Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Chemical Engineering Research and Design


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cherd

Review

Flow modeling in electrochemical tubular reactor containing


volumetric electrode: Application to copper cementation
reaction
Warda Djoudi a, , Farida Aissani-Benissad a , Patrick Ozil b
a

Facult de la Technologie, Dpartement de Gnie des Procds, Laboratoire de Gnie de lEnvironnement (LGE), Universit de Bejaia,
06000, Algeria
b Universit Joseph Fourier Grenoble, LEPMI, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin dHres, France

a b s t r a c t
The aim of the present work is to study the electrolyte ow characteristics in a tubular reactor containing a volumetric electrode, acting as turbulence enhancer, applied in our previous works to copper removal by cementation
process. The hydrodynamic behavior of the electrolyte within the reactor under study has been determined using
the residence time distribution (RTD) experimentally determined by a pulse tracer technique.
The results obtained have shown a strong inuence of the presence or absence of the volumetric electrode inside
the reactor in the hydrodynamic behavior. It is found by RTD measurements the existence of dead volume in the
reactor under some conditions which decrease with increasing of volumetric electrode mass. The active and a dead
volume of the reactor are quantied at different masses of a volumetric electrode (0 g, 10 g and 20 g) and at different
ow rates (1 L/min, 2 L/min, 3 L/min and 5 L/min).
The experimental curves of exit distribution function E (t) at various operating conditions are analyzed and some
experimental parameters are determined like the mean residence time ts and the variance of the response data  2 .
To model the reactor studied, an industrial software package DTS.PRO 4.2 for process modeling was used. It was
found that the reactor is an arrangement of simple ideal reactors; it is composed of one plug ow reactor followed by
three stirred tanks in series. The model simulations were validated with the experimental observations in the case
of cementation reaction.
2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Residence time distribution (RTD); Volumetric electrode; Flow modeling; Tubular reactor; Hydrodynamics

Contents
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results and discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. Discussions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model validation in copper cementation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: w.djoudi@yahoo.com, w.djoudi@yahoo.fr (W. Djoudi).
Received 1 June 2011; Received in revised form 23 January 2012; Accepted 7 February 2012
0263-8762/$ see front matter 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2012.02.003

1583
1583
1584
1584
1584
1585
1586
1588
1588

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

Nomenclature
C (t)
E (t)
Qv
m
ts

Vr
Vd
Va
Vp
Vs
Vc
2
K
U
p
a
c

1.

outlet tracer concentration (mol/L)


residence time distribution function (s1 )
liquid volumetric ow rate (mL/s)
volumetric electrode mass (g)
mean residence time (s)
theoretical time (s)
reactor volume (mL)
reactor dead volume (mL)
reactor active volume (mL)
plug ow reactor volume (mL)
continuous stirred tank reactor volume (mL)
solution container volume (mL)
variance of dispersion
rst order kinetic constant (min1 )
uid velocity (m/s)
plug ow reactor residence time (s)
continuous stirred tank reactor residence time
(s)
solution container residence time (s)

