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Running head: Geology Final Paper

Geology 1010 Final Paper


Brian K. Mardjuki
Team Members: Darci Clayton, Russell Robinson & Viet Le
Salt Lake Community College
Geology 1010
12/5/16

Geology 1010 Final Paper

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Abstract

My group decided to research the geologic overview of Italy. This research included
aspects such as earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics and governmental issues in the country of
Italy. All of these aspects are related to each other in one way or another. Each sphere of the
Earth is impacted by each of these topics in one way or another. Each individual team member
was assigned to research one aspect of Italys geology. Italy is a great place to study geologic
happenings, because it is in the middle of a highly active seismic zone. There are many
earthquakes in Italy that impact volcanoes. The plate tectonics in this area causes all of these
things to be put into action in this region.

Geology 1010 Final Paper

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Geology 1010 Final Paper

There have been a number of earthquakes in the country of Italy. Italy is located in a
highly active seismic zone. There have been eight devastating earthquakes in the past forty years.
In recent history, central Italy was struck by a 6.6 magnitude earthquake on Sunday October 30,
2016. This earthquake injured more than 20 people and was the strongest earthquake to hit Italy
in more than three decades. This earthquake was following recent tremors and an earthquake in
August that killed about 300 people. There have been 200 aftershocks since the earthquake.
About 15,000 people are without electricity. Strong tremors of the earthquake in October
damaged buildings and injured dozens of people. Experts have said that these tremors are related
to the earthquake that struck the country in August. Aftershocks from earthquakes can last large
amounts of time, even months. Italy is more susceptible to earthquakes than its European
neighbors. This is because Italy is at the point of contact between two large tectonic plates. There
are three major risk factors that make Italy more vulnerable to earthquakes: the countrys
geodynamics, its architecture and its culture. The high magnitude earthquakes are not responsible
for all of the deaths that have been recorded after earthquakes. The high death toll following
earthquakes in Italy is due to the old historic buildings. Historic buildings in Italy are not subject
to seismic standards. This is what makes Italy so vulnerable to earthquakes. The earthquake in
this past October has caused many tourists to question going on their trip to Italy. The epicenter
of the earthquake was close to Norcia, which is an area that was hit by two earthquakes a week
before the one in October. This area was also struck by the earthquake that struck in August of
this year.

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Italy is home to three active volcanoes. Though these volcanoes are active, the latest
eruption occurred in the year 1944. All of the countrys volcanoes are located in the southern end
of the country. There is only one volcano that is located on mainland in Europe. This volcano,
Mount Vesuvius, in Naples is considered to be the most dangerous volcano in the world. This is,
because it could erupt at any time. Three million people are threatened by this volcano, because
they all live near it. Stromboli, a volcano located off the coast of Sicily has been erupting
constantly for about two thousand years. The third active volcano in Italy is Mount Etna. This
volcano is one of the most active volcanos in the world. This volcano is the tallest, active
volcano on the European continent. Mount Etna has a height of 3,329m and its last activity is
continuous. Stromboli has a height of 926m and its last activity is continuous. Mount Vesuvius
has a height of 1,281m and its last activity was in 1944. There are eight dormant volcanoes in
Italy. These are volcanoes that have erupted in the last 10,000 years, but not over the last few
years. There are also nine extinct volcanoes in the country of Italy. These are volcanoes which
last erupted over 10,000 years ago. Italy has seen an increase in seismic activity since 2012,
which has triggered the awakening of several major volcanoes.

Italy is located in the middle of a highly active seismic zone. There are two fault lines
running through Italy. These two fault lines cross each other in Campobasso region. These
intersecting fault lines make Italy one of the most earthquake prone countries in the world. Italy
is at risk every time there is significant movement in the Eurasian and African tectonic plates.
There have been seven recent earthquakes in Italy. Italy is located close to the line where the
Eurasian and the African tectonic plates meet. These plates constantly grind against each other.
This constant grating causes increases seismic and volcanic tension. The plate tectonics of this

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region have caused experts to question whether or not Italy is safe. Experts cannot predict when
an earthquake is going to occur, however they can predict that there will be many earthquakes in
Italy close together, because of the geologic setting of the country.

Although Italy is in the middle of an active seismic zone, experts estimate that 70% of Italys
buildings are not built to seismic standards, despite 8 devastating earthquakes in the last 40
years. An interesting fact is that in Italy, when restoring historic buildings, seismic standards are
not applied to these buildings. Less than 20% of Italys buildings are made to sustain
earthquakes. Dario Nanni of the Italian architects council said in Italy, in the middle of a seismic
zone, nothing has ever been done. It does not cost much more, when renovating a building to
make it comply with earthquake standards. In 2012 6 scientists were jailed for manslaughter,
because they failed to predict a deadly earthquake which left 309 people dead. This group of
experts included some of the country's most respected seismologists. The earthquake was
measured at 6.3 on the Richter Scale and killed more than 300 people and left thousands
homeless. The scientists visited the town several days before the earthquake struck to investigate
tremors felt in the town, but they concluded that there was little risk from these tremors. A judge
in 2012 said that the scientists gave a misleading reassuring statement. The seismologists
statement prompted 29 people who wanted to leave the town to stay. They were jailed in October
of 2012. The experts were ordered to pay 9 million in damage to families of survivors. The
experts have since had the charges dropped. The scientific community argued the original
sentence, because of the difficulty of predicting earthquakes.

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References

Italy earthquake: 6.6-magnitude tremor rocks nation's center. (n.d.). Retrieved


December 05, 2016, from http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/30/europe/italyearthquake/
Recent Earthquakes Near Italy. (n.d.). Retrieved December 05, 2016, from
http://earthquaketrack.com/p/italy/recent
Volcanoes of Italy - Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Etna, Stromboli, Lipri, Vulcano.
(n.d.). Retrieved December 05, 2016, from
https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/italy.html
Volcanoes In Italy. (n.d.). Retrieved December 05, 2016, from
http://www.crystalinks.com/romevolcanoes.html
H. (2016). Tectonic plates map shows how Italy is vulnerable to tremours.
Retrieved December 05, 2016, from http://metro.co.uk/2016/08/24/italyearthquake-map-tectonic-plates-map-show-how-italy-is-vulnerable-to-tremours6087343/

Geology 1010 Final Paper

Geology 1010 Final Paper

Geology 1010 Final Paper

ITP Rubric

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Criteria

Ratings

P
ts
40.0 pts

Library Research
Full Marks

No Marks

40.0 pts

0.0 pts

Presentation--Participation

10.0 pts
Full Marks

No Marks

10.0 pts

0.0 pts

20.0 pts

Presentation--Visual Media
Full Marks

No Marks

20.0 pts

0.0 pts

Presentation--Evidence and Conclusions

40.0 pts
Full

No

Marks

Marks

40.0 pts

0.0 pts

40.0 pts

Final Report--Content
Full

No

Marks

Mark

40.0

pts

0.0
pts

Final Report--Writing Style

40.0 pts
Full

No

Mar

Mar

ks

ks

40.0

0.0

pts

pts

Geology 1010 Final Paper

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10.0 pts

Final Report--In-Test Citations and Works Cited

Total Points: 200.0

Ful

No

Ma

ar

rks

ks

10.

0.

pts

pts