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Paul B.

Diederich's Basic Vocabulary of Ancient and Medieval Latin

(The Lodge-Edition)
Scope: In 1939 Paul B. Diederich published a paper titled "The frequency of Latin words and their endings". In this paper
Diederich listed the frequency of Latin words in three anthologies covering ancient Latin prose and poetry and medieval Latin.
From these words he chose the most frequent ones, i.e. those used more than twenty times, to create a "basic vocabulary"
divided into various categories for easier memorization. According to him, this basic vocabulary enables the reader to recognize
83.6 percent of the vocabulary of these anthologies (excluding proper names and certain words important almost entirely in
medieval literature). Note: Words which must be distinguished are marked by the abbreviation "d." This edition gives the English
translations listed in The Vocabulary of High School Latin by Gonzalez Lodge (1922).

I. Nouns and Related Words ..................................................................................2
II. Pronouns ....................................................................................................... 13
III. Verbs and Related Words ............................................................................... 14
IV. Adjectives and Related Words ......................................................................... 27
V. Adverbs.......................................................................................................... 33
VI. Interjections .................................................................................................. 35
VII. Conjunctions ................................................................................................ 35
VIII. Prepositions and Prefixes ............................................................................. 36

19 December 2011 (2nd edition)

Carolus Raeticus


I. Nouns and Related Words

1. Gods
deus, -, m.


- dea, -ae, f.

- goddess

- dvnus, -a, -um

- divine, godlike, inspired

- dvus, -a, -um

- divine, godlike; (noun) god, goddess

- dves, -itis [d.]

- rich [d.]

nympha, -ae, f.


religi, -nis, f.

conscientiousness, sense of right; scruples; (in various fig. senses)

obligation, superstition

templum, -, n.

place marked off for augury; holy ground; shrine, temple

ra, -ae, f.


vts, -is, mf.

prophet, soothsayer, seer, bard

vtum, -, n.

solemn promise (made to some deity), vow; a thing solemnly

promised, that which is vowed/devoted, a votive offering; wish,
desire, longing

- dvove, -re, -vv, -vtum

- to set apart by vows, devote

nmen, -inis, n.

divine help, glory; deity

ftum, -, n.

fate (lit. that which is spoken)

- fortna, -ae, f.

- fortune

- sors, sortis, f.

- lot; fate, destiny, oracle, success

2. Time
tempus, -oris, n.

I. limited duration of time; time in all senses, including opportunity,

occasion; II. temple (part of forehead)

aets, -tis, f.

age, time of life

- aevum, -, n.

- lifetime, age, old age (properly eternity)

- saeculum, -, n.

- a generation; age, esp. century; time in general

aests, -tis, f.
- aestus, -s, m. [d.]
vr, vris, n.
- vernus, -a, -um
hiem(p)s, hiemis, f.

summer (divided into inita/prima/nova, media, and exacta)

- (of fire) heat; (of water) tide; (fig) heat of fever or passion; (lit.) a
boiling or waving motion [d.]
- of or belonging to spring, springwinter (divided into "inita/media/extrema")

annus, -, m.


mnsis, -is, m.


- mnsa, -ae, f. [d.]

- table [d.]

dis, -, m.


nox, noctis, f.


- nocturnus, -a, -um

- occurring at night, nightly

- tenebrae, -rum, f. (pl.)

- darkness

- umbra, -ae, f.

- shade, shadow (in all its lit. and fig. senses)

- somnus, -, m.

- sleep, slumber; (pl. also) dreams

- somnium, -, n.

- dream

hra, -ae, f.


mora, -ae, f.

delay; hindrance

- moror, -ri, -tus sum

- to delay


3. Sky
mundus, -, m.

universe, the world; the earth (the inhabitants of the earth, mankind)

- mundus, -a, -um [d.]

- fine, elegant; clean [d.]

- orbis, -is, m.

- circle, round, orbit; ("~ terrarum") world

- caelum, -, n.
caelestis, -e

- sky; heavens
from heaven; (as subst.) the gods

- caeruleus, -a, -um

- dark blue, dark green, dark

- polus, -, m.

- pole (i.e. extremity of either axis); sky, heavens

sdus, -eris, n.
- stlla, -ae, f.
- astrum, -, n.

star; constellation; (pl. also) weather

- star
- star; constellation

sl, slis m.


r, eris, m.


- aes, aeris, n. [d.]

- copper, bronze; anything made of of bronze (as prow, cymbal,

trumpet, tablet) [d.]

aethr, -eris, m.

pure upper air, ether, heaven, sky

aura, -ae, f.

air, breeze, gale

- auris, -is, f. [d.]

- aurum, -, n. [d.]

- ear [d.]
- gold; gold plate, money [d.]

ventus, -, m.


nbs, -is, f.

cloud (esp. storm cloud); (fig.) crowd, throng

tempests, -tis, f.

period of time, weather, season; esp. bad weather, storm; (fig.)


- imber, -bris, m. (gen. pl. -ium)

nix, nivis, f. (gen. pl. -ium)
- niveus, -a, -um

- rain-storm, shower
- snow-like, snow-white

4. Fire
ignis, -is, m.


incendium, -, n.

conflagration; (esp. common in fig. sense) glow, heat, ruin

- accend, -ere, -cend, -cnsum

- (lit.) to kindle from above (usually of stimulation of the emotions by

rumor, gloria, furor)

flamma, -ae, f.

flame, fire (in various fig. senses)

cinis, -eris, m.

ashes, embers

fax, facis, f.

torch (both lit. and fig.)

focus, -, m.

fire-place, hearth; home

5. Water
aqua, -ae, f.
- aequor, -oris, n.
mare, -is, n.

- sea; (occasionally) plain; (lit. a level surface)
sea (in its broad sense as opposed to "terra" and "aer")

- pontus, -, m.

- the open sea, deep

- pns, pontis, m. [d.]

- bridge [d.]

- pelagus, -, n.
ra, -ae, f.
- rpa, -ae, f.
- ltus, -oris, n.
aestus, -s, m.
- aests, -tis, f. [d.]

- sea (esp. the open sea)

- bank (of a river)
- beach, shore
(of fire) heat; (of water) tide; (fig) heat of fever or passion; (lit.) a
boiling or waving motion
- summer (divided into "inita/prima/nova", "media", "exacta") [d.]


- unda, -ae, f.

- wave, billow; sea

sinus, -s, m.

fold (in various lit. and fig. senses); bosom (of a robe); gulf, bay (of

fretum, -, n.

strait (of water)

gurges, -itis, m.

gulf, whirlpool; sea

rvus, -, m.

brook, rivulet

- amnis, -is, m.

- river, torrent (a poetic word rare except in nom. and acc. cases)

lacus, -s, -m. (dat./abl. pl. -ubus)


fns, fontis, m.

spring, fountain

pns, pontis, m.


- pontus, -, m. [d.]
nvis, -is, f.

- the open sea, deep [d.]


- ratis, -is, f.

- raft; (loosely) ship, vessel

- classis, -is, f.

- (properly) class, division (of people, army); fleet

- vlum, -, n.

- a cloth, covering; esp. sail

6. Earth
terra, -ae, .f
- tells, -ris, f.
- humus, -, f.
rs, rris, n.
- rsticus, -a, -um
ager, agr, m.

land (as opp. to water, air)

- Earth (the poetical word for "terra")
- ground
country; (pl.) lands, fields
- of the country, rural
cultivated land, field, country

- agricola, -ae, m.

- cultivator of the field, farmer

- arvum, -, n.

- plowed land, field; (pl.) fields

- campus, -, m.

- plain, field

prtum, -, n.


mns, montis, m.


rps, -is, f.

crag, rock, cliff

collis, -is, m.


valls, -is, f.


- saltus, -s, m.
- antrum, -, n.
saxum, -, n.
- lapis, -idis, m.
- marmor, -oris, n.
aes, aeris, n.
- r, eris, m. [d.]
aurum, -, n.

- woodland, glade, defile, etc.

- cave, cavern, grot
rock; (often) cliff, crag
- stone
- marble
copper, bronze; anything made of bronze as prow, cymbals, trumpet,
tablet, etc.
- air; (rarely) mist [d.]
gold; gold plate, money

- aura, -ae, f. [d.]

- air, breeze, gale [d.]

- auris, -is, f. [d.]

- ear [d.]

- aureus, -a, -um

- of gold, golden; (fig.) splendid

- ferrum, -, n.

- iron; any weapon or implement of iron

7. Plants
silva, -ae, f.

forest, grove

- nemus, -oris, n.

- open wood, glade, grove, forest; (lit.) grazing ground

- lcus, -, m.

- sacred grove; grove

- lctus, -s, m. [d.]

- grief, mourning (esp. as shown by outward signs) [d.]

arbor, -oris, f.



frns, frondis, f.
- frns, frontis, f. [d.]
- folium, -, n.

leaf; leafage, foliage

- forehead, brow; front (of locality) [d.]
- leaf

rmus, -, m.

branch, bough (of a tree)

rbur, -oris, n.

oak, oak tree; timber in general; (fig.) strength

palma, -ae, f.

palm (of hand); anything resembling hands, esp. blade of oar, palmtree, palm-branch, wreath of palm; victory

grmen, -inis, n.

grass; meadow

- herba, -ae, f.

- herb; grass, turf, plan; (also) meadow

hortus, -, m.

garden (in the widest sense of the term); pleasure-garden, fruitgarden, kitchen-garden, vineyard

smen, -inis, n.

seed (both lit. and fig.)

seges, -etis, f.

field of grain; grain, crop, etc.

messis, -is, f.

a mowing, reaping, or ingathering of the corn, etc.; harvest; the

harvested crops; harvest-time

- mnsis, -is, m. [d.]

- mnsa, -ae, f. [d.]
fls, -ris, m.
- flre, -re, -u, -- sertum, -, n.

- month [d.]
- table [d.]
flower; (fig.) bloom (in var. senses)
- to bloom (rare except in partic. "florens")
- wreath of flowers, garland

rosa, -ae, f.


laurus, - (or -s), f.

bay-tree, laurel; wreath of laurel

llium, -, n.


8. Food
cibus, -, m.


epulae, -rum, f. (pl.)

banquet, feast

fams, -is, f.

hunger, famine

- fma, -ae, f. [d.]

mnsa, -ae, f.
- mnsis, -is, m. [d.]
- messis, -is, f. [d.]
pculum, -, n.

- report, rumor; fame, glory [d.]

- month [d.]
- a mowing, reaping, or ingathering of the corn, etc.; harvest; the
harvested crops; harvest-time [d.]
drinking cup

vnum, -, n.

wine; (lit.) vine

pmum, -, n.

fruit (of any kind)

mel, mellis, n.


9. Animals
animal, -lis, n.

animal, living being

grex, gregis, m.

herd (in lit. and fig. senses)

- gregius, -a, -um

- pecus, -oris, n.

- distinguished, uncommon; (lit.) out of the herd

- cattle (general expression for the larger variety of domestic

- pecus, -udis, f.

- cattle (mainly of the smaller variety); sheep

- pecnia, -ae, f.

- money

equus, -, m.
- eques, -itis, m.

- horseman; Roman knight

bs, bovis, mf. (gen. pl. boum; dat/abl. pl. bbus/bbus)


taurus, -, m.


iuvencus, -, m.

bullock, heifer


ovis, -is, f.


corn, -s, n.

horn; anything shaped like a horn

canis, -is, mf. (abl. sg. -e, gen. pl. canum)


lupus, -, m.


le, -nis, m.


avis, -is, f.


- les, -itis, m.
- penna, -ae, f.
serpns, -entis, mf.
- anguis, -is, mf.
piscis, -is, m.

- bird; (as adj.) winged, swift

- feather; wing
snake, serpent; (lit.) a creeping thing
- serpent, snake

10. People
populus, -, m.

people; nation; (freely) multitude

- plbs, -is, f.

- common people, commons; masses

- vulgus, -, n.

- the common people

- vulg, -re, -v, -tum

- (general) to spread among the multitude; to make general,

common, or universal; to put forth to the world; make known to all by
words; publish

- turba, -ae, f.

- confusion, uproar, tumult; crowd, throng; (lit.) noise

- turb, -re, -v, -tum

- to stir up, confuse, disturb (in var. senses)

gns, gentis, f.
- genus, -eris, n.
- gign, -ere, genu, genitum
hom, -inis, m.
- hmnus, -a, -um
vir, vir, m.

family; clan, tribe, nation, etc.

- birth, origin, lineage; offspring; tribe, people, etc.; sort, kind, etc.
- to beget; bear, bring forth
human being, man, person (opp. to "deus", "fera", "pecus")
- pertaining to man, human; cultured, refined
man (opp. to woman); husband, hero

- virts, -tis, f.

- manliness, valor; (pl.) virtues

- vs (sg. only acc. vim, abl. v; pl. vrs, -ium), f. [d.]

