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Tim Irwin

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Professor Doran
ENC 2135
18 October 2016
Annotated Bibliography
Davila, Alfonso F. and Schulze-Makuch, Dirk. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars.
Astrobiology, Vol. 16, no. 2, 2016, pp.159-168.

This article is mainly about how there previously was life on mars based on scientific
evidence from both earths deserts and marss deserts. It also introduces a theory on the
possible colonization of mars by the creatures on the planet when it was able to sustain
life. Lastly , the article discusses the different types of communities reactions and
changes that occurred with the increase of the worlds dryness.

This source is essential to the topic of colonizing Mars because this theory introduces the
idea that Mars was once colonized meaning that it used to sustain life. This could mean
that the possibility of sustaining life again is probable. One author, Alfonso F. Davilia is a
research scientist at the SETI Institute and the NASA Ames Research Center. The other
author, Dirk Schulze-Makuch, is a professor at the School of Earth and Environmental
Sciences at Washington State University. The theory of previous life on Mars would be
amazing if its true. This new information would change how NASA and SpaceX and
other companies or organizations would go about planning on how to colonize Mars. A
weakness of this article might be the fact that earth and mars are so dissimilar that by
studying the deserts and drylands of each and finding similarities does not mean that the
changes in ecology on both planets were similar.

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O. V. Mukbaniani, J. N. Aneli, E. G. Markarashvili, M. V. Tarasashvili, N. D. Aleksidze.

Polymeric composites on the basis of Martian ground for building future mars stations.
International Journal of Astrobiology, Vol. 15, no. 2, 2016, pp.155-160.

This article is about the various materials needed for buildings on mars. The main
material discussed in this article is AMG or Artificial Martian Ground. The article goes
into what is needed in order to withstand the harsh martian conditions and be compatible
with various construction technologies being planned to use on mars.

This article is important to the colonization of mars because without compatible and
strong building materials, it will be very difficult to build structures on mars. Each
author has written various articles and essays and are researchers at Tbilisi State
University in Georgia. The interesting thing about this article is the various experiments
the scientists performed in order to achieve the conclusion they came to. The weakest part
of the article id say would be the not fully complete understanding of martian ground.
However with the information today, the results can be close to the actual data.

Taylor, Eric R. Human Deep-Space Travel and Colonization: Technical Issues. New Space,
Vol. 3, no. 3, 2015, pp.154-164.
This article is about the technical issues about not only traveling to mars but deep space
travel lin general. The article deals with problems such as radiation, travel speed,
psychological issues, life support systems, ad much more. Taylor brings up these issues to
explain the obstacles that must be overcome in order to truly travel in space safely.

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This article is definitely essential to the colonization of mars because the issues stated
need to be addressed in order to obtain safe space travel. The author Eric R. Taylor is a
professor at The University of Louisiana at Lafayette. The most interesting information
Taylor brings up it the issue of the lack of safe planets to land on that would allow the
astronauts to land and replenish the supplies they need. The lack of exo-planets similar to
ours is a problem with future deep space travel. The strongest component of the article is
the consideration of many different issues that could severely affect the mission.

Straume, Blattnig, and Cary Zeitlin. Radiation Hazards and the Colonization of Mars. Journal
of Cosmology, Vol. 12, 2010, pp. 803- 849.

This article is about radiation and its effects corresponding with the travel to and
colonization of mars. The article goes in depth explaining different effects different doses
of radiation have on people. The article also explains different experiments run and uses
graphs to help explain the results. The article expands on the health hazards on the
distance and time spend in space traveling to mars.

This article directly relates to the topic of mars colonization because the effects of
radiation and the amount of it while traveling to mars is a huge problem. The effects need
to be addressed before humans are send farther out into space. The authors of the article
work at NASA research centers and Southwest research institute. The most interesting
thing about this article are the experiments run to determine safe radiation levels at
different ages, doses, and time. The new information presented in this article will help

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future researchers determine how to overcome this obstacle. This is one of the strengths
of the article, the ability to provide information to further research in this field.

Do, Owens, Ho, Schreiner, and de Weck, Olivier. An independent assessment of the technical
feasibility of the Mars One mission plan Updated analysis. Acta astronautica, Vol.
120, 2016, pp.192-228.

This article is a review of one of the private companies intending on going to mars. Mars
One plans on sending people to mars by 2025 and this article assesses whether or not the
way the company plans on using will be effective or not. It also brings up the costs of the
mission and the limitations of today's technology.

