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The Main examination comprises of nine papers, all of them of a descriptive type conducted within a span of 20
It is designed to test not only the academic talent of the aspirant but also his ability to coordinate and present
his knowledge in a clear and coherent manner. The main Examination is intended to assess the overall
intellectual traits and depth of understanding of candidates rather than merely the range of their information and
The scope of the syllabus for the optional subject papers for the examinat ion is broadly of the honours
degree level i.e. a level higher than the bachelors degree and lower than the masters degree. In the case of
Engineering and
bachelor's degree.




Part B - Main Examination - Optional Subjects


One of the Indian Languages to be selected by the candidate

from the 22 languages included in the VIIIth Schedule to the
Constitution (Qualifying Paper)
300 Marks


English (Qualifying Paper)

300 Marks


Essay [in the medium you choose]

200 Marks

Papers IV &
General Studies (300 Marks for each paper)

600 Marks

Papers VI,
VII, VIII & Any two subjects (each having 2 papers) to be selected from
the prescribed optional subjects (300 marks for each paper)

1200 Marks

Total Marks for Written Examination 2000 Marks

Interview Test [in the medium you choose]

300 Marks

Grand Total 2300 Marks

General Studies
(1) History of Modern India and Indian Culture
The History of Modern India will cover history of the Country from about the middle of nineteenth century and
would also include questions on important personalities who shaped the freedom movement and social reforms.
The part relating to Indian culture will cover all aspects of Indian culture from the ancient to modern times as well
as principal features of literature, arts and architecture.

(2) Geogrphy of India

In this part, questions will be on the physical, economic and social geography of India.

(3) Constitution of India and Indian Polity

This part will include questions on the Constitution of India as well as all constitutional, legal, administrative and
other issues emerging from the politico-administrative system prevalent in the country.

(4) Current National issues and topics of social relevance

This part is intended to test the candidate's awareness of current national issues and topics of social relevance in
present-day India, such as the following:
(i) The Indian economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and
(ii) Issues arising from the social and economic exclusion of large sections from the benefits of development.
(iii) Other issues relating to the development and management of human resource.
(iv) Health issues including the management of Public Health, Health education and ethical concerns regarding
health-care, medical research and pharmaceuticals.
(v) Law enforcement, internal security and related issues such as the preservation of communal harmony.
(vi) Issues relating to good governance and accountability to the citizens including the maintenance of human
rights, and of probity in public life.
(vii) Environmental issues, ecological preservation, conservation of natural resources and national heritage.


(1) India and the World

This part will include questions to test candidate's awareness of India's relationship with the world in various
spheres such as the following:Foreign Affairs with special emphasis on Indias relations with neighbouring countries and in the region.
Security and defence related matters.
Nuclear policy, issues, and conflicts.
The Indian Diaspora and its contribution to India and the world.
(2) Indias Economic Interaction with the World
In this part, questions will be on economic and trade issues such as foreign trade, foreign investment; economic and
diplomacy issues relating to oil, gas and energy flows; the role and functions of I.M.F., World Bank, W.T.O.,
WIPO etc. which influence Indias economic interaction with other countries and international institutions.

(3) Developments in the Field of Science & Technology, IT and space

In this part, questions will test the candidate's awareness of the developments in the field of science and
technology, information technology, space and basic ideas about computers, robotics, nanotechnology,
biotechnology and related issues regarding intellectual property rights.

(4) International Affairs and Institutions

This part will include questions on important events in world affairs and on international institutions.

(5) Statistical analysis, graphs and diagrams

This part will test the candidate's ability to draw conclusions from information presented in statistical, graphical or
diagrammatical form and to interpret them.

Political Science Syllabus

Paper 1
Section A
Political Theory and Indian Politics
1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.
2. Theories of the State: Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.
3. Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl's theory of justice and its communitarian
4. Equality: Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
5. Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.
6. Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy - representative,
participatory and deliberative.
7. Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.
8. Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.
9. Indian Political Thought : Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri
Aurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy .


Indian Government and Politics

1. Indian Nationalism: Dadabhai Naoroji, Tilak, Savarkar, Gandhi, Jayaprakash Narain, Nehru, Subhas
Bose, Ambedkar, Ram Manohar Lohia.
2. Nature and struggle of Indian freedom struggle : From constitutionalism to Mass Satyagraha, Revolutionary
movements Non Co-operation, Civil disobedience and Quit India, Indian Naval uprising, Indian National
Army; role of women in freedom struggle.

3. Socio- economic dimensions of the nationalist movement: The communal question and the demand for
backward caste movements, Trade union and Peasant movements, Civil rights movement.
4. Landmarks in Constitutional Development during British Rule: Morley-Minto Reforms; Montagu-Chelmsford
Reforms; Simon Commission; Government of India Act, 1935; Cripps Mission : Indian Independence Act, 1947.
5. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles;
federalism, parliamentary system; amending procedures; judicial review.
6. The Executive System in theory and practice: President, Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers;
Chief Minister and the State Council of Ministers. The Bureaucracy.
7. Role and function of the Parliament and Parlimentary Committee-Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha; changing
socio economic profile.
8. The Supreme Court and the High Courts; Judicial Activism; PIL.
9. Statutory institutions/commis sions-UPSC, Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General,
Backward Classes Commission, National Commission for women; National Human Rights Commission;
Minorities Commission.
10. Party system : ideology and social base of parties; fragmentation and regionalisation. Pressure groups; patterns
of coalition politics; trends in electoral behaviour.
11. Class, caste, ethnicity and gender in Indian politics; politics of regionalism, communalism, backward class and
Dalit movements, Tribal people movements, struggle for gender justice.
12. Planning and Economic Development : Role of the Planning Commission; Planning in the era of liberalisation;
political dimensions of economic reforms.
13. Grassroots democracy : Panchayati Raj and municipal government; significance of 73rd and 74th
Amendements. Grass root movement and women's empowerment.

Paper - II
Comparative Politics and International Relations

Comparative Analysis and International Politics

1. Approaches to the study of comparative politics :

traditional approaches; political economy, political sociology or political system approaches; Nature of
political process in the Third World.

2. The Modern State :

Evolution, the contemporary trends in the advanced industrial countries and the third world.
3. Development :
Strategies and contemporary discourse.
4. Concepts of International politics :
Power, national interest, balance of power, national security, collective security and peace.
5. Theories of International politics Marxist, Realist, Systems, Decision-making and Game Theory.
6. Determinants of foreign policy : Domestic compulsions, geopolitics, geoeconomics and global order.
7. Origin and contemporary relevance of the Cold War, nature of the post-cold war global order.
8. Major issues of world politics : Cuban Missile Crisis; Vietnam War, Oil Crisis, Afghan Civil War, Gulf
Collapse of the Soviet Union, Yugoslav Crisis.
9. Non-alignment :
Concept and movement; Third World Movements for global justice, Non-alignment in the post cold war era.
10. The evolution of the international economic system-from Bretton woods to WTO, the North-South dimension.
11. International organisations UN and its specialized agencies :
International Court of Justice; ILO, UNICEF, WHO UNESCO.
12. Regional, organizations such as the ASEAN, APEC, EU, SAARC, NAFTA
13. Contemporary Global Concerns : Democracy, Human Rights, Ecology, Gender Justice, Global
commons, Communication.

India and the World

1. Indian Foreign Policy :

Historical origins, determinants; the institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.
2. India and the Non-Alignment Movement :
Evolution and contemporary relevance. Socio- political basis of non-alignment-domestic and global.
3. Major issues in Indian foreign policy :
Sino-Indian Border War (1962); Indo-Pakistan War (1971) and the liberation of Bangladesh; IPKF in Sri
Lanka; India as military nuclear power (1998).
4. Conflict and co-operation in South Asia :

India's relations with Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal. Regional co-operation and SAARC.
Kashmir question in India's foreign policy.