- force, strength, energy [d.]

mulier, -eris, f.
- fmina, -ae, f.
puer, puer, m.
- puella, -ae, f.

woman (esp. married woman)

- female; woman
boy; (somtimes) slave; (pl.) children
- little girl; maiden

adulscns, -entis, mf.

a youth, young man; young woman, maiden (properly from the 15th
or 17th until past the 30th year, but often till the 40th year, or even

virg, -inis, f.

maiden, virgin, girl

senex, -is, mf.

an aged person, an old man, old woman; (comparative) an elder,

elderly person; note: usually considered applicable from the close of
the 40th year of a person's life; to some the positive denoted a
person turned of 60 years of age, while the comparative denoted one
between 45 and 60 years of age

- senects, -tis, f.
- sentus, -s, m.

- old age
- council of elders, senate

familia, -ae, f.

house-servants; household, family

parns, -entis, mf.

parent (used for either father or mother)

- pari, -ere, peper, partum (paritrus)

- to bring forth, give birth to, bear; accomplish, effect

- par, -re, -v, -tum [d.]

- to prepare, get ready; acquire [d.]

- pre, -re, -u, -itrus (with dat.) [d.]

pater, -tris, m.
- patria, -ae, f.
mter, -tris, f.

- to obey [d.]
father; (freely) ancestor; (fig.) elders, chiefs
- fatherland, country


frter, -tris, m.


soror, -ris, f.


prls, -is, f.

offspring, lineage, descendants; (lit.) off-shoot

flius, -, m.


- flia, -ae, f. (dat./abl. pl. flibus)

- daughter

gener, -er, m.


neps, -tis, m.

grandson; descendant in general; (pl.) descendants, posterity; (in a

bad sense) a degenerate, spendthrift

dominus, -, m.

householder, master, lord

- domina, -ae, f.
prnceps, -ipis, m.

- prncipium, -, n.
socius, -, m.
- comes, -itis, mf.
vcnus, -, m.
- hospes, -itis, m.

- householder, mistress, lady

(lit.) the first person in order, on a list etc.; one who originates, or first
delivers, or declares, an opinion, etc.; (fig.) the first, chief, most
eminent, most distinguished, etc.
- beginning
ally, confederate
- companion, comrade; attendant, follower
- guest, guest-friend; stranger; host

hrs, -dis, mf.


minister, -tr, m.

attendant, servant; tool, agent; (lit.) lesser one

- famulus, -, m.

- house-slave, servant, attendant

barbarus, -, m.

foreigner, stranger (of all but Greeks and Romans)

pauper, -eris, m.

a poor person

11. Body
corpus, -oris, n.


caput, -itis, n.

head (both in lit. and many fig. senses)

coma, -ae, f.

hair, tresses

- capillus, -, m.

- head of hair, hair

- crnis, -is, m.

- hair (esp. of the head and in pl.); (fig.) tail of a comet

facis, -, f.
- vultus, -s, m.
frns, frontis, f.
- frns, frondis, f. [d.]

form, figure, appearance, face

- look, expression, mien; face
forehead, brow; front (of locality)
- leaf; leafage, foliage [d.]

oculus, -, m.


s, ris, n.

mouth; face; (pl. sometimes) speech

- os, ossis, n. [d.]

- sculum, -, n.

- bone; body [d.]

- kiss; (lit.) little mouth

dns, dentis, m.


lingua, -ae, f.

tongue; language

gena, -ae, f.

cheek, eye

cervx, -cis, f.

neck (esp. nape of the neck); head, shoulders

- collum, -, n.

- neck (in general)

pectus, -oris, n.

breast, bosom, chest, etc.; (fig.) soul, courage, wisdom, etc.

cor, cordis, n.


sanguis, -inis, m.


tergum, -, n.

back, rear

bracchium, -, n.

fore-arm, arm; (fig.) yard-arm, branch

gremium, -, n.

lap, bosom

manus, -s, f.

hand; (in many fig. usages as) band, force, etc.

- dexter, -t(e)ra, -t(e)rum

- right (opp. to "sinister", "laevus)

- sinister, -tra, -trum

- left (opp. to "dexter")


- laevus, -a, -um

- palma, -ae, f.
- digitus, -, m.
ps, pedis, m.

- left, left-hand; (fig.) awkward, foolish, etc.

- palm (of hand); anything resembling hands, esp. blade of oar,
palm-tree, palm-branch, wreath of palm; victory
- finger

- impedi, -re, -v, -tum

- hinder, encumber (in var. senses); (lit.) put the foot in

- expedi, -re, -v, -tum

- extricate; (lit.) make the foot free

- pedes, -itis, m.

- foot-soldier, infantryman

- passus, -s, m.

- double pace (about 5 feet); (lit.) spreading

- vestgium, -, n.

- footstep, footprint, track, trace

membrum, -, n.

limb, member (of an animal body); body

- frma, -ae, f.

- shape; structure, beauty, etc.

- frmsus, -a, -um

- finely formed, beautiful, handsome

- figra, -ae, f.

- form, shape

- specis, -, f.

- aspect, appearance

- img, -inis, f.

- image, form, figure, etc.

- habitus, -s, m.

- condition, attire

- vestis, -is, f.

- garment, robe; clothing, drapery

12. Mind
animus, -, m.

spirit, feeling, mind (the emotional part) (opp. to "mens", the rational
part); (fig.) courage, high spirits

- anima, -ae, f.

- aire, breeze, breath, spirit; life, soul (esp. in plural)

- mns, mentis, f.

- mind (the rational faculty)

- rati, -nis, f.
- ingenium, -, n.
memoria, -ae, f.

- (lit.) a thinking, reckoning; (in many senses) method, way;

account; system or plan; consideration or reason, etc.
- disposition, temperament; ability, genius; (lit.) inborn quality
recollection, memory; tradition, record

- memor, -is

- mindful of, remembering

- memor, -re, -v, -tum

- to recall, recount, relate

- memin, -isse

- to remember, recollect

- oblvscor, -, obltus sum

sponte (abl., gen. spontis very rare), f.

- to forget
of one's own will, voluntarily

13. Feelings
ra, -ae, f.

anger, wrath

- rscor, -, --

- to get angry

- furor, -ris, m.

- rage; (person.) fury

- odium, -, n.
fids, -e, f.

- hatred; (also) unpopularity

trust, faith; pledge, reliability, protection, etc.

- fidlis, -e

- faithful

- fdus, -a, -um

- trustworthy, faithful

- cnfd, -ere, -fsus sum

- to trust firmly

sps, -e, f.


- spr, -re, -v, -tum

- to hope

- dspr, -re, -v, -tum

- to give up hope, despair

clmentia, -ae, f.

gentleness, mildness

dliciae, -rum, f. (pl.)

delight, pleasure, luxury; (of living beings) a beloved object, darling,

favourite, delight


14. Talk
serm, -nis, m.

conversation, talk, discourse; language; (lit.) joining of words

clmor, -ris, m.

outcry, shout

- clm, -re, -v, -tum

tumultus, -s, m.
- tumulus, -, m. [d.]

- to call, cry out, shout

commotion, uprising
- (of land) hillock, mound; (lit.) little swelling [d.]

murmur, -uris, n.

murmuring, murmur

rmor, -ris, m.

(lit.) vage sound, murmur; report, rumor

iocus, -, m.

jest, joke, sport or sportiveness in words; (fig.) a cause for jesting, a

subject for mirth

15. Writing
verbum, -, n.


littera, -ae, f.

letter (of the alphabet)

- litterae, -rum, f. (pl.)

- letters, literature; (also) epistle, letter

epistula, -ae, f.

letter, despatch

versus, -s, m.

(fig.) rank, tier; (esp.) verse; (lit.) a turning

fbula, -ae, f.

a fictitious narrative, tale, story; dramatic poem, drama play; fable

historia, -ae, f.

a narrative of past event, history; narrative, account, tale, story

c(h)arta, -ae, f.

leaf of the Egyptian papyrus; paper; (fig.) that which is written upon
paper, i.e. a writing, letter, poem etc.; a thin leaf, plate, lamina, tablet

titulus, -, m.

(lit.) inscription, label, title; notice, bill, placard (e.g. that something is
to be sold/let; inscription on a tomb; (fig.) honourable appellation,
title; pretence, pretext

lyra, -ae, f.

a lute, lyre; (fig.) lyric poetry, song; the constellation Lyra

chorus, -, m.

dance, choral dance; band, troop

pota, -ae, m.


auctor, -ris, mf.

originator, producer, founder, etc.; (lit.) increaser

ars, artis, f.

skill, art (in all meanings, good and bad)

16. Work and Play

labor, -ris, m.

toil, exertion (in both lit. and fig. senses)

- lbor, lb, lpsus sum [d.]

- to glide, slip, slide [d.]

- labr, -re, -v, -tum

- to toil, work, work out; (fig.) be in trouble

- opus, -eris, n.

- work (in many senses)

negtium, -, n.

business, employment, etc.; (lit.) lack of leisure

- merx, -cis, f.

- merchandise, goods

- pretium, -, n.

- price

- ops, opis, f.
tium, -, n.

- assistance, aid; (pl.) means, resources


- quis, -tis, f.

- rest, quiet, esp. sleep, slumber, even death

- quisc, -ere, -v, -tum

- to go to rest; keep quiet, esp. sleep

17. City and Buildings

urbs, urbis, f.


via, -ae, f.

way, route, street


- obvius, -a, -um

- iter, itineris, n.

- open to; (with verbs "ire" etc.) meet; (lit.) in the way of
- journey, route, line of march; (lit.) a going

mrus, -, m.


turris, -is, f. (acc. sg. -im, abl. sg. -i)


domus, -s, f.

home, house

- vlla, -ae, f.

- country-seat

lmen, -inis, n.

threshold, (rarely) lintel; door, house; (occasionally) barrier at a race

inua, -ae, f.

outer door, gate

aula, -ae, f.

fore court, hall; palace

columna, -ae, f.


thalamus, -, m.

bed-chamber, couch, (esp.) bridal bed

- torus, -, m.

- bed, couch; royal seat or throne, etc.

18. Military
mles, -itis, m.

soldier; (sometimes collective) soldiery, soldiers

- mlitris, -e

- pertaining to a soldier, military

- mlitia, -ae, f.

- military service, esp. in phrase "domi militiaeque"

cohors, -tis, f.

cohort; (fig.) band, troop

legi, -nis, f.

legion; (lit. a choosing)

- lgtus, -, m.
arma, -rum, n. (pl.)
- arm, -re, -v, -tum
- tlum, -, n.
gladius, -, m.
- nsis, -is, m.
arcus, -s, m.
- sagitta, -ae, f.

- lieutenant (i.e. regularly the second in command); envoy

arms (defensive armor); implements of war; implements in general,
- to arm, equip
- missile, weapon; spear, bolt, javelin, etc.
sword (the prose word)
- sword, steel, glaive, brand, falchion; poetic word for "gladius"
bow; arch
- arrow

arx, arcis, f.

citadel, castle; summit

moenia, -ium, n. (pl.)

walls, fortifications

castra, -rum, n. (pl.)


- castellum, -, m.
bellum, -, n.
- proelium, -, n.
- impetus, -s, m.

- fort, redoubt; (lit.) little camp

war; (lit.) contest between two
- fight, battle
- charge, attack, rush

px, pcis, f.


sgnum, -, n.

sign, mark (in var. senses); (mil.) standard, signal

- sgnific, -re, -v, -tum

victor, -ris, m.

- to indicate by signs, announce


- victria, -ae, f.

- victory

- vinc, -ere, vc, victum

- to conquer, vanquish

- vinci, -re, vinx, vinctum [d.]

- to bind [d.]

triumphus, -, m.


praeda, -ae, f.

booty, prey

hostis, -is, mf.

stranger, foreigner, enemy (public as opp. to "inimicus", a private


custs, -dis, mf.

guard, watchman

- custdia, -ae, f.

- protection, custody, garrison, etc.

praesidium, -, n.

garrison; protection, guard

perculum, -, n.

danger, peril

auxilium, -, n.

support, assistance; (pl.) auxiliary forces


19. Government
cvis, -is, mf.
- cvlis, -e
- cvits, -tis, f.
is, iris, n.

- belonging to a citizen, civil
- citizenship; (particulary) state, community
right, law

- istitia, -ae, f.

- justice, fairness

- istus, -a, -um

- right, just, fair

- iniria, -ae, f.

- injustice, wrong, affront

- idex, -icis, m.

- judge, juror, arbiter

- idicium, -, n.

- judgment, decision

- ls, ltis, f. (gen. pl. -ium)

- (lit.) suit at law; (hence) damages

- lx, lgis, f.
carcer, -eris, m.

