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Study Guide Studium Generale

& Humaniora
STUDIUM GENERALE
AIMS
To condition the students to the study and a carrier in medicine
To introduce the students to the general skills and attitudes required to meet the
demands of the new medical curriculum
To recognize the relationships between professional competencies and the
biomedical and allied sciences, clinical sciences, professional skills, and
attitudes

LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Cognizance of the new paradigm of medical practice: science, clinical judgment,
professionalism, communication, and team working
2. Awareness of the practical implications of developing basic skills in critical and
associated thinking and scientific reasoning, and a habit of lifelong learning
3. Define medical and allied sciences, professional skills and attitudes. Clarify the
relationships between professional competencies and the biomedical and allied
sciences, clinical sciences, professional skills, and attitudes

CONTENTS: items discussed


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Overview of Studium Generale


Philosophy of Science and Medicine
Independent Learning
Group dynamic
Problem based Learning
Academic writing
Academic Reading

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora

PLANERS TEAM
No

Name

dr. I Made Jawi, M.Kes (Leader)

dr. Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi


(Secretary)

Dr.dr Dewa Putu Gede Purwa Samatra,


SpS(K)

Department

Phone

Pharmacology
Parasitology

08179787972

PSPD

087860717881
08123918731

LECTURERS
NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

NAME
Prof.Dr.dr. I Made Bakta, SpPD,KHOM
Dr.dr. I Made Jawi, M.Kes
dr. Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi
dr.I Gst Md Surya Candra Trapika, Msc
Dr. Sri Darmayani, SpOG

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

DEPT

PHONE

Internist
Pharmacology
Parasitology
Pharmacology
DME

0811399625
08179787972
087860717881
081337991177
081338644411

Study Guide Studium Generale


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FACILITATORS
(REGULAR CLASS)
NO

NAME

GROUP

DEPT

dr. Dewa Gde Mahiswara


Suadiatmika, Sp.Rad
dr. Gusti Ngurah Mayun, Sp.HK

Radiology

Histology

dr. I Gde Haryo Ganesha,


S.Ked
dr. I Nyoman Gede Wardana, M
Biomed
dr. I Putu Bayu Mayura, S.Ked

DME

Anatomy

Microbiology

Dr.dr. Dyah Pradnyaparamita


Duarsa, M.Si
dr. Ni Luh Ariwati

Public Health

Parasitology

dr. Ida Ayu Dewi Wiryanthini,


M Biomed
dr. Cynthia Dewi Sinardja,
Sp.An
dr. I Gusti Ayu Sri Darmayani,
Sp.OG

Biochemistry

Anasthesi

10

DME

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

PHONE
08123846307
08155715359
081805391039
087860405625
082236165801
0818357777
08123662311
081239990399
085100874785
081338644411

VENUE
2nd floor:
R.2.01
2nd floor:
R.2.02
2nd floor:
R.2.03
2nd floor:
R.2.04
2nd floor:
R.2.05
2nd floor:
R.2.06
2nd floor:
R.2.07
2nd floor:
R.2.08
2nd floor:
R.2.21
2nd floor:
R.2.22

FACILITATORS
(ENGLISH CLASS)
NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

NAME
dr. Wira Gotera, Sp.PD-KEMDFINASIM
dr. Ida Ayu Kusuma Wardani,
Sp.KJ, MARS
Dr.dr. I Made Jawi, M.Kes

GROUP
1

DEPT
Interna

Psychiatry

Pharmacology

Prof. dr. Nyoman Agus Bagiada,


Sp.Biok
dr. Tjokorda Gde Oka, MS,
Sp.PK
dr. I Wayan Losen Adnyana, Sp
PD
dr. I Gusti Ngurah
Pramesemara , M.Biomed
dr. Ni Nengah Dwi Fatmawati ,
Sp.MK, Ph.D
dr I Gusti Agung Gede Utara
Hartawan, Sp.An, MARS
Dr. dr. I Dewa Made Sukrama,

Biochemistry

5
6

Clinical
Pathology
Interna

Andrology

Microbiology

Anasthesi

10

Microbiology

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

PHONE
08155736480
08123813831
08179787972
081338338611
081999450045
08123995536
081338605087
087862200814
08123868126
081338291965

VENUE
2nd floor:
R.2.01
2nd floor:
R.2.02
2nd floor:
R.2.03
2nd floor:
R.2.04
2nd floor:
R.2.05
2nd floor:
R.2.06
2nd floor:
R.2.07
2nd floor:
R.2.08
2nd floor:
R.2.21
2nd floor:

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora
MSi, Sp.MK(K)

R.2.22

TIME TABLE
REGULAR CLASS

Day/
Date

Sept

7th

Sept

8th

Sept

9th

Time

Activity

Venue

Person-in-charge

08.00 09.00

Lecture 1 Overview of Studium


Generale

Class room

Dr.dr Made Jawi,


M.kes

09.00 10.00

Lecture 2 GRUP DYNAMIC

Class room

Dr.dr Made Jawi,


M.kes

10.00 11.00
11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00

Independent Learning
Independent Learning
Istirahat

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00

Student Project
Lecture 3 Independent Learning

08.00 09.00
09.00 10.00

Lecture 4 Philosophy of Science


and Medicine
Independent Learning

10.00 11.00
11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00

Independent Learning
Istirahat
Student Project

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00
08.00 09.00

Student Project
Lecture 5 Problem Based
Learning
Lecture 6 ACADEMIC WRITING

09.00 10.00

Independent Learning

10.00 11.00
11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00
13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00

