Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 193

!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Evaluation
of Heat Transfer Coefficient
!
during Quenching of
!
!

Steels

A thesis

Submitted to the Department of Electromechanical Engineering/


!
University of Technology in a partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
!degree of Doctor of philosophy in Mechanical Engineering
!
!
!

"#$#!%#$&#'!"#(#'!

!
!
!
!
!

September 2009

Failure is the opportunity to begin again more intelligently.


!

Henry Ford
!

!
!

To my family
With my all respect, appreciation, and love.
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Hala!

Acknowledgement
!
"!#$%&'!&()*!+(,-.!.$!./)*!.0(-!$11$,.%2(.3!.$!*41,*--!53!-(26*,*!.0/2)-!
/2'! /11,*6(/.($2! .$! 7,$+8! 9/,,3! :0/'*-0(/;! 7,$+8! </&/&! =8! </&(&;! /2'!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
=,8! =/.0*#! 7**.;! 53! -%1*,>(-$,-! (2! .0*! ?2(>*,-(.3! $+! @/5A,('B*;! ?C;! /2'!
.0*! ?2(>*,-(.3! $+! D*602$&$B3;! :/B0'/';! +$,! .0*! *46*&&*2.! -%11$,.! /2'!
B%('/26*!.0*3!0/>*!B(>*2!5*!.0,$%B0!53!.0*-(-!#$,);!.0*3!0/>*!A**2!0*&1+%&!
/2'!B*2*,$%-!#(.0!.0*(,!.(5*!/2'!*41*,.(-*!.$!*>/&%/.*!53!.0*-(-8!"!#$%&'!&()*!
.$! *4.*2'! 53! /11,*6(/.($2! .$! E--.! 7,$+8! =$0/55*'! <8! C/'0(5! +$,! 0(-!
>/&%/A&*!6$55*2.-!(2!.0*!-./,.!$+!.0(-!-.%'38!!!!
"! /5! *4.,*5*&3! B,/.*+%&! .$! =(2(-.,3! $+! 9(B0*,! F'%6/.($2! /2'! .$!
F&*6.,$5*60/2(6/&! F2B(2**,(2B! G*1/,.5*2.! (2! .0*! ?2(>*,-(.3! $+! D*602$&$B3!
+$,!B(>(2B!5*!.0*!$11$,.%2(.3!.$!1*,+$,5!53!.0*-(-!#$,)!(2!6$&&/A$,/.($2!#(.0!
G*1/,.5*2.! $+! =/.*,(/&-! H6(*26*! /2'! =*./&&%,B3! (2! .0*! ?2(>*,-(.3! $+!
@/5A,('B*8!!
"! /5! *4.,*5*&3! B,/.*+%&! .$! 9/,,3! :0/'*-0(/;! G*1/,.5*2.! $+! =/.*,(/&-!
H6(*26*! /2'! =*./&&%,B3! I! ?2(>*,-(.3! $+! @/5A,('B*;! :,(.(-0! ?2(>*,-(.(*-! ",/J!
@$2-$,.(%5;! /2'! =%,,/3! F'#/,'-! @$&&/B*! +$,! .0*! +(2/26(/&! -%11$,.! #0(60!
1,$>('*-! 5*! .0*! $11$,.%2(.3! .$! 1%,-%*!,*-*/,60!/.!@/5A,('B*!'%,(2B!.0*! &/-.!
.0,**!3*/,-8!
"! #(-0! .$! .0/2)! /&&! 5*5A*,-! $+! .0*! 70/-*! D,/2-+$,5/.($2! K,$%1! +$,!
.0*(,! 6$2.(2%$%-! 0*&1! /2'! +,(*2'-0(1;! (2! 1/,.(6%&/,! =/.0*#;! E5(,;! H.L10/2*;!
/2'!/&-$!.$!.0*!-./++!!(2!.0*!&(A,/,3;!.0*!&/A$,/.$,(*-;!/2'!.0*!#$,)-0$1!(2!.0*!
'*1/,.5*2.! $+! 5/.*,(/&-! -6(*26*! /2'! 5*./&&%,B3! (2! @/5A,('B*! *-1*6(/&&3!
C*>(2!+$,!.0*(,!6$2.(2%$%-!0*&18!
"! #(-0! .$! *41,*--! 53! .0/2)-! .$! /&&! 53! +,(*2'-! #(.0! -1*6(/&! .0/2)-! .$!
F&*/2$,;!H%/';!E-**&;!=$0/55*';!E2#/,;!E)**&;!H/&/5;!M%0/;!E5,$;!7/$&/;!
H/5*,/;!D0$,/3/!/2'!H%0/&8!!
"! /5! B,*/.&3! (2'*A.*'! .$! 53! +/5(&3! +$,! .0*(,! -%11$,.;! '*>$.($2! /2'!
%2'*,-./2'(2B!.0,$%B0!/&&!53!&(+*8!
!

