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Section I: Introduction to Mechanics, Stress, Stain,

Elasticity, Plasticity etc.


1.

Define the term force and state clearly the effects of forces also discuss
various types and characterisitics of forces.

2.

Show that the algebric sum of the resolved parts of a number of forces in a
given direction, is equal to the resolved part of their resultant in the same
direction.

3. Refer the figure1 given below, resolve the force 500 N along AB and CD

Figure 1.
4.

Resolve the force R=60N into two components F and 80 N as shown in figure
2. Find the value of F and .

Figure 2.
5.

State clearly law of moments. What is meant by moment of a force. How will
you explain it mathematically?

6. Find the moment of each force about point O given in figure 3.

Figure 3
7. Find the moment of given force 50N about point B given in figure 4.

Figure 4.
8.

A 75 N vertical force is applied to the end of a force 3m long which is


attached to a shaft at O as shown in figure 5. Determine the
(i)
(ii)

The moment of the 75 N force about O.


The magnitude of the horozontal force applied at A which creates the
same moment about O.

(iii)
(iv)

The smallest force applied at A which creates the same moment about O.
How far from the shaft at O a 200 N vertical force must act to create the
same moment about O ?

Figure 5
9.

What are the different methods of studying the equillibrium of coplaner and
non coplaner forces.

10. Discuss conditions and types of equillibrium.


11.

In figure 6, replace the Force 3000N from point A by equivalent force couple
at B.

Figure 6
12.

Transfer the force 500N parallel to itself from B to O with equivalent effect by
adding couple. Refer figure 7.

Figure 7

13.

Determine the algebric sum of force components in x and y direction with


proper sign convention.

14.

150 N force is acting vertical down through point B shown in Fig. 9. Resolve
150N force into oblique components, one actiong along AB and other acting
along BC.

Figure 9
15.

Determine the algebric sum of moment of four forces acting on circular disc
with respect to center O shown in figure 10. Radius of circle is 3cm.

Figure 10

16.

Determine the total moment about hinge O for given force system as shown
in fig. 11

Figure 11.
17.

Replace the force 180N by an equivalent force couple system at A in figure


11.

Figure 11

18.

Two forces of 400 N and 600N act at an ngle


the resultant in magnitude and direction if

(i)
(ii)

the forces have same sense


the forces have different senses.

60

to each other. Determine

Figure 12
19.

Find the magnitude of the two forces, such that if they act at right angles,
their resultant is

10 N . But if they Act at 60, their resultant is 13 N

20.

Find the angle between two equal forces P, when their resultant is equal to
(i) P and (ii) P/2.

21.

The resultant of two forces P and Q is R. If Q is doubled, the new resultant


is perpendicular to P. Prove that Q = R.

22.

A uniform wheel of 600 mm diameter, weighing 5 kN rests against a rigid


rectangular block of 150 mm height as shown in Fig 13. Find the least pull,
through the center of the wheel, required just to turn the wheel over the
corner A of the block. Also find the reaction on the block. Take all the
surfaces to be smooth.

Figure 13
23.

Two identical prismatic bars PQ and RS each weighing 75 N are welded


together to form a Tee and are suspended in a vertical plane as shown in Fig
14.

Figure 14
24.

ABCD is a square, each side being 20 cm and E is the middle point of AB.
Forces of 7, 8, 12, 5, 9 and 6 kN act on the lines of directions AB, EC, BC,
BD, CA and DE respectively. Find the magnitude, direction and position of
the resultant force.

25.

ABCD is a square. Forces of 10, 8 and 4 units act at A in the directions AD,
AC and AB respectively. Using the analytical method, determine
(i) resultant force in magnitude and direction
(ii) magnitude and sense of two forces along the directions AJ and AH, where
J and H are the mid-points of CD and BC respectively, which together will
balance the above resultant.

26.

Find the tension required in the operating wire to raise the signal through
the system of levers as shown in Fig. 15. All dimensions are in mm.

Figure 15
27.

Following Fig 16 shows a crank-lever ABC with a tension spring (T). The
lever weighs 0.2 N/mm.