Independent Learning
Istirahat
Presentasi student project
Presentasi student project
Independent learning

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Dr. Sri darmayani,


SpOg
Class room

Prof. Bakta

Class room

Dr. Sri darmayani,


SpOg
dr.Surya
Candratrapika,
MKes

Discussion room
Class room

Dr DAA Sri
laksmi,M.Sc

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora

Sept

10th

Sept
th

14

Sept

15th

08.00 11.00

Lecture PPKN

Class room

MKDU

11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00

Independent Learning
Presentasi student project

Class room

Dr DAA Sri
laksmi,M.Sc

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00

Sgd: Group Dynamic dan kasus


PBL
Plenary

08.00 09.00

Lecture 7 Thinking skill

Class room

09.00 10.00

Independent Learning

Class room

10.00 11.00
11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00

Independent Learning
Istirahat
Student Project

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00

Student Project
Student Project

08.00 09.00

Lecture 8 Reasoning skill

09.00 10.00

Independent Learning

10.00 11.00
11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00

Independent Learning
Istirahat
Student Project

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00
08.00 09.00

Student Project
Student Project
Lecture 9 Information Acess

Discussion room
Class room

Class room

Class room
Sept

16th

Sept

Dr. sri darmayani,


SpOg
Dr.dr Made Jawi,
M.kes

Dr.dr. Dewa Putu


Gede Purwa
samatra, SpS (K)

Prof.Dr.dr. IPG
Adiatmika, MKes

09.00 10.00

Independent Learning

10.00 11.00
11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00
13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00

Independent Learning
Istirahat
Presentasi student project
Presentasi student project
Independent learning

08.00 11.00

Lecture PPKN

Class room

MKDU

11.00 12.00
12.00 13.00

Independent Learning
Presentasi student project

Class room

Dr DAA Sri
laksmi,M.Sc

13.00 14.00

Sgd: Thinking skill, reasoning


skill, Information acess
Plenary

Class room

Dr DAA Sri
laksmi,M.Sc

Discussion room

th

17

14.00 15.00

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Discussion room
Class room

Dr.dr Made Jawi,


M.kes
Dr.dr. Dewa Putu
Gede Purwa
samatra, SpS (K)
Prof.Dr.dr. IPG
Adiatmika, MKes

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora

Sept

18th

ASSESSMENT

~ LEARNING SITUATIONS ~

1. Independent Learning : Belajar mandiri dan mengerjakan tugas


student project
2. Lecture : Kuliah yang diberikan oleh dosen
3. Plenary : Sesi tanya jawab pada akhir perkuliahan di ruang kelas
4. Small Group Discussion : Diskusi kelompok yang dipandu fasilitator
di ruang diskusi kelompok

TIME TABLE
ENGLISH CLASS
Day/
Date

Sept

Time

Activity

Venue

09.00 10.00

Independent learning

10.00 11.00

Lecture 1 Overview of Studium


Generale

Class room

11.00 12.00

Lecture 2 GROUP DYNAMIC

Class room

12.00 13.00

Istirahat

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00
15.00 - 16.00

Student Project
Student Project
Lecture 3 INDEPENDENT
LEARNING

th

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Person-in-charge
Dr.dr Made Jawi,
M.kes

Dr.dr Made Jawi,


M.kes

Dr. Sri darmayani,


SpOg

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora

09.00 10.00

Sept

8th

Sept

9th

Sept

10th

10.00 11.00

Lecture 4 Philosophy of Science


and Medicine
Independent Learning

Class room

11.00 12.00

Independent Learning

12.00 13.00

Istirahat

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00
15.00 - 16.00

Student Project
Student Project
Lecture 5 Problem based
learning (PBL)

09.00 10.00
10.00 11.00

Lecture 6 ACADEMIC WRITING


Independent Learning

11.00 12.00

Independent Learning

12.00 13.00

Istirahat

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00
15.00 - 16.00
10.00 11.00

Independent Learning
Presentasi student project
Presentasi student project
Sgd: Group Dynamic & Kasus
PBL

11.00-12.00

Plenary PBL

Class room

Dr. sri darmayani,


SpOg

12.00 15.00

Lecture PPKN

Class room

MKDU

09.00 10.00

Independent learning

10.00 11.00

Lecture 7 Thinking Skill

Class room

Dr.dr Made Jawi,


M.kes

11.00 12.00

Istirahat

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00

Student Project
Student Project

09.00 10.00

Lecture 8 Reasoning Skill

10.00 11.00

Independent Learning

11.00 12.00

Independent Learning

12.00 13.00

Istirahat

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00

Student Project
Student Project

Dr. Sri darmayani,


SpOg
Class room

Discussion room
Class room
Discussion room

Sept

14th

Sept

15th

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Prof. Bakta

dr.Surya
Candratrapika,
MKes

Dr DAA Sri
laksmi,M.Sc
Fasilitator

Discussion room
Discussion room
Class room

Dr.dr. Dewa Putu


Gede Purwa
samatra, SpS (K)

