Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Chapter 7

Energy and Metabolism


Characteristics of Life
Living things grow and develop
All living organisms are made of Cells
Metabolism: Organisms get materials and process them for energy
Energy: Is the capacity to do work, which is any state of motion of
matter.
Measure in as heat energy (Kcal)
Potential Energy: Capacity to do work as a result of position or state
Kinetic Energy: Energy of Motion is used, and work is performed

Chemical Energy: The potential stored in chemical bonds


EX. Chemical energy of food molecules (potential energy) is converted
to kinetic energy in muscle cells.
Digestion ----Glucose -----Cellular respiration ----ATP
Chemical, Potential energy----Kinetic Energy
Thermodynamics: The study of energy and its transformation,
governs all activities of the universe, from cells to stars
Open System: Exchange energy with the surroundings (Organisms
are open system)
Closed System: Does not exchange energy with the surrounding
Isolated system: Matter does not go in or out
First law Of Thermodynamics:
o Energy cannot be created or destroyed
o Energy can be transferred or converted from one form to another
state

Energy inputProcess --- Energy Output


Energy input=Energy output
The energy of any system plus its surroundings is constant
Organisms must capture energy from the environment and
transform it to a form that can be used for biological work
ENERGY FLOW THOUGH THE ECOSYSTEM:
1st Law Of thermodynamics

Protons Plant (producers) Herbivores (Primary consumer)


Carnivores (Secondary consumer)Carnivores (tertiary consumers)
The second law of thermodynamics
Whenenergyisconvertedfromoneformanother,someusableenergy(energyavailabletodo
work)isconvertedintoheatthatdispersesinthesurroundings
Asaresult,theamountofusableenergy(availabletodowork)intheuniversedecreasesover
time.
HEAT:Thekineticenergyofrandomlymovingparticles
CHEMICALENERGY
Carbohydrates
Fats
Others
ChemicalWaste
Carbondioxide
Water
ATP:Bodysenergycurrency

Metabolism

Heat
The 2nd law of Thermodynamics

The 10% rule: In every transfer, there is energy lost wasted in the form of heat
, which is non-useable energy (the trophic levels only get 10% of the original
energy )

Entropy: Measure of the disorder, or randomness of energy

Organized Energy: Usable has low entropy


Disorganized energy: such as heat, has high entropy

Not energy conservation is over 100% efficient because is dispersed as


heat Increasing entropy
Entropy : The measurement of Randomness
We see increased randomness during phase changes

Increase in entropy

Increase in Temperature

Solids: High Order


Liquids and gas: high Disorder
More entropy due to more molecules and greater temperature
Cellular Respiration Carbon dioxide More entropy Photosynthesis
Evolution is impossible because of the 2nd law of thermodynamics state that
entropy always increases; therefore, natural process cannot give rise to
greater complexity
Quiz 1 # end it here

Quiz #1 Chapter 7

1.As illustrate in the picture, dropping a hammer or diving off


the platform converts ______energy into _________energy.
Potential to Kinetic
2.Heat is a(n)________form of energy?
Disordered
3.The universe in considered a(n)________system?
Isolated
4.Biological organisms are considered __________system?
Open
5.________of the energy from one trophic level is passed into the
next trophic level?
10%

Metabolism:

All the chemical reactions taking place in an organism

Two main types of metabolism


Anabolism: Pathways in which complex molecules are synthesized from simpler
substances (required energy)
Catabolism: Pathways in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller
(simple) one (release energy).

Enthalpy
Every specific type of chemical bond has a certain amount of bond energy (the
energy required to break that bond)
enthalpy
The total potential energy of a system
Essentially equivalent to the total bond energy
Free Energy
free energy (G)
The amount of energy available to do work
Entropy and enthalpy are related by free energy:
As entropy increases, the amount of free energy decreases
Changes in Free Energy
Exergonic vs. Endergonic

Exergonic Reactions

An exergonic reaction releases energy and is said to be a spontaneous or


downhill reaction, from higher to lower free energy
G is a negative number for exergonic reactions
the total free energy in its final state is less than the total free energy in its
initial state
Increase in Entropy

