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1.

Refrigerant 134a is the working fluid in an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle


that communicates thermally with a cold region at 0 C and a warm region at 26 C.
Saturated vapor enters the compressor at 0 C and saturated liquid leaves the condenser
at 26 C. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 0.08 kg/s. Determine (a) the compressor
power, in kW, (b) the refrigeration capacity, in tons, (c) the coefficient of performance,
and (d) the coefficient of performance of a Carnot refrigeration cycle operating between
warm and cold regions at 26 and 0 C, respectively.
2. Modify Example 10.1 to allow for temperature differences between the refrigerant and
the warm and cold regions as follows. Saturated vapor enters the compressor at 10 C.
Saturated liquid leaves the condenser at a pressure of 9 bar. Determine for the modified
vapor-compression refrigeration cycle (a) the compressor power, in kW, (b) the
refrigeration capacity, in tons, (c) the coefficient of performance.
3. The required refrigeration capacity of a vapour compression refrigeration system (with R22 as refrigerant) is 100 kW at 30 C evaporator temperature. Initially the system was
single-stage with a single compressor compressing the refrigerant vapour from
evaporator to a condenser operating at 1500 kPa pressure. Later the system was
modified to a two-stage system operating on the cycle shown below. At the intermediate
pressure of 600 kPa there is intercooling but no removal of flash gas. Find a) Power
requirement of the original singlestage system; b) Total power requirement of the two
compressors in the revised two-stage system. Assume that the state of refrigerant at the
exit of evaporator, condenser and intercooler is saturated, and the compression
processes are isentropic.

4. Reconsider the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle of Example 10.2, but include in


the analysis that the compressor has an efficiency of 80%. Also, let the temperature of

the liquid leaving the condenser be 30_C. Determine for the modified cycle the
compressor power, in kW, (b) the refrigeration capacity, in tons, (c) the coefficient of
performance,
5. Consider a two-stage compression refrigeration system operating between the pressure
limits of 0.8 and 0.14 MPa. The working fluid is refrigerant-134a. The refrigerant leaves
the condenser as a saturated liquid and is throttled to a flash chamber operating at 0.32
MPa. Part of the refrigerant evaporates during this flashing process, and this vapor is
mixed with the refrigerant leaving the low-pressure compressor. The mixture is then
compressed to the condenser pressure by the high-pressure compressor. The liquid in
the flash chamber is throttled to the evaporator pressure and cools the refrigerated
space as it vaporizes in the evaporator. Assuming the refrigerant leaves the evaporator
as a saturated vapor and both compressors are isentropic, determine (a) the fraction of
the refrigerant that evaporates as it is throttled to the flash chamber, (b) the amount of
heat removed from the refrigerated space and the compressor work per unit mass of
refrigerant flowing through the condenser, and (c) the coefficient of performance.
6. Consider a two-stage cascade refrigeration system operating between the pressure
limits of 1.2 MPa and 200 kPa with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid. The
refrigerantleaves the condenser as a saturated liquid and is throttled to a flash chamber
operating at 0.45 MPa. Part of the refrigerant evaporates during this flashing process,
and this vapor is mixed with the refrigerant leaving the low-pressure compressor. The
mixture is then compressed to the condenser pressure by the high-pressure compressor.
The liquid in the flash chamber is throttled to the evaporator pressure and cools the
refrigerated space as it vaporizes in the evaporator. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant
through the low-pressure compressor is 0.15 kg/s. Assuming the refrigerant leaves the
evaporator as a saturated vapor and the isentropic efficiency is 80 percent for both
compressors, determine (a) the mass flow rate of the refrigerant through the highpressure compressor, (b) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, and (c)
the COP of this refrigerator. Also, determine (d) the rate of heat removal and the COP if
this refrigerator operated on a single-stage cycle between the same pressure limits with
the same compressor efficiency and the same flow rate as in part (a).
7. The operating cost of an absorption system is to be compared with an electric driven
vapor compression unit. The cost of natural gas on a heating value basis is $ 4.20 per
gigajoule. When used as fuel in a boiler it has a combustion efficiency of 75%. An
absorption unit using steam from this boiler has a COP of 0.73. If a vapor-compression
unit is selected, the COP would be 3.4 and the lectric motor efficiency is 85%. At what
electricity cost are the operating cost equal?
8. An Ammonia water absorption cycle operates at the following temperatures: Generator
105 C, condenser 35 C, Evaporator 5 C and absorber 30 C. The flowrate of the solution
delivered to the pump is 0.4 kg/2. (a) what are the mass flowrates of solution returning
from the generator to the absorber and of the refrigerant? (b) What are the rates of heat
transfer and COP. (c) If the solution temperature leaving the heat exchanger and
entering the generator is 48 C, what are the rates of heat transfer assuming all other
temperatures remain the same.
9. A gas refrigeration cycle uses air as the working fluid and operates between a high
pressure of 800 kPa and low pressure of 120 kPa. The compressor and turbine inlet
temperatures are 540 K and 510 K, respectively. The turbine is isentropic and
compressor has an isentropic efficiency of 88%. Find : (a) Wnet and (b) COP

10. A gas refrigeration system using air as the working fluid has a pressure ratio of 4. Air
enters the compressor (isentropic efficiency of 75%) at -7C. The high-pressure air is
cooled to 27C by rejecting heat to the surroundings. It is further cooled to -15C by
regenerative regenerative cooling cooling before it enters the turbine (isentropic
efficiency of 80%). Using constant specific heats at room temperature, determine (a) the
lo est w temperat re temperature that can be obtained obtained by this cycle, (b) the
coefficient of performance of the cycle, and (c) The mass flow rate of air for a
refrigeration rate of 12 kW.
11. A boot strap cooling system of 10 tons is used in an aeroplane. The temperature and
pressure conditions of atmosphere are 20C and 0.9 atm. The pressure of air is
increased from 0.9 atm to 1.1 atm due to ramming. The pressures of air leaving the main
and auxiliary compressor are 3 atm and 4 atm respectively. Isentropic efficiency of
compressors and turbine are 0.85 and 0.8 respectively. 50% of the total heat of air
leaving the main compressor is removed in the first heat exchanger and 30% of their
total heat of air leaving the auxiliary compressor is removed in the second heat
exchanger using removed air. Find: a) Power required to take cabin load , b) COP of the
system . The cabin pressure is 1.02 atm and temperature of air leaving the cabin should
be greater than 25C. Assume ramming action to be isentropic.
12. A simple air cooled system is used for an aeroplane to take a load of 10 tons.
Atmospheric temperature and pressure is 25C and 0.9 atm respectively. Due to
ramming the pressure of air is increased from 0.9 atm, to 1 atm. The pressure of air
leaving the main compressor is 3.5 atm and its 50% heat is removed in the air-cooled
heat exchanger and then it is passed through a evaporator for future cooling. The
temperature of air is reduced by 10C in the evaporator. Lastly the air is passed through
cooling turbine and is supplied to the cooling cabin where the pressure is 1.03 atm.
Assuming isentropic efficiency of the compressor and turbine are 75% and 70%, find : a)
Power required to take the load in the cooling cabin , b) COP of the system. The
temperature of air leaving the cabin should not exceed 25C