Discussion room
Discussion room

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora

Sept

16th

09.00 10.00
10.00 11.00

Lecture 9 Information Access


Independent Learning

11.00 12.00

Independent Learning

12.00 13.00

Istirahat

13.00 14.00
14.00 15.00
15.00-16.00
10.00 11.00
11.00-12.00

Independent Learning
Presentasi student project
Presentasi student project
Sgd: Thinking skill, reasoning
skill, Information acess
Plenary

12.00 15.00

Lecture PPKN

Class room

Discussion room
Class room
Discussion room
Class room

Sept

17th

Class room

Prof.Dr.dr. IPG
Adiatmika, MKes

Dr DAA Sri
laksmi,M.Sc
Fasilitator
Dr.dr Made Jawi,
M.kes
Dr.dr. Dewa Putu
Gede Purwa
samatra, SpS (K)
Prof.Dr.dr. IPG
Adiatmika, MKes
MKDU

Sept

18th

ASSESSMENT
MEETING OF STUDENT REPRESENTATIVES

In the middle of each block curriculum, a meeting is held among the student
representatives, facilitators, and resource person of the block. The meeting is to discuss
about the effectiveness of on going teaching and learning processes, facilitators and
lectures as a feedback to improve process. This meeting is held on 11th September 2015.

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Formative assessment and written examination. Formative assessment: data on
attendance, participation in lectures, group discussions and student projects will be used in
determining students achievement. Written examination will be held on September
11th,2015. The passing composite score at 70.

LEARNING PROGRAM
Day 1st

MODUL
Monday , September 7th ,2015

Lecture 1:Overview of Block Studium Generale

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora

I Made Jawi
Aims
1.To condition the students to the study and a carrier in medicine
2.To introduce the students to the general skills and attitudes required to meet the
demands of the new curriculum
3.To recognize the relationships between professional competencies and the biomedical
and allied sciences, clinical sciences, professional skills, and attitudes
Learning outcomes
1. Cognizance of the new paradigm of medical practice: science, clinical judgment,
professionalism, communication, and team working
2. Awareness of the practical implications of developing basic skills in critical and associated
thinking and scientific reasoning, and a habit of lifelong learning
3. Define medical and allied sciences, professional skills and attitudes. Clarify the
relationships between professional competencies and the biomedical and allied sciences,
clinical sciences, professional skills, and attitudes
Convensional curriculum
Basic Science
(Pre Clinic)
Anatomy
Hystology
Biochemistry
Physiology
Pharmacology
Parasitology
Microbiology
Clinical Pathology
Pathology Anatomy
Preventive Medicine
Behavior Science

Clinical Science
(Clinic)
Medical Pharmacy
Radiology
Interna
Pediatric
Obstetry and Gynaecology
Neurology
Psychiatry
Surgery
Ophtalmology
Otorhinolaryngology
Dermatology
Forensic
New paradigm of curriculum is integrated basic sciences and clinical sciences.

CONTENTS: items discussed


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Overview of Studium Generale


Philosophy of Science and Medicine
Independent Learning
Group dynamic
Problem based Learning
Academic writing
Academic Reading

Learning Process

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Study Guide Studium Generale


& Humaniora
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Lecture
Individual learning
Small Group Discussion (SGD)
Student Project
Plenary Session

Assesment Method
Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) with passing level 70
Formative assessment and written examination. Formative assessment:
data on attendance, participation in lectures, group discussions and student
projects will be used in determining students achievement.

Lecture 2: Group Dynamic in Learning


I Made Jawi
Scenario
Consuming natural food is one of many efforts to maintain our health, so the
government, especially the Ministry of Health, always promote the consumption of natural
food and avoidance of fast food. Natural food coloring is considered better than artificial
food coloring (which contain dangerous chemical substances). Until nowadays, the
governmental efforts still not achieve the health promotion target to encourage Indonesian
people to eat healthy foods. Specific measures should be done to overcome the problems
of fast food consumption and usage of artificial food coloring which are prevalent in this
country. Based on that problems, a group of students are given tasks to develop communitysuitable method to overcome the problems.
Learning Tasks
1. If you become a member of that group, what are your attitudes toward the tasks so
that your group can work under the appropriate dynamics?
2. If one of the group members is getting stubborn, and want to use his own ways to
deal with the tasks, is that student compatible with the concept of group dynamics? If
not, please give your reason and explain it!
3. Please explain the steps which are needed to better overcome the problems if you
are a physician!

Group Dynamics in Learning


I Made Jawi
Abstract
A human being need someone else in his life. Through life in group human being can
achieve their personal and group goals. Because of character of each member then the
interaction become dynamic. Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological
processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social
groups (intergroup dynamics). A group with a positive dynamic is easy to spot. Team

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

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Study Guide Studium Generale


