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Memo of Transmittal

To: Lieutenant Bob Bonilla, UCSF Police Department


From: Angelique Bonilla
Date: November 27, 2016
Subject: Proposal to Investigate Ways to Increase the Number of Women in Law
Enforcement in the UCSF Police Department
Attached is my recommendation report on the solution your department should
implement to balance the gender distribution among law enforcement officers. The
purpose of this report is to help the department recruit more women police officers.
Throughout the report I focus on two potential solutions for the issue. The solutions are
the following:
Improve and alter the job description posted by the department to better define
the duties of a law enforcement officer at the UCSF police department
Develop recruitment opportunities that target women
In my report you will find the Methods of research I used to support my findings, the
Results of these findings, and an analysis of my research in the Conlusions section of
the report.
Based on the collective research I have conducted and a comparison of pros and cons
between the two feasible solutions, my final recommendation is that the department
should develop recruitment opportunities that target women.
I appreciate this opportunity greatly. Thank you for your time.

Proposal to Investigate Ways to Increase


the Number of Women in Law
Enforcement in the UCSF Police
Department

Prepared for Bob Bonilla


UCSF Police Department
Written by Angelique Bonilla
Submitted November 27, 2016

Table of Contents
Introduction | pg. 1-2
Purpose | pg. 1-2
Background | pg. 2
Organization | pg. 2
Methods | pg. 3
Primary Methods | pg. 3
Secondary Methods | pg. 3
Results | pg. 4-6
Primary Methods | pg. 4
Secondary Methods | pg. 4-6
Conclusions | pg. 6-7
Recommendation | pg. 7
References | pg. 8
Figures Referenced | pg. 8

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Gender distribution of full-time law enforcement employees in the US in 2015 | pg. 1
Figure 2: Sworn Officers in the UCSF Police Department | pg. 2

Introduction

Despite the progression our country has made towards decreasing gender inequality
among a variety of fields of work, the high male-to-female ratio of those in law
enforcement still remains apparent and present. This problem is significant because a
diverse group of people enforcing the law can potentially eliminate some of the issues
that arise between the people and law enforcement. As shown in Figure 1 below, in 2015,
the gender distribution of full-time law enforcement officers in the United States is
88.4% male to 11.6% female.

Figure 1: Gender distribution of full-time law enforcement employees in the United States in 2015 [6]

According to the National Center for Women and Policing, Twenty years of exhaustive
research demonstrates that women police officers utilize a style of policing that relies
less on physical force, and more on communication skills that defuse potentially violent
situations [1]. Women police officers are much more likely to effectively respond to
police calls regarding violence against women, which today remains the single largest
category of calls to police agencies nationwide [1]. Based on a study done in the
summer of 2015, as female representation among police officers increases, more crimes
against women are reported [2]. Victimized women feel more comfortable discussing
certain topics, especially regarding men, with other women. Having women law
enforcement officers on campus can help with the problem of unreported sexual assaults
[2]. In my interview with Bob Bonilla [3], I asked him what some benefits are in having
more women join the force. He responded to my question by saying, A good balance
between men and women at all ranks is good for the community, as well as the
department. For example, if a crime occurs where a female was just victimized by a
male, there is a chance that a female officer may be more suitable to assist the victim.

Purpose
The purpose of this report is to find a way to increase the number of women law
enforcement officers in the UCSF Police Department. Considering sexual assault is huge
among college campuses, finding ways to recruit more women to work for the
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department is beneficial. This topic is timely and important because the longer we take
to get more women in uniform and out on the streets, the longer it will be until we see
change in the current numbers.

Background
According to Lieutenant Bob Bonilla [3], out of the 53 sworn officers in the UCSF Police
Department, only four of them are female. He also states that although the department
is very much aware of the gender gap that they have, they do not have control over the
lack of women that apply for positions for their department. Because they cannot change
the hiring process to become gender specific, the department has sought out other ways
to increase women recruitment. Despite the departments efforts in advertising for open
positions, all recent applicants have been males [3]. UCSF Police Departments ratio of
53:4 is proof of the gender inequality within their law enforcement and that something
needs to be done to fix it. The gender distribution in the UCSF Police Department is
shown in Figure 2 below. The pie chart displays 92% male and 8% female.

