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Refers specifically to ones internal and external

sexual organs.

No social or cultural component.

Purely physical determination of whether one is

male or female

Male- has a penis and testicles.

Female- has a vagina, fallopian tubes and


Stereotype notions on what toys are proper for boys and

for girls

Boys-action oriented; Girls- domestically related.

Gender inequality


The systematic difference between the life

experiences, social expectations and
opportunities that are presented because one is
a male or female.

Although women comprise a larger portion of

higher education enrollments than men, women
are likely to work on a part time basis or not work
at all as they are mothers, wives and home
makers first.

Hermaphrodites are individuals with a

rare type of birth defect.

May have a penis and a vagina; or a

penis and ovaries; or any other
combination of male or female sexual

The hermaphrodites sex is determined

by the sex chromosome.

Women who work at home are not counted in the

labor force.

Women earn less than the men

There are less women in architecture,

engineering; Scientists, Physicians, lawyers.

Women on the other hand are over represented

in administrative support or service occupations

If the persons chromosomes

are XX, the hermaphrodites
a female

If the chromosomes are XY,

the sex is considered male.

X and Y chromosomes

The existing view on the discriminatory and oppressive

conception on women comes from societys assessment of
the biological (sex) and cultural (gender) differences
between men and women.

Before the adoption of the United Nations Declaration of

Human Rights, the plight of women and children were
ignored or dismissed completely.

During the Spanish colonial era in the Philippines, the

Spanish Civil Code even classified them along with the
deaf-mutes, insane and imbeciles who were incapacitated
to perform certain acts.

Many changes had happened yet dominance of men and

their preferred status in nearly all aspects of society has
stood firm the world over.

Women at home

The economic role of women has been increasing. Data

shows that the average number of female headed families
has risen from 10% in 1970 to 11.3% in 1990 then to 12.2%
in 1995.

As of 1994, the annual income of female-headed

households was Php92,526; Male-headed household,
Php91,491. however the traditional sex role that assigns
home making only to women still holds despite the fact that
women are increasingly economically active.

Male and Female Chromosome set


Belongs to the discipline of Anatomy and Biology


Falls under Psychology and Sociology

Sociologists are interested in Gender not Sex.

Men and women behave as a result of Gender


During infancy baby boys are wrapped in blue blankets and

baby girls are wrapped in pink blankets.

Exception: Hermaphrodite:

Gender role socialization is carried on

by parents (Blue for boys, Pink for girls)

Gender role of identity and expectations

Cultures have various norms regarding male and female

behaviors. Gender role expectations are the dos and
donts which society imposes on males and females.


Boys should not cry and girls

should not brawl.

Present economic conditions make matters more difficult

for Filipino women, the situation forces a number of women
to leave home to earn a living.

Women at work

Since the 1970s womens economic activities have risen

steadily everywhere in the world except Africa. Mens
economic activity rates declined.
In the Philippines, two thirds of the countrys entire labor
force is composed of men.
The lower rate of women in the labor force reflects the
preference given to the employment of males over females
and the constraints imposed by domestic responsibilities
on women to be able to enter the labor force.

Health and motherhood

HEALTH- refers not only to the absence of disease or

disability but encompasses a persons state of complete
physical, mental, emotional and social well being.
Womens health in all stages of the life cycle is of immense
importance, not only because it affects the health of the
next generation through its impact on children, but also
because women are half of the countrys human resource.
Data reveals that women tend to outlive men, womens
mortality rate is lower than menbut Filipino men still
outnumber Filipino women.
Womens health situation in the areas of nutrition, maternal,
childbearing/reproduction and other health concerns
indicate that much remains

Women and public life

Corazon Aquino- first female president.

Increase of women participation in the political arena

during the 1980s

Although a few women have top public positions, including

presidency, women still comprise a very small percentage
of major office holders.


Children do work as a form of socialization.

Their families cannot afford to send them to school.

Children are considered working if at any time during the

reference period, the child engaged in an economic activity
for at least 1 hour.

Effects of child labor:

Physical harm

Hampering the child's education

Emotional/Psychological harm

Violence Against Women and Children


-promote actions worldwide to end the mistreatment in

women and children.

-committed to protect women's and children's rights.

-to advocate an environment which is free of violence.

Article 2 of the UN/CEDAW- cited the physical, sexual and

psychological violence occurring in the family; within the
general community; and those perpetrated or condoned by
the State as issues for concern.

Local efforts towards the elimination of violence against

women and children

Family code of the Philippines

-states that no custom , practice or agreement destructive

of the family shall be recognized or given effect.

Republic Act 7610(Special Protection Act on Children

Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination)

-a law created to eliminate domestic violence like child

abuse cases.


Nationally and in both rural and urban areas, literacy rates

have been on the uptrend, particularly for women.

Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination

Against Women and Children

In 1990, literacy rates among Filipino men and women

stood at high and nearly equal 94% for men and 93.2% for

-product of years of organizing women' organizing efforts

within the United Nations and several nationsaround the

-establishes a set of standards and principles that are

intended to serve as a template for shaping national
policies towards eliminating gender discrimination in every

-are committed to pursue policies that eliminate


Local Initiatives

In the fields of study and specialization men generally

occupy the highest paying positions.

Women's larger responsibility for housework and the family

impedes their ability to use their educational training.

Child Workers

entails the passage of major legislation that addresses

discrimination, domestic violence and other crimes against

UNICEF(The United Nation's Children Fund)

Anti Rape Law (Republic Act No.8353) Revised Penal

Code -rape is a crime against chastity and committed
against women, thereby giving the victim the burden of
prosecuting the rapist.

-created a special program which aids State

efforts in improving education, health, nutrition,
and the general welfare of children.

-was originally established to give relief to

children in countries devastated during World
War II

R.A. 6955(1990) -outlaws the practice of matching Filipino

women for marriage to foreign national.

-aims to promote and recognize the rights of the


R.A. 7309(1992) -compensates victims of violent crimes

including rapeand unjust imprisonment or detention, with
amounts of not more than P10,00.

R.A. 7659(1993) -imposes the death penalty on heinous

crimes, including rape, when committed with certain
attendant circumstances.

R.A. 8502(1998) -provides assistance and protection to

rape victims.


Primary laws on child protection:

Republic Act 7610

Presidential Decree 603(Child and Youth Welfare



Real knowledge is to know the extent of ones ignorance