DiffusionisanExergonicProcess
Particlesdiffusefromanareaofhighconcentrationtoanareaoflowconcentration
concentrationgradient
orderlystatewitharegionofhigherconcentrationandanotherregionoflower
concentration
formofpotentialenergy
LESS ENTROPY
MORE ENTROPY

*free energy decreases as entropy increases

Endergonic Reactions
An endergonic reaction is a reaction in which there is a gain of free energy
G has a positive value
the free energy of the products is greater than the free energy of the reactants
decreases entropy
Requires an input of energy
from the environment
cant take place in isolation


Coupled Reactions
Because an endergonic reaction cannot take place without an input of energy,
endergonic reactions are coupled to exergonic reactions
Exergonic reactions provides the energy required to drive endergonic reactions

Energy Coupling
ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic
reactions

*In a living cell the exergonic reactions often involve the breakdown of ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)


Three highly negative charges close together repel each other
Results in a highly energetic bond between 2nd and 3rd phosphates
*The bonds between the phosphate groups of ATPs tail can be broken:
*Energy is released from ATP when the terminal phosphate bond is broken
ATP Donates Energy Through Transfer of a Phosphate Group
Highly exergonic reaction
ATP is a nucleotide

Enthalpy = Free energy + Entropy


Free Energy = Enthalpy Entropy

know slice 29
Quiz #3
Stated from slice (36) end it Page 10 chapter 8
Page #36
LEO(loss of electrons Oxidation ) goes GER(Gain of electrons Redox)

Energy is also transferred through electrons


Energy is transferred through the transfer of electrons from one
substance to another (redox reactions)
One substance loses electrons (oxidation)
One substance gains electrons (reduction)

Mostelectroncarrierstransferhydrogenatoms
Redoxreactionsusuallyinvolvethetransferofahydrogenatom
Ex.FAD(flavinadeninedinucleotide)istheoxidizedform
FADH2isthereducedform

Enzymes:
biologicalcatalyststhatincreasethespeedofachemicalreactionwithoutbeing
consumedbythereaction
Ex:Catalase
protectscellsbydestroyinghydrogenperoxide(H2O2)
highestknowncatalyticrate
Mostenzymesareproteins


Even a strongly exergonic reaction may be prevented from proceeding
by the activation energy required to begin the reaction

Activation Energy: The energy required to break existing bonds and


begin a reaction (The enzyme lower the activation energy).

Activation Energy and enzymes

The Delta G in exergonic Reactions is Negative

Enzyme-Substrate Complex

o
o
o

Reaction without an enzyme depends on random collisions among reactants


Enzymes reduce the reliance on random events
An enzyme controls the reaction by forming an unstable intermediate complex
with the substrate (substance on which it acts): enzyme-substrate complex

-The Substrate is the substance

Active Sites
o
o

Enzyme regions that bind substrates (active sites)


Binding of substrate to enzyme causes a change in shape of
the enzyme (induced fit)

Enzymes
Becausetheshapeoftheactivesiteiscloselyrelatedtotheshapeof
thesubstrate,mostenzymesarehighlyspecific
Specificsubstratesareforspecificenzymes

Enzymes have an Enzymes have an optimal


temperature...

optimal pH...


Feedback inhibition:
formation of a product inhibits an earlier reaction in the sequence

Isoleucine: Changed the shape of the molecule


Allosteric site: regulatory site, can influence the shape of the active
site
Print page 50

Enzyme Inhibitors
Some drugs used to treat bacterial infections inhibit bacterial
enzyme activity (directly, or indirectly)
Example:
Penicillin irreversibly inhibits the bacterial enzyme transpeptidase
However, bacteria evolve at a rapid rate, and drug resistance is a
growing problem
penicillinase: Break down penicillin

Key Concepts from Chapter 7

Energy = the capacity to do work; can be kinetic (energy of


motion) or potential (energy due to position or state)
o Energy cannot be created or destroyed (1st law of
thermodynamics) but the total amount of energy available to do
work in a closed system decreases over time (2nd law of
thermodynamics)
Organisms = open systems; dont violate these laws because
they use energy obtained from their surrounding environment to
do work
o In cells, energy-releasing (exergonic) processes drive energyrequiring (endergonic) processes
ATP links exergonic and endergonic reactions and transfers
energy by transferring a phosphate group
o Transfer of electrons in redox reactions is another way that cells
transfer energy
Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions