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SEX

Refers specifically to ones internal and external


sexual organs.

No social or cultural component.

Purely physical determination of whether one is


male or female

Male- has a penis and testicles.

Female- has a vagina, fallopian tubes and


ovaries.

Stereotype notions on what toys are proper for boys and


for girls

Boys-action oriented; Girls- domestically related.

Gender inequality

GENDER INEQUALITY

The systematic difference between the life


experiences, social expectations and
opportunities that are presented because one is
a male or female.

Although women comprise a larger portion of


higher education enrollments than men, women
are likely to work on a part time basis or not work
at all as they are mothers, wives and home
makers first.

Hermaphrodites are individuals with a


rare type of birth defect.

May have a penis and a vagina; or a


penis and ovaries; or any other
combination of male or female sexual
organs

The hermaphrodites sex is determined


by the sex chromosome.

Women who work at home are not counted in the


labor force.

Women earn less than the men

There are less women in architecture,


engineering; Scientists, Physicians, lawyers.

Women on the other hand are over represented


in administrative support or service occupations

If the persons chromosomes


are XX, the hermaphrodites
a female

If the chromosomes are XY,


the sex is considered male.

X and Y chromosomes

The existing view on the discriminatory and oppressive


conception on women comes from societys assessment of
the biological (sex) and cultural (gender) differences
between men and women.

Before the adoption of the United Nations Declaration of


Human Rights, the plight of women and children were
ignored or dismissed completely.

During the Spanish colonial era in the Philippines, the


Spanish Civil Code even classified them along with the
deaf-mutes, insane and imbeciles who were incapacitated
to perform certain acts.

Many changes had happened yet dominance of men and


their preferred status in nearly all aspects of society has
stood firm the world over.

Women at home

The economic role of women has been increasing. Data


shows that the average number of female headed families
has risen from 10% in 1970 to 11.3% in 1990 then to 12.2%
in 1995.

As of 1994, the annual income of female-headed


households was Php92,526; Male-headed household,
Php91,491. however the traditional sex role that assigns
home making only to women still holds despite the fact that
women are increasingly economically active.

Male and Female Chromosome set

SEX

Belongs to the discipline of Anatomy and Biology

GENDER

Falls under Psychology and Sociology

Sociologists are interested in Gender not Sex.

Men and women behave as a result of Gender


Socialization

During infancy baby boys are wrapped in blue blankets and


baby girls are wrapped in pink blankets.

Exception: Hermaphrodite:

Gender role socialization is carried on


by parents (Blue for boys, Pink for girls)

Gender role of identity and expectations

Cultures have various norms regarding male and female


behaviors. Gender role expectations are the dos and
donts which society imposes on males and females.

Example:

Boys should not cry and girls


should not brawl.

Present economic conditions make matters more difficult


for Filipino women, the situation forces a number of women
to leave home to earn a living.

Women at work

Since the 1970s womens economic activities have risen


steadily everywhere in the world except Africa. Mens
economic activity rates declined.
In the Philippines, two thirds of the countrys entire labor
force is composed of men.
The lower rate of women in the labor force reflects the
preference given to the employment of males over females
and the constraints imposed by domestic responsibilities
on women to be able to enter the labor force.

Health and motherhood

HEALTH- refers not only to the absence of disease or


disability but encompasses a persons state of complete
physical, mental, emotional and social well being.
Womens health in all stages of the life cycle is of immense
importance, not only because it affects the health of the
next generation through its impact on children, but also
because women are half of the countrys human resource.
Data reveals that women tend to outlive men, womens
mortality rate is lower than menbut Filipino men still
outnumber Filipino women.
Womens health situation in the areas of nutrition, maternal,
childbearing/reproduction and other health concerns
indicate that much remains

Women and public life

Corazon Aquino- first female president.

Increase of women participation in the political arena


during the 1980s

Although a few women have top public positions, including


presidency, women still comprise a very small percentage
of major office holders.

Education

Children do work as a form of socialization.

Their families cannot afford to send them to school.

Children are considered working if at any time during the


reference period, the child engaged in an economic activity
for at least 1 hour.

Effects of child labor:

Physical harm

Hampering the child's education

Emotional/Psychological harm

Violence Against Women and Children

CEDAW and UNICEF

-promote actions worldwide to end the mistreatment in


women and children.

-committed to protect women's and children's rights.

-to advocate an environment which is free of violence.

Article 2 of the UN/CEDAW- cited the physical, sexual and


psychological violence occurring in the family; within the
general community; and those perpetrated or condoned by
the State as issues for concern.

Local efforts towards the elimination of violence against


women and children

Family code of the Philippines

-states that no custom , practice or agreement destructive


of the family shall be recognized or given effect.

Republic Act 7610(Special Protection Act on Children


Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination)

-a law created to eliminate domestic violence like child


abuse cases.

RECTIFYING THE SOCIAL INEQUITIES ON WOMEN

Nationally and in both rural and urban areas, literacy rates


have been on the uptrend, particularly for women.

Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination


Against Women and Children

In 1990, literacy rates among Filipino men and women


stood at high and nearly equal 94% for men and 93.2% for
women.

-product of years of organizing women' organizing efforts


within the United Nations and several nationsaround the
world.

-establishes a set of standards and principles that are


intended to serve as a template for shaping national
policies towards eliminating gender discrimination in every
country.

-are committed to pursue policies that eliminate


discrimination

Local Initiatives

In the fields of study and specialization men generally


occupy the highest paying positions.

Women's larger responsibility for housework and the family


impedes their ability to use their educational training.

Child Workers

entails the passage of major legislation that addresses


discrimination, domestic violence and other crimes against
women.

UNICEF(The United Nation's Children Fund)

Anti Rape Law (Republic Act No.8353) Revised Penal


Code -rape is a crime against chastity and committed
against women, thereby giving the victim the burden of
prosecuting the rapist.

-created a special program which aids State


efforts in improving education, health, nutrition,
and the general welfare of children.

-was originally established to give relief to


children in countries devastated during World
War II

R.A. 6955(1990) -outlaws the practice of matching Filipino


women for marriage to foreign national.

-aims to promote and recognize the rights of the


child.

R.A. 7309(1992) -compensates victims of violent crimes


including rapeand unjust imprisonment or detention, with
amounts of not more than P10,00.

R.A. 7659(1993) -imposes the death penalty on heinous


crimes, including rape, when committed with certain
attendant circumstances.

R.A. 8502(1998) -provides assistance and protection to


rape victims.

CARING FOR THE FUTURE GENERATION

Primary laws on child protection:

Republic Act 7610

Presidential Decree 603(Child and Youth Welfare


Code)

THANK YOU!

Real knowledge is to know the extent of ones ignorance