Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

# PERCENTAGE

1.

## Concept of Percentage: By a certain percent, we mean that many hundredths.

Thus, x percent means x hundredths, written as x%.
x
To express x% as a fraction: We have, x% =
.
100
20 1
Thus, 20% =
= .
100 5
a
a a
To express as a percent: We have, =
x 100
b
b b
%.
1 1
Thus, =
x 100
= 25%.
4 4
%
2.
Percentage Increase/Decrease:
If the price of a commodity increases by R%, then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is:
R
x 100
(100 + R)
%
If the price of a commodity decreases by R%, then the increase in consumption so as not to decrease the expenditure is:
R
x 100
(100 - R)
%
3.
Results on Population: Let the population of a town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of R% per annum,
then:
R
1. Population after n years = P 1 +
n
100

1+
2. Population n years ago =

P
R
100

4.
Results on Depreciation: Let the present value of a machine be P. Suppose it depreciates at the rate of R% per
annum. Then:
R
1. Value of the machine after n years = P 1 n
100
2. Value of the machine n years ago =

P
R

1n
100
R

## 3. If A is R% more than B, then B is less than A by

x 100
(100 + R)
%.
R
4. If A is R% less than B, then B is more than A by
x 100
(100 - R)
%.

Ex.1.

Sol.

(i) 56% =

56

14

=
100

(ii) 4%

25

0.6

100

=
100

(iii) 0.6% =

1000

.
25

0.08
.

(iv) 0.08% =

500

100

Ex.2.

## Express each of the following as a decimal :

Sol.

(i) 6% =

8
=

1
=

10000

.
1250

28
= 0.06.

(ii) 28% =

100

= 0.28.
100

0.2

0.04

(iii) 0.2% =

= 0.002.

(iv) 0.04% =

100

= 0.0004.
100

1
Ex.3.

What fraction is 12

percent?
2
1

12
1
Sol.

12

2
%

25
=

100

1
=

100

3
Ex.4.

?
8

3
Sol.

75
x 100 =

1
= 37

%
2

Ex.5.

## What percentage of numbers from 1 to 70 have 1 or 9 in the unit's digit?

Sol.

Clearly, the numbers which have 1 or 9 in the unit's digit, have squares that end in the digit 1. Such numbers from 1 to
70 are 1, 9, 11, 19, 21, 29, 31, 39, 41, 49, 51, 59, 61, 69.
Number of such number =14
14
Required percentage =

x 100
70

% = 20 %

Ex.6.

A fruit seller had some apples. He sells 40% apples and still has 420 apples. Originally, he had:

Sol.

## Suppose originally he had x apples.

Then, (100 - 40)% of x = 420.
60
x x = 420
100
420 x 100
x=
60

= 700.

7
Ex.7.

## What percentage is equivalent to

7
? or express

11
7
Sol.

700
x 100 =

11

as rate percent.
11

7
= 63

11

11

Ex.8.

The population of a town has increased from 60,000 to 65,000. Find the increase percent .

Sol.

## Increase in population = 65,000 - 60,000 = 5000

5000
Percentage increase =

25
x 100 =

60,000

2
Ex.9.

Which is greatest in 16

2
16

50
% =

and 0.17 ?
15

1
x

2
%,

Sol.

1
= 8

1
=

100

2
= 0.166,

## = 0.133. Clearly , 0.17 is the greatest.

15

Ex.10.

An inspector rejects 0.08% of the meters as defective. How many will be examine to reject 2?

Sol.

## Let the number of meters to be examined be x.

8
Then , 0.08% of x = 2 < = >

1
x

100

2 x 100 x 100
X x

100

= 2

<=>

= 2500.
8

Ex.11. The population of a town increased from 1,75,000 to 2,62,500 in a decade. The average percent increase of
population per year is:

Sol.

## Increase in 10 years = (262500 - 175000) = 87500.

87500
Increase percentage =

x 100

= 50%

175000

50
Required average =

= 5%

10

Ex.12. Three candidates contested an election and received 1136, 7636 and 11628 votes respectively. What percentage of
the total votes did the winning candidate get?

Sol.

## Total number of votes polled = (1136 + 7636 + 11628) = 20400.

Required percentage =

11628
x 100

% = 57%

20400

Ex.13.

Rams salary is increased from Rs 630 to Rs 700. Find the increase percent.

Sol.

## Increase in salary = Rs. 700 - Rs 630 = Rs 70.

70
Percentage increase =

1
x 100 = 11

630

%
9

Ex.14. In an election two candidates, the candidate who gets 41% is rejected by a majority of 2412 votes .Find the total no.
2412
Sol.

## (59% - 41%) = 18% = 2412

100% =

x 100 = 13400.
18

Ex.15.

Sixty five percent of a number is 21 less than four-fifth of that number .What is the number?

Sol.

## Let the number be x.

4

4
x - (65% of x) = 21

Then,
5

65
x = 21 15x = 2100

x 5

x = 140.

100

Ex.16.

In expressing a length 81.472 km as nearly as possible with three significant digits, find the percentage error.

