Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

3.

1 Concept of Random Variable

Pre-Test
Instruction: Answer the following.
1. Give an example of an event that is using a random variable in finding the results.

2. A coin is tossed twice, give the sample space.

Discussion

Random Variables
Discrete and Continuous Random Variables:
A variable is a quantity whose value changes.
A discrete variable is a variable whose value is obtained by counting.
Examples:

number of students present


number of red marbles in a jar
number of heads when flipping three coins
students grade level

A continuous variable is a variable whose value is obtained by measuring.


Examples:

height of students in class


weight of students in class
time it takes to get to school
distance traveled between classes

A random variable is a variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a


random phenomenon.

A random variable is denoted with a capital letter

The probability distribution of a random variable X tells what the possible values
of X are and how probabilities are assigned to those values

A random variable can be discrete or continuous


A discrete random variable X has a countable number of possible values.
Example: Let X represent the sum of two dice.
Then the probability distribution of X is as follows:
X
P(X
)

10

To graph the probability distribution of a discrete random variable, construct


a probability histogram.

A continuous random variable X takes all values in a given interval of


numbers.

The probability distribution of a continuous random variable is shown by a density


curve.

The probability that X is between an interval of numbers is the area under the
density curve between the interval endpoints

The probability that a continuous random variable X is exactly equal to a


number is zero

Post Test
Instruction: Answer the following.
1. Family has 3 children. Probability of type A is for each child. What are the
probabilities of 0, 1, 2, or 3 with type A?

2. A die is thrown repeatedly until a 6 is obtained. Find the probability density function
for the number times we throw the die.

3.1 Pre-test (answers)


Instruction: Answer the following.
1. Give an example of an event that is using a random variable in finding the results.
Solution:
Tossing a coin, rolling a dice/die, knowing blood types, etc.

2. A coin is tossed twice, give the sample space.


Solution:
S = {HH, HT,TH,TT}, and X - number of heads. Then we get:
HH HT TH TT X 2 1 1 0
X

HH
2

HT
1

TH
1

TT
0

3.1 Post-test (answers)


Instruction: Answer the following.
1. Family has 3 children. Probability of type A is for each child. What are the
probabilities of 0, 1, 2, or 3 with type A?
Solution:
Sample Space: For each child, write either O or A. There are eight possible
arrangements of O and A for three births. These are the simple events.
S = {OOO, OOA, OAO, AOO, OAA, AOA, AAO, AAA}
Sample Space and Probabilities: The eight simple events are equally likely. Each
has probability (1/2)(1/2)(1/2) = 1/8
Random Variable X: number of Type A in three children. For each simple event,
the value of X is the number of As listed.
Event
P
X= # of
type A

OOO
1/8
0

OOA
1/8
1

OAO
1/8
1

AOO
1/8
1

OAA
1/8
2

AOA
1/8
2

AAO
1/8
2

2. A die is thrown repeatedly until a 6 is obtained. Find the probability density function
for the number times we throw the die.
Solution:
Let X be the random variable representing the number of times we throw the die.
P(X = 1) = 1/6 (if we only throw the die once, we get a 6 on our first throw. The
probability of this is 1/6).
P(X = 2) = (5/6) (1/6) (if we throw the die twice before getting a 6, we must
throw something that isn't a 6 with our first throw, the probability of which is 5/6 and
we must throw a 6 on our second throw, the probability of which is 1/6)
In general, P(X = x) = (5/6)(x-1) (1/6).

AAA
1/8
3