- law, statute, ordinance (made by Senate and People)

prison; barriers, starting place

forum, -, n.

market-place; Roman forum or place of public meeting

cria, -ae, f.

senate house

prvincia, -ae, f.

province; (fig.) official duty, office, charge

corna, -ae, f.

garland, chaplet, wreath (both lit. and fig.)

20. Social Approval

fs, n. (indecl.)
- nefs, n. (indecl.)
ms, mris, m.

divine right or law; (with inf.) permissible

- (lit.) anything contrary to divine law; hence impiety, wickedness,
manner, way, custom, habit

decus, -oris, n.

comeliness, beauty, grace; ornament, glory

mnus, -eris, n.

task, function, service; gift, offering

praemium, -, n.

bounty, reward

honor (or hons), -ris, m.

honor, praise, glory

- honestus, -a, -um

laus, -dis, f.
- laud, -re, -v, -tum
fma, -ae, f.
- fams, -is, f. [d.]
- glria, -ae, f.
grtia, -ae, f.

- honorable
- to bestow praise, praise
report rumor; fame, glory
- hunger, famine [d.]
- glory, fame
favor, goodwill; influence; thanks, gratitude

- grtus, -a, -um

- acceptable, agreeable, pleasant; grateful

- ingrtus, -a, -um

- not acceptable, disagreeable; unfeeling

21. Evil
clds, -is, f.

destruction, slaughter

lctus, -s, m.

grief, mourning (esp. as shown by outward signs)

- lcus, -, m. [d.]

- sacred grove; grove [d.]

lacrima, -ae, f.


scelus, -eris, n.

wicked deed, crime, sin

fraus, -dis, f.

fraud, deception (in many senses)

culpa, -ae, f.

guilt, fault, blame

frtum, -, n.

theft; (lit.) thing stolen

nsidiae, -rum, f. (pl.)

ambush, ambuscade; (fig.) stratagem, treachery; (lit.) a sitting


vennum, -, n.

drug; poison, charm

error, -ris, m.

wandering; error, mistake, deception


- err, -re, -v, -tum

- to go astray, wander; (fig.) err

crmen, -inis, n.

(lit.) verdict, decision; charge, accusation

poena, -ae, f.

penalty, punishment

vulnus, -eris, n.


- vultus, -s, m. [d.]

verber, -eris, n.
- verber, -re, -v, -tum

- look, expression, mien; face [d.]

lash, whip; (reg. in pl.) stripes
- to lash (both lit. and fig.)

22. Death
mors, -tis, f.


- mortuus, -a, -um

- dead

- mortlis, -e

- liable to death, mortal; anything that has to do with humanity

- morior, mor, mortuus sum

- to die

- morbus, -, m.

- sickness, disease

ltum, -, n.
- nex, necis, f.
fnus, -eris, n.

(poetry) death; ruin (often personified)

- violent death, slaughter, murder
funeral; death, dead body, pyre, etc.

- rogus, -, m.

- funeral pyre

- sepulcrum, -, n.

- place of burial, tomb, grave

- sepeli, -re, -pelv, -pultum

- to perform rites of sepulture (either by interring or cremation); bury

- tumulus, -, m.

- (esp. of land) hillock, mound; (lit.) little swelling

- tumultus, -s, m. [d.]

- commotion, uprising [d.]

- monumentum, -, n.
mns, -ium, m. (pl.)

- reminder; memorial, monument

souls of the dead, spirits, shades; (used also of a single person); the

23. Abstractions and Unclassified

ntra, -ae, f.

nature (in various senses, lit. and fig.)

causa, -ae, f.

cause, reason; occasion; case, lawsuit; party, faction; etc.

mteria, -ae, f.

timber, lumber

rs, re, f.

thing (used in innumerable senses and in very many phrases)

pondus, -eris, n.

weight (both lit. and fig.)

- mls, -is, f.
onus, -eris, n.
- oner, -re, -v, -tum

- shapeless mass; massive structure, pile (of any kind); (esp.) dam,
mole, dyke; (fig.) burden, etc.
load, burden (lit. and fig.)
- to load, burden

cpia, -ae, f.

supply, abundance; opportunity; (pl.) forces, esp. troops; supplies

locus, -, m. (pl. -a, -rum, n.)

place (in many lit. and fig. senses)

- loc, -re, -v, -tum

- situs, -s, m.

- to place, locate; let a contract

- situation, site; neglect, rust

spatium, -, n.

space (both of place and, more commonly, of time)

vta, -ae, f.


vs (sg. only acc. vim, abl. v; pl. vrs, -ium), f.

force, strength, energy

- vir, vir, m. [d.]

- man (opp. to woman); husband; hero [d.]

vicis (gen. sg.), vicem (acc. sg.), vice (abl. sg.)

change, turn (in affairs); ("in vicem") in exchange, in turn

fnis, -is, m.

end, termination; boundary; (pl.) boundaries (usual sense in Caesar)

- fni, -re, -v, -tum

- to limit, bound

- initium, -, n.

- beginning; (lit.) an entering


modus, -, m.

measure, manner, kind


(adv.) in what manner, in what way, how

exemplum, -, n.

sample, copy, example, etc.; (lit.) something taken out

rd, -inis, m.

succession, order, class, rank, row, etc.

condici, -nis, f.

agreement, terms; condition, station

discrmen, -inis, n.

(lit.) interval, distance apart, division, separation; decisive moment,

crisis, risk

pars, partis, f.


nm (nllus, nmin, nminem, nll)

no one

nihil or nl (indecl.)


numerus, -, m.

number, amount; musical order, rhythm, strain

- numer, -re, -v, -tum

nmen, -inis, n.

- (lit.) to count, reckon, number; (of money) count out, pay out, pay;
(lit.) reckon, number as one's own (i.e. to have, possess); account,
reckon, esteem, consider as any thing
name; (lit.) means of knowing

- nmin, -re, -v, -tum

- to call by name, call, name

color, -ris, m.

color (in var. senses)

odor, -ris, m.

smell, odor, fragrance

rota, -ae, f.


II. Pronouns
eg (ego)

- m

- (acc.) me; (abl.) by/with/from me

- mcum

- with me

- meus, -a, -um

- (poss. adj.) my

- mihi

- to/for me

- nbs

- (dat.) to/for us; (abl.) by/with/from us

- noster, -tra, -trum

- (poss. adj. pron.) our

you (sg.)

- t

- (acc.) you (sg.); (abl.) by/with/from you (sg.)

- tcum

- with you (sg.)

- tuus, -a, -um

- your (sg.)

- tibi
- vbs
- vester, -tra, -trum
s or ss

- for you (sg.)

you (pl.)
- (dat). for you (pl.); (abl.) by/with/from you (pl.)
- your (pl.)

- scum

- with oneself

- sibi

- for oneself

- suus, -a, -um

- (reflex. poss. adj.) his, his own, their, their own

alius, -a, -ud (gen. alterus, dat. ali/alter)

- alinus, -a, -um

other, another
- belonging to another, strange, foreign; (fig.) unfavorable; used as
gen. of "alius"

- aliter

- otherwise

- alter, -era, -erum (gen. alterus, dat. alter)

- other of two, one of two, second

- alternus, -a, -um

- alternating, by turns

- cterus, -a, -um

- the others, the rest

hic, haec, hoc

this; the latter

ille, illa, illud

that one (opp. to "hic"); the former


is, ea, id

(determ. pron.) that one; he, she, it; (as antec. to rel.) such

dem, eadem, idem

the same; (followed by "atque" or the rel. pron.) as

iste, ista, istud

(demonst. pron. of second person, often with a tone of contempt) that

(of thine)

ipse, ipsa, ipsum

self, selves; himself, herself, etc.

uter, utra, utrum

(interr. rel.) which of two; either of two

- uterque, utraque, utrumque

qu, quis
- cui

- each of two
who, which
- to whom, to which

aliquis, aliquid

some, any

qucumque, quaecumque, quodcumque

(indef. rel. pron.) whoever, whichever, whatever

qudam, quaedam, quiddam (subst., quoddam, adj.)

(indef. pron.) a certain one, some one

qulibet, quaelibet, quidlibet (subst., quodlibet, adj.)

anyone, without distinction, whom you will; no matter who

quisnam, quidnam

who, which, what pray/then

quisquam, quidquam/quicquam

(indef. subst. pron.) any one

quisque, quaeque, quidque (subst., quodque, adj.)

(indef. pron.) each one, every one

quisquis, quidquid/quicquid (subst., quodquod, adj.)

(indef. pron.) whoever, whichever

III. Verbs and Related Words

1. Verbs Which Express or Affect the Location of the Subject
e, re, i (v), itum
- abe, -re, -i, -itum
- ade, -re, -i, -itum

to go
- to go away, depart
- to go to, visit; (fig.) consult; enter upon (e.g. "hereditates"),

- circume, -re, -i, -itum

- to go around, go around among, inspect

- exe, -re, -i, -itum

- to go forth

- ine, -re, -i, -itum

- to go in, enter, enter upon, undertake; (of time, esp. in partic.)


- obe, -re, -i (-v), -itum

- to go toward, go to meet, traverse; (fig.) enter upon, undergo (in

any sense); (with "mortem") die

- pere, -re, -i, -itum

- (lit.) to go through; perish, be lost; also used as pass. of "perdo"

- praetere, -re, -i, -itum

- to go by, pass, pass over

- rede, -re, -i, -itum

- to go back, return

- sube, -re, -i, -itum

- trnse, -re, -i, -itum
pet, -ere, -v (-i), -tum
- repeto, -ere, -v (-i), -tum

- to go under, go up to; (of the mind) occur to; (fig.) undergo,

endure; (poetry) approach
- to go across, cross
(lit.) to fall upon, attack, assail, aim at; (fig.) seek, demand, ask for
- to seek back, demand, exact; revisit; (fig.) call to mind, recollect;

perg, -ere, perrx, perrctum

to proceed; (lit.) to keep straight

proper, -re, -v, -tum

to hasten, speed

curr, -ere, cucurr, cursum

to run

- concurr, -ere, -(cu)curr, -cursum

- to run together (in var. senses)

- occurr, -ere, -(cu)curr, -cursum

- to run to meet; (fig.) come into one's mind

- cursus, -s, m.

- course, advance; (lit.) a running

- currus, -s, m.
flu, -ere, flx, flxum
- flmen, -inis, n.

- chariot
to flow
- stream, river


- fluvius, -, m.
- flctus, -s, m.
veni, -re, vn, ventum
- adveni, -re, -vn, -ventum

- stream, river; (lit.) flowing

- flood, billow, surf
to come
- to come to, arrive at

- adventus, -s, m.

- approach, arrival; (lit.) a coming to

- conveni, -re, -vn, -ventum

- to come together, assemble; meet

- veni, -re, -vn, -ventum

- to come forth; happen (of things both good and bad)

- inveni, -re, -vn, -ventum

- to come upon, find; (rarely) find out

- perveni, -re, -vn, -ventum

- to get through, arrive, reach

cd, -ere, cess, cessum

to move, step; go away; yield, retreat (so reg. in Caesar)

- accd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- to go to, move to, approach; (fig.) be added (as pass. of "addo");

(fig.) wax (opp. to wane)

- concd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- (lit.) to go with; retire, withdraw; (fig.) yield, submit; (occasionally)


- dcd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- to go away from

- discd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- to go away, depart

- excd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- to go forth, withdraw

- incd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- to move in, move on (of dignified movement)

- prcd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- to go forth, advance

- recd, -re, -cess, -cessum

- to step back, recede, recoil, withdraw, etc.

vd, -ere, --, --

to go, walk, advance, etc.

vd, -ere, -vs, -vsum

to go forth, escape

vadum, -, n.

ford; shallow, shoal

vagus, -a, -um

(lit.) strolling about, roaming, wandering, unfixed, unsettled, vagrant;

(fig.) wandering, wavering, unsteady, inconstant, uncertain, vague

fugi, -ere, fg, fugitrus

to flee, escape

- fuga, -ae, f.
vt, -re, -v, -tum
- vitium, -, n.

- flight, rout
to avoid, shun
- flaw, defect, fault, crime

appre, -re, -u, (-itrus)

to appear, become visible

late, -re, -u, --

to lie hid, be hidden (in lit. and fig. senses); (with acc. of person in
poetry) be hid from, unknown to

iace, -re, -u, --

to lie (e.g. on the ground)

- iaci, -ere, ic, iactum [d.]

incumb, -ere, -cubu, -cubitum
- cuble, -is, n.
cad, -ere, cecid, csrus
- accid, -ere, -cid, --

- to throw [d.]
to lie upon, lean upon; apply one's self to, bend one's energies to
- bed, couch
to fall; (fig.) be slain (in Caesar only in fig. sense)
- to fall to; happen (usually in a bad sense)

- incid, -ere, -cid, --

- to fall upon, fall into; happen

- csus, -s, m.