Figure 16
28.

The lever ABC of a component of a machine is hinged at B, and is subjected


to a system of coplanar forces as shown in Fig 17. Neglecting friction, find
the magnitude of the force (P) to keep the lever in equilibrium. Also
determine the magnitude and direction of the reaction at B.

Figure 17

29.

ABCD is a rectangle, such that AB = CD = a and BC = DA = b. Forces equal


to P act along AD and CB and forces equal to Q act along AB and CD
respectively. Prove that the perpendicular distance between the resultants of
P and Q at A and that of P and Q at C
=

30.

( P X a )(QXb )

P2 +Q2

A smooth sphere of weight W is supported by a string fastened to a point A


on the smooth vertical wall, the other end is in contact with point B on the
wall as shown in Fig 18.

Figure 18

31.

Two equal heavy spheres of 50 mm radius are in equilibrium within a


smooth cup of 150 mm radius. Show that the reaction between the cup of
one sphere is double than that between the two spheres.

32.

A smooth circular cylinder of radius 1.5 meter is lying in a triangular groove,


one side of which makes 15 angle and the other 40 angle with the
horizontal. Find the reactions at the surfaces of contact, if there is no
friction and the cylinder weights 100 N.

33.

Two cylinders P and Q rest in a channel as shown in Fig 19. The cylinder P
has diameter of 100 mm and weighs 200 N, whereas the cylinder Q has
diameter of 180 mm and weighs 500 N.

Figure 19

34.

(i)
(ii)

Three cylinders weighting 100 N each and of 80 mm diameter are placed in a


channel of 180 mm width as shown in Fig 20. Determine the pressure
exerted by
the cylinder A on B at the point of contact
the cylinder B on the base and (iii) the cylinder B on the wall.

Figure 20
35.

A uniform rod AB remains in equilibrium position resting on a smooth


inclined planes AC and BC, which are at an angle of 90 as shown in figure
21. If the plane BC makes an angle of with the horizontal, then what is the
inclination () of the rod AB with the plane AC.

Figure 21
36.

A uniform rod AB of length 3r remains in equilibrium on a hemispherical


bowl of radius r as shown in Fig 22. Ignoring friction find the inclination of
the rod () with the horizontal.

Figure 22
37.

Following Fig 22. shows a shear leg crane lifting a load of 250 kN. The legs
BC and BE are 20 m long and 10 m apart at the base. The back stay AB is
25 m long. If all the members are pin jointed at A, C and E, at the same
level, find the forces in all the three members of the crane.

Figure 22
38.

An electric light fixture weighing 15 N hangs from a point C, by two strings


AC and BC. The string AC is inclined at 60 to the horizontal and BC at 45
to the horizontal as shown in Fig 23 determine the forces in the strings AC
and BC.

Figure 23
39.

A revolving crane is supported by a point at C and rollers at A and B. The


crane carries a load P applied at D in addition to its own weight W at E as
shown in Fig 24. Determine the reactions RB and RC at the points B and C,
if P = 4 kN, W = 2 kN, a = 30 m, b = 09 m and c = 18 m. Neglect friction.

Figure 24
40.

Two smooth spheres of weight W and radius r each are in equilibrium in a


horizontal channel of A and B vertical sides as shown in Fig 25. Find the
force exerted by each sphere on the other. Calculate these values, if r = 250
mm, b = 900 mm and W = 100 N.

Figure 25
41.

A jib crane shown in Fig. 26 is required to lift a load of 5 kN. Find,


graphically, the forces in the jib and tie. Also check the answer analytically.

Figure 26
Define centre of gravity and distinguished between centre of gravity and
cetroid.
43. Where does the centre of gravity of the following sections lies?
a)
Semicircle
b)
Trapezium
c)
Hemisphere
d)
Right Circular Solid Cone
42.

44.

State and proove the theorem of perpendicular axis and theorem of parallel
axis in the determination of moment of inertia of area with the help of neat
sketch.
45. Derive an equation for moment of inertia of following sections about
centroidal axis
a)
Rectangular section
b)
Circular section
c)
Trinagular section
d)
Semicircular section

46.

