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Lab Manual

**CIRCUIT ANALYSIS & DESIGN
**

Lab Manual

Name : ___________________________________________

Reg. No: __________________________________________

Section: ___________________________________________

**Department of Electrical Engineering
**

UET Lahore, Faisalabad Campus

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110)

Lab Manual

Table of Content

Sr. No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Experiment

To verify Thevenin’s theorem in a dc network

To verify Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC

circuits

To examine the pulse response of a series RC circuit

To examine the pulse response of a series RL circuit

**To show the resonant frequency of a series RLC circuit is
**

given by 1/(2π√LC) and to plot the frequency response of

an RLC circuit

To examine the sinusoidal response of a series RC and RL

network

To plot the magnitude and phase response of a low pass

RC filter

To plot the magnitude and phase response of a high pass

RC filter

To plot the magnitude and phase response of a low pass RL

filter

To plot the magnitude and phase response of a high pass

RL filter

To determine the frequency characteristics of a seriesresonant band stop filter

To determine the frequency characteristics of a seriesresonant band pass filter

To verify Superposition theorem in a network containing

AC and DC sources

To plot over-damped, under-damped, critically damped and

oscillatory response

Page

3

5

7

15

18

23

28

29

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48

52

55

59

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110)

Lab Manual

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

EXPERIMENT #1

Thevenin’s Theorem

Objective:

To verify Thevenin’s theorem in a dc network.

Apparatus:

**DC Power Supply (0-30V)
**

Multimeter

Resistors: 1k, 3k, 6.2k.

Circuit Diagram:

Theory:

Thevenin's Theorem is used to simplify the analysis of complex network into a

standard equivalent network. Suppose that a complex network consists of number of sources

and resistors connected in any manner, then according to this theorem,

“Any network can be replaced by a single source Vth in series with a single resistance Rth.”

Vth or Voc is the open-circuit voltage across the terminals A and B i.e. find the voltage

that the network produces across the two terminals with an open-circuit between A and B.

This voltage is called the Thevenin Equivalent Voltage. Rth is the open-circuit resistance

across the terminals A and B but with all the sources killed in the network. This resistance is

called the Thevenin Equivalent Resistance. For Rth, voltage sources are replaced by short

circuit and current sources are replaced by open circuit.

and record them. Measure the resulting load current and voltage.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual The output of the Thevenin and actual circuits is the same. Perform the calculations for both the actual circuit and its Thevenin equivalent. Procedure: 1. 4. They should agree closely with those in the adjacent columns. 3. Observations and Calculations: Thevenin Parameters Calculated Vth Rth Measured Vth Rth . 5. 6. and measure the resistance between the terminals A and B. use Thevenin’s theorem to calculate the values of Vth and Rth and record them in table. For the circuit as shown in fig. Record this as Rth. Measure the resulting load current and record them. Connect a 3k load to the terminals A and B. Connect a 3k load to the terminal A and B of the circuit in a fig a. The result should be identical VL = RL RL + Rth . IL = Vth RL + Rth . Calculate the voltage across and current through a 3k load that is to be placed across the terminals A and B. Although Thevenin Equivalent circuit is not the same as its original network. it acts as same in terms of the output voltage and current. Rth = R3 + R1 x R2 R1 + R2 2. Construct the circuit of fig b with the calculated values of Vth and Rth. Replace the source with a short circuit. Measure the open circuit voltage and record this as Vth under the measured column. This condition is called the “Terminal Equivalency” from the viewpoint of the Two Output Terminals. Vth = R2 R1 + R2 .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Loaded Circuit Parameters Calculated (Node or Mesh Analysis) IL VL Actual Circuit (Multimeter) IL VL Thevenin Equivalent IL VL Conclusion: Q#1:During thevenin resistance calculations what is the replacement of current and voltage sources? Q#2:Does the thevenin equilent circuit depend upon load resistance? .

10k.7k. i. Multimeter 3.5k. 1. 3. DC power supply (0-30V) 2.3k. 3k. 5.3k. Apparatus: 1. % Efficiency = PL 100 PS = I2RL 100 I2RT .Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg. Total resistance of the network = Load Resistance Power transfer efficiency is the ratio of power supplied to the load and the total power supplied by the voltage source. 7.6k.e.5k. 2. Resistors: 1k. To calculate power efficiency under max power transfer. 2k. No Marks / Grade EXPERIMENT # 2 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Objective: To verify Maximum Power Transfer Theorem in a dc network. Circuit Diagram: RS 3k RL + Vs 10V Theory: According to the maximum power transfer theorem: “Maximum power will be delivered from a source to a load when the load resistance is equal to the resistance of the network as viewed from the output terminals”. 4.