Abstract
!"#$ %&'()&*$ &+$ ,(##*$ -.#'%"/'0$ "1,$ 2##'$ /'3#,(/01(#4$ /'$ ("/,$ ,(.45$ 25$
4#3#*&6/'0$ 1$ 6"5,/%1**5$ 21,#4$ 71("#71(/%1*$ 7&4#*$ .,/'0$("#$ %&'()&*$ 3&*.7#$
7#("&48$(&$,/7.*1(#$("#$-.#'%"/'0$6)&%#,,$1'4$(&$6)#4/%($("#$(/7#9(#76#)1(.)#$
"/,(&)58$ -.#'%"$ +1%(&)8$ 1'4$ 1,9-.#'%"#4$ "1)4'#,,:$ ;%%.)1(#$ 6)#4/%(/&'$
)#-./)#,$ <'&=*#40#$ &+$ ("#$ 2&.'41)5$ %&'4/(/&',8$ 1'4$ ("#$ "#1($ ()1',+#)$
%&#++/%/#'($="/%"$/,$("#$<#5$61)17#(#)$+&)$-.#'%"/'0$,/7.*1(/&',:$
!"#$ "#1($ ()1',+#)$ %&#++/%/#'(,$ +&)$ ,(##*,$ 1,$ 1$ +.'%(/&'$ &+$ (#76#)1(.)#$
=#)#$&2(1/'#4$25$4#3#*&6/'0$1$,./(12*#$7#1,.)#7#'($6)&2#:$>&("$*.76#4$"#1($
%161%/(5$?>/&($'.72#)$$@:AB$1'4$/'3#),#$"#1($%&'4.%(/&'$7&4#*,$=#)#$.(/*/,#4$
/'$ ("#$ 4#,/0'$ &+$ ("#$ 6)&2#$ 4/7#',/&',$ ?C$ 77$ 4/17#(#)8$ A@$ 77$ *#'0("B:$ !"#$
(/7#9(#76#)1(.)#$ "/,(&)5$ =1,$ )#%&)4#4$ .,/'0$ 1$ A$ 77$ D9(56#$ ("#)7&%&.6*#$
/',#)(#4$/'$("#$0#&7#()/%$%#'()#$&+$("#$%5*/'4)/%1*$6)&2#E$("#,#$41(1$=#)#$.,#4$
(&$%1*%.*1(#$("#$"#1($()1',+#)$%&#++/%/#'($1,$1$+.'%(/&'$&+$(#76#)1(.)#:$F/G$,(##*$
6)&2#,$ =/("$ 4/++#)#'($ %"#7/%1*$ %&76&,/(/&'$ =#)#$ .,#4$ (&$ /'3#,(/01(#$ ("#$
0#'#)1*/(5$&+$("#$7#("&4:$
;$ H@IC@$ 77$ ,(##*$ ,176*#$ =1,$ .,#4$ (&$ 4#7&',()1(#$ ("#$ 7&4#**/'0$
(#%"'/-.#$ 1'4$ (&$ 1,,#,,$ ("#$ 166*/%12/*/(5$ &+$ ("#$ %1*%.*1(#4$ "#1($ ()1',+#)$
%&#++/%/#'($(&$1'&("#)$,176*#$=/("$4/++#)#'($4/7#',/&',:$J&&4$10)##7#'($=1,$
+&.'4$ 2#(=##'$ ("#$ )#,.*(,$ +&)$ %&&*/'0$ %.)3#,$ 1'4$ "1)4'#,,$ 4/,()/2.(/&'$
&2(1/'#4$ +)&7$ ("#$ -.#'%"/'0$ 6)&%#,,$ 7&4#**/'0$ 6)&0)17$ 1'4$ ("#$
#G6#)/7#'(1**5$7#1,.)#4$%&&*/'0$%.)3#,$1'4$"1)4'#,,:$
!"#$6#)+&)71'%#$&+$1$'.72#)$&+$-.#'%"1'(,$/'$31)5/'0$%&'4/(/&',$=1,$
1*,&$ /'3#,(/01(#48$ 1'4$ ("#$ 4#,/0'#4$ 6)&2#$ =1,$ .,#4$ (&$ /**.,()1(#$ ("#$ #++#%($ &+$
-.#'%"/'0$61)17#(#),$?-.#'%"1'($(56#$1'4$-.#'%"1'($(#76#)1(.)#B$&'$%&&*/'0$

