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Ludlow 1

Naomi Ludlow
Professor Joy McDonald
English 101-17
October 25, 2016
Annotated Bibliography on Bias in Media
Dean, Walter. "Understanding Bias." American Press Institute RSS. American Press Institute,
n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2016.
This source is a website that is dedicated to understanding the change into the digital age
and update the ways of journalism. Specifically, this website talks about how bias is not
really a bad thing when it comes to journalism. The author encourages journalists to
accept their bias and make it publicly known. They incorporate the success many stations
(Fox, MSNBC, etc.) have had by doing so. The authors believe that the bias within a
story/station may draw in a consistent audience. This website will contribute to my
research because it brings another angle into the issue. This will allow me to include all
information about the topic. This source will help me to effectively analyze the issue at
hand. It answers the question that guides the research for what is bias and how it is
relevant in journalism.
Feldman, Lauren. "Partisan Differences in Opinionated News Perceptions: A Test of the Hostile
Media Effect." Political Behavior33.3 (2010): 407-32. Academic Search Complete
[EBSCO]. Web. 21 Oct. 2016.
This is a journal article that discusses the effect of opinionated media. It talks about the
way anchors include their own political stance when reporting news and how news has
turned into an advocacy and tabloid style of journalism. It gives data on the percentage of

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opinionated news presented in media and to what side the news leans. Not only does it
talk about the news stations, it talks about the viewers not being able to detect the bias
that is shown. This compares to another one of my sources (Partisan Involvement and
Selective Exposure). I will be able to link the information found in both and decide
whether there is a true correlation. This answers multiple research questions such as what
type of bias does news stations have and how does it affect the viewer.
Jackson, Janine. "How To Detect Bias In News Media." FAIR. Deborah Thomas, 19 Nov. 2012.
Web. 21 Oct. 2016.
This website gives the viewer of the news tips and tricks for spotting the bias that a news
station may have. They include what patterns to look for in the way that the stories are
presented. Things to look out for include the sources used, the language used, the amount
of diversity, etc. This source will be helpful in answering my research question that asks
how a viewer might be able to detect bias immediately. This will be useful because I will
be able to add on the information found in another source that will strengthen the way
Americans can shape their own views despite the overly partisan news.
Martin, Gary. "S.A. Lawmaker Attacks Bias in Media." San Antonio Express News [San
Antonio] 6 June 2009, State and Metro ed., A Section sec.: n. pag. Print.
This news article discussed the ironic comment a U.S. representative made while being a
part of an interview with Fox News. The comment concluded there are more liberalleaning news stations and those stations are more dangerous than terrorist attacks.
Analysts, that detect liberal-leaning bias, contradicted what the representative said by
showing that there are more conservative-leaning stations and Fox being one. I plan on
using this information to answer my research question of what type of bias does certain

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news stations have. This source will be useful due to the fact that it gives evidence that
supports the inability people have for detecting bias.
Stroud, Natalie Jomini. "Partisan Involvement and Selective Exposure."Niche News: The Politics
of News Choice. New York: Oxford UP, 2011. 118-39. Print.
This source is a chapter from a book that discusses the effect that news stations have on
their viewers. It includes multiple studies that show increase in political participation,
political attitudes and held polarized attitudes toward candidates when viewers watch
media outlets that have the same political standing as them. The article concludes that
people challenge their beliefs only when their beliefs are presented. This particular source
answers my research question that asks how news stations shape views. Unlike the other
sources, this source has graphs from studies conducted on Americans rather than general
conclusions. I will use the numerical data to have solid evidence for my paper.