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members trust one another, they work towards a collective decision, and they hold one
another accountable for making things happen. As well as this, researchers have found that
when a team has a positive dynamic, its members are nearly twice as creative as an
average group. In a group with poor group dynamics, people's behavior disrupts work. As a
result, the group may not come to any decision, or it may make the wrong choice, because
group members could not explore options effectively
Strategies for Improving Team Dynamics, Use these approaches to improve group
dynamics:
Know Your Team: As a leader, you need to guide the development of your group. So, start
by learning about the phases that a group goes through as it develops. When you
understand these, you'll be able to preempt problems that could arise, including issues with
poor group dynamics.
Tackle Problems Quickly: If you notice that one member of your team has adopted a
behavior that's affecting the group unhelpfully, act quickly to challenge it. Provide feedback
that shows your team member the impact of her actions, and encourage her to reflect on
how she can change her behavior.
Define Roles and Responsibilities: Teams that lack focus or direction can quickly develop
poor dynamics, as people struggle to understand their role in the group. Create a team
charter defining the group's mission and objective, and everyone's responsibilities as
soon as you form the team. Make sure that everyone has a copy of the document, and
remind people of it regularly.
Break Down Barriers: Use team-building exercises to help everyone get to know one
another, particularly when new members join the group. These exercises ease new
colleagues into the group gently, and also help to combat the "black sheep effect," which
happens when group members turn against people they consider different.
Focus on Communication: Open communication is central to good team dynamics, so
make sure that everyone is communicating clearly. Include all of the forms of
communication that your group uses emails, meetings, and shared documents, for
example to avoid any ambiguity.
Pay Attention ; Watch out for the warning signs of poor group dynamics.
Key Points
The term "group dynamics" describes the way in which people in a group interact with one
another. When dynamics are positive, the group works well together. When dynamics are
poor, the group's effectiveness is reduced. Problems can come from weak leadership, too
much deference to authority, blocking, groupthink and free riding, among othersTo
strengthen your team's dynamics, use the following strategies:

Know your team.


Tackle problems quickly with good feedback.
Define roles and responsibilities.
Break down barriers.
Focus on communication.
Pay attention.

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

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Study Guide Studium Generale


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Keep in mind that observing how your group interacts is an important part of your role as a
leader. Many of the behaviors that lead to poor dynamics can be overcome if you catch
them early.
Group development
The development of a group normally goes through the following stages (Tuckman 1965)[3]:

Forming - the group gets together and a level of formality is common


Storming- heightened tension associated with competition for status and influence
Norming - rules and standards of behaviour are agreed
Performing - group matures to a point where it is able to work together as a team

Lecture 3: Independent Learning in Medical Science


I.G.A Sri Darmayani
Objective

: Comprehend the main role and importance of independent learning as the


basic educational strategy at the university.

Acquisition of knowledge can be done by two methods: formal and non-formal. The formal
method commonly comprises attending lectures or seminars given by experts or resource
persons; which is commonly one-way in terms of its intellectual interaction. Thus, the
result of learning that can be gained through this method is usually relatively limited or little
and also superficial in nature. The second and apparently better method is the formal one,
called independent learning or self-directed learning, which can encourage greater and
deeper learning. The term independent learning may imply several main features of learning
process such as: learning by presetting individual objective(s), managing ones own self,
designing an individual learning direction and time-line, deciding individually the learning
resources, etc.
There are several basic features or concepts of independent learning: (1) learning
according to individual need, (2) learning by deciding individually the learning process in
terms of where, what, how and when to learn, including deciding learning objective and
resources (3) developing individual preference for the learning program, (4) the
learner/student individually knows his/her learning needs and how to accomplish them, (5)
provision of adequate learning resources (6) a lecturer functions as a facilitator for learning.
These prerequisites of independent learning should be understood well both by teaching
staff and students in order to achieve effective and successful learning process.

MODUL
Day 2nd

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

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Study Guide Studium Generale


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Tuesday, 8th September, 2015


Lecture 4 Philosophy of Science and Medicine

Prof Bakta
Philosophy comes from the Greek for "love of wisdom," giving us two important starting
points: love (or passion) and wisdom (knowledge, understanding). Philosophy sometimes
seems to be pursued without passion as if it were a technical subject like engineering or
mathematics.
The most effective way to integrate philosophy into medical education uses ethical, social,
and conceptual problems arising in medical practice such as those about informed consent,
confidentiality, competency, resource allocation, the doctor-patient relationship, and death
and dying. Medical students become better physicians by learning salient views on these
matters and by developing philosophical skills and attitudes to (1) examine key assumptions; (2) broaden their perspectives and gain self-knowledge; (3) develop critical
thinking skills about: the kind of judgments they make, how bias affects their views, and the
scope and limits of their knowledge claims; (4) generate tolerance, openness, and
skepticism about: dogma; and (5) cultivate empathy. Learning these skills and disposition;
using moral, conceptual, and social issues facing them will enable students to recognize
these issues when they arise in their medical practices and learn how to respond to them in
justifiable ways. It will also strengthen the health care profession and institutions overall by
fostering the openness, the questioning mind, and the critical thinking essential to the
practice of good medicine.
Philosophy of science, branch of philosophy that attempts to elucidate the nature of
scientific inquiry- observational procedures, patterns of argument, methods of
representation and calculation, metaphysical presuppositions - and evaluate the grounds of
their validity from the points of view of epistemology, formal logic, scientific method, and
metaphysics. Historically, it has had two main preoccupations, ontological and
epistemological. The ontological preoccupations (which frequently overlap with the sciences
themselves) ask what kinds of entities can properly figure in scientific theories and what sort
of existence such entities possess. Epistemologically, philosophers of science have
analyzed and evaluated the concepts and methods employed in studying natural
phenomena, both the general concepts and methods common to all scientific inquiries and
the specific ones that distinguish special sciences.
Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science,
especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. The philosophy of science may be
divided into two areas: Epistemology of science and Metaphysics of science.
Philosophers of science are interested in: the history of concepts and terms and how they
are currently used in science; the relation between propositions with arguments (Formal
logic); the reasoning connecting hypotheses and conclusions (Scientific method); the
manner in which science explains natural phenomena and predicts natural occurrences
(observation); the types of reasoning that are used to arrive at scientific conclusions
(deduction, induction, abduction); the formulation, scope, and limits of scientific
understanding; the means that should be used for determining when scientific information
has adequate support (objectivity); and the implications of scientific methods and models,
along with the technology that arises from scientific knowledge for the larger society
(applied science). Issues of ethics, such as bioethics and scientific misconduct, are not
generally considered part of philosophy of science.
Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning in which the conclusion is necessitated by, or
reached from, previously known facts (the premises). If the premises are true, the