Introduction

Uncountable tonnes of precious or toxic metals are discarded


each year in the form of industrial wastewater, usually directly
into natural environment. The recovery of metals (Fe, Cu, Al,
Ni, Cd, Cr. . .) in diluted solution is an everyday problem associated with ecological and economic aspects.
Electrochemical cleaning technology offers an efcient way
to reduce pollution through the removal of transitions and
heavy metal by redox reactions, without the disadvantages of
conventional treatments. The inherent advantage of this technology is its environmental compatibility due to the fact that
the main reagent, the electron, is a clean reagent. Among
the electrochemical processes, cementation is largely used in
many industries to remove metal ions from dilute solutions for
either liquid purication or metal recovery (Olive and Lacoste,
1979).
The kinetics of cementation reaction has been studied by a number of researchers in various electrochemical
reactors with different kinds of electrodes such as rotating disc (Donmez et al., 1999), rotating cylinder (EL-Batouti,
2005), powder (Berkani et al., 1990), xed and uidized
beds (Gros et al., 2005), volumetric electrode (Djoudi, 2007).
The hydrodynamic behavior of electrolyte in volumetric
electrode reactors is not well documented despite its importance for understanding and eventually optimizing the
process.
Hydrodynamics within real reactors never fully follow an
ideal ow pattern and deviations appear due to uid channeling and recycling, or stagnant regions in the vessel. These
deviations lead to efciency losses at pilot plant scale or at
fully industrial scale. Therefore it is important to take into
account the non ideal ow pattern inside the reactors to determine the real reactor behavior (Levenspiel, 1999).
One of the most usual methods to characterize the ow
characteristics within a system consists in the measurement
of residence time distribution (RTD). The residence time distribution (RTD) is a chemical engineering concept introduced
by Dankwerts in 1953. It has been described in a multitude of
scientic papers and applied for various industrial processes.

1583

The development of computer uid dynamics allowed improving the comprehension and optimization of such method.
However, this approach remains difcult in case of complex reactors and electrodes. Therefore the extension of RTD
concept is an alternative way to obtain information about
hydrodynamics and help thus to improve the process behavior
knowledge (Leclerc et al., 2000).
Literature reports a number of works using RTD method to
determine the performance of various types of reactors involving volumetric electrodes as turbulence enhancers (Andrade
Lima et al., 2005; Tembhurkar and Mhaisalkar, 2006; XiaoChang et al., 2009; Yuan et al., 2004; Saravanathamizhan et al.,
2008; Furman et al., 2005).
This paper is a continuation of our previous works (Djoudi,
2007; Djoudi et al., 2007) to study the kinetics and to optimize
the yield of copper cementation process in a laboratory-scale
tubular reactor containing a new type of volumetric electrode used as turbulence promoter. In the current study, for
reactor design and scale-up purposes, the residence time
distribution (RTD) analysis is used as a tool to study the performances of the reactor and evaluate the ow behavior in the
objective to develop a model. RTD data are measured by the
stimulusresponse technique using KCl solution as a tracer
and interpreted with a suitable mathematical model owing to
an industrial software package DTS.PRO 4.2.

2.

Materials and methods

RTD experiments were carried out using the apparatus


schematically shown in Fig. 1.
The laboratory-scale tubular reactor is made of 440 mm
length glass tube of 50 mm diameter and total volume of
863.5 mL. It inlet zone is packed with glass spheres of 10 mm
diameter in order to distribute the uid uniformly and to support the volumetric electrode.
The volumetric electrode made of iron as grill in zigzag
form is located in the reactor at different masses (0 g, 10 g and
20 g). It is similar to that used in our previous works devoted to
study kinetics and process modeling for copper cementation
(Djoudi, 2007; Djoudi et al., 2007). Its geometrical characteristics are shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the experimental


device: (1) electrochemical reactor; (2) centrifugal pump; (3)
glass container; (4) valve; (5) fow-meter; (6) bypass; (7)
tracer injection zone; (8) conductivity electrode; (9)
conductivity meter; (10) tracer evacuation container.

1584

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

Fig. 2 Volumetric electrode characteristics.

The procedures adopted for the stimulusresponse experiments are as follows. First, the reactor was continuously fed
with distilled water at 25 C by a centrifugal pump at different
ow rates (1 L/min, 2 L/min, 3 L/min and 5 L/min). When the
steady-state regime is established, 5 mL of KCl solution used
as tracer are manually injected at the reactor inlet by a syringe
as -Dirac pulse. At the reactor outlet, a conductivity electrode
is located within the pipe to measure the conductivity with a
Conductivity Meter (Ec 214 HANNA instruments) after suitable
calibration with 0.01 N KCl solution.
Conductivity measurements were performed with KCl
solution of 3 mol/L and the data were collected each 3 s.

3.

Results and discussions

3.1.