A member formed by connecting a steel bar to aluminum bar as shown in fig


27. Assuming that the bar are prevented from buckling sidesways, calculate
the magnitude of force P that will cause the total length of member to
decrease 0.25mm. The values of elastic modulus for steel and aluminum are
2.1x105 N/mm2 and 7 x 104 N/mm2 respectively,

Figure 27

47.

The bar shown in figure 28 is subjected to a tensile load160 kN. If the stress
in the middle portion is limited to 150 N/mm2, determine the diameter of the
middle portion. Find also the length of the middle portion if the total
elongation of the bar is to be 0.2mm. Youngs modulus is given, as equal to
2.1 x 105 N/mm2

Figure 28
48.

Two brass rods and one steel rod together support a load as shown in fig
given below. If the streses in brass and steel are not to exceed 60N/mm2 and
120 N/mm2, find the safe load that can be supported. Take Modulus of
elasticity for steel and brass 200 GPa and 100Gpa respectively. The cross
sectional area of steel rod is 1500 mm2 and each brass rod is 1000mm2.

49.

Three bars made of copper, zinc and aluminium are of equal length and have
cross section 500, 750 and 1000 square mm respectively. They are rigidly
connected at their ends. If this compound member subjected to a
longitudinal pull of 250kN as shown in figure, estimate the proportional of
the load carried on each rod and the induced stresses. Modulus of elasticity
for copper, zinc and aluminium is 130GPa, 100Gpa and 80Gpa respectively.

50.

A steel rod 20 mm in diameter passes centrally through a steel tube of


25mm internal diameter and 30mm external diameter. The tube is 800mm
long and is closed by rigid washers of negligible thickness which are
fastened by nuts threaded on the rod. The nuts are tightened until the
compressive load on tube is 20kN. Calculate the stresses in the tube and the
rod. Find the increase in these stresses when one nut is tightened by one
quarter of a turn relative to the other. There are 4 threads per 10mm. Take
modulus of elasticity 200GPa.

51.

A steel rod of 20 mm diameter passes centrally through a copper tube of


50mm external diameter and 40 mm internal dianmeter. The tube is closed
at each end by rigid plates of negligible thickness. The nuts are tightened
lightly on the projecting parts of the rod. If the temperature of assembly is
raised by 50 , calculate the stresses developed in copper and steel. Take
E for steel and copper as 200GPa and 100GPa and for steel and copper 12
x 10-6 per and 18 x 10-6 per .

52.

A steel tube of 30mm external diameter and 20 mm internal diameter


enclosed a copper rod of 15mm diameter to which it is rigidly joined at each
end. If, at a temperature of 10 there is no longitudinal stress, caculate
the stresses in the rod and tube when the teperature is raised to 200 .
Take E for steel and copper as 2.1 x 105 N/mm2 and 1 x 105 N/mm2
respectively. The value co-efficient of linear expansion for steel copper is
given as 11 x 10-6 per and 18 x 10-6 per respectively.

53.

A straight circular rod tapering from diameter D at one end to a diameter d


at the other end is subjected to an axial load P. Obtain an expression for
the elongation of the rod.

54.

Find an expression for the total elongation of a bar due to its own weight,
when the bar is fixed at its upper end and hanging freely at the lower end.

55.

Find an expression for the total elongation of a uniformly tapering


rectangular bar when it is subjected to an axial load P.

56.

Determine the value of Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio of a metallic bar
of length 30cm, breadth 4cm and depth 4cm when the bar is subjected to
an axial compressive load of 400kN. The decrease in length is given as
0.075cm and increase in breadth is 0.003cm.

57.

A metallic bar 300mm x 100mm x 40mm is subjected to a force of 5kN


(tensile), 6kN (tensile) and 4kN (tensile) along x, y and z directions
respectively. Determine the change in the volume of the block. Take = 2 x 105
N/mm2 and Poissons ratio = 0.25

58.

A steel rod 5m long and 30mm in diameter is subjected to an axial tensile


load of 50kN. Determine the change in length, diameter and volume of the
rod. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and Poissons ratio = 0.25

59.