5. India's relation with Africa and Latin America.

6. India and South East Asia; ASEAN.
7. India and the major powers : USA, EU, China, Japan and Russia.
8. India and the UN System : India's role in UN Peace Keeping and global disarmament.
9. India and the emerging international economic order; multilateral agencies-WTO, IMF, IBRD, ADB.
10. India and the question of nuclear weapons : NPT and CTBT.

Public Administration

Paper 1

Administrative theory

1. Introduction:
Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration; Wilson's vision of Public Administration; Evolution
of the discipline and its present status; New Public Administration; Public Choice approach; Challenges of
liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public
2. Administrative Thought:
Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber's bureaucratic model its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations
School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon's decision-making theory;
Participative Management (R. Likert, C.Argyris, D.McGregor).
3. Administrative Behaviour:
Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories - content, process
and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modern.
4. Organisations:
Theories - systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations,
Companies, Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships;
Regulatory Authorities; Public - Private Partnerships.
5. Accountability and control:
Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and Judicial control over administration; Citizen
and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen's Charters;
Right to Information; Social audit.

6. Administrative Law:
Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.

7. Comparative Public Administration:

Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different
countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models
and their critique.
8. Development Dynamics:
Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; 'Anti-development thesis';
Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration
in developing countries; Women and development - the self-help group movement.
9. Personnel Administration:
Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification,
discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pay and service conditions; employer -employee relations,
grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.
10. Public Policy:
Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation,
monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.
11. Techniques of Administrative Improvement:
Organisation and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information
technology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.
12. Financial Administration:
Monetary and fiscal policies; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets - types and forms; Budgetary
process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.


Indian Administration
1. Evolution of Indian Administration:
Kautilya's Arthashastra; Mughal administration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration Indianization of public services, revenue administration, district administration, local self-government.
2. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government:
Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy;
Bureaucracy and development.
3. Public Sector Undertakings:
Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability
an d control; Impact of liberalization and privatization.

4. Union Government and Administration:

Executive, Parliament, Judiciary - structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intragovernmental
relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister's Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards;
Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.
5. Plans and Priorities:
Machinery of planning; Role, composition and functions of the Planning Commission and the National
Development Council; 'Indicative' planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels;
Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.
6. State Government and Administration:
Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief
Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.
7. District Administration since Independence:
Changing role of the Collector; Union-state-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law
and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.
8. Civil Services:
Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity-building; Good governance initiatives;
Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil
service neutrality; Civil service activism.
9. Financial Management:
Budget as a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in
monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller
and Auditor General of India.
10. Administrative Reforms since Independence:
Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human
resource development; Problems of implementation.
11. Rural Development:
Institutions and agencies since independence; Rural development programmes: foci and strategies;
Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment.
12. Urban Local Government:
Municipal governance: main features, structures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment;
Global-local debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference
to city management.
13. Law and Order Administration:

British legacy; National Police Commission; Investigative agencies; Role of central and state agencies
including paramilitary forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism;
Criminalisation of politics and administration; Police-public relations; Reforms in Police.
14. Significant issues in Indian Administration:
Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of
administration in coalition regimes; Citizen -administration interface; Corruption and administration; Disaster

General Sociology/Foundations of Sociology/Fundamentals of Sociology

1. Sociology - The Discipline:
(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
(c) Sociology and common sense.
2. Sociology as Science:
(a) Science, scientific method and critique.
(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
(c) Positivism and its critique.
(d) Fact value and objectivity.
(e) Non- positivist methodologies.
3. Research Methods and Analysis:
(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
(b) Techniques of data collection.
(c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

4. Sociological Thinkers:
(a) Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
(b) Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
(c) Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
(d) Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
(e) Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups
(f) Mead - Self and identity.
5. Stratification and Mobility:

(a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation

(b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
(c) Dimensions - Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
(d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
6. Works and Economic Life:
(a) Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist
(b) Formal and informal organization of work
(c) Labour and society.
7. Politics and Society:
(a) Sociological theories of power
(b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
(c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
(d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
8. Religion and Society:
(a) Sociological theories of religion.
(b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
9. Systems of Kinship:
(a) Family, household, marriage.
(b) Types and forms of family. (c)
Lineage and descent
(d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour
(e) Contemporary trends.
10. Social Change in Modern Society: (a)
Sociological theories of social change. (b)
Development and dependency.
(c) Agents of social change.
(d) Education and social change.
(e) Science, technology and social change.

Introducing Indian Society:
(i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society:
(a) Indology (GS. Ghurye).
(b) Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
(c) Marxist sociology ( A R Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

(a) Social background of Indian nationalism. (b)
Modernization of Indian tradition.
(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
(d) Social reforms
B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies(b) Agrarian social structure -evolution of land
tenure system,land reforms.
(ii) Caste System:
(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
(b) Features of caste system.
(c) Untouchability - forms and perspectives
(iii) Tribal communities in India:
(a) Definitional problems.
(b) Geographical spread.
(c) Colonial policies and tribes.
(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.
(iv) Social Classes in India:
(a) Agrarian class structure.
(b) Industrial class structure.
(c) Middle classes in India.
(v) Systems of Kinship in India:
(a) Lineage and descent in India.
(b) Types of kinship systems.
(c) Family and marriage in India.
(d) Household dimensions of the family.
(e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
(vi) Religion and Society:
(a) Religious communities in India. (b)
Problems of religious minorities.

C. Social Changes in India:

(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
(b) Constitution, law and social change.
(c) Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation
(b) Green revolution and social change.
(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
(a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
(d) Informal sector, child labour
(e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
(iv) Politics and Society:
(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
(b) Political parties, pressure groups , social and political
elite. (c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
(d) Secularization
(v) Social Movements in Modern
India: (a) Peasants and farmers
(b) Women's movement.
(c) Backward classes & Dalit
movement. (d) Environmental
(e) Ethnicity and Identity
movements. (vi) Population
(a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
(b) Components of population growth: birth, death,
migration. (c) Population policy and family planning.
(d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive
health. (vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:
(a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and
sustainability. (b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
(c) Violence against
women. (d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious
revivalism. (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.


1.1 Mechanics of rigid bodies:
Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems
on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics.
1.2 Mechanics of deformable bodies:
Generalized Hookes law and its application; design problems on axial stress, shear stress and bearing stress;
material properties for dynamic loading; bending shear and stresses in beams;. determination of
principle stresses and strains - analytical and graphical; compound and combined stresses; bi-axial stresses thin walled pressure vessel; material behaviour and design factors for dynamic load; design of circular shafts
for bending and torsional load only; deflection of beam for statically determinate problems; theories of failure.
2.Engineering materials:
Basic concepts on structure of solids; common ferrous and non-ferrous materials and their applications; heattreatment of steels; non-metals- plastics, ceramics, composite materials and nano-materials.
3.Theory of Machines:
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Cams, Gears and epicyclic gear trains, flywheels,
governors, balancing of rigid rotors, balancing of single and multicylinder engines, linear vibration analysis of
mechanical systems (single degree of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts.