Since efficiency is low so this theorem is not used in high power circuits.5 10 Measurements PL (mW) RL VL IL (kohms) (volts) (mA) PL (mW) . Given V=10V & RS=3K. 8. For each value of (R) measure and record the load voltage (VL) and load current (IL). Calculate Power dissipated (P) for each value of the resistance given in the table. 2. 100 RL + RS If RL >> RS. 6. 9.3 4. Complete the table with the measured data. Procedure: 1.3 5. Setup the source voltage V=10V and RS=3K. % Efficiency 100% If RL << RS. RL 0.6 7. 10. 4. 5. Observations & Calculations: No.7 3 3. % Efficiency 0 If RL = RS.5 2 2. 7. Plot a graph of load power (PL) versus load resistance (RL) from the measured data. It is normally used in low power circuits like electronics. 2. 3. From this calculate the load power (PL). Calculations RL VL IL (mA) (kohms) (volts) 1 1. 3. 1. Find load voltage (V) and load current (I). % Efficiency = 50% This result is quite expected because the efficiency at maximum power transfer is 50% as one-half of the total power generated is dissipated in the total resistance of the network.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual = RL . RS 0.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Graph: PL (MW) RL (K) CONCLUSION Q#1:where does the energy go when a mismatch is occurred in circuit? Q#2:Using calculus derive the load impedance for maximum power transfer if thevenin resistance is complex? .

The entire applied voltage V will be dropped across the resistance R and the charging current is maximum. No Marks / Grade EXPERIMENT #3 Pulse response of a series RC network Objective: To study the pulse response of a series RC network. Apperatus: Signal generator Oscilloscope Capacitors: 0. At the instant when step voltage is applied to the network. But then gradually. We use a square wave source. Charging a capacitor We investigate the behavior of a capacitor when it is charged via a high resistor. which in fact repeats the pulse every ‘T’ seconds and allows a continuous display of repetitive responses on a normal oscilloscope.001 µF Resistors: 10 KΩ / 20 KΩ Circuit Diagram: Theory: The step response of a network is its behaviors when the excitation is the step function.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg. the voltage across the capacitor is zero because the capacitor is initially uncharged. voltage across the capacitor starts increasing as the capacitor starts to charge and the charging current starts decreasing.01 µF/0. The decrease of the charging current and the increase of voltage across the capacitor follows exponential law. .

Display simultaneously voltage Vin (t) across the function generator (on CH 1) and Vc (t) across the capacitor C (on CH 2). Measure the time constant. Expand the time scale and measure the time it takes for the waveform to complete 63% of its total change.e. i. using the waveform Vc (t). Im = V/R and then decays exponentially. calculate and sketch the waveforms. . Note that the voltage across resistor R. the voltage across the capacitor is given by. Mathematically. Wire the circuit on breadboard. when the pulse amplitude is zero and capacitance is charged to potential difference of V volts. . the voltage across the capacitor decreases exponentially and the discharge current rises instantly to a maximum value i. Enter the measured value of in Table.e. VC (t) = V (1 . Label the time.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual i (t) = V e-t/CR R However. VR (t) and i (t).e-t/CR) Where t = time elapsed since pulse is applied τ = RC = Time constant of the circuit Discharging a Charged Capacitor During the next half cycle of pulse. Compare values of theoretically expected and experimentally obtained time constants τ. it can be shown that voltage across the capacitor and discharging current are given by. 5V. voltage and current scales. So. also represents the current i (t). Sketch the two measured waveforms Vin (t) and Vc (t). now the capacitor discharges through resistor R. Vc (t) = V e-t/RC i (t) = -Im e-t/CR Procedure: Set the output of the function generator to a square-wave with frequency 500Hz and peak-to-peak amplitude 5V. VR (t).

