisted on
to local independence,and
they demanded
Estates

looked

to

Prassia and
Austria.

the

be

^"

Western

for

Powers

their

that
the

their

help

right

their

when

in

Danes
enemies

to

^^

much
of

settled without
Prussia

the

his assistance.

might gainin naval

duchies

admirable

or

of

their

realized

He

by

power

seaports ; he
And

he

was

how

the annexation
saw

opportunityfor embroilingAustria

the German
states.
friends,
persuadingthe Court of Vienna

Treaty of
Vienna,
1864.

And

convened.

declared

Germany, where sympathy for the duchies was


great and so vigorouslyexpressed as to stir to action
the slow-moving Diet of Frankfort.
In response
even
of the various states,
from the legislatures
to pressure
the Germanic
Confederation pronounced itself officially
in favour of the Augustenburgcandidate,
and a committee
six was
ment
of thirtyappointed to superintendthe enforceof this decision and to organize,if necessary, the
federal forces for a campaign againstDenmark.
But Bismarck
had no intention of allowing
the question
turned

Interven-

should

was

also
with

successful

an

her
in

joinwith him in urging


and when this
Christian to grant autonomy
to Schleswig,
A
suggestion was
ignored,in occupying the duchies.
Powers
brief campaign ended
in the triumph of the two
;
the Danes, appealingto the guarantors of their territory,
received only mild diplomaticsupport ; and the Treaty
^f Vienna

was

to

concluded, by which

Christian

ceded

his

allies
to the allies. Those
rightsin Schleswig-Holstein
burg,
forgotthe claims of Frederic of Augustenconveniently
in whose
cause
fighting,
they had been professedly
administration
for the duchies
and organizeda provisional
without regard either for the wishes of the inhabitants or
for the rightsof either claimant.

21

8 FROM

METTERNICH

nexation

not

was

TO

BISMARCK

announced, but it had

CH.viil

in effect been

accomplished.
And
of

fatal blunder.

Court

the

more

once

Her

of Vienna

her

into conflict with

the Diet

had

sent

of

sentiment

Gastein

hailed

was

of faith but also

as

threatened

in

guilty
already-

the

federal army, which


had offended
to support Frederic,and

Germany. Now
not
merely as
a

deliberate

of the Confederation.
their anger

been

action in the duchies had

brought
the

had

an

Convention

of

outrageous breach

violation of the Constitution

The

protests at

the

smaller states

Frankfort

; the

expressed

two

Powers

such

and
forthwith
impertinence,
of that sympathy which would
the Habsburgs lost much
have been invaluable in the struggle
which
to ensue.
was
She had
Austria, in fact,had been utterlyoutwitted.
of a supposed immediate
been led,in pursuit
advantage,
to impair the true basis of her influence in Germany, and
the hour
when
in place of finding
of conflict came,
she with difficulty
behind her a united body of opinion,
secured the support of a bare majorityof the states of
to

punish

the Confederation.
asset

; her

at the very

it would

Moral

influence had
Gastein

immoralityat
moment

have

been

when
most

been

her greatest

lessened that

she most

needed

influence

it,and

when

valuable to her.

positionat home was not such as might enable


her to face war with equanimity. She had indeed escaped
the imminent
perilof dissolution which had faced her,
and under the firm guidanceof Schwarzenberg she had
temporarilyrestored order throughouther dominions. But
The death of its
that good order had not long endured.
had thrown
into less capable hands ; his
creator
power
successor
Bach, though continuinghis system, had not
For

Ministryof

her

Bach,

realized to the

1852-9.

alone

that

same

extent

reliance could

that it was
be

upon

placed,that

force and
the army

force
was

FALL

THE

CH.viii

only basis

OF

AUSTRIA

219

existingorder. While adopting to


of the
the full the idea of merging all the conflicting
races
with
Empire in one centralized state and while repressing
vigour all manifestations of national sentiment,he also
believed
in a close alliance with the Church.
By the
The Conwhich he concluded
Concordat
with Pius IX, the supremestablished ig-..'
acy of the Emperor in ecclesiastical affairs,
pression
abandoned, and by creatingthe imby Joseph II,was
that they were
of
devoted
to the maintenance
Catholic ascendancy the Habsburgs added to their many
the

other

of the

difficulties the

alienation

of

their

non-Catholic

subjects. More
unpopular than ever, the Government
maintained
a
precariousexistence with the help of an
in its devotion.
alreadyfaltering
army
And

fell as

thus the Government

result of the

shock

Constitu-

Italy. Bach resigned; Francis Joseph /gg^"


the prospective
announced
grant of reforms,and finding
that the mere
from provincial
inclusion of representatives
diets in a central assembly at Vienna
not enough to
was
conciliate his Liberal subjects,
he restored,
by the Diploma,
of its defeats in

the

of local national

powers

assemblies

institution of separate Ministries

for

Magyars

No

not

were

their

yet

content.

Diet than

own

and

revived

the

But

the

Hungary.
had

sooner

they declared

that

they

gained
re-

they would

had
only recognizethe Constitution which Ferdinand
accepted,they hinted that Francis Joseph had never
been received as King at Buda-Pest, and
ignoringthe
central
the

whole

The
to

Empire, they

Austrian
that

which

committee

state

dominions
of

to

was

represent and

reverted

anarchy

which

had

govern

passiveresistance.

to

appeared

to

to

be

fast

followed

returning
the fall of

Mettemich.
But

Francis

Refusingto

Joseph

concede

was

at

the demands

once

firm and

of the

Constituoptimistic.
Magyars,he tried 1861.

FROM

220

the

METTERNICH

experiment of

diets for each

failure

had

Constitu-

pended,
1865.

was

been

of two

chambers

monarchy.
at

But

those
satisfied,

the

a genretained,
eral

were

it met

at

Vienna

If the advocates

who

local

created to represent

was

when

obvious.

once

ch.viii

While

Constitution.

new

country in the Empire

Parliament

the whole

BISMARCK

TO

desired

of

federation

its

unity
were

clined
profoundlydisgusted.Hungary, Venetia,and Croatia deand in the firstof these countries
to elect deputies,
the agitation
serious enough to necessitate the prowas
clamation
of martial law.
Francis Joseph realized that
at present unattainable
unity was
; he recognizedalso
that with a discredited army and in view of the increasingly
hostile attitude of Prussia,the Magyars could hardly be
held down by force. In these circumstances,
he suspended
the
Constitution as
new
unworkable, and accepting
'dualism ',the slackening
of the bonds between
Austria
^^d
Hungary until only the kingshipof the Emperor
united
his 'highwith
them, he opened negotiations
spirited subjectsupon this basis. These negotiations
stillproceedingwhen war
with Prussia broke out.
were
'

Of

" 7. The
Weeks'

War, 1866.

this conflict the ostensible

no

and

sudden

the

support

event

the

Prussian

Chancellor

had

pared
pre-

the way for it with all his accustomed


thoroughness
all his accustomed
realization of the needs of the

situation.
match

And

Aware

for the

depriveher
tions of

was

givcn by the Austrian administrator of Holstein to the


for independence.
Augustenburg party and to the agitation
But in reality
it was
the result of Bismarck's determination
to exclude the Habsburgs from the united Germany which
he projected,
if
and the war
would
have occurred
even
Schles wig-Holstein had never
existed.
For the struggle
was

Prepara-

cause

that

reformed

Austria

single-handedwas

Prussian

army,

he

laboured

no

to

of all possible
help.

his labour

had

been

crowned

with

success.

By

OF

FALL

THE

CH.VIII

AUSTRIA

221

concluding a militaryconvention with Russia for the Bismarck,


the Convention
suppressionof the Polish rebellion,he had won
Alexander
1 1,who could not fail to contrast, ^Jj^^;^
gratitudeof
that with
and
advantage to the Court of Berlin,the 1863.
I with the more
dubious
friendlyaltitude of William
conduct of Francis Joseph. And
having thus disarmed
of the Tsar, Bismarck
the possiblehostility
turned his
task of deceivingthe
attention to the even
more
congenial
In an interview at Biarritz,
arch- deceiver.
and in a private
Interview
^'
conversation with Napoleon III,of which the details were
iggi""
therefore unknown, he
not committed
to writingand are
succeeded in convincing
the French Emperor that he would
do well to allow Prussia a free hand againstAustria.
It
is probablethat he led his dupe to imaginethat he would
receive

from

assistance

Berlin

in

an

attempt

to

annex

In any case
remained
France
neutral,and
Luxemburg.
Italy,who would hardly have dared to enter upon war
without the impliedsanction of Napoleon,was
left free to
bid for the completionof her unity by throwing in her
lot with
Thus

tempt

Alliance

^^^^^y
April

Prussia.
Austria

to

failed,and

disarm
in the

only

upon

That

such
assistance,

the

isolated in

Europe. A belated at- Outbreak


Italian hostility
by the offer of Venetia funlTsee
final strugglethe Habsburgs could rely

was

assistance
as

of the

minor

German

it was, she received.

Pmssians, professingthat Austria had broken


of Gastein, denounced
that treaty and
their late allies from

Holstein,the

Diet

states.

When

the

the

vention
Con-

decreed

expelled
federal

The
conduct
misrecent
againstthe Hohenzollerns.
of the Court of Vienna
did the
was
nor
forgotten,
minor states allow the attractive scheme
of reform,which
was
published from
Berlin, to blind their eyes to
the danger of Prussian
aggression.Yet the effect of
Austrian follywas
in the doubtful
character of the
seen

execution

FROM

222

TO

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

CH.vill

majorityby which helpwas granted to her,and that help


proved to be small compensation for the lack of any
substantial

more

The

Indeed

Seven

alliance.

large part

of the federal army

took

the field

Wcclcs

War,

late that

1866. SO

upon
decision

as

the

the

broken

in

the

opponents

out, and

before

decided
Prussia

disconcert

armies

offensive while her


had

been

of action.

scene

utterlyto

Placing three
war

had

war

her

had

with such

the

assumed

stilldiscovering
that

the decisive

victory had

the allied forces had

gained long before

tered
en-

foes.
leisurely

more

field,she
were

acted

they

been

completed

their

of the northern states ended


opposition
of the Hanoverian
with the capitulation
at LangenLangenarmy
salza,
June,
delivered from all peril. In the
g^l^^^and Berlin was
south, the Bavarians were defeated and Frankfort occupied
with the greatest ease, the federal capitalbeing treated
with exceptional
harshness,as though the victors desired
of the long moribund
Germanic
to emphasizethe decease

concentration.

The

Confederation.

fsee.^ ^y

the real issue had

meanwhile

But

Konig-

of Austria

t^^ overthrow

without

Saxony

battle,the Prussian armies

the

Benedek,

Austrian

advancing northwards, by
defenders

The

Bohemia.

alreadybeen decided
herself. Having conquered
general,who
their

of that

sudden

country

almost

prised
sur-

slowly

was

invasion

of

fell back

in

disorder upon Koniggratz,where Benedek,hampered


by instructions from Vienna and deprivedof all initiative,
some

compelledto give battle. The needle-gun,


reluctantly
with which the Prussians had been rearmed, provedfatally
and at the end of the day, Austria
had ceased
effective,
was

to be
The

And

War
^

^*

in
had

German
her

Power.

defeat in Bohemia

neutralizingthe
Italy,
there crowned

her

arms.

cost

her also her

effects of the
While

the

position

victories which
Prussians

were

FALL

THE

CH.viii

OF

the Saxon

pouring across

Venetia, but

at

AUSTRIA

the
frontier,

Custozza

their

223
Italians had

vaded
in-

militaryinferiority
Custozza,

painfullyexemplifiedand their army J""^in confusion.


Nor
did they fare better at
hurled back
defeated at Lissa,Lissa,
A projected
attack on Triest was
sea.
J^^'*
where their fleet,though of superiorstrengthand more
modern
construction, was easilydispersedby Tegetthoff.
smoothed
the path which Francis
Such gleams of success
Joseph was forced to tread,but they could not save him
the Peace of Prague
from pursuingit. Koniggratz made
was

more

once

inevitable.
For
of

the Prussians almost

with

Vienna, further

with the

helpof

resistance

Hungary

the relations between


cordial

to

as

Theresa

throw
if

Magyars.

Even

favourable

response,

could the

been

by

no

Austria

were

not

he

have

would

reluctant

been

the verge

Though Hungary
embarrassing the Government

of

had

influential section of his race,

at

Buda-Pest.

misunderstood
determined

would

France
And

the war,

have

loyallyrefrained
during the war,
most

urging the Italians to


and thus givethe signal
for a new
revolution
And
though the exiled patriotpossibly
his countrymen
this once, Francis Joseph

not

other calamities.
between

to

and
rebellion,

of the noblest and


Kossuth, supposed representative

capture Triest

so

Joseph to emulate Maria


himself
the generosityof the
on
he had been assured of an
equally

favourable.

from

p^ague^

continued,and

certain that the response

means

" 8. The

Francis

appeal to subjects
recentlyon
it was

be

war

and

Hungary

encourage

and

was

distance
striking
hardlypossible.Only

within

to

was

risk the addition


He

invited

of civil

war

to

his

Napoleon III to mediate Mediation


him and Victor Emmanuel, ceding Venetia
to "eon
iii^
J"^y ^^^*^to peace.
as
a first step along the road
since Bismarck
almost equallyanxious to end Moderawas
rapid. The Prussian BUmarck.
progress alongthat road was

FROM

224

Chancellor

METTERNICH
had

aimed

TO
at

the

Germany; havingrealized

exclusion

this aim, he

CH.viil

of Austria
was

wise

from

enough

probably rather lose than


gain by pressinghis advantage. For Napoleon III was
alreadygnawing at the diplomaticnet in which he had
been
entangled; he was
beginning to debate whether
he had
been
deceived at Biarritz ; signs were
not
not
wanting that he contemplated a reversal of his policy.
And Bismarck,beingby no means
anxious to involve himself
in a second war
before he had garneredthe harvest of
also convinced
that if German
was
victoryin the first,
unityhad an enemy, that enemy was to be found rather
to

Peace

of

understand

BISMARCK

that he would

in Paris than

in Vienna

with

; he

France

; he foresaw the inevitable contest

felt that

hopelesslyalienated Austria
and he
might intervene in that contest with fatal effect,
believed it to be to his interest to avoid such hopeless
alienation by judicious
leniencyin his hour of triumph.
In these circumstances,it was
hard to reach an
not

Aug. 1866. agreement;

under

the nominal

mediation

of the

French

of peace were
Emperor, preliminaries
arranged at Nikolsburg and were soon converted into the definitive Treaty
of Prague. Francis Joseph was
not greatlyhumiliated ;
no
indemnitywas exacted from him nor was he compelled
Venetia
to cede any territory,
rendered.
having been already surBut he was
obligedto retire from all participation
in German
affairs ; to assent to the annexation
by
Prussia
of Schleswig-Holstein,
Hanover, Hesse-Cassel,
Nassau, and Frankfort ; and to the formation of a North
German
which
include Saxony
to
was
Confederation,
In other words,
and all the states north of the Main.
Austria

had suffered final defeat in that

Hohenzollerns

for the

with
struggle

the

of Germany which had


leadership
since the days of Frederic the Great
raged intermittently
and Joseph II.

226

Establish-

ment
of

Dualism,
1867.

METTERNICH

FROM

TO

BISMARCK

CH.viii

minister was
professional
organizerof States,the new
the tottering
given a free hand to reorganize^
Habsburg
the conditions
to determine
especially
monarchy and more
which Austria might secure
from Hungary. He performed
his arduous
task with credit.
The strengthof the State
maintained
to some
extent
was
by the establishment of
ministries for foreignaflfairs,
the services and
common
finance,in so far as the last concerned
expenditure for
common
objects; its material prosperitywas
protected
by a system of consultation and periodical
agreements on
commercial
has succeeded, its
questions. If Dualism
be attributed to Beust ; if it has failed,
its
must
success

failure has been

due

the

to

reactionarycharacter

of the

system.
"

10.