A bar of 30 mm diameter is subjected to a pull of 60kN. The measured


extension on gauge length of 200mm is 0.1 mm and change in diameter is
0.004mm. Calculate:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Youngs Modulus
Poissons ratio
Bulk modulus

60.

A bar of cross-section 8mm x 8mm is subjected to an axial pull of 7000N.


The lateral dimension of the bar is found to be changed to 7.9985mm x
7.9985mm. If the modulus of rigidity of the material is 0.8 x 105 N/mm2,
determine the Poissons ratio and modulus of elasticity.

61.

Calculate the modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus of a cylindrical bar of


diameter 30 mm and of length 1.5m if the longitudinal strain in a bar during
a tensile stress is four times the lateral strain. Find the change in volume,
when the bar is subjected to a hydrostatic pressure of 100 N/mm2. Take E =
1 x 105 N/mm2.

62.

The tensile stresses at a point across two-mutually perpendicular planes


are 120N/mm2 and 60N/mm2. Determine the normal, tangential and
resultant stresses on a plane inclined at 30 to the axis of the minor
stress.

63.

The stresses at a point in a bar are 200 N/mm2 (tensile) and N/mm2
(compressive). Determine the resultant stress in magnitude and direction on
a plane inclined at 60 to the axis of the major stress. Also determine the
maximum intensity of shear stress in the material at the point.

64.

At a point in a strained material the principal tensile stresses across two


perpendicular planes, are 80 N/mm2 and 40 N/mm2. Determine normal
stress, shear stress and the resultant stress on a plane inclined at 20
with the major principal plane. Determine also the obliquity. What will be
the intensity of stress, which acting alone will produce the same maximum
strain if Poissons ratio = 0.25.

65.

A small block is 4 cm long, 3 cm high and 0.5 cm thick. It is subjected to


uniformly distributed tensile forces of resultants 1200N and 500N as shown
in figure given below. Compute the normal and shear stresses developed
along the diagonal AB.

66.

A rectangular block of material is subjected to a tensile stress of 110


N/mm2 on one plane and a tensile stress of 47 N/mm2 on the plane at right
angles to the former. Each of the above stresses is accompanied by a shear
stress of 63 N/mm2 and that associated with the former tensile stress tends
to rotate the block anticlockwise. Find;

(i)
(ii)

The direction and magnitude of each of the principal stress and


Magnitude of the greatest shear stress

67.

Direct stresses of 120 N/mm2 tensile and 90 N/mm2 compression exist on


two perpendicular planes at a certain point in a body. They are also
accompanied by shear stress on the planes. The greatest principal stress at
the point due to these is 150 N/mm2.

(a) What must be the magnitude of the shearing stresses on the two planes?
(b) What will be the maximum shearing stress at the point?
68.

At a certain point in a strained material, the stresses on two planes, at right


angles to each other are 20 N/mm2 and 10N/mm2 both tensile. They are
accompanied by a shear stress of a magnitude of 10 N/mm2. Find th
location of principal planes and evaluate the pricipal stresses.

69.

A point in strained material is subjected to the stresses as shown in figure.


Locate the principal planes and evaluate the principal stresses.

70.

On a mild steel plate, a circle of diameter 50mm is drawn before the plate is
stresses as shown in figure. Find the length of major and minor axes of an
ellipse formed as a result of the deformation of the circle marked.

Section II
A) Center of Gravity
Find the Centroidal distances ( x y for the various shapes/lamina/shaded
portion as shown in respective figures. In the figure reference axes are given.
1.

2.

(Ans:

= 71.1 mm,

32.2 mm)

(Ans:

= 41.15 mm,

26.5 mm)

3.

4.

(Ans:
x

(Ans:

= -7.1 mm,

= 0 mm,

= 5.8
mm)

42.1 mm)
5.

6.

(Ans:

= 6.76 mm,

11.79 mm)

(Ans:

= 1.563 mm,

1.563 mm)

7.

8.

(Ans:

= 50 mm,

60.77 mm)
(Ans:

= 12.46 mm,

22.04 mm)
9.