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Observations and Calculations.3 Measured Voltage (volts) . of Time Constants 2 3 4 5 Calculated Voltage (volts) Measured Voltage (volts) TABLE 3. No.2 Discharging of Capacitor No.001μF 5τ FMAX TABLE 3.001μF 2 10KΩ 0. of Time Constants 2 3 4 5 Calculated Voltage (volts) TABLE 3.1 Charging of Capacitor No. R τ C 1 20KΩ 0.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Waveforms Of Voltages & Currents: Vin (volts) Vc (volts) time t (sec) i (t) (amps) time t (sec) time t (sec) VR (volts) time t (sec) .

No Marks / Grade E EXPERIMENT 4 Pulse response of a series RL network Objective: To study the pulse response of a series RL network.m. it can be shown.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg. The reason the current does not build up instantly to its final value is that as the current increases. In this experiment.f. Apparatus: Signal Generator Oscilloscope Inductor: 100 mH Resistor: 10 KΩ / 20 KΩ Circuit Diagram: Theory: This lab is similar to the RC Circuit Lab except that an Inductor replaces the capacitor. we apply a square waveform to the RL circuit to analyze the transient response of the circuit. . the current increases gradually and takes some time to reach the final value. in L opposes the change in current (Lenz’s Law). Rise of current At the instant when step voltage is applied to an RL network. the self-induced e. The pulse-width relative to the circuit’s time constant determines how it is affected by the RL circuit. Mathematically.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual i (t) = V (1 . using the waveform VL (t). i (t) = V e-t/τ R Procedure: Set the output of the function generator to a square-wave with frequency 500Hz and peak-to-peak amplitude 5V. of Calculated Time Current (amp) Constants Measured Current (amp) . the current decreases to zero exponentially. VR (t) and i (t). Mathematically. Measure the time constant. Display simultaneously voltage Vin (t) across the function generator (on CH 1) and VL (t) across the inductor L (on CH 2). R L 1 20KΩ 100 mH 2 10KΩ 100 mH τ 5τ FMAX TABLE 4. Note that the voltage across resistor R. Wire the circuit on breadboard. Expand the time scale and measure the time it takes for the waveform to complete 63% of its total change. VR (t). Enter the measured value of in Table. it can be shown.1 Rise Of Current No. when the pulse amplitude is zero. i. calculate and sketch the waveforms. . Label the time. Observations and Calculations: No. Compare values of theoretically expected and experimentally obtained time constants τ. 5V. also represents the current i (t).e.e-t/τ ) R Where t = time elapsed since pulse is applied τ = L/R = Time constant of the circuit (ii) Decay of current During the next half cycle of pulse. voltage and current scales. Sketch the two measured waveforms Vin (t) and VL (t).

2 Decay Of Current No.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 2 3 4 5 TABLE 4. of Calculated Time Current (Amp) Constants 2 3 4 5 Measured Current (Amp) TABLE 4.3 Waveforms of Voltages & Currents: Vin (volts) VL (volts) time t (sec) i (t) (amps) time t (sec) .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual time t (sec) VR (volts) time t (sec) Conclusion: Q#1: what is the behavior of inductor in transient state? Q#2:what is the behavior of inductor in steady state? .

inductor and capacitor are connected in series with an a.s. resistor.01μF Resistors: 100Ω + 5 percent Oscilloscope Multimeter Circuit Diagram. No Marks / Grade EXPERIMENT # 5 Resonant frequency of a series RLC circuit Objective: To show the frequency response of a series RLC network and show that the resonant frequency of a series RLC circuit is given by 1/2π√LC. Apparatus: Signal Generator Inductor: 100-200 mH Capacitors: 0. supply of r. The phasor diagram is plotted as. Theory: As shown in the circuit diagram.m. voltage V. .Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg.c.001μF and 0.

