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According to this study results there was a negative significant relationship

between age and health promoting behavior and sub-scales of physical activity,
prevention and social relations this was consistent with Wang study (Harooni,
In the study of Harooni (2014) showed that there are significant relations
between age and health promotion behaviors as a whole and prevention, such
that by increasing the age, the rates of health promotion behaviors as a whole
and sub-scales of physical activities, interpersonal social and prevention would
reduce. Moreover, there were no significant relations between age stress
management scales and healthy nutrition.
The study showed also a significant negative correlation between students age,
which means that younger students tended to practice healthier life style than
older students. Regarding the subscales, the results showed that the students
age is positively correlated with the spiritual and stress management subscales.
Older students handle stressors effectively may be an indicator of the gradual
tolerance of demanding nature of the university life. On the other hand, the
students age is negatively correlated with the interpersonal relation. (Shaheen,
Traditional nursing students (24 years old and below) were more likely to
participate in general health-promoting behavior than nontraditional students (24
years old and above), and they had higher scores on the interpersonal relations,
spiritual growth, physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. (Bryer, 2013)


The result of Haroonis (2014) study demonstrated that the mean score for health
promoting behavior in men was significantly higher than women. Because of low
rate of social participation in old women in our country it is expected that they
have low health information in comparison with men.
Due to the fact that women are the caregivers in the family they are often
targeted by health promotion (Doyal, 2001)
In some countries, women have lower status thus making their capacity to make
decisions regarding implementation of health promotional measures limited. This
result to lower positive health effects on promotional measures. However, health
programs can be greatly improved if the health promotion campaigns are
addressed to the family as a whole and to the relationships between males and
females of all ages (Brugha et al., 1996)
In the study of Walker, Volkan, Sechrist (1988), results showed that gender have
significant variance in overall health promotion behavior and on health
responsibility, exercise, nutrition, and interpersonal support. In their study of 452
adults aged 18 to 88, they determined that women scored significantly higher
than men in all dimensions.

Together gender and sex, often in interaction with socioeconomic circumstances,

influence exposure to health risks, access to health information and services,
health outcomes and the social and economic consequences of ill-health.
Recognizing the root causes of gender inequities in health is crucial therefore
when designing health system responses. Health promotion as well as disease
prevention needs to address these differences between women and men, boys
and girls in an equitable manner in order to be effective (Keleher, 2004).

Educational Attainment

Education level is one of the variables that indicated a significant relationship

with health-promotion behaviors. Higher levels of education have been
associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (Barker, 2009)
In considering the relation between the literacy level of the elderly people and
health promotion behaviors and its sub-scales, it was found that by improving the
literacy level, the level of health promotion behaviors and the sub-scales of stress
management and physical activities would increase (Harooni, 2014)
In detailed analysis of education and its relationship to study variables, a
moderate statistically significant correlation was noted between education and
health literacy This suggests that generally among these Black women, those
most likely to have inadequate health literacy were those with low levels of
education. (Hepburn, 2016)