The

North
German
Confedera-

tion.

For

the very

when

Austria

and

Hungary
thus agreeing to differ and amicably drawing up
were
a separation
was
order,the unitary movement
advancing
rapidlyacross the frontier. Freed from the embarrassing
presence of the Habsburgs,strengthenedby the addition
of those lands which
she had
annexed, Prussia found
herself in the positionto hasten towards the goal of her
ambitions. And
did not neglectto avail himself
Bismarck
of the advantageswhich had been secured.
The
North
German
Confederation,includingall the States except
Bavaria,Wurtemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt, was
immediately organized under the presidencyof King
William.
To Prussia an overwhelming superiority
was
at

secured
a

; for the

Federal

moment

control

of the federation

Council in which, while each

theory equal voting power,


also the votes

of those

incorporated.Nor was
Assembly, for which

hamper

the Executive

she

was

State

allowed

districts which

she

vested

was

in

possessedin
to

had

exercise

recently

danger that the Elective


also made, would
provisionwas
were
duly limited and
; its powers
there any

it

FALL

THE

CH.vill

unlikelyever

was

the

Thus

to

Still

not
Germany was
States,
expresslyexcluded

anxious

means

the enemies
form

to

Confederation.

unity.

yet united.
from

the

submit to

of German

alliance in

an

Council.

German

agent for the completionof German

no

Federal

with the

agree

237

Confederation,dominated
by
united with her, was
a valuable
irrevocably

North

Prussia and

AUSTRIA

OF

new

Prussian

unityeven

trusted
the

oppositionto

Such

indeed

had

been

Southern

The

The

were
league,
by s""tes^"
and
leadership,
that they would

North
the

German

expectation

of

Napoleon III when he insisted that the Main should


form a dividing
line ; he believed that in this way he had
for ever
postponed the completionof Bismarck's work,
and even
prepared for the substitution of France for
tendencies in Germany.
Austria as guardianof centrifugal
falsifiedand his belief proved Bismarck
That his expectation
was
vain was
the result of the ingenuityof the Prussian southern
chancellor and the dire necessity
of the Southern States. States.
that they
Immediatelyafter the end of the war, realizing
could not stand alone,they had concluded secret militaryMilitary
conventions

with

of

the Court

Berlin,which placed their


^

forces

much

as

And

Saxony.
followed

at the

by

William

disposalof

this step towards


another.

eventual

to
own

tions

the army

union

Appreciatingthe

value

the South

ties and that to accustom


with

as

to

conven-

was

01

of 1866.

soon

of

mercial
com-

jointaction

would

marck
assuredlyadvance his cause, Bisthe Zollverein,
and refused
suddenly denounced

the North

allow the Southern


terms.

governments

States to re-enter

Threatened
gave

way,

with

their aloofness of attitude.

to

thus

the

in

fact,was

his
four

of

creation

abandoned

Union,

on

ruin, the

economic

assented

and
general tariff parliament,

it except

much

of Tariff par-

within

sight.
Yet

Bismarck

knew

that
P

union

was

still far from

1867!"
'

228
"

II.

The

Union.

FROM

METTERNICH

in order

arms

up

unwiselyassisted
Requisites

There

CH.viii

work.

It

the

both

these

of its ultimate

Chancellor

he

had

so

create

in the

the North, and


of the French.

that he could

best

secure

with

sary
France,which, necesNapoleon III,appeared also

war

destruction of

final completion

with
identity
the Emperor

conceived

requisites
by

offer the

which

essential to

was

essential to overthrow

And

that

for the
requisites

it was

sense

undo

do.

rousing in Germany so
vigorous a sentiment of unity that the antipathyof the
In the
Southern States for Prussia might vanish away.
devoted all
the Peace of Prague,Bismarck
years following
his energy
to the productionof a situation which
might
the champion of
enable King William
as
to
appear
German
nationality
againstFrench aggression.
his destined
And
his greatest helper was
victim.
j^^poleonIII was perhaps conscious of all his limitations
one.
save
by cunning
Having gained an imperialcrown
absolute power
and
by subtle deception,he believed
himself to be the veritable embodiment
of successful fraud,
immune
from
all danger of being defrauded.
and
so
to

Napoleon

to

South

for the

Errors of

to

thus two

were

^^ Bismarck's
compfetion
unity.

BISMARCK

accomplished.Though the Southern States had conceded


some
part of their independence,they had only done
under
not the less hostile to
so
compulsion; they were
Prussia because their hostile feelings
had to be concealed ;
they were not less desirous of preservingtheir aloofness
And
ifthey
because their aloofness was
threatened.
even
had been inspiredwith a livelydesire for union under
still
their separate existence would
Prussian leadership,
have been the care
of Napoleon III,who was
ready to
take

of

TO

that

Convinced
dreamed
core,

he

readiest

could

of

deceive

all men,

he

never

to the
might be deceived ; hypocritical
of hypocrisy in others. And
unsuspicious

that he
was

he

means

CH.viii

THE

FALL

OF

AUSTRIA

239

who
arts of one
beguiling
was
enough to piercethe heroic mist that
clear-sighted
concealed the comic actor, and skilful enough to offer
the homage of forced sincerity.
In dealing
convincingly
with the Emperor of the French,Bismarck seemed to confess
that allpretence
in craft,
that he had met his superior
the best policybecause
that honesty was
was
useless,
such flattery,
could not deceive. And
the
dishonesty
so

he fell an

deference of
eyes of

easy prey to the

great rogue

for

greater, blinded the

Napoleon III,so that he allowed himself to be


guided like a child along the winding road to Sedan.
led to offend every Power
in
By easy stages,he was
to arouse
Europe,to trampleupon every susceptibility,
and all the while he believed
feeling,
every antagonistic
that he was
shaping the future of the Continent and
the glorious
of
playingto perfection
part of 'Man
Destiny'.Only at the eleventh hour was the veil torn
from his eyes ; onlythen did he behold himself as he was,
divested of his faircloak of deceit,
before France
standing
and Europe a discredited and friendlesscharlatan.

CHAPTER
THE

"

IX
OF

FALL

FRANCE

Second

" 2. Decline of the


Empire'. " 4. Foreign Policy

of

III and

I.

Internal

System of Napoleon

Empire. " 3. The 'Liberal


Napoleon III. " 5. Napoleon

Preliminaries

and

of the

"
"10.

War.

German

Franco-German

Gambetta.

The

Peace

"6,

Bismarck.

War.

Provisional

8. The

III.

"

7. The

"

Government.

of Frankfort.

"11.

The

Franco-

9. Bazaine

The

German

Empire.
The
Internal

System of
Napoleon
III.

very

the French
eventual

brilliance of that part which


had

undertaken

detection

of

his

to

the

Emperor
ensured

play,almost

charlatanism.

As

'

Man

of
the
of

Destiny/ he was compelled to stand constantlyin the full


could it be
nor
glareof French and of European criticism,
expected that the eyes of his criticswould be for ever
dazzled by the flashlight
and
radiance of the coup dHat
of the Congress of Paris,that those eyes would
never
of Napoleonic paint and
powder
penetrate the mask
under

And

which

when

the true

features of the actor

were

concealed.

the day of
pierced,
successful play-acting
was
over
; with the discoveryof the
true character of its creator, the very basis of the Imperial
system was
destroyed. For, restingapparentlyon the
class,seemingly
army, the Church, and the commercial
and to
to the favour of these adherents
owing its success
the dull indifference of the rural population,
the Second
Empire was in truth founded upon deceit and maintained
by fraud. /Its friends were attached to it,less by sincere
affection than by a lively
hope that from it they would
win the accomplishment of their dearest wishes,a hope
created
and
fostered by the Emperor, who
canvassed
once

that

mask

had

been

THE

CH.ix

FALL

wildly the support

of

all,and

OF

FRANCE

231

interests.
divergent,
he conferred upon
Naturallyprone to wide generalizations,
assertions the epithet
the more
attractive of his broad
writingsand in
Napoleonic',and alike in his voluminous
his innumerable
public speeches,he explained that the
from national glory
Empire meant
everythingdelightful,
from peace to plenty.
to bulgingpocket-books,
indeed
y/Knd as these generalizations
were
wide, and Causes of
^"^
of obscurity,
from their width gained no small measure
^^i^^^
all thingsto all men.
the Empire
meant
cyb the army,
it implied a return
of the gloriousdays of the first
Napoleon ; to the Church, an almost ultramontane government;
to the commercial
class,unlimited opportunities
for rapid money-making ; to the people at large,the
eventual
dawning of the long-delayedera of universal
content.
Having sighed for eighteen years under the
shadow
of the respectableOrleanist
umbrella, France
revelled in the possessionof a ruler who
might be
trusted to outrage the susceptibilities
of politically
pious
and yet, a veritable enigma,might be trusted
Mettemichs
also never
to say or to do that which was
expected of him.
iPfius as long as the Empire thrilled,
it succeeded
; when
its novelty wore
it ceased to thrill,
it failed.
off,when
The
which had made
generalizations,
deceptionpossible,
faith ;
no
were
longerreceived with the needful unfaltering
doubts arose, questions
asked. uAnd more
were
especially
the validity
of Napoleon's claim to embody democracy
contested ; it was
was
pointedout that if this claim were
definition.
just,then Democracy was a term sadly in need of reeven

of

'

'

For

the

whole

'

internal system

of the Second

Empire

Autocratic

The character
negation of popular government.
Chamber, hardly a representative
body, might not initiate Second
^^P*"^^
finance was
legislation
largelyillusory,
; its control over

was

the

very

FROM

2S2
since

the

detail,the

METTERNICH
voted

budget was

by departments and

might

Executive

CH.lx'

BISMARCK

TO

transfer

sums

in

not

from

one

ministryto another, and the Emperor, possessingthe


able to
of concluding commercial
was
treaties,
power
modify the tarififby prerogative.The Press,hampered
further crushed by
for authorization,
was
by the necessity
which
the rightof prefectsof policeto
warn
papers
showed signsof not admiring the existingorder and to
Education,equally
suspend any twice- warned publication.
restricted to
controlled by the Government, was carefully
and the Emperor hoped that a race
non-political
subjects,
of clean-shaven professors
of language and science,
having
shed their disturbingtheories with their moustaches,
the oath
well as in the letter,
as
might keep in the spirit,
which they were
of allegiance
obligedto take. Nor was
taken of Orsini's
individual liberty
sacred ; advantage was
General
attempt^ to produce the General SecurityAct, which
without trial
permittedthe imprisonmentor transportation
ATt^Ts^sS
of those suspect to the Government,
and
which, as
used
to terrorize the
administered
by Espinasse,was
of a reasonable
banishment
people by the summary
percentage of the populationin each department.
'

Stagnation
of

Yet

political
excite

this

system, autocratic

as

it was,

'

did not

at

first

it was

accompanied by a
most
satisfying
development of material wealth, partly
wanted
such
because
unity^
oppositionas there was
divided
into
The
a
nd
tact.
Monarchists,
leadership,
their strengthby
dissipated
Legitimistsand Orleanists,
of the
wise programme
internecine disputes
; the politically
who aimed at the alliance of the two branches
Fusionists,
of the Bourbon
throughthe obstinacy
House, was rejected

of the

the

resistance,
partlybecause

claimants

and

the

supporters of the

younger
'

of Thiers ; and
better
line,who were

determination

Cp.

p.

200.

234
cause

METTERNICH

FROM

BISMARCK

TO

CH.ix

of such material disasters,and their rising


discontent

since it coincided
with the
unfortunate
peculiarly
alienation from the Empire of its earlier friends. Napoleon
III succeeded
in offending
and the
both the Church
commercial
and in his isolation was
led to turn
classes,
to the Liberals,
hoping that he might convince them of his
sincere love for democracy and rallythem
to the defence
of autocracy in the name
of liberty.This hope proved
vain, and consequentlythe loss oi its first friends was
fatal to the Imperial system. vrJapoleon,in fact,fell
of his professions
to the rash inconsistency
a victim
; he
perishedin a futile attempt to reconcile ultramontanism
and
nationalism,cosmopolitanism and "protection,an
with the
attempt which only involved him in a contest

was

forces both
Clerical

j^

of reaction and

the forces of reaction

With

^^s

reform.

opposition.

first came

into conflict.

Sardinian

alliance and

that

the Emperor

rf

He

offended

by the refusal
of Pius IX to pass the Alps and to dignifythe Imperial
Coronation
by his presence and benediction,and he
retorted by givingbut a cool receptionto the newly
promulgated doctrine of the Immaculate
Conception.
The quarrel,
thus begun, was
embittered
by the FrenchTreaty of

i860.'

was

the Austrian

rupture when

stage of open

war

; it reached

the

Treaty of Turin the


Emperor received Savoy and Nice and, in effect,
nized
recogthe new
Kingdom of Italy. It was in vain that
Napoleon strove to conciliate clerical oppositionby
piouslysupportinga federation of the peninsulaunder the
Pope, and by defendingthe relics of the temporalpower
from the sacrilegious
hands of Cavour
and Garibaldi ; it
in vain that he suppressedthe chief Catholic newspaper.
was
The

Government

by

was

Emperor, distracted by

and

the

the

clericalist

the

attacked
the

Empress Eugenie

in the

Senate

counter-arguments of
and

his

anti-clerical

FALL

THE

CH.IX

OF

FRANCE

cousin,Prince Napoleon, could find


the

most

oscillation between

violent

policies.He
gratifyat

once

his consistent
Nor

was

he

had

better defence
two

signallyfailed

the ultramontane

the friends of Italian

by

no

unity ;

235

mutually

rather

structive
de-

in his effort to

party in the Church

he had

than

and

angered both

inconsistency.

more

fortunate

in his attempt

to combine

Commer-

cosmopolitantheories which he had set forth so gUion.^^


of the Napoleonic theory,
eloquentlyin his statement
with the interests,
of his commercial
or supposed interests,
friends. The manufacturers
stoutly
opposed the free-trade
doctrines which
the Emperor preached,and for a while
of protest.
Napoleon was
compelled to bow to a storm
of
But he reverted to the same
the exigencies
idea when
the Italian situation made
alliance with the English
an
friends of Italy advisable ; he used his treaty-makingCommer^^
^
prerogativeto conclude a commercial
agreement with ^^^^i
England, and thus took a definite step in the direction of England,
free trade.
in opposiForthwith the manufacturers
rose
tion
; the Emperor was
roundlydenounced as the betrayer
of his country, and as the Treaty had been made
without
the Imperial
to
consultingthe Chambers, the hostility
economist
presentlymerged in a general attack on his
whole political
system.
The attack was
assisted by the Emperor's own
directly
Liberal
revival.
Deserted
his
former
alliesand
conduct.
having special
by
need for support in his quarrelwith the Church, he granted
an
hoping that they would
amnesty to the exiled Liberals,
be won
to his side by his Italian policy. But he
over
merely suppliedthe oppositionwith efficient leadership,
of a second
this error
was
nor
repairedby the commission
The
blunder.
Emperor became alarmed at the prominence
which he had deliberately
sought and gained ; fear
of
of responsibility
Man
seized upon his soul ; and the
those

'

236 FROM

the
at
Destiny' shuddered
magnitude of his part. And
to share

with

some

one

BISMARCK

TO

METTERNICH

the

realization of

sudden
thus

onerous

CH.ix

he

the

sought relief,
sought
burden

which

he had

of the
lightly; he desired to throw some
if failure
rather all the blame for failure,
or
responsibility,
there was
of the people.
to be, on
to the representatives
that in future free
By an Imperial decree,he announced
assumed

The
"

so

discussion

i860.

and
with

of

an

Address

that Ministers
the task of

without

to the Throne

should

allowed,

other duties should be

answeringcriticism and

of

He trusted that
policyof the Executive.
would never
always remainingsubservient,

Government, and

be

at the same

time

charged
defendingthe
the Chamber,

embarrass

that he would

the

be able

the expressed
himself againstattack by alleging
fortify
approvalof the Deputies.
to