AB and AC represents the inductive and capacitive drops respectively. they are in direct opposition to each other. it being limited by value of R alone. circuit current is maximum.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual B D B V VL . since circuit current is maximum. large the current flowing.c. (Impedance) 2 = (Resistance)2 + (Net Reactance) 2 Resonance in RLC Networks Resonance means to be in step with. it possesses minimum impedance Z = R. When a series R-L-C is in resonance. If it . but these drops being equal and opposite.Vc O A VR . Taken together. OD = √OA2 + AD2 V = √(IR)2 + (IXL – IXC)2 = I√(R)2 + (XL – XC)2 I = V/ √(R)2 + (XL – XC)2 = V/Z 2 2 The term √(R) + (XL – XC) is known as the impedance of the network. Hence.e. OA represents VR. we get the net reactive drop AD = I (XL – XC) The applied voltage V is represented by OD and is the vector sum of OA and AD. L and C from part of a circuit across which no voltage develops however. the circuit is said to be in resonance. Subtracting AC from AB. it produces large voltage drops across L and C. Obviously. When the applied voltage and the current in an a. phase angle between voltage and current is zero or pf = 1. It will be seen that VL and VC are 180 degree out of phase with each other i.c.e. An a. The current I0 =V/R and is in phase with V.Vc C Let VR = IR = voltage drop across R VL = IXL = voltage drop across L VC = IXC = voltage drop across C In voltage triangle of fig1. circuit containing reactive element (L and C) is said to be in resonance when the net reactance is zero. cancel out each other. network are in step with i.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual were for the presence of R. Its value can be found as under: XL –XC=0 OR XL = XC or ω0L = 1/ω0C OR ω02 =1/LC or (2πf0)2 = 1/LC or f0 = 1/2π LC If L is in Henry and C is in Farad. Procedure: For the given inductor and capacitor calculate the resonant frequency and connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram Apply sinusoidal signal from the signal generator of 5Vpk to the network and set the frequency to a value of 500 Hz Observe VR. The frequency at which the net reactance of the series circuit is zero is called the resonant frequency. Z = √(R)2 + (XL – XC)2 (ohms) . Frequency f XL = 2ПfL Xc = 1/ 2ПfC (Hz) (ohms) (ohms) Frequency f XL = 2ПfL Xc = 1/ 2ПfC (Hz) (ohms) (ohms) Z = √(R)2 + (XL – XC)2 (ohms) I = VR/R VL = IXL Vc = IXc (Amp) (volts) (volts) I = VR/R VL = IXL Vc = IXc (Amp) (volts) (volts) Measured Values No. VL and VC and maintain applied voltage constant at 5Vpk Now measure VR. then f0 is in Hertz. VL and VC on the oscilloscope and record it. Increase the frequency of the signal and for each frequency measure and record V. Observations & Calculations: Calculated Values No. such a resonant circuit would act like a short circuit to currents of the frequency to which it is often referred to as voltage resonance. VL and VC theoretically and compare the results. VR.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual GRAPH Z (ohms) i (A) f (Hz) Conclusion: Q#1:If you have a known capacitor and function generator how will you find the value of inductance of a coil? Q#2:Can we find inductive reactance by ohmmeter? .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual .

capacitors and inductors we can make circuits that have the property of passing or rejecting either low or high frequencies or bands or frequencies.1F. These frequency selective networks. . Low pass filter A low pass filter allows signals with lower frequencies to pass from input to output while rejecting higher frequencies. Multimeter Resistors 1K. No Marks / Grade EXPERIMENT # 7 Magnitude and phase responses of a simple low pass RC filter circuit Objective: To plot the magnitude and phase responses of a simple low pass RC filter circuit. are called fillers. 1nF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM THEORY By using various combinations of resistance's. 10K Capacitors 0.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg. which alter the amplitude and phase characteristics of the input ac signal. Apparatus: Signal generator Oscilloscope.

. break frequency.7% of the maximum. The term dB (decibel) is a commonly used one that you should understand because the decibel unit is used in filter measurements. or -3 dB frequency because the output voltage is down 3 dB from its maximum at this frequency. Critical Frequency The critical frequency is the frequency at which the filter's output voltage is 70. The filter's critical frequency is also called the cutoff frequency.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Passband of a filter The range of low frequencies passed by a low-pass filter within a specified limit is called the passband of the filter.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual FIGURE 5-1 Low-pass filler block diagram and general response curve. Xc = R At the critical frequency. Since Xc = R at fc. The decibel is a logarithmic measurement of the ratio of one power to another or one voltage to another. fc. which can be used to express the input-to-output relationship of a filter. as a result. the output voltage can be expressed as . of the filter. Vout. Xc decreases and. As the input frequency is increased. The following equation expresses a voltage ratio in decibels: db = 20 log (Vo / Vin) Operation of the LPF When the input is dc (0 Hz). the output voltage equals the input voltage because Xc is infinitely large. gradually decreases until a frequency is reached where Xc = R . This is the critical frequency. the output voltage magnitude is by application of the voltage-divider formula. Decibels The basis for the decibel unit stems from the logarithmic response of the human ear to the intensity of sound.