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conclusion must be true. This is distinguished from abductive and inductive reasoning,
where the premises may predict a high probability of the conclusion, but do not ensure that
the conclusion is true.
Induction or inductive reasoning, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an
argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not ensure it. It is used to ascribe
properties or relations to types based on tokens (i.e., on one or a small number of
observations or experiences); or to formulate laws based on limited observations of
recurring phenomenal patterns.
Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring
new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. These steps
must be repeatable in order to predict dependably any future results. Theories that
encompass wider domains of inquiry may bind many hypotheses together in a coherent
structure. This in turn may assist in the formation of new hypotheses, as well as in placing
groups of hypotheses into a broader context of understanding. The general procedure of
scientific method : 1. Identify a problem that youre interested in studying. 2. Form a
hypothesis specify it exactly 3. Design a research project to address the hypothesis 4.
Conduct the research project 5. Examine the data, statistical analyses, evaluate hypothesis
6. Communicate the results
Philosophy of Medicine, though medicine and philosophy have been intertwined
throughout their histories, systematic philosophical reflection on medicine began only in the
19th century. It was rekindled in the middle of this century and established as a distinct
discipline within philosophy only around 1970, with the founding of several journals devoted
exclusively to issues underlying the practice of medicine.
The main stimulus for the creation of philosophy of medicine was a belief that there was a
widening gulf between technology and human values, ironically most manifest in a field
devoted to the study and care of individual human beings. Philosophy of medicine hoped
that the new discipline would clarify medicines proper goals and, by redirecting attention to
urgent issues of an increasingly powerful social force, help free current philosophy from an
analytical scholasticism. As a result, philosophy of medicine in its earliest years focused
largely on concrete ethical questions involving new medical technology, such as euthanasia,
human cloning, artificial insemination, etc. Further impetus was given to those concrete
concerns by criticism of current medical practice from many sources-feminists pointed to
sexist traditions in the practice patterns, research and profession of medicine, alternative
medical practitioners advocated their own therapeutic approaches, and mainstream
practitioners themselves complained of the impersonal drift of modern medicine in an era of
high technology and cost controls. More recently, philosophy of medicine broadened its
focus to address public policy issues on the distribution and financing of health care,
epistemological issues about the attainment, growth and certainty of medical knowledge,
and metaphysical issues about causality, personal identity and spirituality in medicine. The
emphasis at times also reflects my belief that medicine can only provide treatment, while
healing must come from within the patient. As a result, philosophy of medicine here means
philosophy of healing more than professional ethics or phenomenological analysis of
medical practice or patient experience. Those other pursuits may benefit from exercises of
this sort, though even the most subtle of metaphysical insights is bound to leave value
judgments in medicine a matter of drawing well-educated, well-intentioned lines through
painfully gray areas of human lives.
Medical humanities is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the
humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history and religion), social science (anthropology,
cultural studies, psychology, sociology), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts)
and their application to medical education and practice. The humanities and arts provide
insight into the human condition, suffering, personhood, our responsibility to each other, and
offer a historical perspective on medical practice. Attention to literature and the arts helps to
develop and nurture skills of observation, analysis, empathy, and self-reflection -- skills that

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are essential for humane medical care. The social sciences help us to understand how
bioscience and medicine take place within cultural and social contexts and how culture
interacts with the individual experience of illness and the way medicine is practiced.

Lecture 5 PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL)


I.G.A Sri Darmayani
Abstract
Problem based learning is a method of learning in which the learners first
encounter a problem, followed by a systematic, student-centred enquiry process.
Although the purpose of using problems in PBL is to stimulate learning of
information and concepts brought out by the problem (rather than to solve the
problem), PBL does teach both a method of approaching and an attitude towards
problem solving.
Typically in PBL, students work in small groups with a faculty tutor who acts
as facilitators of discussions and of learning rather than as a direct source of
information. During their work with a problem, students :
1. First encounter a problem cold, without doing any preparatory study in the area of
the problem
2. Interact with each other to explore their existing knowledge as it relates to the
problem
3. Form and test hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that might account for
the problem (up to their current levels of knowledge)
4. Identify further learning needs for making progress with the problem
5. Undertake self-study between group meetings to satisfy the identified learning needs
6. Return to the group to intergrate the newly gained knowledge and apply it to the
problem
7. Repeat steps 3 to 6 as necessary and

Reflect on the process and on the content that has been learnt

Day 3th
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MODUL
Wednesday, September 9th ,2015

LECTURE 6 : Academic Reading & Writing

IGM surya Chandra Trapika


Reading is a visual and active process and is probably one of the most important study
skills a medical student should develop. There is not enough time to read everything line by
line. As a medical student you need to be able to read efficiently. General efficient reading
strategies such as scanning to find the book or chapter, skimming to get the gist and careful
reading of important passages are necessary as well as vocabulary building exercises in
your own area. Learning about how texts are structured can also help you to read more
efficiently. Reading effectiveness can be greatly improved by ones own interest and
motivation in achieving it. The SQR4 approach is probably the most recommended reading
strategy, with reflection on what has been read as the most important vehicle to long-term
memory. In skimming a piece of writing, the conventional structure of a paragraph should be
kept in mind. In the context of medical education, a working vocabulary of about 3000 words
and recognition vocabulary of about 2000 words seem to be required by the average
medical students.
The SQR4 approach to academic reading
1) Scan through the chapter to see what the subheadings are.
2) If there is a summary, read it through, identifying the main points and arguments that
have been covered.
3) Ask yourself what you want to get from your reading.
4) Read the sections and subsections, actively identifying the main ideas in each.
These ideas are often contained in the first (or rarely last) sentence of the section
or paragraphs.
5) Look at any example. Make sure that you understand how it is related to the idea in
that section.
6) Summarize periodically. Pause and list the main ideas in the section you have just
read. Check that you have missed nothing out and that you understand the ideas.
7) Review the whole topic when you have finished it by scanning through your notes.
8) Relate what you have read to other areas of knowledge.

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Day 6th

MODUL
Monday , September 14th ,2015

Lecture 7: Thinking Skill

I Made Jawi
Thinking Skills Vocabulary and Definitions
I Made Jawi
Thinking skills are one of the most important, yet inadequately implemented areas of the
curriculum. Certainly a part of helping students develop and improve their thinking skills is
connected in some significant way with challenge and discovery. However, it is often the
case that what works in a given situation may not work at all in another, even slightly
different situation. The variables related to thinking skills are themselves quite formidable,
and there is no shortage of opinion about that. The vocabulary below can help you sort out
some of this so that it makes sense to you.
TERMS
Thinking - thinking refers to the process of creating a structured series of connective
transactions between items of perceived information.
Metacognition - metacognition refers to awareness and control of one's thinking, including
commitment, attitudes and attention.
Critical thinking - critical thinking refers to reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on
deciding what to believe or do. Critical thinkers try to be aware of their own biases, to be
objective
and
logical.
Creative thinking - refers to the ability to form new combinations of ideas to fulfill a need,
or to get original or otherwise appropriate results by the criteria of the domain in question.
Often thought of as "thinking outside the box."
SPECIFIC TERMS
Activating prior knowledge: recalling something learned previously relative to the topic or
task
Analyzing skills: core thinking skills that involve clarifying information by examining parts
and
relationships.
Attention: conscious control of mental focus on particular information.
Attitudes: personally held principles or beliefs that govern much of one's behavior.
Classifying: grouping entities on the basis of their common attributes.
Commitment: an aspect of knowledge and control of self that involves a decision to employ
personal energy and resources to control a situation.
Comparing: noting similarities and differences between or among entities.

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Composing: the process of developing a composition, which may be written, musical,
mechanical,
or
artistic.
Comprehending: generating meaning or understanding.
Concept formation: organizing information about an entity and associating the information
with
a
label
(word).
Conditional information: information about the appropriate use of an action or process
important
to
a
task.
Core thinking skills: cognitive operations used in thinking processes.
Creative thinking: original and appropriate thinking
Critical thinking: using specific dispositions and skills such as analyzing arguments
carefully, seeing other points of view, and reaching sound conclusions.
Evaluating (as applied to metacognition): assessing one's current knowledge state.
Evaluating skills: core thinking skills that involve assessing the reasonableness and quality
of
ideas.
Executive control: evaluating, planning, and regulating the declarative, procedural, and
conditional information involved in a task.
Focusing skills: core thinking skills that involve selected to selected pieces of information
and
ignoring
others.
Formulating questions: an information-gathering skill that involves seeking new
information
through
inquiry.
Generating skills: core thinking skills that involve producing new information, meaning, or
ideas.
Identifying attributes and components: determining characteristics or parts of something.
Integrating skills: core skills that involve connecting or combining information.
Knowledge and control of process: a component of metacognition that involves executive
control of declarative, procedural, and conditional information relative to a task.
Knowledge domain: a body of information commonly associated with a particular content
area
or
field
of
study.
Metacognition: a dimension of thinking that involves knowledge and control of self and
knowledge and control of process.
THINKING PROCESSES
A thinking process is a relatively complex sequence of thinking skills.
Concept formation - organizing information about an entity and associating that information
with a label. A concept may be defined a perceived relationship between two or more facts.
Principle formation - recognizing a relationship between or among concepts.
Comprehending - generating meaning or understanding by relating new information to prior
knowledge.
Problem solving - analyzing a perplexing or difficult situation for the purpose of generating a
solution.
Decision making - the process of selecting from among available alternatives.
Research - conducting inquiry for the purpose of confirming or validating one or more
hypotheses.
Composing - developing a product, which may be written, musical, mechanical, or artistic.
Oral discourse - talking with other people.
As a conclution thinking mean: Comparing, Classifying, Estimating, Summarizing,
Hypothesizing, Synthesizing, Sequencing, Predicting, Evaluating, Translating,
Reorganizing, Setting, Prioritise, Setting criteria, Goal setting, Problem-solving,