Results

Fig. 3 Effect of the ow rate on the residence time


distribution at different mass of volumetric electrode.
The characteristic parameters of ow dynamics in the reactor can be extracted through modeling the experimental RTD
curves investigated at different operating conditions. These
parameters are dened in Table 1 and their values are provided
in Table 2.

3.2.
The principle of tracer experiments consists of a common
impulse method: injection of a tracer at the inlet of a system and recording RTD distribution function E (t) at the outlet.
For the exploitation of experimental RTDs, literature (Andrade
Lima et al., 2005; Tembhurkar and Mhaisalkar, 2006; XiaoChang et al., 2009; Yuan et al., 2004; Saravanathamizhan et al.,
2008) lists various methods:
- Analysis in terms of statistical moments that yields at least
theoretically to some global parameters as mean residence
time (MRT) and dispersivity;
- Adjustment of a model for ow parameters.
The tracer conductancetime curve is called concentration
(C) curves in RTD analysis and allowed to derive the age distribution frequency E (t) of the uid elements leaving the reactor,
which describes in a quantitative manner how long a fraction
of uid spent in the reactor, from:
E(t) =


0

C(t)
C(t) dt

Discussions

Fig. 3 shows the inuence of tracer ow rate on RTD in the


absence or the presence of volumetric electrode in the reactor
used as turbulence promoter. In all cases, we note that, at low
ow rates (1 L/min and 2 L/min), the RTD curves has a long
tail and the residence time of tracer is comparatively large
according to the results summarized in Table 1. At high liquid ow rates (3 L/min and 5 L/min), the RTD curves becomes
much narrow with a shorter tail. Similar results are obtained
in literature (Yuan et al., 2004).
The presence of tail in RTD curves under some conditions
indicates the presence of stagnant zones or dead volume in the
reactor, which decreases with increasing of volumetric electrode mass (Table 2). For example, at a low ow rate (1 L/min),
the dead volume fraction (Vd /Vr = (1 (tS /))) is equal to 34.27%

Table 1 Denition of different parameters (Levenspiel,


1999; Villermaux, 1993).
Variable

(1)

The tracer response curves (E (t) curves) are plotted at different ow rates and at different masses of the volumetric
electrode as shown in Fig. 3.

Denition

Mean residence time (ts )

tS =

Theoretical time ()

=

Dead volume (Vd )

Vd = 1

Active volume (Va )

Va = Vr Vd

Variance of dispersion ( 2 )

0
Vr
Qv

2 =

t E(t) dt
tS


Vr
2

(t tS ) E(t) dt

1585

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

Table 2 Experimental parameters calculated at different operating conditions (the reactor volume Vr = 863.5 mL).
Qv (L/min)

Qv (mL/s)

ts (s)

 (s)

Vd (mL)

Va (mL)

Vd /Vr (%)