The ratio of output voltage to input voltage at the critical frequency can be expressed in decibels as follows. the critical frequency.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual These calculations show that the output is 70. by definition.7% of the input when Xc = R. . The frequency at which this occurs is.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Ideal and Actual Response of LPF Lab Manual .

FIGURE 5-2 Phase characteristic of a Low-pass filter . φ decreases and approaches 0° as the frequency approaches zero. Xc = R and. φ = -45°. Since that the phase shift from input to output is expressed as At the critical frequency. As the input frequency is reduced. as shown in Figure 19-10.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual FIGURE 5-2 Actual and ideal response curves for a low-pass filter Phase Shift in a Low-Pass Filter The RC low-pass filter acts as a lag network. therefore.

G (dB) = 201og [Vo/Vin] Determine the phase difference between Vo and Vin in degrees. 1 KHz. 20 KHz. 2 KHz. Input Frequency f (Hz) Input Voltage Vin (volts) Output Voltage Vo (volts) Vo/ Vin (volts) db = 20 log (Vo/Vin) = tan-1(Xc/R) (degrees) .PROCEDURE Apply a 1 Vpp 100 Hz signal as input to the network of LPF and measure the corresponding output voltage level. 50 KHz. 500Hz. 10 KHz. Repeat step 2 and 3 for the following frequencies: 200 Hz. Determine the decibel gain of the filter. 5 KHz. Observations & Calculations fc = 1/2RC No.

I. Phase angle against frequency Q#1:if capacitor act as low pass then low frequency components appear across capacitor where does high frequency component go? Q#2:if sharp edge rectangular wave is applied across low pass filter what will be change in it? 24 .Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual GRAPH Plot on semilog paper. db against frequency II.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg. 1. In RC high pass filter output is taken across the resistor.7% of the maximum.1F Circuit Diagram: Theory: High Pass Filter A high pass filter allows signals with higher frequencies to pass from input to output while rejecting lower frequencies. It is the frequency at which the output is 70. 25 . Apparatus: Signal Generator Oscilloscope. No Marks / Grade EXPERIMENT# 8 Magnitude and Phase response of a high pass RC filters circuit Objective: To plot the magnitude and phase response of a high pass RC filters circuit. Critical Frequency The frequency considered to be lower end of pass-band is called the critical frequency.5k Capacitors 0.01 F. DVM Resistors 1k. 0.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Lower frequencies experience considerable reactance by the capacitor and are not easily passed. Higher frequencies encounter a little reactance and are easily passed. the output voltage increases and approaches a value equal to Vin. XC = R and the output voltage is 0. the voltage drop across R. The expression for the critical frequency of the high-pass filter is the same as for the low-pass filter. XC decreases and. FIGURE 7-1 Response of ideal High Pass filter Bode Plot When the input frequency is at its critical value. as found by the voltage divider rule is Vo= Vin R/(R-j Xc) and fc=1/2RC For an ideal high pass filter the output is like this. R=Xc and the phase angle between Vo and Vi is 45. The High frequencies passing through the filter develop the output voltage Vo across R. As the input frequency increases above fc. Since Rand C is in series across the input voltage. as a result. At fc. just as in the case of the low-pass filter.707Vin. all frequencies above fc are passed where as those below it are attenuated. 1 fc 2RC 26 .

5 KHz. G (dB) = 201og [Vo/Vin] Determine the phase difference between Vo and Vin in degrees. 2 KHz. Procedure: Apply a 1 Vpp 100 Hz signal as input to the network of LPF and measure the corresponding output voltage level. 1 KHz. 50 KHz. 27 . 500Hz. 20 KHz.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual FIGURE 7-2 Bode plot for High Pass Filter. Recall that the phase shift from input to output for the RC lead network is: X tan 1 C R FIGURE 6-17 Phase characteristic of a high-pass filter. 10 KHz. Repeat step 2 and 3 for the following frequencies: 200 Hz. Determine the decibel gain of the filter. Upper line is the ideal and lower line is the actual. Phase Shift in a High-Pass Filter Both the RC and the RL high-pass filters act as lead networks.