!"#$%& '$"#(#!")*+$!& ,-$++.,.$)#%& /0$),'& +",#-!%& ")1& #'$& $*#.2"#$1& "*(/0$),'$1&


'"!1)$**3&4'$&!$*05#*&*'-6&#'"#&#'$&'$"#&#!")*+$!&7!-7$!#.$*&"!$&8!$"#59&"++$,#$1&
:9& #'$& /0$),'")#& 7"!"2$#$!*& 6'.,'& .)+50$),$& #'$& /0$),'& +",#-!& ")1& #'$&
2$,'").,"5&7!-7$!#.$*&-+&#'$&*"275$3&
4'$!2"5& ,-)10,#.;.#9& .*& "5*-& ")& .27-!#")#& :-0)1"!9& ,-)1.#.-)& +-!&
*.205"#.)8&#'$&/0$),'.)8&7!-,$**3&<&)$0!"5&)$#6-!=&2-1$5&6"*&+-!205"#$1&#-&
$*#.2"#$& #'$& #'$!2"5& ,-)10,#.;.#9& -+& *#$$5*& "*& "& +0),#.-)& -+& #$27$!"#0!$& ")1&
,'$2.,"5&,-27-*.#.-)3&>.#'&#'.*&2-1$5&.#&.*&7-**.:5$&#-&*.205"#$&#'$&/0$),'.)8&
7!-,$**& +-!& ")9& *#$$5& !"#'$!& #'")& :$.)8& 5.2.#$1& #-& -)59& #'-*$& 6.#'& ";".5":5$&
1"#"3& ?#& .*& "5*-& "& )$,$**"!9& #--5& #-& .27!-;$& #'$& 1$*.8)& -+& *#$$5*& ")1& #'$& '$"#&
#!$"#2$)#&7!-,$**3&&
&
&
&

&

Contents
!
!
!
1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
!

"#"! $%&'()*+&,(%!

! "!

"#-! .,&/'0&*'/!'/1,/2!

! 3!

"#-#"! 405+*50&,(%!(6!7/0&!&'0%86/'!+(/66,+,/%&!

! 9!

"#-#-! :*/%+7!60+&('!0%05;8,8!

! "<

"#<! =>?/+&,1/!(6!&7/!8&*);!!!

! "@

"#A! B/8/0'+7!2('C!50;(*&!
!

! "@

2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
!

-#"! :*/%+7,%D!0%)!E*/%+7,%D!8&0D/8!

"9!

-#"#"! F&0D/GH!7/0&!'/I(105!

-J!

-#"#-! F&0D/GK!7/0&!'/I(105!

-"!

-#"#<! F&0D/G4!7/0&!'/I(105!

--!

-#-! 4((5,%D!+*'1/!0%05;8,8!

! !

-<!

-#-#"! L66/+&!(6!E*/%+7,%D!M0'0I/&/'8!(%!+((5,%D!
+*'1/#!

-<!

-#-#-! L8&,I0&,%D!08!E*/%+7/)!70')%/88!(6!8&//5!6'(I! !
+((5,%D!+*'1/!

-3!

-#<! :*/%+7,%D!08!0!7/0&!&'0%86/'!M'(+/88!

<J!

"#$#%! &'()*+,-!()+)*!.*+)!)/+'(0*/!

$1!

"#$#"! 2*+)!)/+'(0*/!,3/4'5!63*'7.4'5!

$%!

"#$#$! 8*)*/94'+)4:'!:0!.*+)!)/+'(0*/!7:*00474*')!
3(4'5!4';*/(*!9*).:,!

$"!

"#<! =+)*/4+>!?.-(47+>!?/:?*/)4*(!

$@!

"#<#%! A?*74047!.*+)!7+?+74)-!

$@!

"#<#"! B.*/9+>!7:',37)4;4)-!

$C!

"#D! B.*:/*)47+>!+',!*E?*/49*')+>!4';*()45+)4:'!

$F!

"#D#%! GE?*/49*')+>!4';*()45+)4:'!

$F!

"#D#"! B.*:/*)47+>!7+>73>+)4:'!

<1!

"#D#$! H,;+')+5*(!:0!7:9?3)*/!9:,*>!:;*/!
*E?*/49*')(!

<1!

"#@! =+).*9+)47+>!,*(7/4?)4:'!:0!63*'7.4'5!?/:7*((!

<1!

"#@#%! I:')/:>!J:>39*!K:/93>+)4:'!

<%!

"#@#"! =+).*9+)47+>!0:/93>+)4:'!+',!.*+)!L+>+'7*!

<%!