As

Opposition
Chamber

far

as

the

actual

Chamber

was

concerned, his

In the divisions
proved tolerablyaccurate.
of that body, the republicanopposition,
still confined to
the Five ',could exercise no real influence,
and at first
to be feared from the clericalistand comwas
mercial
sightmore
parties.The former remained
bitterlyhostile,
occupation of Rome
despitethe continued
by French

Calculations

'

troops, the breach


affair of

of the entente

with Victor

Emmanuel

Aspromonte, and the appointment of


sympathizerwith the Pope,
Drouyn de Lhuys, a known
as
foreignminister. The commercialists complainedwith
of the disordered state of the finances ; expenditure
justice
the deficit was
and taxation were
increasing,
perpetual.
the situation revealed by Fould
in a
So serious was
suffimemorandum
to the Emperor that Napoleon was
Minister of Finance,
cientlyalarmed to make his mentor
Financial
the right of transfer,
^^^ resigning
to agree to the production
sfns^^
86r
of a genuinebudget. But these concessions gave
since they were
little satisfaction,
coupled with resei-vaafter the

THE

CH.ix

tions which

FALL

OF

of their

destroyedmuch

in the Chambers

FRANCE

did not

237

value,and the opposition

cease.

opposition,however, though it irritated and


embarrassed,hardlythreatened the continued existence of
the Empire, which appeared to be no less safe than it had
been ten years before.
It was
the growth of resistance
which
outside the Chamber
prepared the way for the
That

downfall of the autocratic system, and


of

destruction
resistance

was

Napoleon

IIL

so

g^pj^'

for the eventual

the

And

" 3. The

growth

of this

the direct result of that increased freedom

permitted,and which led to a


revival of popular interest in political
questions. The
studied criticism of
fieryeloquence of Favre, the more
Ollivier,could not influence a singleDeputy to vote
tually
far too effecwas
againstthe Government
; the Chamber
corrupted for convictions to have any weight in it.
the Five
But
educated
the repreopinion even
among
sentatives
of the people,and their definite programme
of
of season,
and
attracted
out
reform, urged in season
attention and
rapidlygained adherents in the country
at
were
large. The
studiously
republican demands
asked
than
moderate
for littlemore
that the spirit
; they
ment
of the Constitution should be observed by the abandonof oflScial candidature,the repealof the General
of responsibility
of
Security Act, the establishment
of debate

which

now

'

'

Ministers
Even

was

and

of the control of the Chamber

over

finance.

their

supplementaryrequests for the rightsof public


meeting and free association could hardly be considered
democratic
Emperor.
outrageous by a professedly
Yet if Napoleon III had been a more
-General
acute
political
observer,he would
of his most
For

realized that the very moderation


deadly foes made their enmity doubly serious.

it rendered

Republic',upon

have

useless

which

the
he

'

cry

Beware

relied to

save

of

the

Red

himself; the

"

18^63'.

238

FROM

softlythat they did

not

even

breasts of the Clericals and


the second
as

far

found

as

found

Thiers

and

the

as

CH.ix

roared

Empire

inspirefear in
bourgeoisie.On

generalelection

Liberalism

Second

of the

gentle revolutionaries

BISMARCK

TO

METTERNICH

the

so

the timorous
the contrary,

oppositionunited

Ultramontanism

could

unite ; it

of

and the
high protection
tude
the Monarchists,their old attiabandoned, activelyjoiningin

advocate

temporal power ; it found


of passiveresistance
the attack on the Empire.
And
the result of the attack
forces ; the numbers
was
highlyfavourable to the attacking
of the opposition
to thirty-five
rose
and, most significant
of all,seventeen
elected and
Paris
Republicans were
declared againstNapoleon III.
this moment, the
From
fall of absolutism was
assured, and since an erring Man
of Destiny' seemed
the
be almost
to
contradiction,
a
was
play-acting
wellnighfinished.
It was
not, perhaps,because he realized that to admit a
^i^stake would be fatal to his bubble reputation
that the
Emperor ignored such signs of approaching change;
*

Mistaken

Napoleon
III.

rather
that

his conduct

had

he

come

greatness and
character

as

six years seems


to show
convincinghimself of his own

near

at

he

in the next

the

had

once

lost such

time

same

possessed. Faced

decision
with

of
two

possiblealternatives,
open resistance and frank concession,
he declined to adopt either. He
made
mild attempts
he made
to
regain the lost affection of the Clericals,
and
tentative advances
in all insincerity
to the Liberals,
strove

thus

maintenance

to

deceive

them

of autocracy.

into
His

agreement

efforts

were

with

the

futile and

of both partiesin the


only served to increase the hostility
of fact,Napoleon's cloak was
opposition. As a matter
threadbare, but its wearer
only drew it more
tightlyto
that so its gaping seams
him, never
realizing
displayed
his nakedness
the more
clearly.The day for successful

FALL

THE

CH.ix

OF

FRANCE

239

lyinghad passed; unsuccessful lyingonly aggravated the


evils of

in which

situation

truth had

become

the only

feasible policy.
But

of frankness

Emperor was utterlyincapable; Increase of


deceit had become
an
integralpart of his nature ; his giuon
constitutional preferencefor tortuous
paths and oppor- 1863-5.
tunist counsels

the

had

rather confirmed

been

than

corrected

by advancingyears. And this love of indecision led him


the crisis,
to meet
produced by the election,by refusing
to face it ; he adopted first one
policyand then another,
and

discredited

so

himself

his

alienated

and

friends,

without

a
conciliating
singleconvinced
opponent. To
he
strengthof the opposition,
cope with the increased
appointeda singlechief Minister to defend the Government
in the Chamber;
Rouher, who
presentlyreceived this
was
office,
a known
supporter of the existingregime and

his

seemed

name

reform.

or

his

But

though resolved

as

leadershipno

followed up

sufficientguarantee againstconcession

reliance could

be

to

that upon

prove

placed,Napoleon

this apparent declaration in favour

of resistance

When
Thiers
by making advances to the opposition.
of
the utter disorganization
terms
exposed in moderate
the state,the Emperor answered
strikes ; he Legalizaby legalizing
then

neutralized

this concession

by pronouncingagainststrikes
trade unions, and declaringthat parliamentary
govern- 1863.
unsuited to
less ingenioustheory,'
was
more
a
or
ment,
time, by concludinga
practicalconditions. At the same
'

convention
the

with

garrisonfrom

of the
himself

'

Syllabus
and

which

he

in

and

the Clericals.

opportunity
was

far succumbed

for

drifting.When
to

of

for the withdrawal

Emmanuel

the publication
Convention
by forbidding
the gulfbetween
France, he widened
Emmanuel

Rome
'

favourable

so

Victor

Nor

was

ending

he able to accept
that

isolation
had

Ollivier,who

imperialblandishments

as

to

1864.

into

already
abandon

340
'

FROM

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

CH.IX

the Five

',formed a new party of moderate progressives,


^gg^y*advocating the combination of the dynasty and good
order with increased liberty,
Rouher
was
permitted to
Senatusreplyby a senatus-consultum
forbiddingall discussion of
^^^ fundamentals
of constitution. Thenceforward, all hope
oPisiT'"
of voluntaryreform passed away ; the era of revolution
was
dawning.
Fall of the
For political
discontent was
no
longer the monopoly
o^ the deputies and
classes.
the educated
Socialism,
System
1867-9.
almost extinct since the days of the National Workshops,
revived
of the
the unrealityof the hopes formed
as
Empire appeared ; the masses
began to organize,and
their organization
and resistance were
invigoratedby the
growth of a literary
opposition. Napoleon,prematurely
aged and stricken with illness,
suddenly realized that his
popularitywas gone and that the throne of his son was
in danger. Making one
effort to deceive,
more
supreme
he issued a decree allowing the Chamber
Decree of
to
question
^'
Ministers on their conduct,and explained that the right
of publicmeeting and liberty
of the Press were
about to
The

Third

be

established.

of
responsibility

But

at

the

Ministers

time
denied

the
and

doctrine

Rouher

of
tained
re-

projectedreforms were not made, and


the nation
sincerit
was
merely angered by such palpable inNor
did the alacrity
with which
Napoleon
hastened
defend
to
Rome, again threatened by Garibaldi,
Reoccupaimprove the situation at home, the Clerical opposition
Rome
continued
the
1867.
and
Republicans, encouraged by the
vigorous pen of Rochefort, now
openly declared their
to the Empire. The
hostility
agitationculminated in
General
Election of ^^g
second general election,"a
reverse
not merely for the
Ministers but for the whole Napoleonic system. Such
moderate
Liberals as Ollivier were
rejected
; fortyavowed
enemies
and
of the Empire were
returned ; a hundred
power

; the

was

same

342

FROM

him.

He

METTERNICH
had

that France
and he

done

had

TO
much

so

so

short

CH.

space

ix

of time

thrilled and

been

left to discover

was

in

BISMARCK

means

Europe astonished ;
for repeatingthe thrills

and

But he found
none.
increasingthe astonishment.
When
Italyhad been united and a limit set upon her
for performance; there
unity,no obvious task remained
were
no
more
oppressed nations to deliver,or if there
too dangerous an
were, their deliverance was
occupation
for a
Man
of Destiny '. As
it was,
his Italian
even
policyhad almost involved him in war with Prussia ; if
he were
to continue
the remodellingof Europe, it was
clear that he must
be preparedto meet a possible
coalition
againstFrench aggression. And since he did not feel
equal to this,he was led to adopt half-measures and wild
projectswhich ended in the ruin of his reputationand
*

the exposure
The

of his weakness.

Indeed,the decline

the very hour


Expedition,
1862-7.
at Solferino.

on

which

The

dated almost from


reputation
reached
its culminatingpoint

of his

truce

it

of Villafranca

was

confession

of failure ; the

hesitancyof his later Italian policyraised


doubts as to the stability
of his character and the skill of
his diplomacy. And
an
attempt to find in the New
World
those opportunities
for brilliant action which were
denied

him

disaster.

in the

Old

ended

in

even

more

obvious

The

republicof Mexico had been the scene of


civil wars
of those periodical
in which Latin America
one
had restored order and assumed
delights
; Juarez, who
had become
involved in a disputewith
a
dictatorship,
Great Britain,
France,and Spain,and the combined fleets
of the three Powers

had

blockaded

order to enforce their claims.

But

the

Mexican

coast

in

Napoleon III conceived


that he might gain an easy triumph by separating
himself
from his allies and by adoptingthe cause
of the domestic
enemies
of Juarez ; he was
encouraged in this view by

THE

CH.IX

FRANCE

OF

FALL

243

the prayers of the Catholic party,offended by the Church


and by the outbreak of civil war
policyof the dictator,
in

the

States,which

United

seemed

preclude all

to

Doctrine.

of an
assertion of the Monroe
possibility
France,therefore,
recognized the Archduke

^axi-

Maximilian

muian,

and

him,

the

Government

of

of the
war

and

an

civil

to

forces

But

than

ended

war

no

"l^^^^"

the

drawal
the with-

Washington bluntlydemanded
French

support Emperor

gained.

was

success

American

sent

was

army

Napoleon, unable

to make

the United

States,gave way with some


tancy
precipithe unfortunate
to
Maximilian, abandoned
; and
fate but refusing
his friends,
to abandon
was
capturedMaximilian
^
"
^*
shot by the supporters of Juarez. In place of
on

his

Mexico

momentary

had

sooner

of

Emperor

as

'

winningglory,the Emperor
himself with shame
And

and

meanwhile

of the

French

had

covered

dishonour.

in

his

Europe

prestigehad

been

seriously
impaired. The hopes of Poland had been revived and disappointed
by the mingled leniencyand
II ; an
severityof Alexander
attempt to quell the
resultant discontent,
by draftingthe disaffected into the
led

army,

that

believed

whom

to

useless

he

had

rebellion

found

Rebellion

1862-4"

Napoleon III
oppressed people

and

another

might deliver. But the other Powers were less


sympathetic. Prussia,havingPolish subjectsof her own
concluded
and
a
military
needing Russian
friendship,
he

convention

with the oppressor

; Austria

explain her platonicdisapprovalof


more
none
Britain,
vigorously,
protesting
to agree

the

to

Tsar.

to

Great

the less declined

and

in unmeasured

suggestionfor a Congressto settle


thus Napoleon, who
attacked
had
terms,

single-handedor
righteous
anger to remain

war

the

content

the French

question;

Russia

was

to

was

left either to enter

allow
mere

Q2

his

upon
of
protestations

protestations.He

chose

'

FROM

a44

METTERNICH

the latter course, and

"5. Napa
leon III
and
Bismarck.

TO

BISMARCK

Alexander
irritating
the Poles by his present
violence,
by his original
disgusting
and reducinghis prestige
inaction,
by his inconsistency.
Indeed, when he was
brought into conflict with the
the
who
destined to lure him to destruction,
man
was
Emperor of the French had already ceased to inspire
either fear or respect ; Europe was
no
longerblind to the
of the Imperialactor, and least of all was
imperfections
Bismarck
impressed by the air of mysterious power
that actor

which
the

rival ; he had
had
a

so

found

/ In

had

by

means

conversations

suggested that

rectification of the French


Ambassador

whole

foreignpolicyof

by

fatuous

measure

of his

which

to deceive

the arch-

with

Bismarck, Napoleon
assist him

frontier ; the
to

France

to

politeattention
assent, and

mean

henceforth

was

secure

the

dictated

friendship.It was
Napoleon tamely to acquiescein the

of Denmark
at

the

belief in Prussian

belief that led

Bismarck

in Paris,

taken

taken

was

Ambassador

should

Prussia

of the

in

While

assumed.

Chancellor

Prussian

deceiver.

succeeded

CH.IX

it

the

was

Biarritz to

belief which

same

French

secure

this
cion
coer-

enabled

and
neutrality

the

Italian alliance.

War.

did

Nor

Napoleon
III and
the Seven
Weeks'

had

the

fallen and

Emperor

the unification of

until
inevitable,
he had

realize his

his

error

Germany

neutralityhad

until Austria
been

lost its value,and

towards
fatally
compromised his position

German

states.

On

the

eve

of

rendered

war

he

had

until

the South
asked

for

answered,
definitely
the only possible
but neutrality
now
was
policy,and he
made
virtue of necessity,
a
announcing his unalterable
love for peace.
Perhaps Napoleon hoped that the coming
strugglewould be prolonged and that he would be able

his reward

to
were

; his

request had

not

been

intervene with decisive effect ; if so, all his calculations

roughlyupset by the

battle of

Koniggratz,nor

did the

THE

CH.IX

request for his mediation


to

secure

the

occasion

fresh

for

advantage. It
deception. Because

vaguely that the time


gain something somewhere.