- (lit.) a falling, fall; chance, accident

lbor, lb, lpsus sum

to glide, slip, slide

labor, -ris, m. [d.]

toil, exertion (in both lit. and fig. senses) [d.]

ru, -ere, ru, rutum (ruitrus)

(trans.) to throw down, overthrow; (intrans.) rush down, tumble down,

rush (in almost any sense)

- runa, -ae, f.

- downfall, collapse (both lit. and fig.)

surg, -ere, surrx, surrctum

(trans.) to raise; (intrans.) rise

orior, orr, ortus sum

to arise; spring from, begin, etc.

- exorior, -orr, -ortus sum

- to rise up, appear, arise

ascend, -ere, -end, -nsum

to climb up, ascend

dscend, -ere, -scend, -scnsum

to climb down, descend

st, stre, stet, statum (statrus)

to stand

- ast, astre, astit, --

- to stand by, stand near, stand


- cnst, -stre, -stit, -sttrus

- (lit.) stand with (i.e. be consistent, agree); be complete, regular;

(impers.) cost; it is established, certain

- nst, -stre, -stit, -sttrus

- to stand to/on; persist, press on/upon; impend, be at hand, etc.

- obst, -stre, -stit, -sttrus

- to stand in the way of

- praest, -stre, -stit, -stitum (-sttrus)

sede, -re, sd, sessum

- to stand in front, excel; exhibit, furnish

to sit; (fig.) be fixed, settled; (sometimes) suit

- resd, -ere, -sd, -sessum

- to sit back, sit down; (fig.) settle down, sink; (also) cease

- sds, -is, f. (gen. pl. -um)

- seat, abode, habitation (both lit. and fig.)

mane, -re, mns, mnsum

to remain, abide

habit, -re, -v, -tum

to occupy, inhabit, dwell in; (lit.) hold continually

occup, -re, -v, -tum

to take possession of, seize; (with inf.) get the start in, hurry to

intr, -re, -v, -tum

to go within, enter

- intr
gredior, -, gressus sum

- (prep with acc.) within (of space and time)

to stride out, depart, disembark

- ingredior, -, ingressus sum

- to step in, enter

penetr, -re, -v, -tum

to penetrate, react

tang, -ere, tetig, tctum

to touch (in var. senses)

- conting, -ere, -tig, -tctum

- to touch, be contiguous to; happen to

haere, -re, haes, haesum

to stick

sequor, -, sectus sum

to follow (in var. senses)

- cnsequor, -, -sectus sum

- to follow up, overtake, attain

- persequor, -, -sectus sum

- to follow through, pursue, press hard

- secundus, -a, -um

comitor, -ar, -tus sum

- next, second; (fig.) favorable, successful; (lit.) following

to attend, accompany

2. Verbs Which Affect the Location of the Object

move, -re, mv, mtum
- remove, -re, -mv, -mtum
fer, ferre, tul, ltum
- affer, afferre, attul, alltum
- aufer, auferre, abstul, abltum
- cnfer, cnferre, contul, colltum

to move (in many senses lit. and fig.)

- to move back, withdraw, remove
to bear (in many senses), carry, endure; declare
- to bring to, carry to (rare in lit. sense, usually fig. of reports, news,
etc.); excite (of emotions)
- to bear away, bear off, take away, remove, etc.
- to bring together, collect; bring to, transport; shift, transfer,
compare; ("se ~") betake one's self

- dfer, dferre, dtul, dltum

- to bear away, carry away; report

- differ, differre, distul, dltum

- to bear apart, differ; postpone; spread apart

- effer, efferre, extul, ltum

- to bear out, take out, put out; (fig.) extol; (pass.) be elated

- nfer, nferre, intul, illtum

- offer, offerre, obtul, obltum
- perfer, -ferre, -tul, -ltum

- to bear in/upon/against (also in many fig. meanings); ("bellum ~")

attack in war
- to present, offer, expose, etc.
- to bear through, carry through; (fig.) endure to the end; carry
news, announce

- praefer, -ferre, -tul, -ltum

- to bear before; place before, prefer; hand to; (fig.) show, reveal

- prfer, -ferre, -tul, -ltum

- to bring forward/forth, extend

- refer, referre, rettul, reltum

- to bear back, bring back (in var. senses); (fig.) report, refer,
announce, etc.

trnsfer, -ferre, -tul, -ltum

to carry over, transfer; put off

port, -re, -v, -tum

to carry (a load)

- portus, -s, m.

- harbor, port

- porta, -ae, f.

- gate


veh, -ere, vx, vectum

to carry; (pass.) be carried, ride, go, sail, etc. (according to context)

ger, gerere, gess, gestum

to bear, carry; carry on, accomplish, manage, etc. (in a wide range of

toll, -ere, sustul, subltum

to raise, lift up; remove, destroy, etc.

trah, -ere, trx, tractum

to drag, draw (in both lit. and fig. senses)

- dtrah, -ere, -trx, -tractum

- tract, -re, -v, -tum
dco, -ere, dx, ductum

- to draw off, pull off, rob

- to handle; (lit.) draw frequently
to lead (in var. senses); (fig.) deem, consider, hold

- addc, -ere, -dx, -ductum

- to lead to; (fig.) induce; Vergil uses it of straining muscles or bow

- ddco, -ere, -dx, -ductum

- to lead away; (of ships) launch; (fig.) lead, bring into

- dco, -ere, -dx, -ductum

- to lead forth (in all senses)

- redco, -ere, -dx, -ductum

- to lead back

- dux, ducis, m.
mitt, -ere, ms, missum
- admitt, -ere, -ms, -missum

- leader, guide, general

to send, let go
- to let go, admit; (fig.) commit (with "scelus")

- mitt, -ere, -ms, -missum

- to let go away, lose; send away, dismiss

- committ, -ere, -ms, -missum

- to join together (esp. "proelium"); entrust; perform, do, allow

- dmitt, -ere, -ms, -missum

- to send apart/away, despatch, dismiss, let go

- permitt, -ere, -ms, -missum

- to yield, allow, permit; (lit.) let go through

- prmitt, -ere, -ms, -missum

- to permit to grow; (fig:) proffer; promise, agree; (lit.) let go forth

- remitt, -ere, -ms, -missum

- to send back, let go back; (fig.) relax, weaken, etc.

mand, -re, -v, -tum

- commend, -re, -v, -tum
pell, -ere, pepul, pulsum
- expell, -ere, -pul, -pulsum

to hand over, commission, etc.; (lit.) give into the hands of

- to commit, entrust; commend, recommend
to strike, beat, push, drive (in var. lit. and fig. senses)
- to push out, expel

- impell, -ere, -pul, -pulsum

- to drive on, impel; (more often fig.) excite, urge on

- puls, -re, -v, -tum

- to beat, lash, etc.; (fig.) disturb

ag, -ere, g, ctum

to drive, carry on, do, act; (fig.) treat, discuss; (of time) spend

- agit, -re, -v, -tum

- to drive, (esp. of hunters) pursuse, hound (lit. and fig.)

- agmen, -inis, n.

- line of march; army on the march; (fig.) movement, course

cg, -ere, cog, coctum

(lit.) to drive together, gather together; force, compel

- exig, -ere, -g, -ctum

- to drive out; exact, collect; (of time) spend, finish up

- perag, -ere, -g, -ctum

- (lit.) to drive through; finish; accomplish

- urge, -re, urs, --

- to drive, impel, press hard, urge

iaci, -ere, ic, iactum

to throw

- adici, -ere, -ic, -iectum

- to add to, construct near to, be near to

- dici, -ere, -ic, -iectum

- to throw or cast down (both lit. and fig.)

- inici, -ere, -ic, -iectum

- to throw in/on; inspire, infuse

- obici, -ere, -ic, -iectum

- to throw in one's way (in var. lit. and fig. senses)

- prici, -ere, -ic, -iectum

- to throw forward/forth, hurl; (fig.) renounce

- subici, -ere, -ic, -iectum

- (lit.) to throw under; drive in, thrust up, etc.; (fig.) expose, subject;
subjoin, reply

- trici, -ere, -ic, -iectum

- to throw across; pass over; pierce

- iact, -re, -v, -tum

- to throw often, fling, toss; (of words) bandy, vaunt

- ictus, -s, m.

- blow, stroke; (lit.) a striking

- iace, -re, -u, -- [d.]

- to lie [d.]

d, dare, ded, datum

to give, put (latter meaning rare except in compounds)

- add, -ere, -did, -ditum

- to give to, add; (fig.) add (the remark)

- circumd, -dare, -ded, -datum

- to put around


- prd, -ere, -did, -ditum

- to give forth, publish, hand down; give over, betray

- redd, -ere, -did, -ditum

- to give back, return; render

- subd, -ere, -did, -ditum

- to put, place, set, lay under; subject, subdue; substitute

- trd, -ere, -did, -ditum

- to give over, hand over; entrust, yield

- dn, -re, -v, -tum

- to present (as a gift)

- dnum, -, n.

- gift, present

praebe, -re, -bu, -bitum

to afford, furnish; (lit.) hold in front

tribu, -ere, -u, -tum

to assign, bestow, grant, etc.

pn, -ere, posu, positum

to put down, put, place, establish, etc. (in var. senses)

- appn, -ere, -posu, -positum

- to put, place, etc., at/by/beside/near a person or thing; (of food)

serve up, set before one

- compn, -ere, -posu, -positum

- to put together; build, construct, arrange; (fig.) adjust, quiet,

appease; (of burial) lay away

- dpn, -ere, -posu, -positum

- to put down, put aside, put away (both lit. and fig.)

- impn, -ere, -posu, -positum

- to put in/on/upon; impose, levy upon, etc.

- prpn, -ere, -posu, -positum

- to put forward, set forth, propose, present, etc.

iung, -ere, inx, inctum

to join (in many lit. and fig. senses)

- iugum, -, n.

- yoke; ridge, chain of hills; summit

- coniung, -ere, -inx, -inctum

- to join together, unite

- coninx (coniux), -iugis, mf.

- consort, spouse, husband or wife

- martus, -, m.

- married man, husband; (freely) lover, suitor

- uxor, -ris, f.

- wife (Vergil uses "coniunx")

nect, -ere, nex(u), nexum

to bind, unite

fg, -ere, fx, fxum

to fix, fasten; set up, establish; transfix, shoot

misce, -re, miscu, mixtum

to mix, mingle

merg, -ere, mers, mersum

to dip, immerse; (fig.) hide, sink, overwhelm

pend, -ere, pepend, pnsum

to weigh, hang, suspend; pay

- suspend, -ere, -pend, -pnsum

- to hang up

- pende, -re, pepend, --

- to hang, be suspended (lit. and fig.)

- impende, -re, --, --

- to overhang, impend, threaten

indu, -ere, -u, -tum

to put on (of clothing); (with "se" and dat.) impale one's self on

ed, -ere (or sse), d, sum

to eat

- d, -ere, -did, -ditum [d.]

bib, -ere, bib, --

- to put/set forth, state, explain [d.]

to drink

hauri, -re, haus, haustum

to draw (any fluid); hence in var. fig. senses

fund, -ere, fd, fsum

to pour (in var. senses); scatter, disperse, rout

- effund, -ere, -fd, -fsum

- to pour out/forth (in var. senses lit. and fig.)

lb, -re, -v, -tum

to take a little; taste, sip, touch; (of wine) pour a libation; (fig.)
present, offer

capi, -ere, cp, captum

to take, seize (in many lit. and fig. senses)

- accipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to take to, i.e. receive, accept (common in lit. and fig. senses);
(fig.) suffer (as "calamitatem"); learn

- concipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to take up, receive, incur; conceive, give birth to; imagine,

understand, plan

- dcipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to catch, ensnare; (fig.) deceive

- excipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to take out/up; except, relieve

- incipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to take on, begin

- percipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to gain, acquire; (fig.) hear, learn

- recipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to take back, receive (esp. what belongs to one or is due one);

(loosely) receive

- suscipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to take up, undertake (in var. senses)

- captvus, -a, -um

- captive, prisoner

rapi, -ere, rapu, raptum

- corripi, -ere, -ripu, -reptum

to tear, seize, snatch (in var. lit. and fig. senses)

- to snatch up, seize, press on, etc. (of any hurried attack)


- ripi, -ere, -ripu, -reptum

- to snatch away; save, rescue

carp, -ere, carps, carptum

to pluck (in lit. and fig. senses)

dprehend, -ere, -end, -nsum

to catch suddenly or in the act; surprise, descend upon

sm, -ere, smps, smptum

to take up, take (in many senses)

- cnsm, -ere, -smps, -smptum

- use up, consume; (lit.) take together

em, emere, m, mptum

(fig.) buy; (lit.) to take (but only in compounds)

habe, -re, -u, -itum

to have (in the most general sense); hold, maintain; (fig.) deem;

- adhibe, -re, -u, -itum

- to have at hand; apply

- prohibe, -re, -u, -itum

- to hold forward; keep away, restrain

posside, -re, -sd, -sessum

to be in possession of, get possession of

tene, -re, tenu, tentum

to hold (in every sense, lit. and fig.)