Phase angle against frequency Q#1:if a DC signal is applied at the input of the high pass filter what will be at output? Q#2:if a signal containing 1MHz and 1Hz is applied across the circuit what will be at output? 28 . I. db against frequency II. Input Frequency f (Hz) Input Voltage Vin (volts) Output Voltage Vo (volts) Vo/ Vin (volts) db = 20 log (Vo/Vin) = tan-1(Xc/R) (degrees) Graph: Plot on semilog paper.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Observations & Calculations: fc = 1/2RC No.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 29 .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 30 .

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Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 37 .

A combination of low-pass and high-pass filter can be 38 . Objective: To plot the magnitude and phase response of a series resonant band-pass filter.01 µ F Inductor 100-200 mH Resistors (1/4W): 1KΩ.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg. Apparatus: Signal Generator Oscilloscope Multimeter Capacitor: 0. 2KΩ ±5 percent Circuit Diagram: Theory: Band pass Filter It allows a certain band of frequencies to pass and attenuates or rejects all frequencies below and above the passband. No Marks / Grade EXPERIMENT # 11 Magnitude and phase response of a series resonant bandpass filter.

Quality Factor = Reactive power developed in inductor or capacitor Average power dissipated in resistor Quality Factor indicates the selectivity of the filter and can be expressed as. hence output voltage will be very small at high as well as at low frequencies. Hence making maximum output across the load resistor. the reactance offered by the inductor or capacitor is very large. Bandwidth The bandwidth of a band-pass filter is the range of frequencies for which the current. Quality Factor = L = 2frL R R 39 . and therefore the output voltage. Low Pass Filter Vin High Pass Filter Vout Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters used to form a band-pass filter Operation of Series Resonant Band Pass Filter A series resonant filter has minimum input impedance. At critical frequency the inductor and the capacitor in series behave as simple resistor. Mathematically.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual used to form band pass filters. is equal or greater than 70.7% of its value at the resonant frequency. Bandwidth = Resonant Frequency fr Quality Factor Q Quality factor Quality Factor is the ratio of reactive power developed in inductor or capacitor to average power dissipated in resistor. At the frequencies other than resonant frequencies.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110)

Lab Manual

Procedure:

**For the components used in the circuit, calculate and record the resonant
**

frequencies for the circuit in the fig. Calculate, also, the circuit-Q and

bandwidth of the circuit.

Construct the circuit shown in fig

At a frequency of 500HZ, adjust V in to some convenient value, such as

5V rms.

Use multimeter to measure Vo and record it in table.

Vary the frequency, measure and record Vo while maintaining Vin

constant.

Complete the decibel gain row of the table.

Plot the decibel voltage gain ratio versus log frequency.

Observations & Calculations:

**Resonant Frequency fr = 1/ 2√LC
**

Quality Factor Q = L / R

Bandwidth = fr / Q

No.

Input Frequency

f (Hz)

Input Voltage

Vin (volts)

Output Voltage

Vo (volts)

40

Vo/ Vin

(volts)

db = 20 log

(Vo/Vin)

= tan-1(XL - Xc/R)

(degrees)

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110)

Lab Manual

Graph:

Plot on semilog paper,

I.

db against frequency

II.

Phase angle against frequency

Q#1:If the high pass filter is connected first and low pass filter is connected later does

it affect the characteristics?

Q#2:at what frequency will be highest current?

41

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110)

Lab Manual

Name

Reg. No

Marks / Grade

EXPERIMENT #12

Magnitude and phase response of a series resonant bandstop filter.

Objective:

To plot the magnitude and phase response of a series resonant band-stop filter.

Apparatus:

Signal Generator

Oscilloscope

Multimeter

Capacitor: 10 µ F

Inductor 100-200 mH

Resistors (1/4W): 500Ω, 1KΩ ±5 percent

Circuit Diagram:

Theory:

Band stop filter

It is a filter that rejects a certain band or range of frequencies while passing all

frequencies below and above the rejected band. Band stop filters block signals

occurring between two given frequencies, FL and FH .

It can be made out of a low-pass and a high pass filter by connecting the two filter

sections in parallel with each other instead of in series.