Prussian

annexations

formation

of the

for his failure

him

compensate

hinted
to

245

material

more

any

FRANCE

OF

FALL

in

North

had

now

indeed

was

Bismarck
for France

come

Napoleon agreed
northern
Germany and

German

Confederation.

to

the

to

the

Even

disregard for French


interests by publishingthe negotiationsbetween
the
Courts of Paris and Berlin and
the fact
making known
that Napoleon had demanded
the cession of the Bavarian
Palatinate,the Emperor still continued to pin his faith
the vaguest professions
of goodwilland to ignorethe
on
damning evidence of facts./
For the next twelve months,therefore.
Napoleon con- Napoleon's
had

Bismarck

when

tinued

his

reward

for his

shown

his

frantic endeavours

to

some

secure

neutrality
during the Seven

kind

Weeks'

of

Expansion,

War, 1866-7,
fatally

disproveThiers' assertion that he had been


outwitted.
In rapidsuccession demands
were
put forward
burg
for compensation on the Rhine, in Belgium, in Luxemanswered
Bismarck
case
; in each
by an almost
only in the case of the last- The
papal non-posstimus. And
named
district did Napoleon's efforts even
likelybum
appear
The King of Holland
to succeed.
agreed to hand over Question,
Feb
M3.V
his rightsin the grand-duchy ; but Luxemburg
was
1867.
and

to

"

part of the old


of the North
at

Germanic

German

Cenfederation,the Parliament

Confederation

the idea of its absorption


by

was

furiously
indignant

France, and Bismarck

able to express his deep regret that he could not run


wards,
counter
to the wishes of his allies. Immediately after-

was

the Powers

all

thoughts of French
direction by the Treaty of Treaty of
expansion in this particular
the district and
neutralized
London, which
placed its ^j^"
^g^^
of
the
under
Europe.
independence
guarantee
put

an

end

to

346 FROM
"6. Pre-

On

METTERNICH

TO

all sides Napoleon III had

BISMARCK

CH.

failed,and

he

was

IX

no

liminaries

longer permitted to doubt that


deceived.
It only remained
to

of the
German

that which

to undo

War.

the eleventh

had

been

he

been

had

seek

done

revenge,
and

to

hopelessly
to

attempt

prevent,

even

completion of German
unity.
And
this could only be done by war, war
with Prussia
as
inevitable. But Napoleon was
was
now
onlytoo well aware
that his strengthwas
unequal to such a contest ; and all
at

hour,

therefore

his efforts were

directed

here he suffered the nemesis

And

Napoleon's

the

to

secure

an

of deceit.

alliance.

Posingas

a"/"'^the

not
heir of the great Napoleon, he had
political
of all Europe ; he
(i)Austria, hesitated to trample on the prejudices
in the Crimea and offended
had boldly attacked Russia
Tier by his Polish policy;he had
opposed Austria ia_
Italy,and denied to Italyher capital
; and he had won
no
friendshipto counterbalance such hostility.For a
indeed,it seemed that Beust might be ready to
moment,
now
a dual, ]
support him, but the Austrian monarchy was
state and the Hungarian Minister,Andrassy, was
relucj-__
that German
tant
connexion
to do anything to restore
^which had been the greatest obstacle to the realizatioopf Magyar hopes ; a vigorous correspondencebetween
Napoleon III and Francis Joseph only produced a vague
understanding.
Nor, when he turned to Italy,did the French Emperor
Italy.
(ii)
.

meet

with better

by the

French

That

had been alienated


power
occupationof Rome ; her alienation was
success.

intensified when, after

Mentana,
"^'

by Garibaldi to
give Italyher capitalhad been defeated at Mentana,
'^' Rouher
openly declared that France would never
permit
of the temporal power.
the complete destruction
And
as

Russia

would
It

not
was

was

allied with

stir,France

possiblya

was

sense

attempt

new

Prussia,and

as

left isolated in
of

Great

Britain

Europe.

this isolation

which

led

THE

CH.IX

Napoleon

stake

to

FRANCE

everythingon

the crisis which

to hasten

and

OF

FALL

desperatethrow, The

one

to

was

247

fatal to him. Spanish

prove
^

immediate

The

occasion

afforded

was

buccession,

the

by

of 1870.

raismg

questionof th"^Spanishsuccessjon.Isabella II had


been driven from her throne by Prim and a republichad
_been proclaimed. But that form of government proved
unpopular ; the Spanish people desired a King, and
the number
of the candidates
who
appeared
among
House. -France
was
Leopold,a cadet of the HohenzoUern
4iad already raised objectionsto his candidature, and
when
he was
that
his Election of
elected,Napoleon announced
be regarded as a casus
belli. Leopold,V^"P"g*i
accession would
able to
of his own
accord, retired ; the Emperor was
congratulatehimself on having at last secured a diplomatic triumph ; and the incident appeared to be closed.
But Napoleon was
with the success
which The Ems
not content
"'
he had won.
at Berlin,
Benedetti,the French Ambassador
Xf/y^f
the

'

instructed

was

would

to
not

that the actions of

^e

dictated

demand
be

Leopold

he
definite reply,

to the

effect that he had

had

and

Prussia ;

by

guarantee that

renewed

more

King William
he

when

answered

pressed

was

Berlin
at
telegraphedfrom Ems to Bismarck
Chancellor deliberately
publishedthe telegramin a

that the

King

feelingran
William

form

had

high
had

excitement

rose

; the

German

Press

insulted the Ambassador.


in both

his back

And

on

; the
what
some-

announced

countries,Paris believed

publicly turned
'^

for

to the Ambassador
message
said his last word.
This news

sent

was

abbreviated

dature
candi-

not~
aiia'wguld

been

not

the

since
that

Benedetti

to fever

pitch,and

:
'

"'

after

council

which

"

Napoleon
iii decides

"'
night.Napoleon III decided on war.
jjj,
It would
better " 7. The
appear that he did so againsthis own
by the passionate
judgement,and that he was overcome
q^"^
trembled
for her son's throne if War.
entreaties of Eugenie,who

lasted far into the

METTERNICH

248 FROM

BISMARCK

TO

CH.

IX

and
popularityof her husband were not regained,
by the blind optimism of his advisers. Gramont, Minister
confident that Austria would hasten
of ForeignAffairs,
was
to avenge
Koniggratz,and that Italywould not forget
Solferino ; he did not realize that the Dual Monarchy
menaced
was
by Russia or that the liberated peninsula

the lost

Villafranca and

remembered
were,

it is true,

have

shared

in

The

Mentana.

two

Powers

gentlysympathetic; they would readily


French
a
triumph, but they would not

And
if Gramont's
defeat.
sharing in a French
optimism was rash,that of Le Boeuf,Minister of War, was
criminal.
Forgettingthat the army was ill-armed,illand without communications
or
equipped,ill-organized,
for rapid mobilization,he fancied
other requisites
any
that Prussia would be as dilatory
as
Austria,and placed
attack which should paralyse
all his hope in a sudden
risk

German
of
The

Disasters

Aug. 1870. hour

of
futility

such

afterwards

for the

States in support

invader.

welcome

Bismarck

French

unite the Southern

resistance and

dreams

roseate

claimed

that

declaration of war,

he

soon

appeared.

selected the very

and

however

that may

be, certainlyPrussia was


fullyprepared. Her armies,
reinforced by those of all Germany, advanced
according
to

weak

carefully
thought-outplan ; the French, scattered in
divisions without any real leadership,
attacked
were

and overthrown

the

engagement,

Crossingthe
Weissen-

their initial

Aug.'
4.

o^ MacMahon's

in detail ; and within


issue

frontier at
success

army

of the

and

with

the line of the

one

had

war

been

of the first
decided.

the invaders gained


points,
the vanguard
at Weissenburg,where
driven back, and two days later
was

tardily
proposedconcentration
preventedby the victories of Worth

MacMahon,
Aug^e!*"'

month

three

the
Worth

army,

of the French
and

fell back

forces

was

Spicheren.While
upon

Chdlons

and

Marne, Bazaine,with the second, retreated

2SO
It

The
Resistance,

FROM

METTERNICH

CH.ix

charged with the sacred duty of freeingFrench


soilfrom the invaders,
and itsoptimistic
leaders thoroughly
believed that the glories
of the Convention
about to
were
be repeated. Favre
that not an
announced
to Bismarck
inch of territory
would be ceded, and while the Prussians
advanced
made
not merely
upon Paris,preparationswere
for the defence of the capital
but also for the organization
of national resistance. It seemed
almost a degradation
that Thiers should be allowed to depart on a diplomatic
tance
begging tour round the Courts of Europe ; foreignassisneeded
seemed
; a republicalone was
unnecessary
But

of

^^^^
Falbire.

the invaders.

all this

Jemappes

of Gravelotte
of

nationalism

of

and

and

Valmy

Sedan.

And

political
stagnationhad

influence
invigorating
roused

the enthusiasm

really national
fortune of war,
should be made.
And

made

energy
Bazaine

vain

itself felt in France, the

of new-found

life had
political
that a
It is possible

Germany.
the
resistance might have
yet turned
but it was
impossiblethat such resistance
of

its

impossibilitywas
Gambetta, escapingfrom the
beua^^'"'
second

by two facts.
which had inspiredthe
now
inspiredthe victors
influence
the sterilizing

rendered

optimism was

Sentiment

victors of

"9. Bazaine

BISMARCK

was

to hurl back
Causes

TO

soon

illustrated. While

formed
a
capital,
centre
of Government
at Tours, and by his endless
into being,
armies
and determination
called new
at

Metz

blockaded

passivespectatorof his
throw
apparentlyhoped that the over-

remained

the

country'sruin. He had
tion,
of the situaof Napoleon III would leave him master
and he now
attempted to play the part which Monk
real effort
had playedin England. Instead of making some
instead of making an attempt to cut
to harass the enemy,
of devoting all
his way
through to Paris,instead even
his attention to prolongingthe siegeof Metz, he entered

THE

CH.IX

FALL

into communications

FRANCE

OF

Bismarck

with

251

and

strove

to

Fall of

secure

'

for himself

permission to restore order in France '. The


result was
as
might have been anticipated.After two
of fruitless negotiations
months
found that his
Bazaine
supplieswere
running short ; a final effort to secure
lenient

from

terms

of 173,000

failed ; he and

the Prussians

oct.^27.

his whole

and
unconditionally;
enabled to joinin the
while Prince Frederic Charles was
attack on Paris,the last regularFrench army disappeared.
In such circumstances,the heroic defence of Strass- Final
were
^f^^^
burg and Belfort and all the efforts of Gambetta
alike fruitless. The recovery of Orleans and a victoryat French,
Coulmiers
availed nothing; a month
later the tide ofj^'^/ig
turned definitely
in favour of the invaders.
Orleans
success
the
was
retaken; attempted joint operations between
garrisonof Paris and the army without the walls were
tories
reduced
defeated ; the north of France
was
by the vicment
of Amiens
and St. Quentin ; the Provisional Governarmy

forced to retire to Bordeaux.

was

fall of Paris

The

hundred

one

With

surrendered

men

and

that

was

thirtydays
the

surrender

after

and
inevitable,

now

siegeof

"

10.

Peace

compelled surrender. ^^^^^^

famine

of

Preliminaries

ended.

war

Fall of

and Thiers at |^"^28


Bismarck
arranged between
Versailles,
and, despitethe oppositionof Gambetta, a
offered.
National Assembly accepted the terms
By the_
the excep- Peace of
Peace of Frankfort,France ceded Alsace (with,
were

peace

tion of

and
Belfort),

to the

newly formed

for jwo

francs

German

days,and

it is not

of the
significance
lies rather
the War

Lorraine

an

to

Ernpire

indemnity

Prussia,or rather ^^y


;

Paris

was

'

10.

pied
occu-

of five milliards

of

exacted.

was

But

German

in the

actual

Franco-German

in the fact that

terms

War

of peace

the "11.

is to be found.

through it the

of^iberation,continued

that

work

begun

in the Ante-Parliament

It
in

The

E^'j^^e!

252

tion
of the
German

Empire,
Jan. 1 8,
1871.

METTERNICH

TO

BISMARCK

ix

CH.

Ten_
Koniggratz,reached its final consummation.
of Paris,
and in the great,Hall_
days before the capitulation
the King of Prussia accepted
of Mirrors
at Versailles,
that crown
which his brother had declined ; the German^
Empire was proclaimed,and the unity which had been_^
so
long desired was apparentlyattained with the hearty
of all the princes
of Germany. And though the corassent
diality
of that assent has possibly
been exaggerated,
though
stillreluctant,
and though the Southern States,
Bavaria was
would
not surrender all their cherished independence,
none
of
the less the triumph
almost complete.
Bismarck
was
Attempts have been made to draw an instructive moral
lesson from this triumph. It has been allegedthat the
victoryof Germany was the victoryof manliness and virtue
and vice,and Bismarck
has been pictured
decadence
over
as
a
god-fearinghero reaping the just reward of the
righteous.God-fearinghe no doubt was, but he never
allowed his fear of God to hamper him in political
life,
and

Proclama-

FROM
at

Causes ot
Bismarck's

Success.

nor

did any considerations of conscience

prevent him from

utteringdiplomaticlies. In point of honesty there is


littleto choose between
Napoleon III and Bismarck ; the
advantage of the latter lay not in his greater regard for
truth but in the more
cautious nature
of his lying. The
Emperor of the French had attempted to deceive on too
of his conceptionof
great a scale ; the very magnificence
the possibilities
latent in fraud produced his failure. The
Prussian
Chancellor was
less soaringexponent of the
a
deceptive art, and his humility gained its reward.
Napoleon III had aimed at rulinga continent by playacting
the audience

and
Bismarck

was

content

had

to appear

hissed
as

him

off the

the founder

of

he
empire, and by playingthat part successfully
himself
of

the

of
plaudits
*

Destiny

had

that very audience

failed to convince.

which

stage
a

mere

for

won

the

'

Man

CHAPTER
BISMARCK

THE

"

" 3.

Paris.

The

"

Emperors.

5.

" 7. The
" 9. The

War.

Berlin.
Mettemich

empire,restorer of unity to a long-" i. The


of his country's hated
foe,tjon of the
race, conqueror
well
merit
all
the plaudits,
all the German
to
appeared
showered
him, to have gained a triumph
upon

divided
Bismarck
honours
as

Bismarck.

and

of

Creator

new

fallen to the lot of but few

it has

neither

Yet

of
Empire. " 2. The Commune
Third
Republic. " 4. The League of the Three
Turco-Russian
Bosnia
and Bulgaria. " 6. The
The
" 8.
Treaty of
Treaty of San Stefano.
Bismarck
Year 1878. " 10. The
System. " 1 1.

Constitution of the German

I.

such

SYSTEM

he content

was

realization.
of perfect

The

did he taste

nor

German

to secure.

men

the

Empire

gladness
founded

was

a
seeming it was broad-based
people'swill,
upon
welded togetherby the sacred fireof nationality,
confirmed
and by joy,maintained
by sorrow
by the blessed union of

to

all

hearts

that

throbbed

the

unclouded

ever

reluctance
with

But

it was

Fair

one.

brightnessof

life.
everlasting
what

as

the
not

King Ludwig

the secular dream

the

was

dawn,
givento

the

sure

of Bavaria

of the House

prospect,

hope

all to know
had
of

of

with

partedfor

Wittelsbach,

he had given utterance


to the wishes of
unwillingly
with what
his fellow princes,
doubtings he had implored
William
did there
to accept an
Nor
imperialcrown.
which laydeep-rooted
appear on the surface that rancour

how

in Bavarian

and

permanent because

Saxon

hearts,a

rancour

not

the

less

momentarily forgottenin the fever


had led to
high emotion, because that forgetfulness

of
so

FROM

254

METTERNICH

untoward, so

fatal

of the dramatic

understand

BISMARCK

TO

CH.

result. Minds, filledwith the

climax

glamour
it impossible

found
Versailles,

at

how

pendence
jealouslythe skeleton of local indewas
guarded againstthe too fortunate Hohenzollerns ; ears, deafened
could not
by paeans of victory,
hear the dull murmurings of ill-omened dissent ; nor did
the eyes of entranced
beholders piercethe brightsunshine
to

of

success,

incom-

But

pletenessoi

Bismarck's

Bismarck's

of his

Tnumph.

giasm

eyes

vision
political

dazzled

not

were

the clearness

and

by the enthueye-witnessesof the

remained

undimmed

of that supreme
To
moment.
'
'
scene, he appeared to be
upliftedby the wonder

mate
of ulti-

triumph ; perhaps,he was rather depressed by the


conviction of the incompleteness
of that triumph. For
united ; the Empire was
Germany was onlypartially
only
State.
a federated
King William had inclined to abdicate
rather than
agree to anything short of the complete
Prince had urged the
triumph of Prussia ; the Crown
forcible suppressionof every vestige
of local independence.
But the masterful

opposition of
it was

necessary
were

moral

German

might well
of the bread

Empire.

The

and

to seize the

than

Fatherland

Danube
since

are

the

complete.

son

of

It

unity,peace,
Empire was
is

An

or

',since

was

and

is it a

excluded,nor

of

Prussianization
It is neither

how

seen

Germans

not

forgetthe

that Vienna
to

could

better than

was

all

secure

be

gained,

utter

denial

concord.

therefore,and

the millions

the

while

attempt

co-extensive

neither

had

; he did

Habsburgs

Berlin.

overborne

; he

golden hour

Frenchmen
the

had

involve the loss of that which

German

promise.
*

father

the half loaf of federation

and

both

triumphing over
ascendancy of

more

Constitu-

tact of the Chancellor

with

is, a
the

com-

true

good Teutons on the


purelyGerman paradise,

of

Posen

federation

is not

even

now

of free States, as

the

was

BISMARCK

THE

CH.X

old

William

Bund,

nor

SYSTEM

255

monarchy, such as
The
desired.
King of
Emperor of Germany ;

centralized

and

probably Bismarck
Prussia is German
Emperor, not
he is in theory the President among
the Princes of the
Empire. Supreme in time of war, powerful in time of
not
infringethose local rightswhich
peace, he yet may
such petty States as
to
are
Lippeguaranteed even
Detmold.
And
though for ordinarypurposes the Prussian
carries the

vote

in which

the

day

Bundesrat^ the

in the

individual

members

of

federal council

the

Empire

tion
the Constitu-

still no
represented,
in
States.

change can be made in


face of the united
oppositionof
It is,perhaps,not unwise that the

of this council

decentlyhidden

are

Southern

the

deliberations

the

from

are

of the

gaze

is confined to the less vital debates


vulgar,that publicity
House
elected by manhood
of the Reichstagsa Lower
which
imagine but imagines wrongly that
suffrage,
may
the German
it governs
Empire. If the disputeswithin
the Bundesrat
were
equallypublic,it would possiblybe

than

obvious

more

it is that

the

new

really maintained

by the armed
throbbingheart of the

that the
not

immune

And

from

inharmonious

if Bismarck

ideals at

home,

did not

he

was

disappointmentabroad.
or

and

at

least for

that he had

unity of Germany is
might of Prussia,and

united

people is

German

palpitations.

still

Imagining that he had


sure

bitter

subjectedto

more

for ever,

of

generation,crushed
laid the

of his "

full realization

attain

the power
of a
foundation

France,

long

undisputed Teutonic supremacy


by the overthrow of
by
leading Latin State, he was
sadly undeceived
wonderful
the

of his beaten

recovery

capitulationof Paris, France

towards
drifting

condition

years, the State had

been

foe.

On

seemed

of utter

the

the
the

morrow

rapidlyto

anarchy

reorganizedupon

of

era

of
be

within five
far

securer

2.

The

o/'p^g"^

METTERNICH

use FROM

TO

BISMARCK

CH.

basis than any which had been devised since the fall
with this reorganization,
the
the ancien regime. And

prospects of German
the labours

ascendancywere
of Bismarck

somewhat

rendered

clouded,
over-

less fruitful

hoped. Expectingthe establishment of the


Red Republic',which should be a splendidfoil to the
good order of the German Empire,the Chancellor found
less white than the
that the republic
established was
no
system which it had replaced.
The
For the revolution produced by the overthrow
ot
est*^"sh"^
Napoleon and the calamities of the French arms, ran the
than he had
'

Mar. 1871. same

course

Charles X

as

and

the revolutions which

had

driven

forth

Once again sober politicians


Louis-Philippe.

of the
merely to change the name
Government
againa more enthusiastic party aimed
; once
at a completerevolution. They,the communards^wished
content

were

to

abandon

that centralization which

had

hitherto vailed
preto the local

they hoped by grantingautonomy


of the
to establish the complete supremacy
communes
of Paris,
Commune
revivingthat ascendancyof
original
which had been enjoyedduringthe Revolution.
the capital
Supportedby mutinous soldiers and the National Guard,
redress of
favoured by the masses, who desired as ever
material grievances,
they were able to seize the H6tel de
ment
and the Governdrive Thiers, head of the State,'
Ville,
and acquire
of the National Assembly,to Versailles,
red flag of the social
control of part of Paris. The
revolution replacedthe dull tricolour of milk-and-water
into
came
revolutionarycommune
; a
republicanism
being,and a pale simulation of the gloriousReign of
of France
Terror was
inaugurated.The regeneration
was
begun.
had
Such regeneration
only reached the stage of
;

Second

Pans,"massacre

and

licensed arson,

which

the Commune

was

FROM

258

METTERNICH

BISMARCK

TO

CH.x

'

and to Royalists
and
only provisional,
Republicans
pure
alike it was
of primary importanceto delayall definition.
But
elected
clear,as Thiers, now
gradually it became
order could only
President,pointed out, that the existing
be changed by revolution ; revolution was
not desired by
the moderates
of either wing of the Assembly, and their

coalition enabled
France

Prussia ; the

and

the

the

abolished.

of German

troops by

indemnity;

war

had

the

army

given victory

regulatedand

was

disorder.

out

stamp

system which

revenue

increased

Guard, that historic storm-centre, was

National
Such

reorganizationbrought

Gambetta

Though

of the

payment

reorganizedon

to

to

freed from the presence

was

the prompt
was

Executive

the

somewhat

dimmed

the

its

reward.

great reputation

of national

his zeal in the

cause
by
defence,by
conducting an equallyenergeticcampaign in favour of
of the people ; though the Royalistsections
sovereignty
de Chambord,
intriguedfor the return of the Comte
able to give his country more
Thiers was
less stable
or
won

'

'

and

government

When,

disorder.

Assembly
in

hold

to

to vote

however,
own

Ministers,he abandoned
Presidency

result of his

Mahon'

the hands

1873-9-

the

those who

restoration.

president
;

as

in honour

had

bound

elected him, and

discussions

wasted

on

the time

only resulted

to throw

had

united in

They
the

power

who

to forward

accepting
hoped by

secured

Marshal, as

into

the election
a

soldier,

the interests of

the head of the State

sistently
con-

planned his overthrow.


the form of the projectedConstitution
of the Assembly, and meanwhile

supported those
Endless

the

resigned.

line and

the elder

induce

the defeat of his

and

powers
hope and

resignationwas

of
representative
delayto bringabout a

felt himself

efforts to

his

of the Monarchists, who

of MacMahon

latent forces of

definitive Constitution

limitation of his

The

the

in check

who

BISMARCK

THE

CH.x

made
to
every effort was
had in anywise committed

SYSTEM

259

the idea that France


dissipate

herself to

form
republican

of

government.
But

the

weak
too
to force the issue ; ConstituRoyalistswere
alienated by the declaration of the Comte
de ^g^,"^
were
many
Chambord
againstthe tricolour ; signs of a Bonapartist
revival alarmed allsections;
the debate on the Constitution
suddenly ceased. An amendment, formallyrecognizing
that

the

of the

head

Executive

'President

was

of the

and
Republic',reallyended the chances of a restoration,
it was
speedilyfollowed by the definitive establishment
of that system which stillmaintains.
Organizedin close
imitation of the BelgianConstitution,the Third Republic
is governed by a President,elected for seven
years by
the two
Chambers, by responsible
Ministers,and by a
Senate and Chamber
of Deputies; its generalcharacter
is conservative and to itsconservatism
to the compromise
"

which

it embodies

between

ideas

success

has

existence

its

"

been

has been

on

the brink

and

of

and
unexpected vitality

extreme

At

due.

under

imperilled
;

since it has trembled


it has shown

monarchical

times,its

MacMahon
a

publican
re-

and

coup (t^tat ; but

has

alreadyexisted
longerthan any form of government possessedby France
since the Constituent Assembly of 1789 set the example
of constitution-mongering.
And

to

Bismarck

such

conservatism

was

most

dis- "4. League

amroundly rebuked the German


^^^^
bassador at Paris for showingsympathy with the Bonapar- Emperors,
tists; he desired nothing more
than the very reddest of
red
the Rhine.
Such a Government
republicsacross

heartening. He

'

would

had

'

alienate the

Monarchical

Powers, it would

lend

weight to his warningsof the danger of socialism and of


anarchy. And it was upon these warnings that he relied
to enable him to escape a
of Tilsit',
to prevent
repetition
'

36o

TO

METTERNICH

FROM

and

of Russia

that union

between

an

and

upper

of

of such

was

Berlin.

To

the

persistent

prevent such

grind Germany to powder


the
nether
millstone, was

formation

; the eventual

aim

of his relative failure in

coalition is the index

CH.

to

cherished

Chancellor's most

which

France

nightmare of the Cabinet


which threatened
a coalition,

BISMARCK

foreignpolitics.
For a moment,
Bismarck
however, despitethe lamentable recovery
and Alexof success
of France, he secured a measure
ander
; friends were
II.
to mind
forthcoming,and a league was formed recalling
Alexander
1 1 as though
the d ays of Troppau and Verona.
bomb
haunted by some
premonitionof that nitro-glycerine
which
was
eventuallyto bring his reign to so abrupt
feared revolution with a deadly fear ; and
a conclusion,
this fear,stimulated by the German
Chancellor,served to
strengthenthose cordial relations which had subsisted
between the Courts of Petersburgand Berlin since the days
of the Polish rebellion.
Before the Tsar's blinkingeyes,
Bismarck conjuredup gaunt spectres,
red-handed socialism
blood-stained
and
anarchy triumphant; to trembling
by pointingout the one
prayers for advice,he answered
of salvation,
true way
by urging with insistence the need
for a monarchical leagueto hold in check the prevalent
dency
tenAnd Alexander, hearing,
remembered.
to disorder.
,

Bismarck
and
Austria.

At

the

time, that reconciliation between

same

Austria, for which

and

Magyars, the
Hohenzollerns
could
And

now,

when

the

at Versailles

dreams

all

Germany,

after

prepared, was

to the attainment

contribute

more

moderation

the
completed. To
establishment
of German
unity under the
had always appeared desirable ; nothing

had

Koniggratz

Bismarck's

Prussia

hope

of

of their

acceptance of dualism
had
a

the Austrians

for

ever

revived
were

and

own

the

ends.
mony
cere-

relegatedto the land


Habsburg ascendancy

won

over

to the

of
in

Hungarian

SYSTEM

BISMARCK

THE

CH.x

261
in the Dual

They realized that the dominant races


threatened
by the Pan-Slav
Monarchy were

view.

and

to be feared

that the enemy

movement,

rather at

was

Petersburg

dicated
feelingwas inof
by the fall of the anti-Prussian Beust, and by the ^all
accession to office of Andrassy, the leadingexponent of 1871/
thus
alliance.
A willing
the policyof a German
ear
was
lent to the friendly
of Bismarck, and a rapprocheovertures
ment

than

The

Berlin.

at

Courts

the two

between
The

resultant

of
hostility

of

naturallyensued.

Austria

Bismarck

was

Emperors

at Berlin.

able to

having been thus overcome,


bringabout a meeting of the three
And
though neither this conference

the
definitive alliance,

League

three

Eastern

did reach

Powers

1872.

which should
principles
govern their policy. They preparedto resist revolution in
all its forms, concertingmeasures
of
for the repression
unauthorized
nationalist agitations
and for the prevention
the

general understanding upon

of

'

socialistic

relieved from

'

outbursts.

any

The

immediate

increased

securitywas

to the so-called

by the
League of the

Chancellor

Prussian

was

anxiety,and his feelingof


practicaladhesion of Italy
Three

Emperors '. Victor


of Napoleon III,had

Emmanuel, as a result of the fall


his capital
But
and the undying hatred of Pius IX.
won
that hatred had been almost equally incurred by Francis
Joseph, who had adopted a liberal ecclesiastical policy
which

the

Bismarck,who
by

on

had

the

the dissident Catholics.

Alliance
Eastern

But

sane

nefanda

',and

by

in the

thus drawn

and

as

Kulturkampf,a controversy brought


promulgation of the dogma of Papal Infallibility,

favoured

were

'

Pope characterized

such

was

and
together,
about

Europe.
harmony was

to

it seemed

assume

not

of

The
as

three
if a

new

Courts

ruple
Quad-

the direction of Central

long duration

; the new

of

Emperors

led to the conclusion of any

other similar conferences

nor

change

262
" 5. Bosnia
and Bul-

FROM

METTERNICH

leaguewas

garia,
rock.

the

the

shipwreckedupon

soon

For

BISMARCK

TO

manifold

Eastern

Question

Crimean

War

and

had

problems

in

Treaty of

the

been

sense

no

which

Paris ;

CH.

fatal Ottoman
constitute

the

by the

solved

rather,the vanity

strated.
abundantly demonThat union of Wallachia and Moldavia
against
which
Great Britain had then laboured to provide,had
of
the less been
effected and
the
none
principality
Roumania
been
created ; Alexander
II, seizing the
the
occasion of the Franco-German
War, had denounced
Black
Sea clauses of the Treaty ; and
above
all,the
the
Porte
had
proved conclusivelyhow empty were
Powers
had
promises of reform in which the Western
continued
to
placed such touching confidence. Turks
of the fancied settlement

oppress,

Christians

troubled

the

French
been

to

Powers,

revolt ;

that fear which


in
Nor
Herzego1875. years

did

Revolt

vina,

the

passed

on

Crete

in Lebanon

produced
as
they had
Empire produced

things continued

decay of the Ottoman


begetstyranny.
eternal questiongrow

away

in

disturbances

massacre

intervention ; all
since the

been

had

the

less acute

as

the

was
contrary, its difficulty

element.
by the introduction of a new disturbing
Encouraged by the progressiveparty in Russia and by
the success
of parallel
in Italyand Germany,
movements
perhaps influenced also by the establishment of dualism
the Danube, the Slavs of the Balkan
Peninsula,
across

increased

'

those
cared

scattered
so

of nations' for whom

remnants

little,
began

to

see

visions and

to dream

Bismarck
dreams

They conceived that they might dominate


south-eastern
Europe, and the consequent agitation
in Herzegovina
A badjiarvest
speedilyled to a storm.
suppliedthe immediate cause or excuse
;_thejtax-gathere
refused to forgo their dues ; the tax-payers preferred
death in battle to death by starvation ; a revolt began in

of union.

CH.

THE

BISMARCK

263

SYSTEM

this district and

spread rapidlyto Bosnia ; Servia and


compelled
Montenegro ^rew restless; and Europe was
of the impossible.
to attempt the achievement
once
more
And
of Greek The
had been the case
as
during the War
Independence,the firstaim of the Powers was to prevent No"e"^^
isolated action by Russia.
Bismarck, though he con- Dec. 1875.
temptuously asserted that the whole Eastern Question
Pomeranian
not worth the bones of a single
was
grenadier',
feared for the fate of that harmony which
he had
so
laboriously
produced ; Andrassy had the true Austrian
-

dread

of nationalist manifestations
and

the

Tsar

both these statesmen


true

with

concert

from

as

war,

was

his

of Russian

therefore laboured

implied obligationonly

the Courts

their efforts were

Slavism

to

and

of Berlin and Vienna.

successful.

Alexander

to

For

sion;
aggresto

hold

act
a

in

time

II,hating Pan-

averse
type of revolution and constitutionally

only concerned

not

to

offend the sentiment

of his

of
to ignorethe tears
people. He did not venture
his co-religionists,
from
but he hoped that he might profit
the errors
of his uncle and of his father,that he might
avoid the Scyllaof unpopularity
less than the Charybno
dis of conflictwith the other Powers. Thus when Andrassy
produced a scheme of necessary reforms,the Tsar readily
agreed to support his recommendations
; England and
France
the
Andrassy
gave a less cordial assent, and
Note
was
duly presentedto the Porte. But its influence
somewhat
was
impairedby the fact that it did not assume
Government
a collective form, and
though the Ottoman
accepted the advice, with one
reservation,
nothing at all
in the way
done
of actingupon
it. Indeed, so far
was
from the questionbeing settled,it entered almost immediately
acute
phase.
upon a more
For perhaps as a result of the Turkish
victories in The
Bosnia,the unrest in Montenegro and Servia increased ;
*

'

METTERNICH

264 FROM
Memoran-

rebellion

May 1876. assumed


murdered
More

and
spreadto Bulgaria,

the German

decisive

Powers

and

agreed

the

upon

impose an armistice
not
grievanceswere
England declined to

when

on

'

Berlin

be

; the

party

and

to

Eastern

Memorandum
to

within

redressed

massacres

the Mohammedans

necessary

the Porte

consuls at Saloniki.