Sworn Officers in the UCSF Police Department

Men

Female

Figure 2: Sworn Officers in the UCSF Police Department

Organization
This report is organized by me first introducing the topic and the issue at hand.
Following this introduction, you will find the descriptive listings of my primary and
secondary methods of research. After this section, I have provided the results of my
research that assist me in both brainstorming solutions and choosing the most feasible
one. Next, you will find my conclusions that are based on my research. Lastly, I will
make my final recommendation as to the solution I believe is best for the UCSF Police
Department to implement. I will choose between the following solutions:

Improve and alter the job description posted by the department to better define
the duties of a law enforcement officer at the UCSF police department
Develop recruitment opportunities that target women
2

Methods

My methods of research include the perspectives of UCSF Police Department Lieutenant


Bob Bonilla, of other agencies statewide, and of women in law enforcement. I conducted
sufficient research to ensure that only benefits would result from solving this issue. My
studies also point out the main sources of this problem.

Primary Methods
Interview
I contacted Lieutenant Bob Bonilla from the UCSF Police Department via email on
November 13, 2016 and asked him several questions surrounding the gender inequality
at his department and in the job, what previous or current solutions his department is
implementing, and what benefits he believes would come out of solving this issue. The
questions I asked are listed below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

During the hiring process, do you take gender into consideration?


What is the ratio of men to female in your department?
What benefits do you think there are in having more women join the force?
Is your department aware of the gender gap?
Have you attempted to solve this problem in the past?
Are you currently trying to?
What do you see as the biggest challenge that women face when being
considered?

Secondary Methods
Website
I consulted womenandpolicing.org to better grasp an understanding of the under
representation of women in police departments and the benefits of increasing the
number of women in law enforcement. This website was published by the Feminist
Majority Foundations National Center for Women and Policing from 2001-2013.
Journal
I investigated benefits to having more women in law enforcement on college campuses
by using the entry titled, A Deficiency in Addressing Campus Sexual Assault: The Lack
of Women Law Enforcement Officers from Harvard Journal of Law and Gender that
was published in 2015. The journal explicitly discusses the significance of recruiting
more women officers for University Police Departments.
E-Newsletter
In order to come up with potential solutions for this issue, I conducted research on the
reasons why women applicants to the force consistently remained low throughout the
years. This 2013 e-newsletter written by Curtis Crooke from the COPS office discusses
multiple reasons women are hesitant and discouraged to apply for a position at police
departments.

Guide
I conducted research on already-existing movements and solutions to increase women
law enforcement officers. From the National Center for Women and Policings guide
titled Recruiting and Retaining Women, I was able to take some of the solutions/ideas
from the NCWP as a foundation for my own for the UCSF police department.
Graph
In order to prove the importance of this issue, I researched hard statistics on the ratio of
men to female law enforcement employees in the United States. From the Statista
database, I was able to find a graph titled Gender Distribution of Full-Time Law
Enforcement Employees in the United States in 2015 provided by the FBI.

Results

This section explains the results discovered from the methods listed above.

Primary Methods
Interview
Below are the questions I asked Lieutenant Bob Bonilla followed by his responses [3]:
Q: During the hiring process, do you take gender into consideration?
A: When hiring for the position of Police Officer, the department cannot conduct a
separate hiring process that is gender specific. The training provided is not gender
specific. Both women and men can equally do the job. Both genders are equally capable
of serving the community and the Department at all ranks.
Q: What is the ratio of men to female in your department?
A: Out of 53 sworn, we have about 4 females. (2 officers, 1 sergeant, and 1 lieutenant)
Q: What benefits do you think there are in having more women join the force?
A: A departments police force should be a representation of the community it serves, in
all aspects. A good balance between men and women at all ranks is good for the
community, as well as the department. For example, if a crime occurs where a female
was just victimized by a male, there is a chance that a female officer may be more
suitable to assist the victim. Live is very unpredictable and the more diverse a
department is, the better it will serve its community.
Q: Is your department aware of the gender gap?
A: Yes, we are very aware. Recruiting women is difficult. Since I have been at UCSF, I
have not seen a female apply. We can recruit for everyone but we cannot change the
hiring process to any specific gender because it could lead to grievances or even law
suits. Our goal is to hire the best candidates for the organization/community.
4