"#@#$! M'4)4+>!7:',4)4:'!+',!N:3',+/-!':,*(!

<D!

"#@#<! O/:5/+9!,*(7/4?)4:'!
!

D<!

3 NEURAL NETWORK MODEL FOR PREDICTION OF THERMAL


CONDUCTIVITY OF STEELS
!

$#%! M')/:,37)4:'!

D@!

$#"! =:,*>>4'5!7:9?>*E!?/:?*/)4*(!

DP!

$#$! B.*/9+>!7:',37)4;4)-!

DC!

$#$#%! B.*/9+>!7:',37)4;4)-!+',!*>*7)/47+>!
/*(4()4;4)-!

DC!

$#$#"! G00*7)!:0!)*9?*/+)3/*!

DF!

"#"#"! $%%&'(!)%!*++),-./!

01!

"#2! 3*,&4-*.!.&56*+!.&(7)684!

"#2#:! ;<&6%-((-./!(=&!>)?&+!)%!.&56*+!.&(7)68!

"#2#@! A)-4&!*.?!5.'&6(*-.(-&4!

"#0! C6)'&?56&4!

"#9! D)?&+!E6&?-'(-).4!

B2!

"#B! C6&?-'(-<&!*F-+-(,!

G1!

9:!
!

99!

9B!
91!

"#B#:! H.4&&.!?*(*!7-(=-.!(=&!6*./&!)%!>)?&+!
!

G1!

4 EXPERIMENTAL WORK
!

2#:! I.(6)?5'(-).!

10!

2#@! J5&.'=-./!4,4(&>!?&4-/.!!

2#@#:! K=&!%56.*'&!

1G!

2#@#@! J5&.'=!(*.8!

1G!

2#@#"! K=&!(=&6>)')5E+&!

1G!

2#@#2! L*(*!*'M5-4-(-).!4,4(&>!

:NN

2#@#0!!! K=&!E6)F&!

:NN

2#"! C6)F&!E6&E*6*(-).!*.?!(&4(!E6)'&?56&!

2#2! L*(*!*.*+,4-4!

2#0! $OE&6->&.(*+!E+*.!

2#0#:! L-%%&6&.(!4(&&+!')>E)4-(-).4!

:N2

2#0#@! L-%%&6&.(!M5&.'=*.(!(,E&!*.?!M5&.'=*.(!
(&>E&6*(56&4!

:N2

2#0#"! P*4&!4(5?,!
!

10!

:N"
!

:N2

:N2

:N0

5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


!

"#$! %&'()'&*+,-!./!(..'+,-!0&*12!&,3!41&*!*0&,2/10!(.1//+(+1,*2! !
/.0!3+//101,*!(.56.2+*+.,!2*11'2!

$78

"#9! :15.,2*0&*+.,!./!5.31'!!

$9$

"#9#$! ;.31''+,-!*1(4,+<)1!

$9$

"#9#9! =>610+51,*&'!+,?12*+-&*+.,!

"#9#@! %.56&0+2.,!A1*B11,!*41!5.31''+,-!&,3!
1>610+51,*&'!012)'*2!

$@C

"#9#D! %.56&0+2.,!A1*B11,!*41!51&2)013!!
&,3!6013+(*13!4&03,122!)2+,-!3+//101,*!60.A12!
!

$@E

"#@! =//1(*!./!<)1,(4&,*!*15610&*)01!.,!41&*!*0&,2/10!./!2*11'2!+,! !
B&*10F!A0+,1!&,3!.+'!

$D7

"#@#$! %..'+,-!()0?12!&,3!(..'+,-!0&*12!012)'*2!!

$D7

"#@#9! G)1,(4!/&(*.0!&,3!4&03,122!012)'*2!!

"#@#@! %.56&0+2.,!A1*B11,!*41!<)1,(4&,*2!
!

$@9

$C$
!

$CC

6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


!

C#$! %.,(')2+.,!

C#9! H)--12*+.,2!/.0!*41!/)*)01!B.0I!

REFERENCES
!
!
!

$8$
!

$8@
$8D

Chapter 1
Introduction and Literature review

1.1

Introduction

"#$! %&'(')*+,*-! .$)'&/$! %.! ('$$0(! 1#,2#! 3)4$(! '#$3! (&2#!

(&22$((.&0! $*-,*$$/,*-! 3)'$/,)0(! ,(! '#$! )5,0,'6! '%! )+7&('! '#$! 3$2#)*,2)0!
8/%8$/',$(!%9$/!)!1,+$!/)*-$!&(,*-!2%*'/%00$+!#$)':'/$)'3$*'(;!
!