A plane lamina is hung freely


from point D as shown in Figure.
Find the angle made by BD with
the vertical.

10

(Ans:

= 32.95 mm,

89.77 mm)

(Ans: = 29.62)

B) Moment of Inertia
Find moment of inertia of the various shapes/lamina about both the
centroidal axis ( x y .

In the figure reference axes are given and they are

not centroidal axis ( x y


1.

2.

Find the moment of inertia about


the reference line AB.

[Ans: Ixx = 12.85x 10 mm , Iyy


6

= 2.093 x 106 mm4]


[Ans. IAB = 638.3 103 mm4]

3.

4.

(Ans: Ixx =

15 R 4
64 , Iyy =

29 R 4
192 )
(Ans: Ixx = 98.18 x 10 mm , Iyy
6

= 62.83 x 106 mm4)


5.

6.

(Ans: Ixx = 13.213 x 10 mm ,


5

Iyy = 49.035 x 10 mm )
5

(Ans: Ixx = 125.92 cm , Iyy =


4

66.815 cm4)

7.

8.

(Ans: Ixx = 2.59 x 10 mm , Iyy


6

= 0.512831 x 106 mm4)

(Ans: Not available)

9.

(Ans: Ixx = 28.51 m , Iyy = 23.757 m )


4

10.

Two channels are kept as shown in Figure at a distance d between them to


form the cross section of a column. Find the value of the distance d if the
centroidal moment of inertia IXG and IYG of the area equals.

(Ans: d = 93.56 mm)

C) Friction

1. Two identical blocks A and B are connected


by rod and rest against vertical and
horizontal planes respectively as shown in
Figure 1.1. If sliding impends when = 45,
determine the coefficient of static friction
(s), assuming it to be the same at both
floor and wall.

Figure: 1.1

(Ans: s = 0.414)

Two blocks A and B of weight 500 N and


2. 750 N respectively are connected by a cord
that passes over a frictionless pulley as
shown in Figure 2.1. The coefficient of
friction (s) between the block A and the
inclined plane is 0.4 and that between the
block B and inclined plane is 0.3.
Determine the force P to be applied to

Figure: 2.1

block B to produce the impending motion


of block B down the plane.
(Ans: P = 331.44 N)

3. Two blocks A = 100 N and B = 150 N are


resting on ground as shown in Figure 3.1. The
coefficient of friction (s) between the block B
and the ground is 0.1 and that between block
B and block A is 0.3. Find the minimum value
of weight P in the pan son that motion starts.
Find whether block B is stationary w.r.t.
ground and block A moves or block B is
stationary w.r.t. block A.
(Ans: P = 27.29 N)

Figure: 3.1

Block A of mass 30 kg rests on block B of


4. mass 40 kg as shown in Figure 4.1. Block A is
restrained from moving by a horizontal rope
tied at point C, what force P applied parallel to
the plane inclined at 30 with horizontal is
necessary to start block B down the plane.

Figure: 4.1

Take coefficient of static friction (s) for all


surfaces as 0.35
(Ans: P = 220.86 N)
5. The coefficients of friction are s = 0.3 and k =
0.25 between all the surfaces of contact. If a
force of P = 900 N is applied as shown in
Figure 5.1, find the resultant of frictional force
on 150 kg block. Find out the system is in

Figure: 5.1

static equilibrium or in Kinetic equilibrium.


(Ans: To be find it out)

A 1500 N cupboard is to be shifted to the right


6.

by a horizontal force P as shown in Figure 6.1.


