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Shop Practice No.

4
KNURLING
OBJECTIVES:
1.
2.
process.

To be able to learn the knurling process.


To be able to operate the lathe machine for the knurling

3.
To be able to knurl a workpiece between the chuck and
live centers.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS:


Knurling is the process producing raised design figure in a
cylindrical surface held between center and chuck on a lathe
machine. As the pressure is done in the workpiece by the knurling
tools the metal is forced out and the shape depends on the knurling
tools design.

MATERIALS:
2 pieces of cylindrical metal with the size of 278mm x 4.25mm

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT TO BE USED:


1. Lathe machine and its accessories to cut and shape metals
by revolving it on a cutting tool
2. Vernier caliper for precise measurement of length and
diameter
3. File for finishing and smoothing of surface

PROCEDURE:
1. Cut the material by the desired length.
2. Mount the workpiece on the lathe machine.
3. Set the knurling tools on the tool post, then check the
distance between the upper and lower rollers to the center line
of the workpiece.

4. Check the roller of the knurling tools from dirt and if it is


rolling smoothly.
5. Set the lathe machine at low speed.
6. Oil the bearings and all the movable parts of the lathe
machine.
7. Start the lathe machine and slowly move the rollers toward
the workpiece. Apply enough pressure.
8. Stop the lathe machine. Check if the knurling tools are
properly set and operating efficiently.
9. Restart the lathe machine and continue knurling until the
desired design is properly done.
10. Repeat the operation until the desired depth of the design
is acquired by increasing the pressure from the knurling tools.
11. Finish.

DRAWING
Workpiece

Knurling Tool
Tailstock
Chuck

Tool Holder

KNURLING SET-UP

PRELIMINARY DRAWING AND DATA SHEET


PRELIMINARY DRAWING AND DATA SHEET

TOP VIEW

ISOMETRIC VIEW

RIGHT SIDE VIEW


3
3
96

FRONT VIEW
146.
6

275.
3

Dimensions are not to be scaled

QUESTIONS:
1. What is a knurling process?
Knurling is defined as a manufacturing process, typically
conducted on a lathe, whereby a pattern of straight, angled or
crossed lines is cut or rolled into the material.
2. What is the purpose of knurling in a certain workpiece?
Knurling allows hands or fingers to get a better grip on the
knurled object than would be provided by the originally smooth
metal surface.
3. What are the three types of machine knurling tools?
Traditional knurling tools hold a pair of knurls (top), and fit in
the tool post. All knurling forces are transmitted through the
tool post, compound slide, cross slide and carriage to the ways.
The Sherline carriage-mounted opposed roller, or pinch design
(middle), greatly reduces forces on the carriage because the
largest forces, those pressing the knurls against the work,
balance each other and are not transferred to the carriage.
These forces are taken up by the caphead screws which
squeeze the knurls together. Another design eliminates any
force on the carriage (bottom). This design clamps onto the
work much like a pipe cutter and forces one roller against two
others.

4. What are the standard pitches of rollers used in


knurling tools?
The standard pitches are 64, 96, 128, and 160. There is a
standard (American Standard ASA B94.6-1984) that describes
the diametral pitch knurl system wherein diametral pitch knurls
are designed to track uniformly on fractional size stock up to 1"
in multiples of 1/32" or 1/64.
5. What kind of materials can be used for the knurling
rollers?
Premium alloy steels like cobalt and carbon; hardened and
stainless steels are usually used in making the knurling rollers.
6. What kind of knurling tools is needed for small diameter
work?
A knurling tool with fine pitch is used in knurling a workpiece
with small diameter. Otherwise, the coarse pitch is used.
7. What is the right position of the knurling tools to the
workpiece?
Knurling can be done between centers or in a chuck, but
supporting the work with a live center will usually produce
better results. Use a large center holes to support the large
forces of knurling. Set up the job so tool travel is toward the
headstock.
8. What are the two types of knurling pattern?

There are two knurling patterns: Diamond, and Straight. The


diamond is the most common pattern and the medium pitch is
used most often.
9. At what speed is knurling done on a lathe machine?
Usually, the speed is set to 60 to 80 RPM, while the feed is best
from 0.015 to 0.030 inch per revolution of the spindle
10.
How do you set knurling tools in a lathe machine
with the workpiece?
The knurling operation is started by determining the location
and length of the knurl, and then setting the machine for
knurling. The knurling tool must be set in the tool post with the
axis of the knurling head at center height and the face of the
knurls parallel with the work surface. Check that the rollers
move freely and are in good cutting condition; then oil the
knurling tool cutting wheels where they contact the workpiece.
Bring the cutting wheels (rollers) up to the surface of the work
with approximately 1/2 of the face of the roller in contact with
the work. Apply oil generously over the area to be knurled.
Start the lathe while forcing the knurls into the work about
0.010 inch. As the impression starts to form, engage the
carriage feed lever.

DISCUSSION:
Knurling, once again, is defined as a manufacturing process,
typically conducted on a lathe, whereby a pattern of straight, angled
or crossed lines is cut or rolled into the material. This process allows
the user to get a better grip on the knurled object than the originally
smooth metal surface.
In this particular shop practice, the students were tasked to
knurl the handles of ball-peen and cross-peen hammers. The first
thing to do is to perform the knurling before other sections are cut
down in diameter to increase the stiffness of the part during

knurling. Next, you should clean all mating surfaces and the knurls
themselves. After that, install the tool and work holder at right
angles to the ways and on center height. Also, you should secure
the workpiece in the work holder and center it. If the part of the
workpiece to be knurled is too small, you can opt to use the manual
mechanism of the machine by manually turning the wheel;
otherwise, you use the automatic ones.

CONCLUSION:
The students were successful in attaining the objectives of
this particular shop practice with the aid of the lathe machine.
They were able to perform the knurling process and why is it
being done. In attaining convenience and efficiency, the
automatic feed mechanism was used.
The students also knurled the piece between the chuck and
the live center. To do this a hole must be drilled in the base of the
cylindrical hammer for the live center to have a place to rest on.
This made a conclusion that knurling is being done in order to
provide better grip for handles. It is done by pressing the knurling
tool against a piece of round section steel and the lathe is set so
the chuck revolves at a low speed. The process is done to produce
a pattern on the steel
RECOMMENDATION:
The student recommends that the students should be
familiar enough in measuring and reading measurements using
the Vernier caliper. This would make use of the time efficiently;
thus, creating the workpiece faster. The student also recommends
that they should be familiar enough with the operations in the
lathe machine. This would make use of the time efficiently once
again, and possible injuries can be avoided such as lacerations.
The student also recommends that they should avoid wearing
loose clothing when using the lathe machine since it has rotating

parts. Lastly, the student recommends that in order to attain the


desired length of the workpiece, they should wait for their
instructors instruction.
REFERENCES:
Machine Shop Essentials, Questions and Answers Frank
Marlow
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knurling
http://www.formrolldie.com/new_page_1.htm

Mapua Institute of Technology


Muralla St. intramuros, Manila
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing
Engineering

SHOP PRACTICE NO. 4


KNURLING

Caliwliw, Jantzen Brix


Program/Year: ME-3
Course Code/Section: ME137L/A2
Student Number: 2014100354

GRADE

Group Number: 2

Engr. Jose V. Hernandez


Instructor