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APPLIED MECHANICS

SIMPLE PENDULUM

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


(Sep-Dec 2015)

Introduction:
There is a hypothesis says "The longer the length of a simple
pendulum, the longer would be the period of oscillations". In this
experiment, we're going to investigate this supposition and find out the
relationship between the length of the pendulum and period of oscillation.

Procedure:
i) Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure above. A small brass or bob
was attached to the thread. The thread was held by a clamp of the retort
stand.
ii) The length of the thread, l was measured by a meter rule, starting
with 100.0 cm. The bob of the pendulum was displaced and released.
iii) The time for 20 complete oscillations, t was taken using the stop
watch. Calculate the period of oscillation by using, T = t / 20

iv) The experiment was repeated using different lengths such as 90.0
cm. 80.0 cm, 70.0 cm, 60.0 cm, 50.0 cm and 40.0 cm.
vi) Repeat steps (I IV).

Results and Discussion:


T 2

n g L

Period of vibration,

100
90
80
70
60
50
40

t1

t2

taverage

41.25
39.00
36.70
34.50
31.60
29.40
26.90

41.25
39.00
36.70
34.50
31.60
29.40
26.50

41.25
39.00
36.70
34.50
31.60
29.40
26.70

Time (s)

Length
(cm)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

t1

t2

taverage

41.20
38.80
36.70
34.50
31.60
29.40
26.90

41.21
39.00
36.70
34.50
31.60
29.40
26.50

41.22
39.85
36.70
34.50
31.60
29.40
26.70

Periods:
100: n = (9.81/1)1/2

Period of
Oscillatio
ns
T

Time (s)

Length
(cm)

2
T 2 4 L

100= 3.132 rad/sec

90:

n = (9.81/0.9)1/2 90= 3.302 rad/sec

80:

n = (9.81/0.8)1/2 80= 3.502 rad/sec

70:

n = (9.81/0.7)1/2 70= 3.744 rad/sec

60:

n = (9.81/0.6)1/2 60= 4.044 rad/sec

50:

n = (9.81/0.5)1/2 50= 4.430 rad/sec

T2

2
1.9
1.79
1.68
1.55
1.41
1.26
Period of
Oscillatio
ns
T

4.02
3.62
3.22
2.82
2.41
1.99
1.59

2
1.9
1.79
1.68
1.55
1.41
1.26

4.02
3.62
3.22
2.82
2.41
1.99
1.59

T2

40:

n = (9.81/0.4)1/2 40= 4.952 rad/sec

T2 vs L graph

The times taken to achieved twenty oscillations was


almost the same in both experiences. This indicated that
the pendulum mass doesnt have anything to do with the
pendulum motion.
Gradient: m =

y 2 y 1
x 2x 1

3.623.22
9080

2
T 2 4 L

Gravitational acceleration:
g.T2 = 42.L

g = (42.L) (T2)

0.4
10

g = [ 4(484/49) 1 ]/ 4.02
g = 9.82 m/s2
Limitations:
-

The length of the pendulum was measured before it was fixed, the
difference in mm might have occurred, e.g. we measured 90cm but
we're not sure, so it's 90 0.2. so it was a personal problem.
Another limitation was the reading equipments like the stop watch
which was a normal watch but anyhow it was accurate even though
some people didnt get symmetric timings.

Conclusion:
The length of simple pendulum is directly proportional to the square
of the period of oscillations. T2 is directly proportional to L (the straight
line graph passing through the origin).

References:
1. Hibbeler, R.C., Engineering Mechanics Dynamics, 11 th Edition, PrenticeHall International.