French

became

measures

CH.

the customary

serious character

more

BISMARCK

TO

intervene

if the

months.

two

any

', to

course

so

But
hostile

approval
emphasized her disby sending her fleet to Besika Bay, and from
all chance of concerted
action disappeared.
this moment
intensifiedthe difficulty
Revolution
A revolution at Constantinople
tinopie,o^ t^^ situation. Abdul Aziz, weak and a conciliator
Murad
May-Aug. of the Powers, was
deposed : his successor,
V,
speedilyreturned to that obscurityfrom which he had
II began his eventful reign.
Hamid
half-emerged; Abdul
But such events afforded a golden opportunity
affected
to the dis; Servia and Montenegro declared war
upon the
recruited by Russian volunteers ;
Sultan ; their armies were
the

to

Ottoman

Government

she

^"

and

while the whole

Balkan

Peninsula

revolt, the intei-vention of Europe,

Tsar, could

no

unpalatableand

Conference
of Reich-

July 1876.
The

longer be confined
unaccepted advice.

thus
or

to the

at
mere

flamed

into

least of the

giving of

Findingthat in event
of a conflict with
Austria,he could only count upon
German
and not upon
German
Alexander
hostility
gratitude,
II resolved to act in union with Francis Joseph ;
the two
to
an
Emperors met and~came
agreement
efforts continued,
at ReichsTadt,and though diplomatTcT
between
Russia* and Turkey was
of war
the outbreak
merely a questionof time.
And

meanwhile

Atrocrtiet"
Sympathy
May 1876. ter of the
crush

the

the Turks

did their best to alienate the

at the general characEngland. Alarmed


the Ottoman
Government
determined
to
risings,
in Bulgariabefore it reached a head ; the
unrest

of

FROM

266

Abdul

METTERNICH

Hamid

sought
that he

announcement

was

BISMARCK

TO

gain

to

about

time
to

the

by

grant

CH.

.1

startling

Constitution

the most

approvedwestern model to the whole Ottoman


Empire. But such promiseswere disregarded
; a further
conference in London
resulted in a collectivenote insisting
upon immediate reform^and to this note was
appended a
on

Russian

ultimatum.

the

In vain

Porte

assembled

the

firstTurkish Parliament and


.

pathetically
complainedthat
the unsympatheticattitude of Europe would
ruin its
efforts to establish representative
government ; in vain it
announced

its noble

for
half-liberty

resolve not to be content

Christians which

with

that

all that

Europe
desired.
Alexander
held to his course, and treating
the
UeclaraTurkish answer
of his ultimatum,immedia rejection
as
The other Powers at once proclaimed
atelydeclared war.
War,
April1877.that theywould not interfere,
though Great Britain added
that her interests must not be threatened by
a stipulation
of Constantinople
the occupation
or by any infringement
of the neutrality
of Egypt.
The occupation
of Constantinople
at firstseemed
to be
Siegeof
^^^^ within the bounds
it appearedthat
of possibility;
july^Dec.
Russia was
1877about to enjoythat easy triumph which she
with
in her contests
has always been expectedto secure
Turkey,and which she has alwaysfailed to win. Boldly
posted in the
ignoringthe Ottoman
army, which was
strongholdsnorth of the Balkans, and crossingthe
mountains
by an unexpected route, Gourko turned the
But the tide
Shipka Pass and advanced into Roumelia.
of

success

soon

turned.

With

was

the

arrival of Turkish

compelledto retreat,
entrenched by Osman
and at the same
time Plevna,
hastily
for the Imperial
Pasha,was the scene of heavy reverses
troops. During nearlysix months the town withstood all
of the Russian
attacks successfully
; the whole strength
the
reinforcements,

Russians

were

CH.

SYSTEM

BISMARCK

THE

267

againstone minor Bulgarian


fortress. The
Turks, however, failed to profitby their
and the Shipka Pass being
victories ; Plevna at last fell,
stantinople
Constill in the hands of the invaders,
the advance
on
At
was
Philip-Battle of
immediately undertaken.
was
crushinglydefeated ; ^^^^^
popoHs, the Ottoman
army
had Jan. 1878.
occupied, and the Porte, which
Adrianople was
for
treated
already sought European mediation, now

"Empire was

hurled

in vain

peace.

Alexander
advance

troubled

II

was

disinclined to end the

not

had been

" 7' The


"

^
capitalhad g^^*
Stefano.
impossible
united in opinion.

of his army
towards
the Turkish
the English Government
; it is not

that ifthe Beaconsfield Cabinet

Great

The

war.

Even as it
intervened.
actively
Parliament was
invited to make
a special
was,
grant of
this request was
and
the speeches in which
money,
that war
with Russia
was
supported showed
probable.
Nor
the danger reduced
of the
was
by the terms
Convention
of Adrianople; the Russians were
permittedConvention
advance
to
the British of Adnanwithin sight of Constantinople,
fleet passed the Dardanelles,and the situation became
Jan. 1878.
critical in the extreme.
It was
saved by the necessities
of the Tsar and the determination
of Andrassy. While
Beaconsfield was
almost
the Hungarian
openly provocative,
Britain would

insisted that the

statesman

allowed

be

have

to

form

the

basis of

proposed that a Congress should


this propositionRussia, unable
agreed.
Meanwhile
of peace
of San
and
were

the Porte

had

be
to

could

definite
assembled
face

not

Peace, and
;

and

to

general war,

been

obliged to accept terms Treaty of


well-calculated to offend Europe. By the Treaty s^^ano
Stefano,the independence of Roumania, Servia,March,

Montenegro
to

Convention

receive

was
an

recognized;
extension

the

two

latt"irStates

of territory
; Bosnia

and

METTERNICH

FROM

268

Herzegovina were

to

whose

fortresses
frontier

Danube,
brudsha

into

Attitude of

England

"^j

and

Austria.

" 8. The

Treaty of
Berlin,
July 1878.

was

taken from

BISMARCK

autonomous,

to

were

Roumania

Eastern

be

Armenia

and
Certain

TO

once

to

have

be

handed

more

to

be

CH.

Crete

to

be

minister
ad-

specialprivileges.
to Russia,
over
advanced

to

the

exchanging Bessarabia for the Doincluding


Turkey, And finally,
Bulgaria,

Roumelia

and

Macedonia,

was

to

be erected

self-governing
State,temporarily
occupiedby Russia
and guaranteed by her.
But such terms
could not be accepted either by Great
Britain,who saw all her worst nightmaresof Russians in
India realized,
her cherished
or
by Austria, who saw
dream
of a port on the Aegean for ever
falsified. Andrassy
Bosnia
and
prepared to occupy
Herzegovina,and to
mobilize the army
of the Dual
Monarchy ; Beaconsfield,
his Cabinet
the Treaty and
now
united, denounced
with
prepared for war, concluding a secret convention
nions
Turkey by which England guaranteedthe Asiatic domiof the Sultan and was
to occupy
Cyprus as a pledge
of her good faith. But the strugglewhich
appeared
inevitable was
Alexander
Bismarck
could not fight,
averted.
of peace ; the long
enthusiastic in the cause
was
of its
delayed Congress at last met, and the success
deliberations saved Europe from war.
For
of peace
result of the Congress the terms
as
a
San
Stefano
at
were
agreed upon
sensiblymodified.
of the
restricted to the territory
north
Bulgaria was
selfRoumelia
Balkans, Eastern
being granted mere
a

government,
Bosnia

and

and

left to the Sultan absolutely.

Macedonia

Herzegovina

Hungary to occupy
and Montenegro were

and

were

entrusted

administer

to

Austria-

Roumania, Servia,

independent,and Samos
into an
in
erected
But
autonomous
was
principality.
order that the Dual
Monarchy might still have an outlet
declared

SYSTEM

BISMARCK

THE

CH.X

269

expansion,Montenegro was deprivedof the


Stefano ; and the
desirable ports granted her at San
of the Ottomans,
sandjakof Novi Bazar, left in possession
formed
a
wedge between the two Slav States. In the
of Greece, who had unwiselyattempted to press
matter
themselves
with
contented
her claims by war^ the Powers
the Sultan that
to
making a pious recommendation
something should be ceded to the Hellenic kingdom.
Immediately after the conclusion of the Treaty,England
with
Turkey and occupied
published her convention
Cyprus,thus morallybinding herself to oppose any further
of the inheritance of the Sick Man.
dissipation
thus preservedin Europe, but the Treaty of Failure of
Peace
was
Berlin, like the Treaties of Adrianople and Paris before o^^g^jf
the cause
it,failed to solve the Eastern Question. And
for southward

of

that

attempt

failure is not
to

steer

maintainingand

hard

to

the

find ; the

treaty

was

of
logicalextremes
of destroyingthe Ottoman
Empire, and
between

two

it therefore suffered the fate of all half-solutions.

difficultto

an

it

could have
logicalcourse
themselves
been
precluded the
pursued. The Turks
of a European maintenance
of their Empire ;
possibility
filledwith that distrust which
a declining
race, they were
of weakness
must
a sense
produce,and they could no more
abstain from oppressing Christians than the Christians
was

could

abstain

see

from

how

Yet

more

efforts to deliver themselves

from

the

humiliatingposition assigned to them by the Koran.


And
in so far as the Treaty of Berlin expressed hope of
it has not been justified
Ottoman
an
revival,
by later
events
the recent
stantinople
triumph of progress at Con; even
givesno very sure ground for hope. Beaconsfield brought back peace
from Berlin ; the honour
of
which he boasted was
dubious.
more
England occupied
still
and
retains Cyprus ; the Ottoman
Empire has lost
'

'

'

'

FROM

270

METTERNICH

Roumelia

Eastern

BISMARCK

TO

CH.x

Crete,Bosnia and Herzegovina


have
been
annexed
to Austria-Hungary,Bulgaria has
proclaimedher independence.
Yet if the maintenance
ot Turkish
permanen
integritybe impossible,the contrary solution presents almost more

ImpossiSettle-

insurmountable

and

difficulties.

tampering: with

Any

the

ment.
.

territorial status

quo

was

rendered

extremely dangerous

and suspicions
of the Powers
jealousies
; but
if Great Britain could have forgotten
her distrust and
even
Russia and Austria their ambition, the bag and baggage
the less have been far from assuring
policywould none

by

the mutual

'

'

peace.

For

phorus,the

when

last Turk

the

had

crossed

the Bos-

conflict of nationalities in the Balkan

sula
Penin-

only have begun,and the task of reconciling


interests of those
the conflicting
of nations
remnants
would have passed the wit of the wisest diplomatists.If
the Treaty of Berlin failed to provide a permanent
solution for the Eastern
Question,it was largelybecause
bear
would
not
solution could be provided which
no
would

'

'

fruitful seeds of future discord.

ear

importance of the treaty is thus rather indirect


in the illustrationafibrded by it of
^j^^^ direct,
consisting
in
the motives which governed the conduct of statesmen
nineteenth
been
somewhat
1878. The
century has
ality
generallyregardedas the era of the triumph of Nationvictory
',but if this view be correct, then between
marked
For
there
while
is
and defeat
a most
similarity.
nowhere
secured
the rightsof peoples have
perfect
instances they have not been
in numerous
recognition,
recognizedeven imperfectly.Greece still longs for her
islands and Belgium for Luxemburg ; Italysighsfor her
and Trent ;
unredeemed
provincesof Dalmatia, Istria,
with regret that
even
Germany is obligedto remember
her language is the language of millions obeying the
The

"9. The
7

'

'

'

'

'

BISMARCK

THE

CH.x

SYSTEM

271

time, Czechs and


Habsburg sceptre. And at the same
and Poles,Bulgars and Serbs,watch
in
Croats,Roumans
dom
vain for the dawning of a brightday of unity and freeof south-eastern Europe feel little
; the subject-races
in the contemplationof a Magyar triumph. In
content
been acceptedas a
short, Nationality has by no means
Europe should be remodelled.
principle
upon which
Nor
is it very difficult to explain this fact. Few
Causes of
European nations possess a population so homogeneous of^Nation
could be appliedto them without peril
that the principle
ality'.
of races
is often
to their very existence ; the intermingling
so
complete that the recognitionof the rightsof one
people almost necessarilyinvolves the sacrificeof another.
And
',
though the theorists who championed Nationality
and who
popularizedthat doctrine,probably overlooked
such triflesand sincerely
believed in the practicability
of
the creed
which
they preached, such delusions have
To them, the
hardly been shared by serious politicians.
convenient ; it might afford a well-sounding
doctrine was
to attract ; it might supply a cloak
catchword wherewith
of less respectableambitions
for the concealment
and
selfish aims.
more
They hoped to use it to assist them
in the accomplishment of their designs; they hoped to
'

'

discard it when
Of those who
Bismarck

was

realized

with

frank
were

power

it had

served

trusted
the
his

to

make

use

prominent

most

of
and

Nationality
'," 10.
skilful.

wonted

he set

He

that the day


perspicacity
passed ; he realized that the masses

had
repression
hardlyenthusiasts

which

so

its purpose.

ever

on

f'^^*^^

of

behalf of that ideal of national

before

him.

But

he

did not

for

despairof gainingthe help of the Many ; he believed


that,whether or no the People could be corrupted,they
that the
could most
He
knew
certainlybe deceived.
wish of the masses
for relief from material distress.
was
that

The

Failure of
t

ystem.

273

FROM

that

they

METTERNICH
had

been

TO

BISMARCK
Mazzini

CH.x

and

by other
idealists to look for such relief in political
unityand to
of this
expect from alien rule pangs of hunger. And
knowledge he availed himself to win popular approval
for the methods
he adopted in order to establish
which
Prussian ascendancyin Germany and German
ascendancy
in Europe. Taxes
were
increased,conscription
enforced,
reduced
in
to a
ParliamentaryGovernment
formality,
the sacred cause
of unity,or, as the Many understood
it,
in the cause
of the hungry.
So far from openly flouting
the wishes of the people,Bismarck
professedly
appearedas
the champion of a popular cause, as labouring
to secure
for the masses
all that they most
desired.
And
with complete success
at first he met
; Germany
unified under Prussian leadership
most
and assumed
^^^
a foreBut unfortunately
place in the councils of the Continent.
the

taught by

Bismarck

system

laboured

under

one

fatal

real cry,
a
disadvantage. The cry for bread was
expressing a deeply felt need, nor could it be stilled
either by the most
eloquentappealsto loftysentiment or
of national glory.
by the attainment of the fullest measure
And
when
the masses
discovered, as they discovered
both in Italyand in Germany, that the
only too soon
boasted advantagesof union were
elusive as to require
so
explanation; when they found that so far from bringing
of
abundance
of food, unity brought rather abundance
of drills,
and
for
taxes
their enthusiasm
Nationality
somewhat
was
abated,and they lent a ready ear to the
preachersof another gospel. Cosmopolitanideas became
prevalent; Socialism,in all its myriad forms, gained
adherents ; and the new
like the old,found its
agitation,
'

'

ultimate
for

more

basis in that permanent


to

drink

unrest.
political

which

Bismarck

has

desire for
ever

viewed

more

to eat and

lain at the root


with

alarrn the

of all

growth

FROM

274

of

METTERNICH

Metternich

total

human

of

the

human

is

of

bought

scalding

and
done

little

and

distress.

for

bread

daily

would

storm,

enjoying
peace.

the

upon

glory

alien

comfort

which

more

his

but

to

rule

thinly
hourly
liberty,

disguises
threatens

more

the
to

taxes,

of

poverty
in

cry

of

from

could
And

less

power

gain
the

vailing
pre-

danger

ever-present

and

the

conscript

many

tinent
Con-

the

relief

devastate

vain

weighs

armaments

he

has

purchase

mother.

sorrowing

hearts

broken

still

nation,
so

been

have

tale

some

the

amid

peoples

for

if

Christmas

ever

masses

groaning

united

the

dear

of

sighs

mitigation

in

destroying

burden

creased
in-

the

freedom

the

liberated

the

peasant
of

soul-

as

paid

and

the

heavily

calm
of

blood

crushing

welcome

bring

of

remove

many

and

price

and

faintly

as

price,

the

oppressive

heard

sum-

obscurely

for

Unity

Indeed,

more

at

tears

to

concealed

interests.

jarring
"

is

The

but
feel

CH.

vague.

been

statesmen

delicately

goodwill

and

has

which

ardour

of

bought

to

happiness

woe

message
clash

shadowy

becomes

of

BISMARCK

TO

assurance

Europe
of

"in

AUTHORITIES
Detailed

will
bibliographies

History, Lavisse
The

et

in the

Cambridge

Modern

Seignobos,"c.