m=0g

1
2
3
5

16.67
33.33
50.00
83.33

34.06
13.8
8.99
6.16

51.83
25.91
17.27
10.36

295.98
403.59
414
350.067

567.52
459.91
449.5
513.43

34.27
46.73
47.94
40.54

m = 10 g

1
2
3
5

16.67
33.33
50.00
83.33

39.1
17.71
13.16
9.65

51.83
25.91
17.27
10.36

212.08
273.28
205.5
59.18

651.42
590.22
658
804.32

24.56
31.64
23.79
6.85

m = 20 g

1
2
3
5

16.67
33.33
50.00
83.33

48.09
21.35
13.61
10.98

51.83
25.91
17.27
10.36

62.31
151.97
183

801.19
711.53
680.5

7.21
17.59
21.19

in the absence of volumetric electrode and decreases when the


electrode mass m increases: 24.56% for m = 10 g and 7.21% for
m = 20 g. The same result is obtained at other ow rate values
(2 L/min, 3 L/min and 5 L/min). We can deduce that increasing
the volumetric electrode mass contributes to reduce the dead
volume fraction in the reactor and thus improve the cementation reaction.
The presence of dead volume is conrmed by the values
of the estimated mean residence time (ts ) that are smaller
than the theoretical time  in all cases except at high electrode
mass (m = 20 g) and at high ow rate (5 L/min) where ts = . This
implies that dead volumes are absent and the liquid ow in the
packed reactor tends to plug ow under these last conditions.
Similar conclusions have also drawn by many authors using
other types of volumetric electrodes (Xiao-Chang et al., 2009;
Yuan et al., 2004; Saravanathamizhan et al., 2008; Furman
et al., 2005).
The ow rate of 5 L/min offers, in all cases under study, good
working conditions because the corresponding RTD curves
(Fig. 3) do not present any tailing and the dead volumes are
minimal (Table 2) and even absent at high volumetric electrode
mass (m = 20 g).

3.3.

Mathematical model

More parameters of the ow dynamics can be extracted


through modeling the experimental RTD curve, two classes
of models are widely utilized: models with lumped parameters (compartment models-perfect mixing, plug ow, etc.)
and dispersion model. In our case, the software used for ow

process modeling is the DTS PRO 4.2 package. A software


package has been developed to simulate the response to an
input of any complex network of elementary reactors properly interconnected. Eight different elementary reactors of the
software package may be chosen that are based on the perfect mixer and dispersion models. The parameters can be
optimized by comparing the experimental data to the model
response (Leclerc et al., 2000; Furman et al., 2005; Gros, 2005).
Among the various ow models offered by the software,
the arrangement of one plug ow reactor and three stirredtanks reactors in series appeared to be the most suitable to
describe the hydrodynamics of the reactor under study. The
same results were obtained from hydrodynamic studies in
xed and uidized beds reactor for ow process modeling
using DTS PRO 4.2 package (Gros, 2005).
Fig. 4 shows the comparison of simulated RTD curves with
experimental data, of exit age distribution function E (t), at
different operating conditions. It can be observed from these
gures that the model predictions are in good agreement with
the experimental results.
The results of comparison between simulated and experimental data of mean residence time and variance are
summarized in Table 3.
From Table 3, it can be seen in general that, as the
inlet ow rate increases, the mean residence time and the
variance of RTD decrease proportionally. This result can be
explained according to literature (Xiao-Chang et al., 2009) by
the fact that the liquid ow in the reactor packed with volumetric electrode tends to plug ow with increasing of ow
rate.

Table 3 Comparison between numerical and experimental data of the mean residence time and variance.
Flow rate

m (g)

Qv (L/min)

Variance 2

Mean residence time ts (s)


Simulated

Experimental

Simulated

Experimental

1
1
1

0
10
20

34.32
39.59
48.56

34.064
39.1
48.09

155.92
506.58
253.61

198.68
993
265.85

2
2
2

0
10
20

13.73
17.21
21.09

13.8
17.7
21.35

43.83
46.58
109.02

56.6
54.8
116.25

3
3
3

0
10
20

8.67
12.64
12.18

8.99
13.16
13.61

18.64
25.54
23.38

25
17.93
31.75

5
5
5

0
10
20

6.07
9.07
10.89

6.16
9.65
10.98

9.61
28.13
12.02

31.85
33.86
25.45

1586

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

Fig. 4 Comparison of RTD curves by simulation with experimental data.


plug ow reactor, the three continuous stirred tank reactors
and to the solution container respectively (Eqs. (2)(6)). At
least, the experimental observations of copper concentration
kinetics are compared with theoretically calculated values of
the model.
The mass balance of the plug ow reactor is:

4.
Model validation in copper cementation
process
The model developed by DTS PRO 4.2 package of the electrochemical tubular reactor studied shown in Fig. 5 is applied
in the case of cementation reaction. This step involves the
application of the mass balance equation for the rst order
cementation reaction at unsteady state at the output of the

dC1 (x, t)
dC1 (x, t)
+U
= K C1 (x, t)
dt
dx

Tubular reactor
C1(x,t)
V p, p

C2(t)

C3(t)

vs

vs

vs

C4(t)

Qv, C(t)
vc
Copper solution container

Fig. 5 Schematic representation of the modeled reactor for copper cementation process.