- contine, -re, -tinu, -tentum

- (lit.) hold together; contain; bound, limit, restrain, etc. in many


- obtine, -re, -tinu, -tentum

- to hold fast, hold; get a hold on, obtain

- pertine, -re, -tinu, --

- to extend through; (fig.) lead to, pertain to, bear upon, etc.

- retine, -re, -tinu, -tentum

- to hold back, detain; maintain, keep

- sustine, -re, -tinu, -tentum

- to hold under, i.e. hold up, sustain (in many senses)

relinqu, -ere, -lqu, -lictum

to leave behind, abandon

- reliquus, -a, -um

- remaining, rest

- linqu, -ere, lqu, --

- (poetry) to leave (both lit. and fig.; the prose word is "relinquo")

dser, -ere, -seru, -sertum

to disjoin, leave off, give up, abandon

vend, -ere, -did, -ditum

to put up for sale; sell (pass. is "veneo")

pand, -ere, pand, passum (pnsum)

to spread, spread out; (fig.) expand, etc.

nstru, -ere, -strx, -strctum

(lit.) heap up; arrange, marshall; load; (fig.) set in order, plan, contrive

stern, -ere, strv, strtum

to strew, spread out, stretch out; (fig.) overthrow; devastate

sparg, -ere, -rs, -rsum

to scatter (in many senses)

quati, -ere, --, quassum (perf. -cuss only in composita)

to shake (both lit. and fig.)

vert, -ere, -rt, -rsum

to turn (in all senses); (pass.) revolve

- vert, -ere, -vert, -versum

- to turn from, turn away; (fig.) estrange

- adversus, -a, -um

- (lit.) turned towards; facing, opposed; unfavorable

- convert, -ere, vert, -versum

- to turn about, turn, change

- dversus, -a, -um

- turned apart/away; different, diverse

- revertor, -, reversus sum (or revert, -ere, -vert)

- to turn back, return (usually deponent except in perf.)

- vertex (or vortex), -icis, m.

- whirl; point/top of a whirl; summit, head, height (also "vortex")

- vers, -re, -v, -tum

- to turn often, keep turning; (pass.) move, be busy; dwell; conduct

one's self

volv, -ere, volv, voltum

to roll, twist (in every way); (fig.) turn over, revolve (e.g. "animo")

aperi, -re, -ru, -rtum

uncover, open (both fig. and lit.; opp. "operio")

- comperi, -re, -per, -pertum

- (lit.) make out; ascertain, learn

- experior, -r, expertus sum

- to try thoroughly, test, experience

- operi, -re, -eru, -ertum

- to hide, cover up

- reperi, -re, repper, repertum

- to find out (after search)

claud, -ere, claus, clausum

to close, shut

3. Verbs Which Express or Affect the State of the Subject

sum, esse, fu, futrum

to be, exist

absum, abesse, fu, futrus

to be away, be absent


adsum (assum), adesse, -fu (affu), -futrus (affutrus)

to be present, be at hand, assist

dsum, deesse, dfu

to be lacking, missing

prsum, prdesse, prfu

to be profitable (opp. "obsum")

supersum, superesse, superfu

to be over, remain, survive, etc.

futrus, -a, -um

about to be, future

possum, posse, potu

to be able, can

potns, potentis

mighty, powerful, potent

potentia, -ae, f.

power, strength

potests, -tis, f.

power (just and lawful as opp. to "potentia")

potis, -e

able, powerful (rare except in comp. and sup.)

potior, -ius

(adj.) to be preferred; that may/can be preferred; preferable


chiefly, principally, especially, in preference to others, above all, most

of all

mere, -re, -u, -itum

to deserve, merit; serve (as a soldier)

nscor, -, ntus sum

to be born (both in lit. and many fig. senses)

- ntus, -, m. (nta, -ae, f.)

vv, -ere, vx, vctrus

- (of persons) son, daughter; (of animals) a male/female young one;

(pl.) offspring, young, both male and female
to live, subsist

- vivus, -a, -um

- alive, living

- convvium, -, n.

- banquet, feast; (lit.) a living together

spr, -re, -v, -tum

- spritus, -s, m.

to breathe, blow (in var. senses of human beings, animals, liquids,

odors, etc.)
- breathing, breath; breath of life, life; high spirit, pride, courage

exsist (exist), -ere, -stit, -stitum

to stand forth, rise out, arise; exist

crsc, -ere, crv, crtum

(intrans.) to grow, increase

- auge, -re, aux, auctum

- (trans.) to increase; (fig.) exalt

abund, -re, -v, -tum

(lit. of liquids) to overflow; (fig.) be very abundant or numerous; to be

rich, have abundance

pate, -re, -u, --

to lie open, extend, spread

vire, -re, -u, --

to be green

- viridis, -e

- verdant, green

palle, -re, -u, --

to be/look ash-coloured, wan, pale

rube, -re, -u, --

to grow red, redden, blush, colour up

rde, -re, rs, rsum

to blaze; glow (with eagerness, anger, etc.)

- rdor, -ris, m.
- arduus, -a, -um

- a burning; (fig.) zeal

- high, steep; (fig.) difficult; (of disposition) proud

r, -ere, uss, ustum

to burn (in both lit. and fig. senses; trans. as opp. to "ardeo", intrans.)

fulge, -re, fuls, --

to shine brightly, gleam, flash

- fulmen, -inis, n.

- lightning; thunderbolt

lce, -re, lx, --

to be light, gleam, shine

- lcidus, -a, -um

- full of light, bright, shining

- lmen, -inis, n.

- a light (in var. senses)

- lna, -ae, f.

- moon

- lx, lcis, f.

- light (of day)

mic, -re, -u, --

to move quickly to and fro, dart; quiver, gleam (esp. of light), flash

nite, -re, -u, --

to shine, glitter, gleam

- nitidus, -a, -um

care, -re, -u, -itrus
- ege, -re, -u, --

- bright, shining
to be without, want
- to be destitute, lack

parc, -ere, peperc (pars), parsrus

to spare, be sparing of

vac, -re, -v, -tum

to be empty, open, unoccupied; (with inf.) be leisure for


- vacuus, -a, -um

- empty

dormi, -re, -v, -tum

to sleep

imitor, -r, -tus sum

to imitate

- simul, -re, -v, -tum

- to make like, pretend

- simulcrum, -, n.

- effigy, image

4. Verbs Which Affect the State of the Object

mt, -re, -v, -tum

to change

flect, -ere, flex, flexum

to bend, turn (in both lit. and fig. senses)

torque, -re, tors, tortum

to twist, wind (in var. lit. and fig. senses)

tend, -ere, tetend, tentum (tnsum)

to stretch (in many senses, lit. and fig.; used both trans. and intrans.)

- intend, -ere, -tend, -tentum

- ostend, -ere, -tend, -tentum (-tnsum)

- to stretch out, strain; (rarely) determine (with inf.)

- to stretch towards, hold out; expose to view, show (in many

ter, -ere, trv, trtum

to rub

percuti, -ere, -cuss, -cussum

(lit.) to strike through; smite; (of the mind) affect deeply

prem, -ere, press, pressum

to press, press hard, pursue, overwhelm, etc.

- opprim, -ere, -press, -pressum

reg, -ere, rx, rctum

- (lit.) press against; crush, overwhelm; (fig.) surprise

to guide, direct (in lit. and fig. senses); esp. rule

- drig, -ere, -rx, -rctum

- to turn, direct, guide

- rig, -ere, -rx, -rctum

- to raise up, rear

- porrig, -ere, -rx, -rctum

- to reach forth; (pass.) extend

- rctus, -a, -um

- direct, straight (both lit. and fig.)

- rx, rgis, m.

- king

- rgn, -ae, f.

- queen; (lit.) ruling woman

- rgius, -a, -um

- kingly, royal

- regi, -nis, f.

- (lit.) direction, line; boundary, limit; district, region

- rgn, -re, -v, -tum

- to reign

- rgnum, -, n.
vinci, -re, vinx, vinctum
- vinculum, -, n.

- royal authority, kingship; kingdom, realm

to bind
- bond, fetter, tie

cing, -ere, cinx, cinctum

to encircle, surround, gird

solv, -ere, solv, soltum

to loosen, unbind, release (in many senses); in Caesar only of

making sail with ships; (in prose often) perform, pay, fulfil

- absolv, -ere, -solv, -soltum

- to loose from something, unbind, unfasten, untie, detach; (fig.) set

free, clear, extricate; (law) absolve, acquit, declare innocent or free

dvid, -ere, -vs, -vsum

to divide, separate

teg, -ere, tx, tctum

to cover; conceal

- tctum, -, n.

- a covered place; roof; building, house

ping, -ere, pnx, pictum

to paint; embroider and var. similar senses

temper, -re, -v, -tum

to combine (in due proportions), attemper; regulate, adjust; restrain,


ex(s)tingu, -ere, -nx, -nctum

to put out, quench; kill, destroy

torre, -re, torru, tostum

to parch, scorch; (of a stream) rush

excit, -re, -v, -tum

(lit.) raise up, erect; (fig.) stir up, rouse

- citus, -a, -um

exerce, -re, -u, -itum
- exercitus, -s, m.
par, -re, -v, -tum
- compar, -re, -v, -tum

- swift; (lit.) stirred up

to keep in motion, train, exercise, carry on
- (lit.) training; (fig.) army
to prepare, get ready; acquire
- to get ready, provide; compare


- pre, -re, -u, -itrus [d.]

- to obey [d.]

- pari, -ere, peper, partum (paritrus) [d.]

- to bring forth, give birth to, bear; accomplish, effect [d.]

5. Constructive Activities
faci, -ere, fc, factum
- affici, -ere, -fc, -fectum
- cnfici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

to do, make (in many senses and phrases)

- to do to (a person); affect, visit with
- (lit.) to make together; accomplish, complete (in var. senses); do
up, exhaust

- dfici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- (lit.) to make away from; fail, give out; revolt from

- effici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- to work out, bring about, effect, complete; render

- interfici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- to make away with, kill, put to death

- perfici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- to bring to conclusion, accomplish

- praefici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- to put at head of/over

- prfici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- to accomplish, gain

- refici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- to make over, repair, refresh

- suffici, -ere, -fc, -fectum

- to supply, afford; be able

- f, fier (fer), factus sum

- to become (used as pass. of "facio" in present system)

- facilis, -e

- (lit.) doable; practicable, easy

- officium, -, n.

- service, kindness; duty; (lit.) work-doing

fing, -ere, fnx, fictum

to shape; invent; think

cond, -ere, -did, -ditum

to put together, form; build, found; compose; put by, store up;

cre, -re, -v, -tum

to bring forth, produce, create; (of officials) elect, choose

tor, t, sus sum

to use, employ (with abl.)

- sus, -s, m.

- use, advantage; experience

- sus est

- it is necessary (with abl.)

- tilis, -e

- useful

- tilits, -tis, f.
rn, -re, -v, -tum

- usefulness, advantage
to fit out, equip; esp. embellish, adorn (both lit. and fig.)

lav, -re, lv, lautum (lavtum)

to wash, sprinkle

psc, -re, pv, pstum

to cause to feed, pasture (esp. of animals); feed on, eat, consume

(fig. of persons, elements, etc.)

- pstor, -ris, m.
al, -ere, alu, altum (alitum)
- almus, -a, -um

- altus, -a, -um

col, -ere, colu, cultum

- feeder; esp. shepherd

to nourish, feed; strengthen, sustain
- (lit.) fostering, nourishing; (fig.) graciously, kindly, propitious
(usually of gods and human beings, but also of "lux" and "dies")
- (lit.) nourished; high, lofty; deep
to till, cultivate; dwell in; (fig.) cultivate, cherish, worship, etc.

cultus, -s, m.

civilization; appearance

mni, -re, -v, -tum

to perform, do; build, fortify; (lit.) do a task

dfend, -ere, -end, -nsum

to thrust off, ward off, defend

servi, -re, -v, -tum

to be a slave, serve

- servitium, -, n.

- slavery; (pl.) bodies of slaves

- servus, -, m.

- slave

- serv, -re, -v, -tum

- to save; keep, guard, to watch over, observe

6. Destructive Activities
noce, -re, -u, -itum

to harm

caed, -ere, cecd, caesum

to cause to fall; fell; (fig.) kill

- caeds, -is, f.