Sol.

## Error = (81.5 - 81.472)km = 0.028.

0.028
:

Required percentage =

x 100 % = 0.034%
81.472

Ex.17. If 2 liters of water are evaporated on boiling from 8 liters of sugar solution containing 5% sugar, find the
percentage of sugar in the remaining solution.
Sol.

As sugar has not been evaporated from the solution , the quantity of sugar in the original 8 liters of solution = the
quantity of sugar in the remaining 8 2 = 6 liters of solution i.e.,
5 x 8
5% of 8 = x% of 6

x =

2
= 6

%
3

Ex.18. Due to fall in manpower, the production in a factory decreases by 25% . By what percent should the working hour
be increased to restore the original production?
Sol.

## Decrease in production is only due to decrease in manpower.

Hence , manpower is decreased by 25%.
Now , suppose that to restore the same production, working hours are increased by x%
Production = Manpower x Working hours = M x W (say)
Now, M x W = (M 25% of M) x (W + x% of W)
75
Or, M x W =

100 + x
M X

100

W
100

## Or, 100 x 100 = 75(100 + x)

400
Or,

100
= 100 + x

x =

1
= 33

%
3

Ex.19. Two tailors X and Y are paid a total of Rs. 550 per week by their employer. If X is paid 120 percent of the sum paid
to Y, how much is Y paid per week?

Sol.

## Let the sum paid to Y per week be Rs. z.

Then, z + 120% of z = 550.

120
=> z+

z = 550
100

11
=>

z = 550
5

550 x 5
=> z =

= 250.
11

Ex.20. Gauri went to the stationers and bought things worth Rs. 25, out of which 30 paise went on sales tax on taxable
purchases. If the tax rate was 6%, then what was the cost of the tax free items?

Sol.

30
Then , 6% of x =
100
30
=>

x =

100
x

= 5.

100

## Cost of tax free items = Rs. [25 (5 + 0.30)] = Rs. 19.70

Ex.21.

Two numbers are respectively 30 % and 40% less than a third number . What percent is the second of the first ?

Sol.

At first, you should find the formula yourself. If you cant find it, go through the following remarks.
(1) Since the two numbers are less than the third ;and
(2) we have to find the per cent of the second with respect to the first, our formula should be:
100 40

60
x 100 =

100 30

5
x 100 = 85

70

%
7

Ex.22.
?

A positive number is divided by 5 instead of being multiplied by 5. What % is the result of the required correct value

Sol.

## Let the no. be 1 , then the correct answer = 5

1
The incorrect answer that was obtained =
5
1

The reqd. % =

x 100% = 4%
5x5

Ex.23. If the annual increase in the population of a town is 4% and the present number of people is 15,625, what will the
population be in 3 years?
3
4
Sol.
The required population = 15,625 1 +
100
26
= 15625 x

26
x

25

26
x

25

=
25

17576

Ex.24. The population of a town increases at the rate of 10% during one year and it decreases at the rate of 10% during
the second year. If it has 29,700 inhabitants at present, find the number of inhabitants two year ago.
Sol.

## 29700 x 100 x 100

The required population =
(100 10) x (100 + 10)
29700 x 100 x 100

= 30,000
90 x 110

Ex.25.

## If 50% of (x y) = 30% of (x + y), then what percent of x is y?

Sol.

50% of (x y) = 30% of (x + y)

50
<=>

30
(x y) =

100

<=>

5(x y) = 3 (x + y)

Required percentage =

<=>

2x = 8y

<=>

(x + y)
100

x 4y.

y
x 100 % =

x 100 % = 25%
4y

Ex.26.

Ramans salary was decreased by 50% and subsequently increased by 50% .How much percent does he lose?

Sol.

## Let original salary = Rs 100

150
New final salary = 150% of (50% of Rs. 100) = Rs.

50
x

x 100

= Rs. 75.

100 100
:

Decrease = 25%.

Ex.27. The salary of a person was reduced by 10%. By what percent should his reduced salary be raised so as to bring it at
par with his original salary?
Sol.

Let the original salary be Rs. 100. New salary = Rs. 90.
10
Increase on 90 = 10 .Increase on 100 =

1
x 100

90

% = 11

%
9

Ex.28. 3.5% of income is taken as tax and 12.5% of the remaining is saved. This leaves Rs 4,053 to spend . What is the
income?
Sol.

## Quicker Maths gives the solution as:

4053 x 100 x 100
Income =

= Rs. 4,800
(100 3.5) (100 12.5)

Ex.29.
sum.

After deducting 10% from a certain sum, and then 20% from the remainder, there is Rs 3600 left. Find the original

Sol.

## The original sum is naturally more than Rs 3600.

100
Therefore, it should be multiplied by

100
and

(100 10)

(100 20)

:

## The required sum =

= 5,000
90 x 80

Ex.30. The population of a town is 10,000. It increases by 10% during the first year. During the second year, it decreases by
20% and increased by 30% during the third year. What is the population after 3 years?
1000 x 110 x 80 x 130
Sol.

= 11440.
100 x 100 x 100