(2)

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

1587

Fig. 6 Comparison of model simulations with experimental observations of exit copper concentration.
The mass balance of the rst continuous stirred tank reactor is:

a

dC2 (t)
+ (1 + K a ) C2 (t) = C1 (x, t)
dt

(3)

The mass balance of the second continuous stirred tank


reactor is:

a

dC3 (t)
+ (1 + K a ) C3 (t) = C2 (t)
dt

(4)

1588

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

Table 4 The rst order kinetic constant values from the


copper cementation reaction (Djoudi, 2007).
Qv (L/min)

K (min1 )

m = 10 g

1
2
3
5

0.011
0.0151
0.0162
0.0203

m = 20 g

1
2
3
5

0.0225
0.0291
0.0449
0.0586

The mass balance of the third continuous stirred tank reactor is:
a

dC4 (t)
+ (1 + K a ) C4 (t) = C3 (t)
dt

dC(t)
+ C(t) = C4 (t)
dt

(6)

where: C1 (x, t), C2 (t), C3 (t), C4 (t) and C (t) are the concentration
of copper at the exit of each reactor; K is the rst order kinetic
constant; U is the uid velocity;  p is the plug ow reactor
residence time ( p = Vp /Qv );  a is the continuous stirred tank
reactor residence time ( a = Vs /Qv );  c is the solution container
residence time ( c = Vc /Qv ); Vp , Vs are the plug ow and continuous stirred tank reactor volumes, respectively; Vc is the
solution container volume (Vc = 5 L).
Analytical solutions of Eqs. (2)(6) for the exit copper concentration for each reactor are given as follow (Stanley and
Walas, 1991):

C1 (x, t) = C0 exp K

1
C2 (t)
=
1 + K a
C1 (t)
1
C3 (t)
=
1 + K a
C2 (t)
1
C4 (t)
=
1 + K a
C3 (t)

x
U

= C0 exp(K t)

t
1 exp [(1 + Ka )]
a

1 exp [(1 + Ka )]

1 exp [(1 + Ka )]

 t

C(t) = C4 (t) + (C0 C4 (t)) exp

c

Conclusions

To complete our previous works about copper removal by


cementation process, in a laboratory-scale tubular reactor
containing a new type of volumetric electrode (grill in zigzag)
used as a turbulence promoter; it was interesting to characterize the hydrodynamics behavior of the electrolyte in our
reactor for further development and process optimization.
This objective was reached by using a pulse tracer technique
that is allowing simple on-line measurements of the ow
parameters and the diagnosis of stagnant volume and by-pass
zones.
Some experimental parameters were determined at various operating conditions such as mean residence time (MRT),
dead volume fraction and dispersivity. The analysis of residence time distribution curves provided the following relevant
results:

(5)

If we consider the copper solution container as a continuous stirred tank reactor; it mass balance is as follows:

c

5.

t
a
t
a

(7)


(8)


(9)


(10)

(11)

The rate constant K was calculated from the experimental observations of copper cementation reaction kinetics at
different operating conditions (the results of kinetics are not
reported in this present study). These values (Table 4) were
used in Eqs. (7)(11) for theoretical predictions.
The comparison of the experimental observations with the
model predictions are shown in Fig. 6.
From Fig. 6, it can be observed that the concentration evolutions of copper concentration in the reactor studied are
satisfactory matching with the theoretical concentration evolution given by the model.

- At low ow rates, the RTD curves present long tails and the
mean residence time (MRT) are smaller than the theoretical time thus indicating the presence of dead volumes that
are reduced with the increasing of the volumetric electrode
mass.
- The ow prole approaches to plug ow when the reactor
works at high ow rate (5 L/min) and at high electrode mass
(20 g), these parameter values representing the optimal conditions of operating parameters.
- From the variety of ow models offered by the software
used, the arrangement of one plug ow reactor and three
stirred tank reactors in series appeared to be the most suitable to describe the hydrodynamics of the reactor under
study.
- The model developed can successfully represent the general
behavior of the uid inside the reactor in the case of copper
cementation reaction at different operating conditions.