Find the force P required to just cause the
motion and the maximum height up to which it
can be applied. Consider s = 0.25.
(Ans: P = 375 N and h = 1.75 m)

7. A 100 N uniform rod AB is held in the


position as shown in Figure 7.1. If the
Coefficient of static friction at A and B is

Figure: 6.1

0.15, calculate ranges of values P for which


equilibrium is maintained.
(Ans: Pmin = 8.29 N and Pmax = 80.58 N )

Figure: 7.1

8. Block A of weight of 2000 N is kept on an


inclined plane at 35 as shown in Figure 8.1. It
is connected to weight B by an inextensible
string passing over smooth pulley. Determine
the weight of B so that B just moves down.
Consider s = 0.2.
(Ans: WB = 1463.1 N)

Figure: 8.1

9. Two rectangular blocks of weights W1 and W2 are


connected by a flexible cord and rest upon a
horizontal and inclined plane respectively with
the cord passing as shown in Figure 9.1. Taking
a Particular case, where W1 = W2 and The
coefficient of friction s is same for all contact
surfaces, find the angle of inclination of the
inclined plane at which motion of the system
will impend.
(Ans: = 2 tan-1 )

Figure: 9.1

10

Find the tension in the cords of the

inclined plane system as shown in Figure


10.1.
(Ans: T1 = 165.36 kN and T2 = 80.51 kN)
Figure: 10.1

11

Find the least value of P that will just

start the system of blocks as shown


in Figure 11.1 moving towards right.
The coefficient of static friction (s)
under each block is 0.30.

Figure: 11.1

(Ans: Pmin = 247.12 N at = 16.7)

12

Block A has a mass of 20 kg and block B

has a mass of 10 kg in Figure 12.1.


Knowing that s = 0.15 between all
surfaces of contact, determine the value
of for which motion will impend. Take g
= 10 m/s2.
(Ans: = 46.4)

13

The three block are positioned on the 30

inclined plane as shown in Figure 13.1


and a force P parallel to the inclined
plane is applied to the middle block. The
upper block is prevented from moving by

Figure: 12.1

a wire which attaches in to the fixed

Figure: 13.1

support. The coefficient of static friction


for each of the three pairs of surfaces is
also shown. Determine the maximum
value which P may have before any
slipping takes place. Take g = 10 m/s2.
(Ans: P = 95.58 N).

14

Two rectangular blocks of weight, W1 =

150 N and W2 = 100 N are connected by a


string and rest on an inclined plane and
on a horizontal surface as shown in
Figure 14.1. The coefficient of static
friction for all surfaces is s = 0.2, find the
magnitude and direction () of the least

Figure: 14.1

force P at which the motion of the block


will impend. (Ans: P = 161.7 N and
11.31).

15

Determine the force P required to

move the block A of weight 5000 N up


the inclined plane as shown in Figure
15.1. Coefficient of static friction
between all contact surfaces is 0.25.
The wedge angle is 15 and neglect
the weight of the wedge.
(Ans: P = 3462.84 N)

Figure: 15.1

16

Block A weighs 25 kN and block B 18 kN in as

shown in Figure 16.1. The coefficient of static


friction for all surfaces is s = 0.11. For what
range of values of P will the system be in
equilibrium?

Figure: 16.1

(Ans: Pmin = 45.8 kN and Pmax = 124 kN)

17

Refer the Figure 17.1 and draw the FBD

for different bodies and find the maximum


value of force F to move the block A up
the plane.

(Ans: F = 134.6 N)

18

A horizontal force 5 kN is acting on

the wedge as shown in Figure 18.1.

Figure: 17.1

The coefficient of static friction at all


the rubbing surfaces is 0.25. Find the
load W which can be held in position.
The weight of block B may be
neglected.
(Ans: W = 22.89 kN)

Figure: 18.1

19

A 15 wedge of negligible weight is to driven to

tighten a body B which is supporting a vertical


load of 1000 N as shown in Figure 19.1. If the
coefficient of friction for all contacting surfaces
be 0.25, find the minimum force P required to
drive the wedge.

Figure: 19.1

(Ans: P = 232 N)

20

A person of weight W ascends the 5 m

ladder as shown in Figure 20.1. How


far up the ladder may the person climb
before the sliding motion of the ladder
takes place?
(Ans: x = 1.258 m)
Figure: 20.1

D) Thin cylindrical shell


1.