Q: Have you attempted to solve this problem in the past?


A: I just recently started working in the Professional Standards Division of the Police
Department. We have not had any openings up until just recently. We advertised via
several methods. However, all the applicants were males. I do not know what the
department has done in the past.
Q: Are you currently trying to?
A: Currently, we have some officers in the background phase that are all males. We did
not have any females apply. Our advertisements are for police officers and never specify
male or female. Our only opportunity to reach out to more females is to continue to
advertise and participate at job fairs, etc.
Q: What do you see as the biggest challenge that women face when being considered?
A: I think the first hurdle is for the candidate to realize that it's not what gender you are
that will make you a good police officer. It's what you bring to the table by means of
education and life experience. To realize that all that matters is that everyone (male or
female) wears the same uniform and the badge. To realize that woman can do this job
just as good as a male. Women need to realize that there are woman that have been very
successful at all ranks up to include Chiefs and Sheriffs. This is the biggest challenge.
Everything else in the process is designed to be non gender specific... not easy for any
gender...but with drive and determination it can be accomplished.

Secondary Methods
Website
This website states, The National Center for Women & Policing (NCWP), promotes
increasing the numbers of women at all ranks of law enforcement as a strategy to
improve police response to violence against women, reduce police brutality and
excessive force, and strengthen community policing reforms [1]. Despite the research
that shows the benefits of having more women police officers, women are
underrepresented in police departments. According to this website, the numbers are low
due to widespread discriminatory hiring and selection practices. From learning about
the reasons why women are hesitant to apply, I was able to come up with solutions to
prevent that hesitation.
Journal
This journal covers the problem of underreporting of sexual assaults on college
campuses. The journal also discusses the impact women officers have on sexual assault
reporting and the correlation between the two. Through this journal, the authors were
able to produce evidence that proved that an increase in female representation among
police officers increased reports of crime against women.
E-Newsletter
This e-newsletter discusses gender inequality in law enforcement. Crooke talks about
the history of women first joining the force up until the present. Crooke writes, Despite
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progressive legislation aimed at procuring gender equality in the United States, women
today make up only 13% of the force, most significantly in larger departments [4].
However, the National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives have been
working hard to guide female officers and to make them feel supported.
Guide
This online guide was created specifically for hiring women in law enforcement
positions. It acknowledges a variety of problems women face both in the hiring process
and while hired and provides solutions to these problems. The guide states, Outreach
programs and recruiting efforts targeted at women and minorities seek to broaden the
pool of potential applicants by reaching a greater number of qualified individuals. These
practices are likely to be considered lawful when they are part of a broader recruitment
effort that makes employment opportunities known to all potential applicants regardless
of their race, national origin, or gender [5]. From, this I developed the potential
solution for the UCSF police department to develop better recruitment opportunities
that target women.
Graph
This chart shows the gender distribution of law enforcement employees in the US in
2015. According to the chart, 88.4% were male and 11.6% were female [6]. I use this
statistic as the basis of my introduction to establish credibility about the importance of
the issue.

Conclusions

In order for the UCSF police department to see an increase of women officers, the
department needs to implement a solution. The two solutions I propose are either to
improve the police departments job description or to develop recruitment opportunities
that target women. Both solutions are of quality and were conducted with in-depth
research.