This article relates to the topic of mars colonization because the article addresses one of
the multiple plans created by private companies and addresses the pros and cons of their
current plan. The authors of this article are all professors at MIT. The most interesting
thing about this article is that rather than assessing the issues or pros with sending people
to mars in general, they chose to review a current plan and try to address the issues
allowing the mission directors to change certain things before launch day. The biggest
strength of this article is definitely in the authors backgrounds because they are all
knowledgeable in their fields and know what they are talking about.

O. Monje , G. W. Stutte , G. D. Goins , D. M. Porterfield, and G. E. Bingham. Farming in

space: environmental and biophysical concerns. Advances in space research. 2003, pp.

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This article is all about the importance of developing and sustaining plant life in space.
The differences in gravity, momentum, and other factors all contribute to how scientists
plan on creating plant life in conditions outside of earth. The paper also takes into
account the difficulty of sustaining plant life using life support systems both on the
spacecraft and on various planets unable to grow certain vegetation.

This article relates to the topic of mars colonization because part of the process of
creating a colony on mars is to establish an agricultural system in order to sustain life and
provide food to the colonists. The authors of this article all work in various fields dealing
with biology, astrology, engineering, etc. The most interesting thing about this article is
the various factors they take into account when figuring out how a plant can grow in
certain conditions. The strongest part of this article is that the authors not only take into
account the plants purpose for food, but also its use of water, oxygen and other essential
nutrients needed for both the crew and the plant itself.

Landau, Longuski, and Aldrin, Buzz. Continuous Mars habitation with a limited number of
cycler vehicles. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 60, no. 4, 2007,

This article is about the use of a limited number of vehicles to sustain a decent sized
colony on mars. The article talks about the various technologies that can be used to send
at least 12 people to and from mars. It talks about situations with one, two, three vehicles.

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The article also discusses the parameters based on the number of vehicles, like altitude,
parking orbit period, rendezvous time, etc.

This article relates to the topic of mars colonization because in order to correctly send a
certain amount of people we need to know the math behind the landings and take offs of
the vehicles. We also need to understand the pros and cons of having different types of
vehicles and having multiple ones vs one or two. The authors of this article have been
involved with space travel or have knowledge or aeronautical engineering. The
interesting thing about this article is that one of the authors has experience with space
travel and can use his background knowledge to further the research into space travel.
The strongest component of this article is its use of data tables and graphs to explain their
data easier.
Making Humans a Multiplanetary Species. YouTube, uploaded by SpaceX, 27 September 2016,

This video is about Elon Musks plan on colonizing mars. He explains the math and
science behind his rocket that he plans to use to send the people. He also introduces
certain plans and specifics that will help both SpaceX and others to be able to send people
to mars. He also explains the specifics on the launch mechanisms and the landing
mechanisms. Lastly he explains his next steps for what he plans on accomplishing.

This video is very important to the article because it gives a good insight into what
potential technology will help people be able to successfully land on mars. The CEO of
SpaceX, Elon Musk, is an entrepreneur and has developed his companies into successful

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organizations. SpaceX for example, was granted a contract by NASA to handle cargo
deliveries to the International Space Station. The most interesting thing about this video
is the great detail Musk goes into describing his spacecraft and giving out details on how
everything on the craft works.5

Colonizing Mars. Cosmic Queries from StarTalk Radio, 2 October 2015,


This podcast is about really everything relating to mars, whether it be the psychological
effects of being there, the atmosphere, the sustainability to life, etc. It also talks about the
differences between growing up on earth and growing up on mars. The differences with
mutations, adaptations, and speciation. Many subjects are talked about throughout the

This podcast is important to the topic of mars colonization because it covers many of the
aspects of it. It addresses various problems and differences along with solutions. Neil
deGrasse Tyson is an astrophysicist and is famous within not just the science community
but also the international community. The best part about this podcast is that it goes
through so many different topics relating to how and why to colonize mars.

Achenbach, Joel. Mars: Inside the High-Risk, High-Stakes Race to the Red Planet. National
Geographic, Nov. 2016.

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This article summarizes many of the current plans and missions being conducted. It talks
about SpaceX and Elon Musk along with NASA and other space programs trying to reach

The article is important to the topic of mars colonization because of the different missions
and plans it talks about along with the current events and current scientific developments
of technology. The magazine National Geographic is a credible magazine that has been
around for years and it deals with science subjects like space. The most interesting thing
about the article is its use of pictures of different rockets, modules, etc. The insight into
the se crafts help the audience get a grasp on what it's like to be in one of those.