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Decision-making,
Justifying making,
Making assumptions, Using analogies,
Imagining, Logical deduction, Identifying pros/cons, Identifying propaganda,
Identifying, Observing, Creating/designing and Interpreting

Day 7th

MODUL
Tuesday , September 15th ,2015

Lecture 8:Reasoning Skill


Dr.dr. Dewa Putu Gede Purwa samatra, SpS (K)
The essence of scientific reasoning is deduction and induction. Deductive reasoning starts
with a general statement and leads to particular or specific instances; inductive process
starts with particular instances or observations and leads to a general conclusion. Valid and
true deductive reasoning leads to infallible inferences or proof; whereas inductive inference
is not watertight, because inductive reasoning is based on the assumption of uniformity of
nature. Deductive reasoning only aims to make particular instances more explicit, and
inductive reasoning leads to new or tentative knowledge or information called evidence.
Thinking skill as defined in this course is not identical to scientific reasoning skill or logical
thinking; this implies a good scientific thinking may not reflect a good thinking skill. Simply
defined, thinking skill is related to the ability to broaden ones perception by exploration of
past experience.

Day 8th

MODUL
wednesday , September 16th ,2015

Lecture 9:Information Acess

Prof.Dr.dr. IPG Adiatmika, MKes


Nowadays, internet becomes a popular communication tool used by people all over the
world. With internet, people can instantly communicate themselves with others or gather
information from every place in the world. Many things now become easier, simpler and

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cheaper to be done. For instance, a letter that is sent by conventional system, which usually
used airplane as the carrier, takes few days or weeks to be done. But through the internet,
an electronic mail or e-mail can be sent just within a few seconds. Online transaction now
become more popular than ever. For example someone who lives in Indonesia doesnt need
to go to United States to buy things that they want. They can find lots of online-shops in the
internet, and then transaction and payment can be done through the internet. Things that
they bought will be sent within few days. This is more easier, simpler and cheaper than
conventional transaction. Conferences, for business or scientific purposes, now can be
done more easier. With web-conferences, people from different countries dont need to
come and gather themselves in a room. By using a web camera, they can communicate
with others face to face. Despite of those advantages, lots of negative effects can be seen
from the use of internet. On-line transaction using illegal credit card is one of some
examples. Hundreds of computer viruses are created everyday. These viruses spread from
one computer to another within seconds, and will destroy data from the infected-computer.
The change in orientation of medical education into a student centered paradigm make
the students to active in searching information required to support the process of learning.
Infrastructures facilities (library and its collections) possessed by our institution is still limited
in number. This limitation can be overcome by the provision of easy accessed internet,
which nowadays getting simpler and cheaper. Development of information technology
enables us to obtain information provided in the web fast and unrestrictedly. Unfortunately,
not all information is valid and reliable. Today, many sites not only general sites such as
Yahoo or Google, but also particular sites in medicine such as Pub med give chance to the
users to access their databases using the available search engines. Each sites normally
has its own regulation that should be followed in order to access the information within.
Therefore, a special skills is needed to do more efficient search, so information we gained is
valid and trustworthy.

Wednesday, Sept 9st dan Sept 16s,2015

Presentation Project of Studium Generale


Student Project
o A group of student must search and find out articles / journal related to
medical sciences using skill of information acess
o Please Read The journal
related to medical sciences discuss and
understand the content of the journal and presentate in front of the class.
Each group will present the journal in front of class

Learning Tasks for Independent Learning and


Small Group Discussion
Thursday, 10TH September 2015
Problem Based Learning
Learning Task

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SELF ASSESSMENT
Philosophy of Science and Medicine
Scenario
Philosophy of medicine seeks to understand what it is to be human. The primary tool
medicine has developed for obtaining this knowledge has been science, which has been
spectacularly successful in many respects. "The human" is very complex, however, and
perhaps there are aspects of us that science cannot easily reach. Medical humanities seek
to bring other sources of human knowledge to medicine, particularly medical education.
Subjects such as philosophy, literature, and history provide a distinct and complementary
vision of the human, while philosophy of science and the social sciences provide a broader
understanding of science itself.
Assessment
1. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that deal with knowledge, especially the
method or way to attain knowledge. The method to attain scientific knowledge is called
scientific method. Please discuss the scientific method, especially the philosophical
basic and its procedure
2. Medical (biomedical science) is a part of science. In point of view of philosophy of
science a knowledge could be classified as true science if it fulfill three aspects, i.e :
ontological, epistemological and axiological aspect. Please give reason that medicine
is a true science
3. Philosophy of medicine seek s to understand what it is to be human. The primary tool
medicine has developed for obtaining this knowledge has been science, which has
been spectacularly successful in many respects. The human is very complex,
however and perhaps there are aspects of us that science cannot easily reach.
Medical humanities seek to bring other sources of human knowledge to medicine,
particularly medical education. Subjects such as philosophy, literature, and history
provide a distinct and complementary vision of the human, while philosophy of science
and the social sciences provide a broader understanding of science itself. Please
discuss the role of philosophy of medicine in connection in disease, health care,
medical humanity and biomedical ethic.