4. Manufacturing Science:
4.1Manufacturing Process:
Machine tool engineering Merchants force analysis; Taylors tool life equation; conventional machining; NC
and CNC machining process; jigs and ixtures.
Non-conventional machining EDM, ECM, ultrasonic, water jet machining etc; application of lasers and
plasmas; energy rate calculations.
Forming and welding processes-standard processes.
Metrology - concept of fits and tolerances; tools and gauges; comparators; inspection of length; position; profile
and surface finish.
4.2.Manufacturing Management:
System design: factory location- simple OR models; plant layout - methods based; applications of engineering
economic analysis and break- even analysis for product selection, process selection and capacity planning;
predetermined time standards.
System planning; forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition, design and balancing of multi
model and stochastic assembly lines; inventory management probabilistic inventory models for order time and
order quantity determination; JIT systems; strategic sourcing; managing inter plant logistics.
System operations and control: Scheduling algorithms for job shops; applications of statistical methods for

product and process quality control - applications of control charts for mean, range, percent defective, number of
defectives and defects per unit; quality cost systems; management of resources, organizations and risks in
projects. System improvement: Implementation of systems, such as total quality management, developing and
managing flexible, lean and agile organizations.

Paper II

1. Thermodynamics, Gas Dynamics and turbine:

1.1 Basic concept of First law and second law of Thermodynamics; concept of entropy and reversibility;
availability and unavailability and rreversibility.
1.2 Classification and properties of fluids; incompressible and compressible fluids flows; effect of Mach number
and compressibility; continuity momentum and energy equations; normal and oblique shocks; one dimensional
isentropic flow; flow or fluids in duct with frictions that transfer.
1.3 Flow through fans, blowers and compressors; axial and centrifugal flow configuration; design of fans and
compressors; single problems compresses and turbine cascade; open and closed cycle gas turbines; work done in
the gas turbine; reheat and regenerators.
2. Heat Transfer:
2.1 Conduction heat transfer- general conduction equation - Laplace, Poisson and Fourier equations; Fourier law
of conduction; one dimensional steady state heat conduction applied to simple wall, solid and hollow cylinder &
2.2 Convection heat transfer- Newtons law of convection; free and forces convection; heat transfer during
laminar and turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid over a flat plate; concepts of Nusselt number,
hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer their thickness; Prandtl number; analogy between heat and
momentum transfer- Reynolds, Colbum, Prandtl analogies; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow
through horizontal tubes; free convection from horizontal and vertical plates.
2.3 Black body radiation - basic radiation laws such as Stefan-Boltzman, Planck distribution, Weins
displacement etc.
2.4 Basic heat exchanger analysis; classification of heat exchangers.
3. I .C. Engines:
3.1 Classification, thermodynamic cycles of operation; determination of break power, indicated power,
mechanical efficiency, heat balance sheet, interpretation of performance characteristics, petrol, gas and diesel
3.2 Combustion in SI and CI engines, normal and abnormal combustion; effect of working parameters on
knocking, reduction of knocking; Forms of combustion chamber for SI and CI engines; rating of fuels; additives;
3.3 Different systems of IC engines- fuels; lubricating; cooling and transmission systems. Alternate fuels in IC
4. Steam Engineering:
4.1 Steam generation- modified Rankine cycle analysis; Modern steam boilers; steam at critical and supercritical
pressures; draught equipment; natural and artificial draught; boiler fuels solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Steam
turbines - principle; types; compounding; impulse and reaction turbines; axial thrust.

4.2 Steam nozzles- flow of steam in convergent and divergent nozzle; pressure at throat for maximum discharge
with different initial steam conditions such as wet, saturated and superheated, effect of variation of back
pressure; supersaturated flow of steam in nozzles, Wilson line.
4.3 Rankine cycle with internal and external irreversibility; reheat factor; reheating and regeneration, methods of
governing; back pressure and pass out turbines.
4.4 Steam power plants - combined cycle power generation; heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) fired and
unfired, co-generation plants.
5. Refrigeration and air-conditioning:
5.1 Vapour compression refrigeration cycle - cycle on p-H & T-s diagrams; eco-friendly refrigerants R134a,123; Systems like evaporators, condensers, compressor, expansion devices. Simple vapour absorption
5.2 Psychrometry - properties; processes; charts; sensible heating and cooling; humidification and
dehumidification effective temperature; air-conditioning load calculation; simple duct design.