A thin cylendrical shell of external diameter of 225 mm, wall thickness of 4.5
mm has hemispherical ends. Determine the thickness of hemispherical ends
if there is no destortion of the junction under internal pressure. Derive the
expression if used. Take E =208 GN/m2, Poissons ratio = 0.3.
(Ans: t = 1.853 mm)

A steel tube having outside and inside diameter of 40 mm and 35 mm is


firmly plugged at both ends leaving at internal length of 200 mm between the
flat ends of the plug. The plugs are designed so that water can be admitted to

the inner space and also so that an axial pull can be applied to the tube. If
the tube is subjected to an axial pull of 20 kN an in addition is filled with
water at a gauge pressure of 2 N/mm2. Find the volume of water which will
escape from the tube if the axial load is removed and the inner space opened
to the atmosphere. Consider Kw = 2100 N/mm2 and Es = 210000 N/mm2 and
Poissons ratio = 0.286.
(Ans: Volume of water escaped = 234.62 mm3)
3.

A water pipe line with 90 cm diameter contains water at a pressure head of


110 m. If the weight density of water is 9810 N/mm3, find the thickness of
the metal required for the water pipe line. Given that permissible stress as 22
N/mm2.
(Ans: t = 2.25 cm)

4.

To what depth would a spherical shell of 100 mm diameter and 3 mm wall


thickness have to be sunk in sea water in order that its diameter in decreased
by 0.05 mm? Take Es = 100 GPa, Poissons ratio = 0.25 and unit weight of sea
water is 10.4 kN/m3.
(Ans: H = 769.2 m)

5.

A cylindrical pressure vessel of 3 m outside used for processing rubber is 10


m long. If the cylindrical portion of the cylindrical is made form 24 mm thick
steel plate and the vessel operates at 400 kPa internal pressure, determine
the elongation in the length and the increase in the diameter caused by the
operating pressure. Take Est = 200 GPa and Poissons ratio = 0.3.
(Ans: d = 0.6173 mm (increase), d = 0.492 mm (increase)

6.

A cylindrical of the thickness 2 cm has to withstand maximum internal


pressure of 2 N/mm2. If the ultimate tensile stress in the material of the
cylinder is 292 N/mm2, factor of safety 4 and joint efficiently 80%, determine
the diameter of the cylinder.

(Ans: d = 116.8 cm)


7.

A thin cylinder shell of 120 cm diameter, 1.5 cm thick and 6 m long is


subjected to internal fluid pressure of 2.5 N/mm2. If the value of E = 200000
N/mm2 and poisons ratio = 0.3, calculate: (i) change in diameter (ii) change in
length (iii) change in volume.
(Ans: (i) L = 0.051 cm (ii) d 0.06 cm (iii) V = 6449.7 cm3)

8.

A thin spherical shell of diameter 300 mm and thickness 1.6 mm is just full
of water at atmospheric pressure. Find by how much the internal pressure
will be increased by pumping in 25000 mm3 of water. Take Es = 100000
N/mm2, Poissons ratio = 0.286 and bulk modulus for water Kw = 2200
N/mm2.
(Ans: p = 1.212 N/mm2)

9.

A thin cylindrical container of diameter 1.5 m and length 4 m is subjected to


internal fluid pressure on 3 MPa. The maximum shear stress in the material
is not to exceed 37.5 MPa. Find the minimum thickness of the container and
change in the volume for the same. Take E = 200 GPa and Poissons ratio =
0.25.
(Ans: t = 15 mm; V = 10602875 mm3)

10. A spherical shell 1.5 m diameter is subjected to an internal pressure of 2


N/mm2. Find the thickness of the plate required if maximum stress is not to
exceed 150 N/mm2 and joint efficiency is 75%.
(Ans: t = 6.67 mm)

E) AFD, SFD and BMD

1. A simply supported beam 7 m span carries a uniformly distributed load (UDL)


of 1 kN/m over 4 m length from left support and a point load 5 kN at 2 m from
right support. Draw SFD and BMD.

2. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam supported and
loaded as shown in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Loading diagram for a simply supported beam

3. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam supported and
loaded as shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Loading diagram for a simply supported beam

4. Draw loading and bending moment diagrams for the given shear force diagram
as shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1: Shear force diagram for a simply supported beam

5. Draw loading and bending moment diagrams for the given shear force diagram
as shown in Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1: Shear force diagram for a simply supported beam

6. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for simply supported beam of
span L,
i)

A concentrated load W at center

ii) A concentrated load W at a distance a from left support and at a


distance b from right support (a<b)

7. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for simply supported beam of
span L with,
i)

A uniformly distributed load w per unit run (length) over the entire span

ii) A uniformly varying load (UVL) over the entire span. This UVL is zero at
left end and w per unit run (length) at right end

8. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for cantilever beam of span L
with,
i)

A concentrated load W at free end.

ii) A concentrated load W at a distance a from fixed support.

9. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for cantilever beam of span L
with,
i)

A uniformly distributed load w per unit run (length) over the entire span

ii) A uniformly distributed load w per unit run (length) at a distance a


from fixed support (a<L)

10. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam supported and
loaded as shown in Figure 10.1. Also determine the maximum moment and
point of contraflexure, if any.

Figure 10.1: Loading diagram for a cantilever beam

11. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for cantilever beam of span L
with,
i) A uniformly varying load (UVL) over the entire span. This UVL is zero at
fixed support and w per unit run (length) at free end
ii) A uniformly varying load (UVL) over the entire span. This UVL is zero at
free end and w per unit run (length) at fixed support

12. Draw Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam
supported and loaded as shown in Figure 12.1. Also determine the maximum
moment and point of contraflexure, if any. Point C is internal hinge.

Figure 12.1: Loading diagram for an overhanging beam


13. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam supported and
loaded as shown in Figure 13.1. Also determine the maximum moment and
point of contraflexure, if any. Points C and E are internal hinges.

Figure 13.1: Loading diagram for an overhanging beam

14. Draw axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam
supported and loaded as shown in Figure 14.1. Also determine the maximum
moment and point of contraflexure, if any. Points B and D are internal
hinges.

Figure 14.1: Loading diagram for a continuous beam

15. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam supported and
loaded as shown in Figure 15.1. Also determine the maximum moment and
point of contraflexure, if any. Points C and D are internal hinges.

Figure 15.1: Loading diagram for a fixed beam

16. Draw Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam
supported and loaded as shown in Figure 16.1. Also determine the maximum
moment and point of contraflexure, if any. Point C is internal hinge.

Figure 16.1: Loading diagram for an overhanging beam

17. Draw Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam
supported and loaded as shown in Figure 17.1. Also determine the maximum
moment and point of contraflexure, if any. Point E is internal hinge.

Figure 17.1: Loading diagram for an overhanging beam

18. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam supported and
loaded as shown in Figure 18.1. Also determine the maximum moment and
point of contraflexure, if any.

Figure 18.1: Loading diagram for an overhanging beam

19. Draw axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam
supported and loaded as shown in Figure 19.1. Also determine the maximum
moment and point of contraflexure, if any.

Figure 19.1: Loading diagram for an overhanging beam

20. Draw Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam
supported and loaded as shown in Figure 20.1. Also determine the maximum
moment and point of contraflexure, if any. Point C is internal hinge.

Figure 20.1: Loading diagram for an overhanging beam

F) Theoretical questions
1.

What is free body diagram (FBD)? What is its importance? State stepwise
procedure to draw it.

2.

What is two force and three force principle? Explain in detail with neat
sketches.

3.

What are the various laws of Mechanics? Explain in detail with neat sketches.

4.

Derive an expression for angle of repose and angle of friction separately and
show the relation between them.

5.

What are the types of friction, Laws of friction and applications of friction?

6.

Derive an expression for circumferential and longitudinal stress,


circumferential and longitudinal strain and volumetric strain for thin
cylindrical shell.

7.

Derive an expression for circumferential and longitudinal stress,


circumferential and longitudinal strain and volumetric strain for spherical
shell. Also derive expression for a volumetric strain of circular solid rod under
uniaxial loading.

8.

Derive an expression to show the relation between loading, shear force and
bending moment.

9.

What are the rules to draw AFD, SFD and BMD? Explain with neat sketches.

10. What are the properties of SFD and BMD? Explain with neat sketches.