42

the reactance offered by inductor and capacitor is very large. Use multimeter to measure Vo and record it in table. also. Plot the decibel voltage gain ratio versus log frequency.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Operation of Bandstop filter When the series LC combination reaches resonance. such as 5V rms. measure and record Vo while maintaining Vin constant. thus outside the band at which resonant frequency occurs. calculate and record the resonant frequencies for the circuit in the fig. At frequencies other than resonant frequencies. Thus. you usually specify the corner frequency as the frequency at which the response is 1 / 2 (0. there is a relatively less output and that set of frequencies are attenuated. the frequency is also referred to as 3-dB point. Complete the decibel gain row of the table. Construct the circuit shown in fig At a frequency of 500HZ. within the band at which the resonant frequency occurs. Because electronic engineers traditionally describe relative signal strengths in decibels. 43 . Procedure: For the components used in the circuit. there is large output and that set of frequencies are passed to the output. dropping it across resistor R1 and preventing its passage on to the load. Vary the frequency. the circuit-Q and bandwidth of the circuit. Corner Frequency Because a real filter rolls off gradually. its very low impedance shorts out the signal.707) of that in the pass band. adjust V in to some convenient value. Calculate.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Observations & Calculations: Resonant Frequency fr = 1/ 2√LC Quality Factor Q = L / R Bandwidth = fr / Q No.Xc/R) (degrees) Graph: Plot on semilog paper. db against frequency II. Q#1:what is the purpose of band stop? Q#2:is it the reciprocal of band pass filter? 44 Phase angle against frequency . I. Input Frequency f (Hz) Input Voltage Vin (volts) Output Voltage Vo (volts) Vo/ Vin (volts) db = 20 log (Vo/Vin) = tan-1(XL .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 45 .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 46 .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 47 .

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual 48 .

underdamped. 4.e.7 K ±5 percent Circuit Diagram: Theory: Second Order Circuit Second order circuits are those that contain at least two reactive elements. Objective: To plot the overdamped. 106 mH Resistors (1/4W): 1KΩ. For example.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Name Reg. i. and whose defining differential equation involves terms with up to a second derivative in time. Apparatus: DC power supply 0-10 V Oscilloscope Multimeter Capacitor: 0.1 µ F Inductor 100 mH. 2KΩ. critically damped and oscillatory response. underdamped. critically damped and oscillatory response. No Marks / Grade EXPERIMENT #14 Overdamped. inductors or capacitors. the series RLC circuit of Figure 1 is described by the second order differential equation: 49 .

α + √ α 2 . Three distinct cases emerge depending upon the relative magnitude of α and ωo.ωo 2 where the resonant frequency (in radians/second) is ωo = 1 √ LC and the damping rate (in nepers/second) is α =R 2L Response of Second Order Circuits The response of a second order circuit will be of the general form V (t) = A e S1t + B e S2t where s1 and s2 are the roots to the characteristic equation above.2 = . 50 .Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) d2I + R dI + 1 I(t) dt L dt LC put d = s dt Lab Manual = 0 then characteristic equation is given as follows: s2+R s + 1 L LC =0 The roots of the characteristic equation can be expressed as S 1.

This is called "over damping" If Critical Damping α = ωo In this case. the characteristic polynomial's solutions are identical negative real numbers. This is called "critical damping": If Under Damping α < ωo In this case. the characteristic polynomial's solutions are complex conjugate and have negative real part. This is called "under damping" If 51 . the characteristic polynomial's solutions are both negative and unequal real numbers.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Over damping α > ωo In this case.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual These oscillations will decay with a time constant equal to τ = 1/ α seconds. Oscillatory Response If α = 0 in this case roots will be conjugate imaginary. 52 . this is called the oscillatory response.

53 .Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Note: Two other parameters can be used to classify the damping of a second order system: the damping factor ζ defined by ζ = α / ωo and the quality factor Q = 1 / (2 ζ) DAMPING SUMMARY ζ roots s1. under damped. critically damped and oscillatory response. s2 Damping ζ >1 real and unequal overdamped ζ =1 real and equal Critically damped 0<ζ <1 complex under damped Procedure: Make the circuits as shown in figures and observe the over damped.

2 1.5 29.Time and their Plots: 0verdamed Response OVERDAMPED RESPONSE 4. 1 0.5 3 5. 0 0 5 10 15 20 time Critically Damped 54 25 30 35 . 3 volt 2. 4 3.5 2 10.Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Observed values of Voltage .5 1 20.5 0 0. 0.5 4 2.

Circuit analysis and design (EE-110) Lab Manual Underdamped Response Oscillatory Response Q#1:can undamped response be occur in real? Q#2:if a circuit contain resistor capacitor inductor in series when will undamped response occur? 55 .

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