- a cutting; (regl.) killing, slaughter


occd, -ere, -cd, -csum

to cut down, kill

laed, -ere, laes, laesum

to injure by striking, hurt

lacer, -re, -v, -tum

to tear, mutilate

feri, -re, --, -- (as perfect use c or percti)

to smite, strike

- fer, ferre, tul, ltum [d.]

pgn, -re, -v, -tum
- corrump, -ere, -rp, -ruptum
frang, -ere, frg, frctum

- to bear (in many senses), carry, endure; declare [d.]

to fight
- to break up, destroy, ruin, spoil, etc.
to break, shatter (in both lit. and fig. senses)

negleg, -ere, -lx, lctum

to disregard, neglect (in var. senses); (lit.) not choose

perd, -ere, -did, -ditum

to destroy, loose (lit. and fig.); (lit.) put through

pecc, -re, -v, -tum

to commit a wrong, injure

damn, -re, -v, -tum

to inflict loss; declare guilty, comdemn

- damnum, -, n.

- hurt, harm, damage, injury, loss; (in civil law) fine, penalty

7. Verbs Affecting Other Verbs

oportet, -re, -uit

it behooves, ought to

dbe, -re, -u, -itum

to owe to; be obliged to; (lit.) have from

decet, -re, decuit

it becomes, behooves

licet, -re, -uit (licitum est)

it is permitted

cnor, -r, -tus sum

to attempt, try

tempt, -re, -v, -tum

to try, test; attempt

coep, coepisse, coeptum

to have begun; used often as perfect of "incipio"

cess, -re, -v, -tum

to move back, be idle, delay, loiter, hesitate; cease

8. Vocal Activities
dc, -ere, dx, dictum
- indic, -re, -v, -tum

to say, state, speak

- to point out, show, make known, etc.; (rarely) betray, accuse

i, ais, ait, aiunt

I (you, he/she, they) affirm, maintain, say yes

inquam, inquis, inquit, inquiunt

quoth I (you, he/she, they); regularly inserted in Oratio Recta

loquor, -, loctus sum

to speak, talk

- loquentia, -ae, f.
fateor, -r, fassus sum
- cnfiteor, -r, -fessus sum

- eloquence
to own, admit, confess
- to confess, admit

narr, -re, -v, -tum

to relate, recount, narrate

nnti, -re, -v, -tum

to give news, announce

- nntius, -, m.

- messenger; news

responde, -re, -spond, -spnsum

to reply, make answer; (rarely) correspond to; (lit.) pledge/vow in


quaer, -ere, -sv, -stum

to search, seek; (fig.) ask, inquire

- queror, -, questus sum

- to complain of, lament

- requr, -ere, -sv, -stum

- to seek again, search for, demand; (occasionally) miss, need

rog, -re, -v, -tum

to ask, beg, request

r, -re, -v, -tum

to pray, entreat, plead

- rti, -nis, f.
- rtor, -ris, m.

- a pleading, speech, address

- pleader, orator, spokesman

precor, -r, -tus sum

to pray, supplicate, invoke

- prex, precis, f. (mostly used in pl., in sg. only. dat., acc.,


- prayers, entreaties (reg. in plural; sing. not in nom., rare in other



cnsul, -ere, -lu, -ltum

- cnsilium, -, n.
- cnsul, -is, m.

to plan, deliberate consult; take thought for

- plan, design, resolve; (not unfrequently) council, deliberative body;
prudence, discretion
- consul (highest magistrate at Rome)

mone, -re, -u, -itum

to warn, advise

hortor, -ri, -tus sum

to urge strongly, advise, exhort

iube, -re, iuss, iussum

to bid, order

imper, -re, -v, -tum

to command; control, impose commands upon

- impertor, -ris, m.

- commander, general

- imperium, -, n.

- command; chief command, power, control

vet, -re, -u, -itum

to forbid

neg, -re, -v, -tum

to say no, deny, refuse

ir, -re, -v, -tum

to take oath, swear

can, -ere, cecin, cantum

to sing

- cant, -re, -v, -tum

- to sing; play on an instrument

- cantus, -s, m.

- song, music

- carmen, -inis, n.

- song

son, -re, -nu, -nitum

to sound, resound (in var. lit. and fig. senses)

- sonus, -, m.

- sound, noise

- sonitus, -s, m.

- sounding, sound, noise, dine, etc.

voc, -re, -v, -tum

to call, name

- revoc, -re, -v, -tum

- to call back, recall (both lit. and fig.)

- vx, vcis, f.

- voice; utterance, word

appell, -re, -v, -tum

to accost, call, call upon

sile, -re, -u, --

to be/keep quiet, still, silent, etc.

- silentium, -, n.
tace, -re, -u, -itum
- tacitus, -a, -um

- silence, stillness (reg. plural)

to be silent
- silent

9. Mental and Sensory Operations

vide, -re, vd, vsum

to see; (pass.) be seen, seem, appear

- invide, -re, -vd, -vsum

- to look on, envy

- invidia, -ae, f.

- envy, jealousy, hatred

- vs, -ere, vsi, -cern, -ere, crv, crtum

- dcern, -ere, -crv, -crtum
tueor, -r, tuitus sum (ttus sum)

- to look at, visit (reg. in gerund)

(lit.) to separate (rare); (fig. sense of sight) discern, distinguish; (of
the mind) decide; (rarely) fight
- to determine, decide, decree
to look at; protect

- intueor, -r, -tuitus sum

- to look closely upon, admire

- ttus, -a, -um

- safe, protected

spect, -re, -v, -tum

- exspect, -re, -v, -tum

to look, face, look at, consider

- (lit.) to look out; watch, wait, expect

- aspici, -ere, -spex, -spectum

- to look to/at, behold

- cnspici, -ere, -spex, -spectum

- to catch sight of, behold

- dspici, -ere, -spex, -spectum

- to look down upon (rare in lit. sense, usually fig.), despise

- respici, -ere, -ex, -ectum

- to look back, regard; (fig.) give heed to, consider

- suscipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum

- to take up, undertake (in var. senses)

audi, -re, -v, -tum

to hear, listen to

- auris, -is, f.

- ear

- aura, -ae, f. [d.]

- air, breeze, gale [d.]

- aurum, -, n. [d.]
vigil, -re, -v, -tum

- gold; gold plate; money [d.]

to be awake, be on guard


senti, -re, sns, snsum

to perceive by senses; feel, hear, see; (esp. in fig. sense) perceive

- snsus, -s, m.

- feeling, emotion, sense (in var. meanings)

- sententia, -ae, f.

- feeling, thinking, opinion, judgment, etc.

intelleg, -ere, -lx, lctum

(lit.) to pick out from between; understand, be aware

sci, scre, scv (sci), sctum

to know; know how

nesci, -re, -v, -tum

to not know, be ignorant

nsc, -ere, nv, ntum

to come to know; (in perf.) know

- agnsc, -ere, agnv, agnitum

- cognsc, -ere, -gnv, -gnitum

- (intensive of nosco) to recognize; mark, understand

- to become thoroughly acquainted, understand, ascertain, learn,
etc.; (legal) examine; (in perf.) know

cnse, -re, -su, -sum

to assess, rate, estimate; propose, determine, decide, think

reor, rr, ratus sum

to reckon, calculate; think

- reus, -, m.

- the accused person, defendant in a trial

crd, -ere, -did, -ditum

to believe, trust

cgit, -re, -v, -tum

(lit.) to drive together; reflect, consider, think

- cgitti, -nis, f.
put, -re, -v, -tum
- arbitror, -r, -tus sum
- exstim, -re, -v, -tum
statu, -ere, -u, -tum
- cnstitu, -ere, -u, -tum
- nstitu, -ere, -u, -tum
dstin, -re, -v, -tum

- meditation, thinking
(reg.) to arrange, set in order; reckon, think; (lit.) trim, clean
- (lit.) to serve as referee; consider; think, hold, deem, etc.
- to think, believe
to set up, station, fix; (fig.) resolve, determine, etc.
- to put together, establish, set up, station; (fig.) determine
- to set up, set on, establish, undertake; equip
to doom, bind fast to

sin, -ere, sv, situm

(reg.) to let go, allow, permit, suffer; (lit.) lay

dsin, -ere, si, situm

to leave off, cease, forbear

vol, velle, volu, --

to will, wish, be willing

- nl, nlle, nlu, --

- to be unwilling

- ml, mlle, mlu, --

- (lit.) to wish more; prefer

- volunts, -tis, f.

- wish, desire

- volupts, -tis, f.

- pleasure, enjoyment

- vol, -re, -v, -tum [d.]

- to fly (in many lit. and fig. senses) [d.]

- volucer, -cris, -cre; (as subst.) volucris, -is, f.

cnsusc, -ere, -suv, -sutum

- (adj.) flying, winged; (subst.) bird

to become accustomed; (in perf.) be accustomed

- assusc, -ere, -suv, -sutum

- to become accustomed to

- cnsutd, -inis, f.

- custom, habit

sole, -re, solitus sum

to be accustomed, wont

disc, -ere, didic, --

to learn

- disciplna, -ae, f.

- training, instruction; learning, culture, science, discipline

doce, -re, docu, doctum

to teach; inform

leg, -ere, lg, lctum

to gather, pick, choose (in var. lit. and fig. senses); skim the sea,
catch with eye/ear

- collig, -ere, -lg, -lctum

- lig, -ere, -lg, -lctum
scrb, -ere, scrps, scrptum

- to gather together, collect

- to pick out, select
to write

gnr, -re, -v, -tum

to be unacquainted with

fall, -ere, fefell, -- (falsus mostly only used as adj.;

dceptus serves as PPP)

to deceive

- fallx, -cis
- falsus, -a, -um
dubit, -re, -v, -tum
- dubius, -a, -um

- prone to cheat, deceitful

- deceptive, false
to hesitate, doubt
- doubtful


10. Favor
am, -re, -v, -tum

to love

- amor, -ris, m.

- love

- amcitia, -ae, f.

- friendship

- amcus, -, m.

- friend

- inimcus, -a, -um

fove, -re, fv, ftum

- unfriendly
(fig.) to foster, protect; (lit.) keep warm

complector, -, complexus sum

to entwine with, embrace, surround

nb, -ere, nps, nuptum

to marry (applied to a woman; lit. to veil oneself for marriage)

cr, -re, -v, -tum

to care for; provide for; care to

- cra, -ae, f.
- scrus, -a, -um
dlig, -ere, -lx, -lctum

- care, concern (esp. in poetry of love); object of care, i.e. concern,

- free from care, tranquil (in many senses); careless, reckless
to choose, pick out; love, cherish (esp. in partic. pass.)

- dligns, -entis

- careful, diligent (rare except in adv.)

- dlctus, -a, -um

- loved

prob, -re, -v, -tum

to find good, approve; prove

plaud, -ere, plaus, plausum

to beat; flatter, clap

fave, -re, fv, fautum

to favor

mror, -r, -tus sum

to wonder at, marvel at

- mrus, -a, -um

- wonderful, marvelous

celebr, -re, -v, -tum

to frequent, throng, crowd; celebrate, extol

veneror, -ri, -tus sum

to venerate, worship

libet, -re, libuit (libitum est)

it pleases

- libns, -entis

- willing, with pleasure

- libd, -inis, f.

- desire, longing; esp. passion; lust

place, -re, -u, -itum

- placidus, -a, -um
iuv, -re, iv, itum
- iuvenis, -is, mf. (gen. pl. -um)

to please
- quiet, gentle, calm, kindly (both lit. and fig.)
to help, aid, assist; please, delight
- a youth, young man or woman

- iuventa, -ae, f.

- period of youth, youth

- iuvents, -tis, f.

- period of youth, youth; (collective) youth, i.e. young men

fruor, fru, frctus sum (fruitus sum)

- frctus, -s, m.
- frx, frgis, f. (mostly pl.)
gaude, -re, gvsus sum
- gaudium, -, n.

to enjoy
- enjoyment, delight; fruit, crops (also in var. fig. meanings)
- (reg. pl.) fruit of any kind
to rejoice
- delight, joy, pleasure

rde, -re, rs, rsum

to laugh, laugh at (usually intrans.)

ld, -ere, ls, lsum

to play; make sport of

- ldus, -, m.
salve, -re, --, --

- game, play; place of play, school

to be well

- salv (sg.), salvte (pl.)

- hail!

- sals, -tis, f.

- health; safety (in var. senses)

- salvus, -a, -um

- sound of health; uninjured, safe; (occasionally) solvent

vale, -re, -u, -itrus

- validus, -a, -um

to be strong (physically); (fig.) excel, be able, have power, be worth

- strong


dsder, -re, -v, -tum

- dsderium, -, n.

to long for, desire greatly; miss

- longing

opt, -re, -v, -tum

to choose, select; wish, desire

cupi, -ere, -v, -tum

to long for, crave, desire

- cupd, -inis, f.
- cupidus, -a, -um
stude, -re, -u, --

- desire, eagerness, craving (often personified)

- eager for, desirous of
to be eager, zealous

- studium, -, n.

- eagerness, zeal (in many senses); (pl.) pursuits

- studisus, -a, -um

- eager, zealous

aude, -re, ausus sum

- audx, -cis
cert, -re, -v, -tum
- certmen, -inis, n.