References
Andrade Lima, L.R.P., Hodouin, D., 2005. Residence time
distribution of an industrial mechanically agitated
cyanidation tank. Miner. Eng. 18, 613621.
Berkani, A., Ozil, P., Delachaume, J.C., Caire, J.P., 1990.
Cmentation lectrochimique en racteur agit: Etude du
couple Cu2+ /Zn en milieu sulfate. Rcents progrs en gnie
des procds. Edition Lavoisier 5, 16, Grenoble, France, 223.
Djoudi, W., 2007. Modlisation et optimisation du procd de
cmentation du cuivre dans un racteur tubulaire lectrode
volumique. Thse de magister, universit de Bjaia.
Djoudi, W., Aissani-Benissad, F., Bourouina-Bacha, S., 2007.
Optimization of copper cementation process by iron using
central composite design experiments. Chem. Eng. J. 133, 16.
Donmez, B., Servim, F., Sarac, H., 1999. A kinetic study of the
cementation of copper from sulphate solution onto a rotating
aluminium disc. Hydrometallurgy 53, 145154.
EL-Batouti, M., 2005. Removal of copper metal by cementation
using a rotating iron cylinder. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 283,
123129.
Furman, L., Leclerc, J.-P., Stegowski, Z., 2005. Tracer investigation
of a packed column under variable ow. Chem. Eng. Sci. 60,
30433048.
Gros, F., 2005. Rcupration intensie du cuivre en solution:
cmentation lectrochimique sur lits xe et uidis, mono ou
bicomposant, sous champs lectromagntique. Thse de
doctorat, Institut polytechnique de Grenoble.
Gros, F., Baup, S., Aurousseau, M., 2005. Rcupration intensie
de mtaux en solution: cmentation en lit xe ou uidis sous

chemical engineering research and design 9 0 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 15821589

champ lectromagntique. Rcents Progrs en Gnie des


Procds, Numro 92. Edition SFGP, Paris, France, pp. 18.
Leclerc, J.-P., Claudel, S., Lintz, H-G., Potier, O., Antoine, B., 2000.
Theoretical interpretation of residence time distribution
measurements in industrial processes. Oil Gas Sci. Technol.
55, 159169.
Levenspiel, O., 1999. Chemical Reaction Engineering, third
edition. John Wiley & sons, New York.
Olive, H., Lacoste, G., 1979. Application of volumetric electrodes
to the recuperation of metals in industrial efuents. Mass
transfer in xed beds of spherical conductive particles.
Electrochim. Acta 24, 11091114.
Saravanathamizhan, R., Paranthaman, R., Balasubramanian, N.,
Ahmed Basha, C., 2008. Residence time distribution in
continuous stirred tank electrochemical reactor. Chem. Eng. J.
142, 209216.

1589

Stanley, Walas, M., 1991. Modeling with Differential Equation in


Chemical Engineering. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Tembhurkar, A.R., Mhaisalkar, V.A., 2006. Study of hydrodynamic
behavior of a laboratory scale up ow anaerobic xed lm
xed bed reactor. J. Environ. Sci. Eng. 48, 7580.
Villermaux, J., 1993. Gnie de la raction chimique: Conception et
fonctionnement des racteurs. Edition Tec & Doc-Lavoisier.
Xiao-Chang, C., Ting-An, Z., Qiu-Yue, Z., 2009. Computational
simulation of uid dynamics in a tubular stirred reactor.
Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 19, 489495.
Yuan, Y., Han, M., Wang, D., Jin, Y., 2004. Liquid phase residence
time distribution for two-phase countercurrent ow in a
packed column with a novel internal. Chem. Eng. Process. 43,
14691474.