Independent learning
Many students have difficulty to settle down to study and they always do not really
understand the topic that they have read.
According to your opinion can you explain how to resolve that problem appropriately?
Academic reading & writing

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Instruction : Answer the following questions either in Indonesia or English.
1. What is meant by scientific reasoning ? What is scientific inference ? Are these
two terms meaning the same thing?
2. What is a proof (very solid conclusion ) and what is evidence ?
3. What is the main limitation of deductive reasoning ? Give an example where
deductive reasoning is applied in scientific investigation ?
4. What is the main advantage and limitation of inductive reasoning ? Provide an
example where you can apply inductive reasoning in scientific investigation ?
5. Explain briefly Karl poppers falsification theory. What is its main weakness ?
6. What is meant by David Humes problem ? What is the main problem of
inductive reasoning according to David Hume ?
7. Identify the type of reasoning applied in composing the following paragraph. Use
(A) for deductive reasoning, (B) for inductive reasoning, and (C) When it is
deductive-inductive
There are three different theories put forward for the very slow relaxation of catch
muscle of molluscs. One theory holds that catch is due to some unusual property of
myosin in these muscles that produces a slow rate of detachment. The second theory
holds that tension is developed by actin- myosin interaction but is maintained by
paramyosin interactions. The third theory, to which I subscribe, pictures a structural
change in the paramyosin core affecting the rate of breaking of myosin-actin links at the
filament surface
8. What is the problem with our concept of probability. Explain very briefly
9. Is thinking skill similar or identical to scientific reasoning ? Explain your answer
10. identify the type of thinking error for each of the following examples. (A) for
partialism, (B) for initial judgment, and (C) for magnitude error
(1) In discussing the relationship between thinking skill and IQ (Intelegence
quotient ), it is suggested that people with a very low IQ cannot be skilled in
thinking and that people with a very high IQ must be intelligent enough to
develop a skill in thinking
1. A Regional health center doctor adopts and implements some new method or
strategy to control the incidence of diarrhea in children below 5 years of age. The
following year there is arise of 12 per cent the incidence of diarrhea in the age
group. It is argued that since the strategy was intended to bring down the
incidence, the program has been considered a failure

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Smstr
10
9
8
7

Health Systembased Practice


(3 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)

The Cardiovascular
System and
Disorders
(3 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
Neuroscience and
neurological
disorders
(3 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
Musculoskeletal
system &
connective tissue
disorders
(3 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
Basic microbiology
& parasitology
(3 weeks)
Basic Infection
& infectious
diseases
(3 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
Medical
communication
(3 weeks)
Basic pharmacology
(2 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)

Studium
Generale
and
Humaniora
(2 weeks)
Basic
Anatomy

Program or curriculum blocks


Senior Clerkship
Senior Clerkship
Senior Clerkship
Community-based
Evidence-based
Elective Study IV
practice
Medical Practice
(evaluation)
(4 weeks)
(2 weeks)
Special topics :
(3 weeks)
Health
Ergonomic &
Health
Environment
(2 weeks)
Medical Emergency
The Urinary
The Reproductive
(3 weeks)
System and
System and Disorders
Disorders
(4 weeks)
(3 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
The Respiratory System
The skin & hearing Special Topic :
and Disorders
system
- Palliative med
(4 weeks)
& disorders
- Complemnt &
(3 weeks)
Alternative Med.
BCS (1 weeks)
- Forensic
BCS (1 weeks)
(3 weeks)
Alimentary
The Endocrine
Clinical Nutrition and
& hepatobiliary systems
System,
Disorders
& disorders
Metabolism and
(2 weeks)
(3 Weeks)
Disorders
(4 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
Immune system &
Hematologic
Special Topic
disorders
system & disorder
- sexology & anti
(2 weeks)
& clinical
aging
oncology
- Geriatri
(3 weeks)
-Travel medicine
BCS (1 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)
(4 weeks)
Medical
Professionalism
(2 weeks) + medical
ethic (1 weeks)
Basic Anatomy
Pathology & Clinical
pathology (3 weeks)
BCS (1 weeks)

Behavior Change
and disorders
(3 weeks)

The cell
as biochemical
machinery
(2 weeks)
Basic
Histology

Growth &
developme
nt
(2 weeks)
Basic
Biochemist
ry

Udayana University Faculty of Medicine, DME, 2015

Elective Study I
(2 weeks)

Comprehensi
ve Clinic
Orientation
(Clerkship)
+ medical
ethic
(4 weeks)

19 weeks

Elective
Study III

19 weeks

(3 weeks)
Elective
Study II
(2 weeks)

18 weeks

The Visual
system &
disorders
(2 weeks)

19 weeks

BCS (1weeks)
Basic
Pharmaceutica
l medicine &
drug etics

19 weeks

(1 weeks)

19 weeks

BCS (1 weeks)

19
weeks

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( 4 weeks)

(2 weeks) &
Basic
Physiology
(3 weeks)
BCS (1
weeks)

(2 weeks)
BCS (1
weeks)

Pendidikan Pancasila & Kewarganegaraan ( 3 weeks )


Inter Professional Education (smt 3-7)

CURRICULUM MAP

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