History,vol. x.
Histoire
Gindrale,vol. x, xi,xii.
Rambaud,
Political History of Contemporary Europe (trans.).

Cambridge

Lavisse

Rambaud,

be found

et

Seignobos,

Modern

Fyffe, Modern
Alison

Europe.
Phillips, Modem

Europe.
de 1789

Jours.
Leger, Histoire de PAutriche-Hongrie (ed.1895).
(1852-71).
Denis, V Empire Allemand
Martin,

Histoire

de France

ct nos

Clarke, Modern
Spain.
Alison
Phillips, War of Greek Independence.
Rambaud,
History of Russia (trans.).
Turks.
Creasy, Ottoman
Bolton
King, History ofItalian Unity.
Rose, Development of the European Nations, 1870-1900.
Butler

Spencer
Bolton

Walpole, History ofEngland


King, Mazzini.
Cavour.

Cesaresco,
Headlam,

since the Peace.

Bismarck.

CoxE, House

of Austria

(ed.Bell,vol. iv,Appendix).

S %

SUMMARY

CHRONOLOGICAL

1815-1878
Events

Date

Page

14-18 Congress of Vienna


1815 Holy Alliance and Quadruple Alliance.
18

First

Ministryof

Richelieu

1817

Wartburg Festival

1818

Conference

1819

Decazes'

21

44

of

Aix-la-Chapelle
Ministryin France

Convention

22

24

of

45

Teplitz: the Carlsbad


Grdgoire

Decrees

45

of the Ahh6

Election

of the Duke

Murder

Revolution
Vienna

in

of

Berry

25
26

fall of Decazes

Spain

32

46

Final Act
of Ali of

Janina
Italy: Conference of Troppau
Attempt of Hypsilantiin Moldavia
Revolt

Conference
Revolt

51

....

in

Revolts
1821

in France

12

of Kotzebue

Murder

1820

....

of Laibach

Austrian

in the Morea

execution

38
53

intervention

in

of the Patriarch

Ministryof Villele
1822

Defeat

1823

1824
1825

Publication

of the Monroe
of Charles

Intervention

Fall of
Protocol

Treaty

60

Doctrine
.

74

57
60

....

accession

of Nicholas

Missolonghi
of London
of London

Battle of Navarino

:
on

78

Ali in Greece

Petersburg

of Alexander

59

75

....

of Mehemet
of

Flag

Spain

of Czernowitz

Death

1827

in

Greek

Conference

Conference

1826

58,70

intervention

Accession

54

56

....

of Verona

Canning recognizesthe
French

38
28

of Ali of Drama

Congress

Italy

Treaty of Akkerman
the Greek

Question

60

58
64
65
65

CHRONOLOGICAL

SUMMARY

Date

1815-1878

277

Events

Page

1827

Ministryof Martignac

81

1828

Turco-Russian

65

1829

Ministry of Polignac
Treaty of Adrianople

1830

War

Revolution

French

Accession

81
66

abdication

of Charles

.85

of

Louis-Philippe
BelgianRevolution : First Treaty of

8g
London

.91

Polish Rebellion

1831

1832

95

Risings in Italy

99

Casimir-Pdrier

ministry

Second

Treaty

of London

French

occupationof Ancona

Murder

of

First

113

independenceof

between

67

......

AH

Mehemet

and

the

Sultan

battle of Konieh

1833

Treaties

Pragmatic

Sanction

Conventions

1834

and

death

Skelessi
of Ferdinand

VII

Miinchengratz and Berlin


The
Royal Statute published in Spain
Beginning of the Carlist War
Alliance

of Francis

Second

11

on

of Ferdinand
AH

Mehemet

and

.119
.

122

loi

.123
123

Spanish Question

accession

between

war

the

Death

of

Quadruple
1835
1839

117

Kutaya and Unkiar

of

the

"

131

Sultan

1840

Ministryof Guizot

1846

: fallof Mehemet
Treaty of London
The Spanish Marriages
Rising in Galicia

Election

1847

The

Occupation of

1848

Austria

Pope Pius

Sonderbund

and

AH

130

Sardinia

.141

IX

142

in Switzerland
Ferrara

Revolution:

fall of Louis-

121

125

125

by Austria
of Cracow
Annexation
by Austria
Constitution g^rantedto Sicilyand Naples
French

19

115

between
of

13

battle of Nisib

Tariff- war

95

loi

Capodistrias

war

Belgium

....

143

....

130

Philippe

"

Fall of Metternich

143
129
131

Risings in Germany : revolt at Berlin


Constitutions granted to Rome
and Sardinia
Revolt of Lombardy and Venetia
.

.151

.145

143

278

CHRONOLOGICAL

SUMMARY

Date

1848

1815-1878

Events
Austro-Sardinian
The

Frankfort

Rising in

War

battle of Custozza

.177

Windischgratztakes Prague

Parliament

Ferdinand

of

171
I

Joseph
Napoleon, President

Louis

1849

accession

of

Francis
172

of the French

Republic

Schwarzenberg dissolves the Austrian Parliament


Declaration of Hungarian Independence
:

Russian

of

invasion

Dissolution

abdication

Hungary

of the Frankfort

French

1850

of Charles

occupy Rome
Austrians take Venice

Interview

of Olmiitz

Albert

Treaty of
Louis

1854

Parliament

restoration of Pius

.181

IX

restoration

of

Germanic

the

on

battles

Schleswig-Holstein
Question
Emperor of the French
of the Alma, Balaclava, and

the

Inkerman

1855

Death

1856

Congress

1858

Interview

and

195
195

Treaty of Paris

between

Napoleon

end of the Crimean

III and

Cavour

War

195

at Plom-

bi^res

200

.1859 Franco-Austrian

War;

battles of

and

Magenta

Sol-

ferino
Truce
i860

202

of Villafranca

Annexation

202

of

Tuscany and Modena


by Sardinia
Garibaldi's expeditionto Sicily
and Naples
.

Battle of Castel Fidardo


1 86

Kingdom
Death

1862

of

205

becomes

minister

242

in Prussia

Schleswig-HolsteinQuestion reopened by
VII

204

204

Frederic

203

204

......

Italyformed

Expeditionbegins

Bismarck

1863

of Cavour

Mexican

188

194

Tchemaya
Sebastopol

of

215

193

of Nicholas

Battle of
Fall

168

167

Napoleon becomes
War

175
166

182

London

Crimean

172

of Villages 176
capitulation

Confederation

1852

161

Battle of Novara

169
172

Windischgratztakes Vienna
Abdication

162

Parliament

Bohemia

Hungarian

Page

of Denmark

the death

.213
of

215

CHRONOLOGICAL

SUMMARY

Date

815-1878

279

Events

1863

Polish

1864

Austria

Page

rising
and

1865

Convention

1866

The

Prussia

of

The

Schleswig-Holstein

occupy

Weeks'

217

War

battle

of

Koniggfratz

North

Battle

223
Confederation

German

of Mentana

French

in Austria

Ministry

Beust

220
.

Prague

226

formed

246

Rome

reoccupy

establishment

1867

.216
.

of Gastein

Seven

Peace

243

of

Dual

the

Monarchy

Question

1870

225
of

Spanish

the

Franco-German
and
Fall

Succession

247

....

battles

War:

of

Worth,

Gravelotte,
248

Sedan
of the

Empire

Second

Provisional

in

Government

France

249

of Paris

Siege

Surrender

187

250

of

Bazaine

at

of the

German

Proclamation

Establishment
of

Constitution

of

in

of

Conference
Turco-Russian

1878

Convention

Treaty
Congress

MacMahon

President

252

.257

of

the

258
Third

Republic

....

263

Atrocities

'

264
265

Constantinople
War

259
262

Note

Bulgarian

1877

the

Republic

Herzegovina

Andrassy
'

third

Thiers

RepubHc

The

251

French

Rising

1876

Versailles

at

251

of the

Resignation

The

Empire

of Frankfort

Peace

1875

250

of Paris

Capitulation

1873

Metz

siege of Plevna

266
....

Adrianople

267

of San

Stefano

267

and

Treaty

of

of Berlin

268

a8o

t/3

eq
c/)

"
W

282

W
H
C/5

ID

"^J

IIg

ll^s"

-.5

ov-

h-1

"

Q
o

O
m

w
CO
1^

2:1

W
H

*^

^"

CO
o

oo

'

^
"

fe

CO

INDEX
Abdul

Aziz, 264.

Abdul
Abdul

Hamid

Balbo, Cesare, 136.

II, 264, 266.

Medjid, 120,

Acre, 117, 118,

Barcelona, 32.
Barrot,Odillon,128, 129.

190,

121.

Adana, 119.

Adrianople,67, 267.
Adrianople,Convention of, 267.
Adrianople,Treaty of,67, 269.
Agram, 148, 225.
Conference of, 22,
Aix-la-Chapelle,
n,

Alexander

Treaty of,64, 67.


I, of Russia,i6ff,22,

31,

Algiers,84, 85.
Ali of

Drama, 55, 56.

Aliof

Janina,51,52,

55.

251.

Amiens, battle,251.
100,

10

1, 113, 204.

Andrassy,246, 261,263,267,268.
Angers, 233.
Angouleme, duke of, 26, 75 ff,86,
88, 122.
251.

Armenia, 268.
Arta, battle,
55, 68.
Asia Minor, 117, 119, 195.

Benedek,

222.

Benedetti,
247.
Berlin,152, 153, 180, 182, 222,
254, 261.
Berlin,Convention

of

Berlin, Congress

and

247,

(1833),101.
Treaty

of

Bemadotte,9.
Berry,Duke of,26, 28.
Besika Bay, 191, 264.
268.
Bessarabia,
Beust, 225, 226, 246, 261.
interview of, 221,
Biarritz,

224, 244.

Bilbao, 123.
Bismarck, 208-13, 215-7,

220-9,

247-56, 259-63,271-3.
Blanc,Louis,127, 156, 157, 158.
Blum, 171.
Bohemia, 106, 148-9, 169, 170,
245,

Bologna, 99.
Bordeaux, 251.
Bordeaux,

Austria,9, 10, 12-15, 1?, 33. 34, 3^9, 41, 43, 44, 46, 58, 60, 65, 68,
71, 73, 92, loi, 106, 113, 118,

135-8,140,

113, 245,

222.

Aspromonte, 205, 236.


Athens, 58.

121,130-3,

106,

270.
Bem, 175, 177.

244,

Ante-Parliament,
the,153,153,
Antwerp, 92, 94, 95.

51,

Beaumont, battle,
249.
121.
Beirilt,

(1878),268-70.

Alma, battle,193.

Ancona,

226, 252.

Belgium, 89 ff,99,

33, 36, VI, 43, 44,62ff,58,6off,


71, 95" 96, 97" 105Alexander II, of Russia,196, 221,
243, 244, 260-7.
Alexandria,120, 121,
Alfieri,
137,

Alsace,11,

222,

Bazaine, 248-51.

Belfort,251.

42, 44-

Akkerman,

Basque Provinces,123.
Batthyany,173, 174.
Bavaria, 10, 46, 152, 153, 182, 214,

141, 145-

163 ff, 169-77, 178, 181-3,

191, 192, 196,197-203, 206, 21027, 343, 244, 246,248,260-70.

Duke

of, 88 (see Chambord,Comte de).


Bosnia, 263, 267, 268, 270.
Brandenburg,iSo.
Brandenburg,Count, 180,
Brescia,166.
Brussels,92,
Bucharest,Treaty of,48.
Buda-Pest, 147, 153, i72ff,
177, 219,
225.

Bach, 218, 219.


Baden, 181, 226, 227.
Balaclava,battle,194.

Bulgaria,260, 264,265, 270.


Buol, Count,
Byron, 58.

44.

INDEX

284

Cadiz,31, 75, 76.


Calderon,32.
Calomarde, 76.
Canning, 59, 60, 64, 65, 68, 72, 74,
89, lOI.
Canrobert,195.
Capodistrias,
17, 52, 67.
Carlos,Don,

122

ff.

Decrees, 45, 46, 152.

Casimir-P^rier,87, 99,

loi,

113,

114, 115.
Castel Fidardo, 204.

16, 55, 72.


Castlereagh,
Cavaignac, 83, 86, 87, 127,

159,

160, 162.

Cavour, 143, 197-205,


Cayla,madame, 28.
Chalons,248.

209, 234.

Chambord, Comte de, 258, 259.


Charles X, of France,19 ff,
78ff,100,
101,

Charles

III,

157, 256.

Albert,of Sardinia,36, 37,

98, 140-2,
198, 199.

Massimo, 136, 141, 198.


d'Azeglio,
Deak, Francis,147, 148, 225.
Decazes, 23, 24 ff,80.
De
De

Hauranne, Duvergier,128.
Lhuys, Drouyn, 236.

Dembinski,174, 177.

Carlotta,122.
Carlsbad

Dalmatia, 270.
Damascus, 117,
Dardanelles,55, 119, 267.

145,

163-6, 168, 173,

of Sardinia,
Charles Felix,
37, 99.
Chateaubriand,19, 72, 73, 78, 79.
Chaumont, Treatyof,13.

Chios, 55,

Denmark, 9, 179, 215, 216, 244.


DeSerre, 26, 28.
Dessoles,24.
66, 97.
Diebitsch,
Disraeli (Beaconsfield),
113, 265,
267, 268,269.
Dobrudsha, 268.
Dresden, 181.

Durando, 136.

Egypt,57.

121, 266.

Fanny,144.
Elsler,
Ems, 247.

Eotvos, 147.
Epirus,51, 52, 55.
Ernest,of Hanover, 151.
Espartero,123, 124.
Espinasse,232.
Eugenie,Empress, 234, 247,
Eupatoria,193.

249.

of Gllicksburg,
(Christian
Christian,
IX of Denmark), 215, 216,
Favre,Jules,233, 237, 249, 350.
Ferdinand
Civita Vecchia,168.
I, of Austria, 131, 146,
149, 150, 170-4, 176, 219.
Codrington,65.
Ferdinand
I, of Naples, 35, 38, 39.
Constant,24.
Ferdinand
Grand
VII, of Spain, 28, 30 ff,
Duke, 62, 96.
Constantine,
70 ff,122, 123.
Constantinople,
119, 120, 190, 191,
Ferrara,
143, 168.
267,
269.
264,266,
193,
Conference of, 265,
Finland,9.
Constantinople,
266.
Fouch6, 21.
216.
Fould, 236.
Copenhagen,
France,
7-13, 18-27,30, 33, 38, 40,
Cordova, 32.
60, 65,68, 71-89,93, 97, 99, loi,
Corunna, 32.
109-30,
135, 156-62, 167, 183,
Coulmiers,battle,251.
184-207,
214, 221, 223, 224, 227,
Cracow, 10, 130.
268.
228,
230-51, 255-60,263.
Crete,57, 117, 119, 121, 262,
Francis
262.
II, of Austria, 14, 42, 60,
Crimea, the,193-5, 246,

Cristina,122

ff.

