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PERCENTAGE

IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE


1.

Concept of Percentage: By a certain percent, we mean that many hundredths.


Thus, x percent means x hundredths, written as x%.
x
To express x% as a fraction: We have, x% =
.
100
20 1
Thus, 20% =
= .
100 5
a
a a
To express as a percent: We have, =
x 100
b
b b
%.
1 1
Thus, =
x 100
= 25%.
4 4
%
2.
Percentage Increase/Decrease:
If the price of a commodity increases by R%, then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is:
R
x 100
(100 + R)
%
If the price of a commodity decreases by R%, then the increase in consumption so as not to decrease the expenditure is:
R
x 100
(100 - R)
%
3.
Results on Population: Let the population of a town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of R% per annum,
then:
R
1. Population after n years = P 1 +
n
100

1+
2. Population n years ago =

P
R
100

4.
Results on Depreciation: Let the present value of a machine be P. Suppose it depreciates at the rate of R% per
annum. Then:
R
1. Value of the machine after n years = P 1 n
100
2. Value of the machine n years ago =

P
R

1n
100
R

3. If A is R% more than B, then B is less than A by

x 100
(100 + R)
%.
R
4. If A is R% less than B, then B is more than A by
x 100
(100 - R)
%.

Ex.1.

Express each of the following as a fraction :

Sol.

(i) 56% =

56

14

=
100

(ii) 4%

25

0.6

100

=
100

(iii) 0.6% =

1000

.
25

0.08
.

(iv) 0.08% =

500

100

Ex.2.

Express each of the following as a decimal :

Sol.

(i) 6% =

8
=

1
=

10000

.
1250

28
= 0.06.

(ii) 28% =

100

= 0.28.
100

0.2

0.04

(iii) 0.2% =

= 0.002.

(iv) 0.04% =

100

= 0.0004.
100

1
Ex.3.

What fraction is 12

percent?
2
1

12
1
Sol.

12

2
%

25
=

100

1
=

100

3
Ex.4.

What percentage is equivalent to

?
8

3
Sol.

75
x 100 =

1
= 37

%
2

Ex.5.

What percentage of numbers from 1 to 70 have 1 or 9 in the unit's digit?

Sol.

Clearly, the numbers which have 1 or 9 in the unit's digit, have squares that end in the digit 1. Such numbers from 1 to
70 are 1, 9, 11, 19, 21, 29, 31, 39, 41, 49, 51, 59, 61, 69.
Number of such number =14
14
Required percentage =

x 100
70

% = 20 %

Ex.6.

A fruit seller had some apples. He sells 40% apples and still has 420 apples. Originally, he had:

Sol.

Suppose originally he had x apples.


Then, (100 - 40)% of x = 420.
60
x x = 420
100
420 x 100
x=
60

= 700.

7
Ex.7.

What percentage is equivalent to

7
? or express

11
7
Sol.

700
x 100 =

11

as rate percent.
11

7
= 63

11

11

Ex.8.

The population of a town has increased from 60,000 to 65,000. Find the increase percent .

Sol.

Increase in population = 65,000 - 60,000 = 5000


5000
Percentage increase =

25
x 100 =

60,000

2
Ex.9.

Which is greatest in 16

2
16

50
% =

and 0.17 ?
15

1
x

2
%,

Sol.

1
= 8

1
=

100

2
= 0.166,

= 0.133. Clearly , 0.17 is the greatest.

15

Ex.10.

An inspector rejects 0.08% of the meters as defective. How many will be examine to reject 2?

Sol.

Let the number of meters to be examined be x.


8
Then , 0.08% of x = 2 < = >

1
x

100

2 x 100 x 100
X x

100

= 2

<=>

= 2500.
8

Ex.11. The population of a town increased from 1,75,000 to 2,62,500 in a decade. The average percent increase of
population per year is:

Sol.

Increase in 10 years = (262500 - 175000) = 87500.


87500
Increase percentage =

x 100

= 50%

175000

50
Required average =

= 5%

10

Ex.12. Three candidates contested an election and received 1136, 7636 and 11628 votes respectively. What percentage of
the total votes did the winning candidate get?

Sol.

Total number of votes polled = (1136 + 7636 + 11628) = 20400.

Required percentage =

11628
x 100

% = 57%

20400

Ex.13.

Rams salary is increased from Rs 630 to Rs 700. Find the increase percent.

Sol.

Increase in salary = Rs. 700 - Rs 630 = Rs 70.


70
Percentage increase =

1
x 100 = 11

630

%
9

Ex.14. In an election two candidates, the candidate who gets 41% is rejected by a majority of 2412 votes .Find the total no.
of votes polled.
2412
Sol.

(59% - 41%) = 18% = 2412

100% =

x 100 = 13400.
18

Ex.15.

Sixty five percent of a number is 21 less than four-fifth of that number .What is the number?

Sol.

Let the number be x.


4

4
x - (65% of x) = 21

Then,
5

65
x = 21 15x = 2100

x 5

x = 140.

100

Ex.16.

In expressing a length 81.472 km as nearly as possible with three significant digits, find the percentage error.

Sol.

Error = (81.5 - 81.472)km = 0.028.

0.028
:

Required percentage =

x 100 % = 0.034%
81.472

Ex.17. If 2 liters of water are evaporated on boiling from 8 liters of sugar solution containing 5% sugar, find the
percentage of sugar in the remaining solution.
Sol.

As sugar has not been evaporated from the solution , the quantity of sugar in the original 8 liters of solution = the
quantity of sugar in the remaining 8 2 = 6 liters of solution i.e.,
5 x 8
5% of 8 = x% of 6

x =

2
= 6

%
3

Ex.18. Due to fall in manpower, the production in a factory decreases by 25% . By what percent should the working hour
be increased to restore the original production?
Sol.

Decrease in production is only due to decrease in manpower.


Hence , manpower is decreased by 25%.
Now , suppose that to restore the same production, working hours are increased by x%
Production = Manpower x Working hours = M x W (say)
Now, M x W = (M 25% of M) x (W + x% of W)
75
Or, M x W =

100 + x
M X

100

W
100

Or, 100 x 100 = 75(100 + x)


400
Or,

100
= 100 + x

x =

1
= 33

%
3

Ex.19. Two tailors X and Y are paid a total of Rs. 550 per week by their employer. If X is paid 120 percent of the sum paid
to Y, how much is Y paid per week?

Sol.

Let the sum paid to Y per week be Rs. z.


Then, z + 120% of z = 550.

120
=> z+

z = 550
100

11
=>

z = 550
5

550 x 5
=> z =

= 250.
11

Ex.20. Gauri went to the stationers and bought things worth Rs. 25, out of which 30 paise went on sales tax on taxable
purchases. If the tax rate was 6%, then what was the cost of the tax free items?

Sol.

Let the amount taxable purchases be Rs. x.


30
Then , 6% of x =
100
30
=>

x =

100
x

= 5.

100

Cost of tax free items = Rs. [25 (5 + 0.30)] = Rs. 19.70

Ex.21.

Two numbers are respectively 30 % and 40% less than a third number . What percent is the second of the first ?

Sol.

At first, you should find the formula yourself. If you cant find it, go through the following remarks.
(1) Since the two numbers are less than the third ;and
(2) we have to find the per cent of the second with respect to the first, our formula should be:
100 40

60
x 100 =

100 30

5
x 100 = 85

70

%
7

Ex.22.
?

A positive number is divided by 5 instead of being multiplied by 5. What % is the result of the required correct value

Sol.

Let the no. be 1 , then the correct answer = 5


1
The incorrect answer that was obtained =
5
1

The reqd. % =

x 100% = 4%
5x5

Ex.23. If the annual increase in the population of a town is 4% and the present number of people is 15,625, what will the
population be in 3 years?
3
4
Sol.
The required population = 15,625 1 +
100
26
= 15625 x

26
x

25

26
x

25

=
25

17576

Ex.24. The population of a town increases at the rate of 10% during one year and it decreases at the rate of 10% during
the second year. If it has 29,700 inhabitants at present, find the number of inhabitants two year ago.
Sol.

29700 x 100 x 100


The required population =
(100 10) x (100 + 10)
29700 x 100 x 100

= 30,000
90 x 110

Ex.25.

If 50% of (x y) = 30% of (x + y), then what percent of x is y?

Sol.

50% of (x y) = 30% of (x + y)

50
<=>

30
(x y) =

100

<=>

5(x y) = 3 (x + y)

Required percentage =

<=>

2x = 8y

<=>

(x + y)
100

x 4y.

y
x 100 % =

x 100 % = 25%
4y

Ex.26.

Ramans salary was decreased by 50% and subsequently increased by 50% .How much percent does he lose?

Sol.

Let original salary = Rs 100


150
New final salary = 150% of (50% of Rs. 100) = Rs.

50
x

x 100

= Rs. 75.

100 100
:

Decrease = 25%.

Ex.27. The salary of a person was reduced by 10%. By what percent should his reduced salary be raised so as to bring it at
par with his original salary?
Sol.

Let the original salary be Rs. 100. New salary = Rs. 90.
10
Increase on 90 = 10 .Increase on 100 =

1
x 100

90

% = 11

%
9

Ex.28. 3.5% of income is taken as tax and 12.5% of the remaining is saved. This leaves Rs 4,053 to spend . What is the
income?
Sol.

Quicker Maths gives the solution as:


4053 x 100 x 100
Income =

= Rs. 4,800
(100 3.5) (100 12.5)

Ex.29.
sum.

After deducting 10% from a certain sum, and then 20% from the remainder, there is Rs 3600 left. Find the original

Sol.

The original sum is naturally more than Rs 3600.


100
Therefore, it should be multiplied by

100
and

(100 10)

(100 20)

3600 x 100 x 100


:

The required sum =

= 5,000
90 x 80

Ex.30. The population of a town is 10,000. It increases by 10% during the first year. During the second year, it decreases by
20% and increased by 30% during the third year. What is the population after 3 years?
1000 x 110 x 80 x 130
Sol.

The required population =

= 11440.
100 x 100 x 100