Solution #1: Improve the Job Description Posted by the


Department
Although this solution may seem very simple and unnecessary, research shows that this
little fix can hugely impact the number of women applicants [5]. In existing job
descriptions, agencies tend to place heavy emphasis on physical attributes over other
skills. This problem in itself causes many women to stray from considering themselves
fit for the job. It has been proven that because many women are not drawn to use of
force as a style of law enforcement they often do not apply for jobs with law
enforcement, agencieseven though in reality they have the potential to perform as well
as male officers [5]. Job descriptions need to highlight skills such as the ability to deescalate violent situations, communicate with diverse groups of people, mediate
disputes [5]. In addition, I recommend adding a statement to the job description that
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will explicitly say that the department is looking for officers of all genders. In order to
get women to realize they are capable and fit for this type of work, it is essential to
define the duties of a law enforcement officer that many overlook.

Solution #2: Develop Recruitment Opportunities that


Target Women
Based on the response from Lieutenant Bob Bonilla [3], the department cannot
conduct a separate hiring process that is gender specific. However, it is permissible for
the department to advertise recruitment directly to women in other ways such as
speaking at events with a predominantly female audience, using women representatives
of the department to present to schools and career fairs, and partnering with other
outreach programs. According to the researched guide, outreach programs and
recruiting efforts targeted at women and minorities seek to broaden the pool of potential
applicants by reaching a greater number of qualified individuals [5]. This solution
would require the agency to allocate sufficient funds, personnel, and time for
recruitment. Despite the money that will need to be allocated for this solution, the longterm benefits that will result from the solutions implementation will surpass the money
spent on recruitment efforts. The table below shows the pros and cons of both solutions.
Solution #1
Pros
Cons
Does not cost any
A change in the job
money
description will not
be noticed unless
re-advertised and
distributed
Women will be able
to explicitly see that
they are desired at
the department

Only targets
audience that is
currently looking
for a job with the
department

Solution #2
Pros
Cons
Established
Funds will need to
programs can be
be allocated
utilized extensively
providing long term
effects year after
year
Targets audience of
all ages. Can
motivate young
women to pursue
the career

Although solution one is more feasible and less time consuming, the latter solution has a
higher chance of immediate results and long-term, ongoing success.

Recommendation

Based on the collective research I have made and presented in the report, I recommend
implementing new recruitment opportunities that target women specifically. The first
step the department needs to take is to allocate funds. The department will then need to
reach out to schools and/or events to see where they can obtain huge female audiences.
These programs and talks aim to encourage women to pursue careers in law
enforcement.
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References

[1] "A Program of the Feminist Majority Foundation". Womenandpolicing.org. N.p.,


2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. http://www.womenandpolicing.org/
[2] K. Oehme, N. Stern, A. Mennicke. A Deficiency in Addressing Campus Sexual
Assault: The Lack of Women Law Enforcement Officers. Harvard Journal of
Law & Gender, vol. 38, pp. 337-372, 2015.
[3] B. Bonilla, Lieutenant, UCSF Police Department. Interview. 11 Nov 2016.
[4] C. Crooke. Women in Law Enforcement. COPS, vol. 6, issue 7, July 2013.
https://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/07-2013/women_in_law_enforcement.asp
[5] P. Harrington. Recruiting & Retaining Women A Self-Assessment Guide for Law
Enforcement. National Center for Women & Policing. Web. 13 Nov 2016.
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/185235.pdf
[6] FBI. Gender Distribution of Full-Time Law Enforcement Employees in The United
States in 2015. Statista The Statistics Portal. Statista. Sept 2016. Web. 14 Nov
2016. https://www.statista.com/statistics/195324/gender-distribution-of-fulltime-law-enforcement-employees-in-the-us/

Figures Referenced

[3] Figure 2: Gender Distribution of Full-Time US Law Enforcement Employees in the


United States in 2015,Statista. Survey. 2015.
[6] Figure 1: Sworn Officers in the UCSF Police Department, UCSF Police
Department. Interview. 11 Nov 2016.