Croatia,148, 150, 151, 220.


165.
Curtatone,battle,
Custozza (first
165,166,167,
battle),
223.
173, 192 : (secondbattle),
Cyprus, 268, 269.
Czernowitz,Conference of,60,63,68.
Czoreg, 177.

130, 145-

Francis
Francis

II,of Naples, 204.


IV, of Modena, 98.

Francis d'Assisi,
125.
Francis Joseph, 172,
193, 202, 219-25,

174-6, 177,
246, 261, 264.

Frankfort, 45, 178, 179, 214, 218,


222,

224.

iSs

INDEX
Parliament,171, 178-82,

Frankfort
209,

211.

Frankfort,Peace

Frayssinous,
29,
Frederic

Homs,

of,251.
79.

VII, of Denmark, 215, 216.

Frederic,of Augustenburg,215-18.

Augustus,of

Frederic

Holy Alliance,12, 13, 16, 54, 105.


Holy Roman
Empire,8, 40, 152.
117.

Hrabowsky, 173.
Hungary, 106, 130, 146-51, 171-7,
219, 220, 223, 225, 226.

Alexander, 52,
Hypsilanti,

Saxony, 10.

53.

Frederic

Charles, 249, 251,


Frederic William III,of Prussia,16,
44.45.71.92.
Frederic William
152.

IV, of Prussia,
151,

179-83. 193,

Ibrahim, pasha,57, 58,65, ii7ff.


Provinces,9, 130.
Illyrian

Imola, 142.
Inkerman, battle,194.

209-11.

Innsbruck,150.
Gaeta, 168, 204.
Gaj, 148.
Galicia,130.
Gambetta, 249-51, 258.

Garay, 31.
Garibaldi,167,168, 198,
208, 234, 240, 246.
Gastein

Genoa,

Convention
,

of,2 1 7

204,

2 1

205,

8,2 2

Ionian Islands,9.
Isabella II,of Spain,122, 124, 125,
247.
Istria,270.
Italy,
8,9, 33-9, 71,98-100,1 12, 113,
135-45. 151. 154. 162-9,177. 197207, 219, 221, 222, 223, 234, 235,
241, 242, 246, 248, 261,262, 270.

1.

10.

Germany (GermanicConfederation;
German
Empire),8,10,40-6,105,
151-4. 177-83,197.209-28, 24462, 264, 270, 272.
Gioberti,136, 137, 142.
Gizzi,142.
Gladstone, 265.
Goito,battle,
145, 164.
Gorgei, 174-7.
Gourko, 266.
Gramont,

248.

Janina, 52.

Jassy,53.
Jellacic,
150, 151, 171, 173, 174.
John, Archduke, 178.
Juarez,242-3,
Kanaris,55.
Kiel, 217.

Kolokotrones,56.
Konieh, battle,1 1 7.
Koniggratz,battle,222,

Gravelotte,battle,
249, 250.
Great

244,

223,

225,

252, 260.

Britain

Korais, 50.
(England),9, 13, 15,
Kossuth, 130, 147, 148, 156, 164,
33. 38, 58,59. 64-6,68, 71-4, 92117-21, 124-6,
173-7. 223.
5. 97. loi. "3.
167,
Kotzebue,
200,
135. 159.
190-7, 199,
17, 45, 95.
Kremsier, 171 : (parliamentat),
207, 235,242,243,246,249,262-70.
Greece,49-69, 269, 270.
172, 175Gregoire,Abb^, 25, 26.
Kriidener,madame, 16, 95.
"

Gregorios,54.
GregoryXVI, 99, 142.
Guemon-Ranville,83.
Guizot, 23, 85, 88, 114,

Kurshid,pasha, 52, 55.


Kutaya, peace of, 119.
Kutchuk-Kainardji,
peace of,48.
115, 120-9.
La

Hama,

117.

Hanover, 181, 182, 222,224.


Hanover, Conference of, 55.

Hardenberg,44.
Herzegovina,262, 268, 270.
Hesse-Cassel,182, 224,
Hesse-Darmstadt,226, 227.
Holland, 10,

92, 93.

Bisbal,32.
Lafayette,24, 83, 87,88, 99, iii.
Laflitte,
87, 99, iiiff.
Laibach, Conference of, 28, 38, 39,
54. 72, 273.

La

Marmora, 199.

Lamartine,129, 156-9.
Lamberg, 173.
a a 2.
Langenzalsa,battle,

285

INDEX

Larissa,55.
Lauenburg, 215, 217,
La Vendee, 127.

Martignac,81.
Mataflorida,
31, 71.
Maximilian, Archduke, 243.
Mazzini,137-41, 156, 167,168, 198,

Lebanon, 262,
Le Boeuf,248.

205, 208.
Mehemet
Ali, 57,

Latour, 170.

162, 186.
Ledru-Rollin,
Leghorn, 143, 167.
Leipsic,
8, 44.
battle,
Leo XII, 98.
Leopold, of Saxe-Coburg,king
Belgium, 67, 94.

of

Leopold,of Hohenzollern, 247.


Leopold,of Tuscany, 143.
Limburg, 94, 95.
Lippe-Detmold, 255.
Lissa,battle,
223.
(Lombardo Venetian
Lombardy,
Kingdom), 9, 35, 136, 141, 144,
145, 165 ff,173, 199, 202-3.
London, protocol of (1826), 64;
Treaty of (1827),65 ; Conference
and
Treaties of (1831), 93 ff;
Treatyof(i84o),i2i; Convention
of (1852),
215; Treaty of (1867),
-

58, 117 ff,190.


Menshikov, 190, 191, 193.
Mentana, battle,246, 248.
Metternich,14-18, 23, 30, 33-46,
54. 55. 59-61, 65, 69, 70-3, 84,
92, 93, 95. 98, 100-6, 119, 121,
124, 129-133, 134, 137, 140-47,
149-155. 169, 177, 208, 210, 213,
219. 273. 274.
Metz, 249, 250, 251.
Mexico, 242, 243.
Miguel, 74, 89, 113, 124.
Milan, 144, 164, 202.

Missolonghi,50, 55-8.
Modena, 9, 98, 99, 167, 203.
Moldavia, 53, 64, 191, 192, 194,
196, 262.
Mole, 115, 129.
Moltke, 249.
Monroe
Doctrine,74, 243.
Montenegro,263,264,267,268,269.
245.
Lorraine, 11, 251.
Montmorency, 72.
Louis XVIII, of France, 18 ff,
Montpensier,125.
75, 78.
Morea, 52 ff,117.
Louis,Baron, 23 if,72, 83.
Louis-Philippe,
King of the French, Morelli,36.
[123.
83, 87 ff,93 ff,97,99, loi, 109 ff, Morny, 187.
Convention
of, loi,
Miinchengratz,
118,120-29,131,157,159,189,256.
Murad
Lucerne, 126.
V, 264.
of
Bavaria,
Ludwig,
253.
Naples (kingdom of the Two
Luisa,125.
Sicilies),
Luxemburg, 94, 95, 221, 245, 270.
35-9, 71, 99, 136, 143,
169, 204.
Lyons, 127.
Napoleon I, 7,8, 9, 16, 105, 118,
Macedonia, 268.
133. 148. 160, 162.
MacMahon,
Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon),
248, 249, 25S, 259.
Madrid, 32, 71, 73, 75, 76, 123.
154,160-2,183,184-207,208-10,
202.
Magenta, battle,
312, 221, 223, 224, 227-29, 230Magnan, 187.
52, 257.
Mahmoud
II, 47 ff,117 ff.
Napoleon, Prince,235.
Nassau, 224.
Malakoff,the, 195.
Malmo, truce of, 179.
Nauplia,56, 58.
Navarino, 58 ; battle,
Malta, 9.
65,66,69, 80.
Netherlands,Kingdom of the United,
Manin, 166, 167.
Manteuffel,182, 210.
10, 12, 89 ff,100.
Mantua, 165,202.
Ney, 20.
Maria, of Portugal,74, 124.
Nice, 201, 203, 205, 234.
Nicholas
I, of Russia, 62 ff,84, 92,
Marie-Louise,9, 99.
Marmont, 86,87.
95 ff,106, 118 ff, 152, 176, 181
battle,
Mars-la-Tour,
249.
190-4.

INDEX
Florence,194.
Nightingale,
Nikolsburg,Trace

387
Prague, 148,169, 170,
Prague, Peace of, 223,
Pressbnrg,149, 172,

of,224,

Nisib,battle,1 20.
Nola, 36.

Prim, 247.

North

Prassia,
9-13,

German

Confederation,
224,

226, 227, 245.


Norway, 9.
Novara, battle,
166,167,168,198,
199.
Novi Bazar, 269.
Odessa, 21, 49.
OUivier, 233, 237, 239, 240, 241.
Olmiitz, 170, 182, 210.
Omar, pasha, 191.
Orleans, 251.

41,

174.
224, 228.

43-6, 60, 68, 73,

92, 93" 94. loi. 105, "8, 121,


152, 153, 179. 180, 181, 191, 196,
209-29, 242-52,254,

255,

258,272.

Psara,57.
Pylos,58.
Alliance

Quadruple
22,

23,

(1815),13,

37-9, 43, 47, 55,


59. 60, 68, 69, 72, 74, 75, lor,
105. 273-

Orsini,200, 232.
QuadrupleAlliance (1834),113,
Osman, pasha, 266.
Quiroga, 32.
Ostrolenka,battle,
97.
Otto,of Bavaria,King of Greece, 67. Radetzky, 145, 164(1.
Ottoman
Empire, 46 ff,loi, 117 ff, Rambouillet,87.
Reichstadt,264.
136, 190-6, 199, 262-70.
Reshid,pasha, 190.
Oudinot, 169.
Richelieu,21-4, 27, 28.
Palatinate,Bavarian,10, 245.
Riego, 32, 76.
Palermo, 143, 153.
Palmerston, 125, 126.

Rieti,battle,39.

of the Church),
Papal States (States
8, 35. 98 ff,136, 142, 143. 204.
Paris,86 ff,129, 153, 158, 159, 167,
187, 188, 238, 241, 244, 249-51,

205.
Rome, 142, 143, 166-9, ^85,
204, 236, 239, 240, 246, 261.

255-7-

Paris,Peace of (1815),22.
Paris, Congress of, 196, 197,
200,

207,

199,

230.

Paris,Treaty of, 196, 197, 269.


Parma, 9, 35- 99. 167.
Paskievitch,97, 106.
Pedro, 74, 124.
P^lissier,195.

Rochefort,240,
Romagna, 204,

Peschiera,203.

Petersburg,
17, 62, 63,96, 190, 192.
Conference of,60,63,68.
Petersburg,
battle,
Philippopolis,
267.

241.

186,

Rossi,168.
Rouher, 239, 240, 249.
Roumania, 262, 267, 268.
Ronmelia, 266,268, 270.
Royer-CoUard, 23, 26, 84.
Russia,9, 13, 48, 52, 53,54, 59,6264. 68, 73, 77, 92, 96, loi, 11821, 176,177,182, 183, 190-7, 199,
206, 221, 241, 243, 246,248, 260,
St. Amaud,
187, 193.
St. Cloud, 86.
St. Cyr, Gouvoin, 22, 23,
St. Quentin,battle,
251.

26, 72.

Saloniki,264.
Salvati,36.

163,167-9,
198,219,

234, 261.

Plevna, 266, 267.


Plombieres, interview of,200.
Poland, 9, 16, 38, 95 ff,106, III,

Salzburg,9.
Samos, 268.
San Stefano,treatyof,267, 268.
Sardinia (Piedmont), 10, 17, 36-9,
99. 136, 140, 143,
197-201.

113, 221, 243, 244.


Polignac,82 ff,iir.

Savoy, 141,

201, 203,

Portugal,74, 89, 113.

Saxe-Weimar

Grand
,

Posen,

Saxony, 10,

254.

124.

262-270.

Pepe, 36.
Persia,64.

Pius VIII, 98.


Pius IX, 140-2,

15,

25, 34,

165,167,

195,

205, 234.
Duke

of ,43 , 45

152, 181, 182, 222, 224.

INDEX

288

Skelessi,
treatyof,119, 120,

Scheldt, 94, 95.

Unkiar

78,179, 215-17,
Schleswig-Holstein,!

190.
United States,243.

220,

221, 226-8.

Schmerling,178.
Schwarzenberg,171,172,175,1 80-2,
210,

218.

Varna, 193.
Venetia, 145, 202,

Schwechat, battle,
171.

203,

204,

220,

223, 224.

221,

Sebastopol,192-5, 197.
Sedan, battle,249, 250.
Servia,64, 196, 263, 264, 267,268.

Venice, 166, 167.


Verona, Congress eC, 58, 70-5, 260,

Seville,75.
Shipka Pass, 266, 267.

Versailles,
251-3, 256, 257.
Vicenza, 165.
Victor Emmanuel
I,of Sardinia, 36,

Sicily,
143, 204.
66, 192.
Silistria,
Sinope,battle,191, 193.
Solferino,battle,202, 242, 248.

37.
Victor Emmanuel

198-202, 210,

Sonderbund, 125, 126,


Soult,115.
Spain, 8, 30-3, 68, 70-7, 105, 106,
"3"

121-5,

242,

273-

II,of Sardinia,1 66,


223,

236,239, 261.

Vienna, 129, 131, 132,

169, 170,171,
220, 223,

145,
174, 177.191. 219,
144,

225.

Vienna, Congress of, 8-15,

243, 247.

248.
Spicheren,battle,

41,

21, 40,

89, TOO, 106.

Spielberg,
144.

Vienna,

Stadion, 105.
Stein, 16,43, 105.

Vienna, Conference

Conference

of

46.
(1820),

Strassburg,
251.
Stratford de Redcliffe,
191.
181.
Stuttgart,

of,(1855),194.
Truce
of,
202,203, 205,
Villafranca,
242, 248.
Villages,177.
115.
28, 29, 71 ff,"jSff,
Villele,

Swedish

VioUet-le-Duc, 233.

Pomerania, 9.

Switzerland,
10, 125, 126.

Syria,117,

battle,
Vionville,
249.
Volo, 68.

121.

119,

Szechenyi,147.
Wallachia, 53, 64, 191, 192, 194,

Talleyrand,21, 83, 85.


Tchernaya,battle,195, 199.

196,262.
Warsaw, 62, 96,97, 106.

Tegetthoff,
223.
Temesvar, battle,177.
Teplitz,Conference of,45.
Thiers, 88, 114, 115, 120, 128, 129,

238, 239, 245,


232,
256-8.
Todleben, 193.

250,

251,

99 ff.
William
I,of Prussia,211, 212, 217,

Tours, 250.

Transylvania,
53, 174, 175, 177.
Trent, 270.
Triest,223.

221,

226-8, 247, 252-4.

Windischgratz,150, 169, 170, 171,


174. 175-

Worth, battle,248.
Wurtemberg, 46, 181, 226, 227.

56, 58.
Tripolitza,
Trochu,

Grand-duchy of,9,
Wartburg Festival,44.
Weissenberg, battle,248.
Wellington,21, 27, 64, 72, 75.
William, king of the Netherlands,

Warsaw,

249.

Troppau, Conference of,17, 28,37-9,


Turin, Treaty of,234.

Bermudez, 123.
ZoUverein, the, 213, 214, 217.

Tuscany, 35, 99, 143, 167, 203.


Tyrol, 9.

Zumalacarregui,123.
Zurich, Treaty of,203.

Zea

72, 260, 273.

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