(lit.) to be eager; dare, venture

- bold, daring; (usually in a bad sense) reckless
to make certain, decide (by contest); fight, contend, compete, vie
- contest, struggle

11. Disfavor
cave, -re, cv, cautum

to be on one's guard, beware

time, -re, -u, --

to fear, dread

- timor, -ris, m.

- fear, apprehension

vereor, -r, veritus sum

to fear, stand in awe of

metu, -ere, -u, (-tum)

to fear, apprehend, dread

- metus, -s, m.

- fear, apprehension, dread

horre, -re, -u, --

to bristle; bristle at, shudder at

- horridus, -a, -um

terre, -re, -u, -itum
- terror, -ris, m.

- (lit.) bristling, rough; terrible, fearful

to terrify, frighten
- fright, terror, panic

patior, -, passus sum

to permit, endure

dole, -re, dolu, dolitrus

to feel pain/grief; grieve

- dolor, -ris, m.
maere, -re, -u, -- maestus, -a, -um

- pain, grief; resentment

to grieve, mourn
- sad, sorrowful, dejected, etc.; depressing

fle, -re, -v, -tum

to weep

pude, -re, -u, --

(of personal subjects) to be ashamed, feel shame; to shame,

cause/bring shame; (of things as subjects) to be a shame, be cause
of shame

- pudor, -ris, m.

- sense of shame, modesty, propriety; sense of honor

resist, -ere, -stit, --

to take one's stand, hold one's ground, resist

spern, -ere, sprv, sprtum

(reg. in fig. sense) reject, despise, scorn; (lit.) to sever, remove

contemn, -ere, -ps, -ptum

to despise, scorn, disdain

IV. Adjectives and Related Words

1. Size
magnus, -a, -um


- mior, mius

- greater

- maximus, -a, -um

- greatest

- magis

- more

- magnitd, -nis, f.

- greatness, size


- magister, -tr, m.
largus, -a, -um

- master, chief; steersman, teacher, etc.

copious, lavish, unstinted

grandis, -e

large, ponderous

immnsus, -a, -um

unmeasured, boundless

ingns, -gentis

vast, huge, enormous, etc.

tantus, -a, -um

(adj. of degree) so great, so much

quantus, -a, -um

(interr. and rel. num. adj.) how great? as great (correl. of "tantus")

altus, -a, -um

high, lofty; deep; (lit.) nourished

ltus, -a, -um

broad, wide

- latus, -eris, n. [d.]

parvus, -a, -um (comp. minor, superl. minimus)

- side, flank [d.]

small, little (in Caesar not in positive, and in general rare)

- minor, minus

- smaller, less

- minimus, -a, -um

- smallest, least

- parum

- (adv.) too little

exiguus, -a, -um

limited, minute, scanty, little; (lit.) driven out

tenuis, -e

(lit.) stretched; thin, slender (in var. lit. and fig. senses)

longus, -a, -um

long, (of distance, occassionally) far

brevis, -e

short, shallow, brief

gravis, -e

heavy (in a large variety of fig. uses)

levis, -e

light; slight; (fig.) trivial, unimportant

- lev, -re, -v, -tum

- (lit.) to make light; lift; remove; (fig.) lessen, relieve

amplus, -a, -um

large, spacious; (fig.) splendid, glorious (nom. sing. masc. does not
occur; positive rare in prose, common in poetry)

modicus, -a, -um

(of size, length, extent, degree) moderate, intermediate; (of

behaviour) modest, moderate, temperate; often with accessory
notion of restriction or diminution

2. Number
aequus, -a, -um

level, even, equal; fair, kindly

pr, paris


- pariter

- (adv.) equally

quot (indecl.)

(interr. rel. num. adj.) how many? (correl. of "tot")

omnis, -e

all, every; as a whole

- cnctus, -a, -um

- all together, entire

- ttus, -a, -um

- whole, entire (in var. senses)

- tot (indecl.)

- (indecl. demonst. num.) so many

- niversus, -a, -um

- all together, universal; (lit.) turned to one

multus, -a, -um

- pls, plris

much; (pl.) many

- more

- plrimus, -a, -um

- most

- multitd, -inis, f.

- multitude; number, amount, body, force, etc.

paucus, -a, -um (class. only pl. pauc, -ae, -a)

- paulus, -a, -um

- little, small

rrus, -a, -um

wide apart, loose, thin (opp. to "densus"), close; (fig.) rare, seldom,

nllus, -a, -um

not any, no one, no

- llus, -a, -um

nus, -a, -um

- any, any one (reg. in clauses expressing or implying a negative)

(card. num.) one

- nicus, -a, -um

- sole, single, only

- singul, -ae, -a

- (distrib. num. adj.) one each

- slus, -a, -um

- only, alone


- slitd, -inis, f.

- loneliness, solitude

- prmus, -a, -um

- (ord. num.) first

- prior, prius
duo, duae, duo
- geminus, -a, -um
trs, trs, tria
- ter
- tertius, -a, -um

- earlier, preceding, former

(card. num.) two
- twin; twofold, double, two
(card. num.) three
- thrice
- (ord. num.) third

qurtus, -a, -um

(ord. num. adj.) fourth

qunque (indecl.)

(card. num.) five

sex (indecl.)

(card. num.) six

septem (indecl.)

(card. num.) seven

oct (indecl.)

(card. num.) eight

novem (indecl.)

(card. num.) nine

decem (indecl.)

(card. num.) ten

centum (indecl.)

(card. num.) one hundred

mlle (sg. indecl., pl. mlia, -ium n.)

thousand (adj. in sing., subst. in plural)

3. Texture Density
cer, cris, cre

sharp, piercing (always in fig. sense, and usually applied to men,

although Cicero applies it also to "supplicium")

- acis, -, f.

- (lit.) edge; line of battle (Caesar uses it once with "oculorum",

Cicero with "auctoritatis"; Vergil uses it alone of "eyes", of "sight, of
"sword." Otherwise the word is military)

firmus, -a, -um

- firm, -re, -v, -tum
mollis, -e
- lnis, -e

strong, firm, solid; steadfast

- to make firm, strengthen
soft, yielding, gentle (both lit. and fig.)
- soft, gentle, mild

- lentus, -a,- um

- slow, sluggish, pliant

- mtis, -e

- mild, gentle

- tener, -era, -erum

- tender (in many senses)

plnus, -a, -um


- comple, -re, -v, -tum

- to fill completely

- exple, -re, -v, -tum

- to fill out, complete

- imple, -re, -v, -tum

innis, -e
- vnus, -a, -um
- cavus, -a, -um
dnsus, -a, -um
- crber, -bra, -brum
- frequns, -entis
liquidus, -a, -um

- to fill in, fill up (both lit. and fig.)

empty, vacant; (fig.) unsubstantial, vain
- containing nothing, empty; (fig.) false, deceitful, etc.
- hollow; enveloping
thick, close, dense (opp. to "rarus"); (fig.) thick, murky; frequent
- thick, close, frequent
- in a large number; often, repeated
fluid, liquid; (fig.) limpid, clear, etc.

4. Appearance
albus, -a, -um
- candidus, -a, -um
niger, -gra, -grum
- ter, tra, trum

dead white (opp. to "niger")

- white, fair
shining black (opp. to "candidus")
- dead black, dark (opp. to "albus"); (fig.) gloomy, deadly

obscrus, -a, -um

dark, dusky, obscure (both lit. and fig.)

purpureus, -a, -um

purple-colored, crimson, red; (fig.) bright


pulcher, -chra, -chrum

beautiful (both lit. and fig.)

pinguis, -e

fat; rich, fertile, richly-laden, etc.

ndus, -a, -um

naked, bare

5. Position
celsus, -a, -um
- sublmis, -e

raised high, lofty

- raised up, elevated, on high (in var. senses)

medius, -a, -um

mid, middle, central

plnus, -a, -um

level; clear

nferus, -a, -um

low; (fig.) low, humble, mean

- nfernus, -a, -um

humilis, -e

- that which is below, infernal

(lit.) on the ground; low; obscure, humble

profundus, -a, -um

deep; (more rarely) high; profound, abysmal, etc.

extrmus, -a, -um

outermost, farthest, last, extreme

scrtus, -a, -um

separated, apart, secret

prvtus, -a, -um

apart, personal, private

- pblicus, -a, -um

- public (i.e. belonging to the state); public in general

- rs pblica, re pblicae, etc.

- republic, state, commonwealth

- commnis, -e

- common, general; (lit.) having common tasks

- proprius, -a, -um

- one's own; peculiar, etc. (in many senses)

6. Time
aeternus, -a, -um
- immortlis, -e
- perpetuus, -a, -um
vetus, -eris

everlasting, eternal
- immortal
- unbroken, perpetual (both of material things and more commonly
of time); (lit.) thorough seeking
old, of long standing (opp. to "recens")

- vetusts, -tis, f.

- oldness, age; duration

- antquus, -a, -um

- ancient, old-time, former (opp. to "novus")

- prscus, -a, -um

- old-time, ancient, primitive

- mtrus, -a, -um

- ripe, mature; early, speedy

novus, -a, -um


- recns, -entis

- fresh, new (opp. to "vetus")

- praesns, -entis

- that is before one; in sight or at hand; present, in person

- assiduus, -a, -um

- constant, frequent

celer, -eris, -ere


- vlx, -cis

- swift, fleet

- rapidus, -a, -um

- swift, speedy (of fire, winds, rivers, etc.); (lit.) tearing

- citus, -a, -um

- stirred up; swift

tardus, -a, -um

slow, sluggish, lingering

7. Favorable
bonus, -a, -um


- bene

- (adv.) well

- bengnus, -a, -um

- kind, friendly

- melior, -ius

- better

- optimus, -a, -um

pius, -a, -um
- piets, -tis, f.

- best
dutiful, devoted (in many senses as just, filial, pious, kind, etc.)
- sense of duty, devotion, esp. between parents and children


- impius, -a, -um

- impious

fortis, -e

brave, valiant

nbilis, -e

distinguished, noble; (lit.) knowable

lber, -era, -erum


- lberlis, -e

- pertaining to a freeman; noble, generous

- lber, -re, -v, -tum

- to make free, free, liberate

- lberts, -tis, f.

- freedom, liberty

- liber, -br, m. [d.]

- (reg.) book; (lit.) inner bark [d.]

- libellus, -, m.
sapins, -entis
- sapientia, -ae, f.
- snus, -a, -um
ntus, -a, -um
- not, -re, -v, nottum

- booklet
wise, sensible
- good sense; wisdom
- sound of health, sane
(in a good sense) known; (in a bad sense) notorious
- to note, mark out, watch, notice

- gntus, -a, -um

- unknown

- clrus, -a, -um

- clear, bright; brilliant, distinguished, famous, etc.

- praecipuus, -a, -um

- special, particular, excellent; (lit.) taken first

- nsgnis, -e
dgnus, -a, -um

- marked, distinguished, conspicuous (both lit. and fig.)


- dgnits, -tis, f.

- worth, rank, reputation, esteem, etc.

- dgnor, -r, -tus sum

- to deem worthy of, deign

- indgnus, -a, -um

vrus, -a, -um
- vr
flx, -cis

- unworthy
- (adv.) in truth, but

- nflx, -cis

- unlucky

- betus, -a, -um

- happy, prosperous, blessed, fortunate

- laetus, -a, -um

- glad, joyful (used fig. of animals, countries, etc.)

- sernus, -a, -um

- clear, calm, fair (esp. of weather)

- contentus, -a, -um

- contented, satisfied, content

prosper(us), -era, -erum

favorable, auspicious

- dves, -itis (gen. pl. -um)

- rich

- dvitiae, -rum, f. (pl.)

- riches

- ds, dtis

- rich (classic only superlative)

- ber, -eris
dulcis, -e

- rich, fertile, fruitful; (as noun) teat, udder, breast; fertility

sweet (in lit. and fig. senses)

- suvis, -e

- sweet, pleasant, agreeable, grateful, delightful

- blandus, -a, -um

- alluring, charming

- crus, -a, -um

- dear

- icundus, -a, -um

- pleasant, agreeable

- commodus, -a, -um

prus, -a, -um

- with due measure; suitable, convenient, comfortable

clean, pure (both lit. and fig.)

- merus, -a, -um

- pure, unmixed

- integer, -gra, -grum

- untouched; fresh, complete

- castus, -a, -um

sacer, -cra, -crum

- pure, spotless
holy, consecrate; accursed; (lit.) set apart

- sacerds, -tis, mf.

- priest, priestess

- snctus, -a, -um

- sacred, inviolable

- sollemnis, -e
- fstus, -a, -um

- (lit.) coming at the completion of a year, annual, stated;

ceremonial, solemn, etc.
- festive, festal


8. Unfavorable
malus, -a, -um


- vlis, -e

- cheap, worthless; base

- foedus, -a, -um

- foul

- turpis, -e

- ugly, unsightly; disgraceful, foul, etc.

- improbus, -a, -um

- not good, wicked, depraved, rascally, etc. (opp. of "bonus")

crdlis, -e

cruel, pitiless, ruthless

- ferus, -a, -um

- wild, fierce

- fer [d.]

- almost (reg. follows its word) [d.]

- saevus, -a, -um

- fierce, raging, wrathful (in many lit. and fig. senses)

- drus, -a, -um

- fearful, awful, portentous, dire

- sevrus, -a, -um

- stern, strict; inflexible; fatal

- asper, -era, -erum

- rough; (fig.) harsh, bitter

- drus, -a, -um

- hard, tough, harsh

- vstus, -a, -um

- empty, void, waste, wild, etc.

miser, -era, -erum

wretched, miserable

- miseror, -r, -tus sum

- to pity, take pity on, commiserate

- trstis, -e

- sad, solemn, serious (in var. fig. meanings)

- anxius, -a, -um

- sollicitus, -a, -um
aeger, -gra, -grum

- anxious, troubled; (of action) that troubles, makes anxious;

- thoroughly moved/excited; troubled
sick (of both mental and physical ills)

- fessus, -a, -um

- faint, weary, tired

- lassus, -a, -um

- faint, wearied

caecus, -a, -um

- stultus, -a, -um
- rudis, -e
avidus, -a, -um
- invtus, -a, -um

blind, unseeing; aimless; (fig.) dark, obscure (as "paries", "carcer")

- foolish, stupid
- (lit.) unwrought, untilled, unformed, rough, raw, wild; (fig.) rude,
unpolished, uncultivated, unskilled, awkward, clumsy
craving, eager for, longing for, ardent
- unwilling, reluctant

9. Unclassified
tlis, -e
- qulis, -e
necesse (only used with esse)
- necessits, -tis, f.

such (in many usages; correl. with "qualis")

- (interr. and rel. adj. pron.) of what kind? (correl. of "talis")
(indecl. adj.) necessary
- necessity, need

similis, -e

like, similar

simplex, -icis

simple, single

varius, -a, -um

diversified, changing, varied, various (in many senses)

aptus, -a, -um

(lit.) fitted to, joined to; fit

certus, -a, -um

fixed, settled, sure, certain

- incertus, -a, -um

- uncertain

vehemns, -entis

violent, impetuous, strong (Caesar uses adv. only; Cicero only the

frgidus, -a, -um

cold (applied by Vergil also to such words as "horror", "mors", etc.)

- frgus, -oris, n.

- cold (also in Vergil of chill caused by fear, etc.)


V. Adverbs
1. Time

at that time; formerly; (rarely) hereafter


formerly, once upon a time

nper (superl. nperrim)

recently, lately


at once, together, at the same time (in prose often with "atque" in
sense "as soon as")


at that time, at this time, now (of relative time opposed to "nunc", the
actual "now"); already



prtinus (prtenus)

at once, forthwith; (lit.) forward


immediately, at once; (lit.) as one stands


suddenly, unexpectedly




soon, presently


early, in the morning


tomorrow; (poet.) in the future


at last, finally; (in impatient questions) pray, pray tell me


at length, finally; to sum up, in word; (not uncommon with "tum" or




- umquam (unquam)

- ever, at any time (usually with neg. as stronger than "numquam",

or after conditional particle)


(interr. rel. num. adv.) how many times? (correl. of "totiens")


(multipl. num.) once


again, for the second time

rrsus (rrsum)

back, again; (lit.) turned back


(mult. num.) twice




long, for a long time (of time opp. to "longe" of space")


always, ever


all the way, up to (reg. followed, sometimes preceded by "ad" or "in"

with acc.)


meanwhile; (lit.) there between

- intere
- interdum
- aliquand
- tunc

- meanwhile; (lit.) there between

- meanwhile
(interr. adv.) when?; (indef. adv. after "si", "ne", etc.) at some time, at
any time
- at some time, at length; (lit.) some when
then (opp. to "nunc"); (esp. with "demum" or "denique") finally; (with
"iam") already
- then (opp. to "nunc"; Vergil uses it for "tum" before vowels; in
prose rare)

2. Place


- hinc

- hence

- hc

- hither

- adhc

- up to this (present), thus far


ib (ibi)
- ibdem (ibidem)
- illc
- deinde

- in the same place
- thither
thence (both of time and space)
- thereupon, then; next in order, furthermore


inwardly, deeply, far within; thoroughly, utterly


without, abroad


here and there


at a distance, afar, from a distance

ub (ubi)

(interr. rel. adv.) where (sometimes strengthened by "nam");

(temporal conj.) as soon as (sometimes strengthened by "primum")


to/in which place, whither, where


(interr. rel. adv.) whence

- undique

- from all sides, on all sides; (lit.) whencesoever

3. Cause Manner
- qur (qu r)
- igitur
- ide
- scut (scut)
- itaque
- item
- tamquam
- quamvs

(interr. adv.) why?

- (interr.) from what cause? why?; (rel.) by which means, whereby;
wherefore, why
(conj.) therefore (often with question "quid?"); (prep. with gen.) on
account of
- accordingly, consequently, therefore
- on that account, for this end
in such a manner, so (referring to what precedes or follows)
- just as
so (reffering to what precedes or follows)
- and so, therefore (reg. at beginning of sentence)
- likewise; (lit.) in that way
(demonst. adv. of degree) so
- so as, just as
(interr. and rel. adv.) how? as; (after comparative) than; (with superl.)
- however you like, although


(indecl. adv. and adj.) enough, sufficient


(adv.) too, too much

- nimius, -a, -um

- (adj.) too much, excessive


for the most part, generally


in vain

4. Adversative
- haud
- nndum
nve (neu)
- nve ... nve (neu ... neu)

not; ("~ dum") not yet; ("~ iam") no longer

- not (reg. with single word, esp. in phrases like "~ scio" and in
- not yet
and not, nor
- neither...nor


perhaps, perchance



- fer

- almost (regl. follows its word)

- ferus, -a, -um [d.]

- wild, fierce [d.]



hardly, scarcely, barely; (sometimes with "dum") hardly yet


(adv.) in a measure, in a (limited) manner; only, but (of manner); just,

just now (of time)


at any rate, at least


nay, on the contrary; (often with "vero") truly


(disjunctive conj.) still, nevertheless, notwithstanding

VI. Interjections

lo! behold!

heu (heu or eheu)


(expressing joy) ho! hurrah!; (expressing pain or grief) Oh! ah!;

(calling attention) see, look, mark, behold

oh! ah!


one may know; certainly, of course, forsooth (often ironical)


indeed, surely; (sometimes ironically) to be sure, indeed, forsooth

VII. Conjunctions
- -que

(co-ordinating conj.) and

- (enclitic cop. conj.) and (reg. connects ideas that belong together)


(lit.) and already; also, even


also, too

atque (ac)

(copulative conj.) and in addition, and also, and; (after comparatives)

than; ("simul ~") as soon as


(advers. conj.) but, but yet (esp. in rejoinders and apodoses)


(advers. conj.) but


(disjunct. conj.) or (excluding alternative)


(advers. conj.) moreover, but, however (always postpositive)


or (implying choice); even

- vel ... vel

- whether...or

- -ve

- or (enclitic and reg. appended to first word in a clause)

- velut (velut)

- even as, like as, just as

nam (or namque as a stronger variant)

(causal conj.) for; (also particle appended to inter. words) indeed,



(postpositive conj.) for, verily, you see


(enclitic adv.) certainly, at least

- qudam, quaedam, quiddam (subst., quoddam, adj.) [d.]


- (indef. pron.) a certain one, some one [d.]

or (introducing second part of disjunctive question, after "utrum" or "ne"; occasionally it seems to be used as a simple interrogative
particle (e.g. Vergil)

nec (neque)

and not, nor, neither

(neg. final particle) lest, that not; (with verbs of fear) lest

- -ne

- enclitic interrog. particle, asking for information


ut (ut)

(interr. rel. adv.) how (not in Caesar); (comp.) like, as; (often with
correlatives as "ita", "sic") so; (temporal) as soon as (sometimes
strengthened by "primum"); (final) in order that; (consecutive or
result) so as to, so that

- utinam

- would that, O that (introducing wishes in the subj.); (lit.) how that


(conj.) as (soon as) with indic. perf. (rarely hist. pres. or pluperf.);
when (of time, with any tense of indic.; of circumstance, with imperf.
or pluperf. subj.; (of cause) as, since (with subj.); (of concession)
although (with subj.)


(conj.) while (with indic.); until (with subj.); provided that (with subj.,
often supported by "modo")




(conj.) since, whereas (with indic.)


(conj.) because (with the indic. of the evident reason)


(conj. in causal sentences) because; (in object or substantive

sentences) the fact that, as for the fact that, that


however, although (with indic.)


- sve (seu)

- if (alternate condition)

- sve ... sve

- whether...or

- quasi

- as if

- nis (nisi)
- ets

- (lit.) not if; if not; (after a neg.) unless, except; "si" is sometimes
- even if, although (with indic.)
nay indeed (esp. with "etiam"); (conj. with subj.) but that (after verbs
of preventing, etc., if neg. or interr.); (lit.) why not? (interr. or rel.)

VIII. Prepositions and Prefixes

- ante

- praeter
- praetere

(adv. of space and time); before (often with abl. of measure); (prep.
with acc.) before (of space or time)
- (adv.) before that, previously, hitherto
(prep. with abl.) (lit.) in front of; in comparison with; (with neg.) by
reason of (preventing cause); (in composition with adj. and adv.) very
- (prep. with acc.) by, along, past; (fig.) besides, except, contrary to
- besides, moreover
(prep. with abl.) (lit.) in front of (i.e. with back to; rare except in
military phrases); in behalf of; in proportion to

- prope

- (adv.) near; (fig.) nearly, almost

- proximus, -a, -um

- nearest

- propinquus, -a, -um

- ob


- (lit.) near, close; (fig.) near, relative, kinsman

(prep. with acc.) on account of; (adv., very rare) near
- (prep. with acc.) (lit.) against, facing; (but reg.) on account of; in
classical prose only in phrases with "rem", "causam", etc., otherwise
(prep. with acc.) (of motion whither) to, up to; (of direction) towards;
(of respect) for, with regard to; (of manner) after, according to; (of
place) at; (of time) at; (with numberals) about; (of purpose) for



I. Prep. with acc. or abl.: (with acc. of place whither) into the midst of;
(with abl. of place where) in, on. II. Negative prefix used with adj.,
adv., and participles, "un-". III. (intensive prefix) very


(prep. with acc.) between (of place where); (of time) during


(prep. with acc.) near (of place); (reg. of persons) in the presence of


(adv. and prep. with acc.) around, around about, in the neighborhood
of, near

- circ

- (adv. and prep. with acc.) around, round about


(adv. and prep. with acc.) against, opposite


(adv. and prep. with acc. and abl.) over, upon; concerning, for "de";
(adv.) moreover

- supr
- superior, -ius

- (adv. and prep. with acc.) above, beyond (of place and time)
- (of place) higher, upper; (fig.) former, past, previous, preceding; (of
quality, condition, number) higher, more distinguished, greater,

- suprmus, -a, -um

- highest, loftiest, topmost; last, final, etc.

- super, -re, -v, -tum

- to overcome, surpass, defeat

- superbus, -a, -um

- nfr

- overbearing; proud, haughty, etc.

(prep. with acc. or abl.) under, close to (of place); (with acc.) towards
(of time)
- (adv. and prep. with acc.) below


(prep. with acc.) through (of space, time, cause, instrument, manner);
(also adv. in composition with adverbs and adjectives) very


(prep. with acc.) outside of, beyond


(prep. with abl.) without (esp. in neg. phrases instead of "cum")


(prep. with abl.) (of place whence) from; so in phrases as "~ tergo",
from (on) the rear, etc.; (of cause) from; (of agent) by; (of remote
origin) from; (of time) from

(prep. with abl.) (of place) down from, from (esp. with compounds of
"de" and "ex"); (of source and origin) from; (of object) concerning; of
the whole "from" which a part is taken


(adv. and prep. with acc.) beyond

- ulterior, -ius

- more, beyond, farther

- ultimus, -a, -um

- farthest (of space, time, quality, etc.)


(prep. with abl.) (of place) out of, from; (of origin) from; (of reference)
according to


(adv. and prep. with acc.) after (both of place and more often time)

- poste

- thereafter, afterwards (sometimes followed by "-quam")

- postquam

- (conj.) after

- posterus, -a, -um

- postrmus, -a, -um

- next, later, subsequent

- hindmost, the last; end or last part of any thing; (fig.) the last,
lowest, basest, meanest, worst

con- (com-)

(prefix) together


(prefix) apart, not

re- (red-)

(prefix) back, again

trns- (tr-)

(prefix) across


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