"#$! 3%('! '#$/3%+6*)3,2)006! .)9%&/$+! ('$$0! ('/&2'&/$(! )/$! 8/%+&2$+!

1#$*!('$$0!,(!#$)'$+!'%!'#$!#,-#!'$38$/)'&/$!)&('$*,'$!(')'$!)*+!(0%106!2%%0$+;!
"#,(! '/$)'3$*'! 8/%+&2$(! )! ('/&2'&/$! '#)'! #)(! )! 0%1! 0$9$0! %.! /$(,+&)0! ('/$((!
0%24$+! 1,'#,*! '#$! ('$$0;! <%1$9$/=! #,-#! ('/$*-'#! ,(! )2#,$9$+! &(&)006! 56! /)8,+!
2%%0,*-! '%! .%/3! )! 5),*,',2! %/! 3)/'$*(,',2! 3,2/%('/&2'&/$;! "#$! 2%%0,*-!
2%*+,',%*(! )/$! '#$*! *%*&*,.%/3! )*+! '#,(! 0$)+(! '%! '#$! $9%0&',%*! %.! ! ('/$(($(!
1#,2#!3)6!5$!+$'/,3$*')0!'%!'#$!0,.$!%.!'#$!2%38%*$*';!
!

>8',3,()',%*!%.!'#$!?&$*2#,*-!8/%2$((!&(&)006!/$?&,/$(!'#$!($0$2',%*!%.!

2%%0,*-! /)'$(! .)('! $*%&-#! '%! 8$/3,'! '#$! +$(,/$+! 3)/'$*(,',2! 3,2/%('/&2'&/$! '%!
.%/3!'%!'#$!/$?&,/$+!+$8'#!5&'!(0%1!$*%&-#!'%!3,*,3,@$!/$(,+&)0!('/$(($(!)*+!
+,('%/',%*!A.,-&/$!B:BC;!"#$!?&$*2#,*-!,*'$*(,'6!2)*!5$!2#)*-$+!56!9)/6,*-!'#$!

1 Introduction and Literature review

'68$!%.!?&$*2#)*'=!,'(!2%*2$*'/)',%*!)*+!'$38$/)'&/$=!)*+!'#$!/)'$!%.!)-,')',%*!
DB:EF;!!
!

G&$*2#,*-! ,(! )*! ,38%/')*'! ('$8! ,*! 8/%+&2,*-! 3)*6! 3$2#)*,2)0! )*+!

)&'%3%',9$!8)/'(H!,'!,(!%.'$*!'#$!3%('!$2%*%3,2)0!1)6!'%!)2#,$9$!#,-#!('/$*-'#!
)*+!#)/+*$((;!I38/%8$/!2%*'/%0!%.!?&$*2#,*-!2)*!2)&($!+,('%/',%*!%/!2/)24,*-;!
J#$*!'#,(!#)88$*(!'%!2%38%*$*'(!'#)'!#)9$!)0/$)+6!-%*$!'#/%&-#!)!*&35$/!%.!
8/$9,%&(!8/%2$(($(=!$9$/6!/$7$2'$+!8)/'!/$8/$($*'(!)!(,-*,.,2)*'!3%*$')/6!0%((!
DK=!LF;!I*!.)2'=!,//$8/%+&2,50$!/$(&0'(!2)&($+!56!&*2%*'/%00$+!?&$*2#,*-!,(!%*$!
%.! '#$! 3)7%/! 2)&($(! %.! /$7$2'$+! 2%38%*$*'(=! 8/%+&2',%*! 0%(($(! )*+! '#$!
8/%+&2',%*!%.!2%38%*$*'(!'#)'!*$$+!'%!5$!/$1%/4$+!DM=!NF!
!

O%*'/%0! %.! ('$$0! 3)4,*-=! 3)*&.)2'&/,*-=! )*+! 8/%2$((,*-! (&2#! )(! #$)'!

'/$)'3$*'! ,(! 5$,*-! 2%*',*&)006! ,*9$(',-)'$+! )*+! )880,$+;! "#,(! 2)*! 5$('! 5$!
)2#,$9$+!56!'#$!+$9$0%83$*'!%.!)!8#6(,2)006!5)($+!3)'#$3)',2)0!3%+$0!DPF;!I*!
%/+$/! '%! &($! (&2#! )! 3%+$0=! '#$! 9)0&$! %.! '#$! 8#6(,2)0! 9)/,)50$(! /$0)'$+! '%! '#$!
8#$*%3$*%*! 1#,2#! ,(! /$8/$($*'$+! 3&('! 5$! 4*%1*;! "#$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/!
2%$..,2,$*'! ,(! %*$! %.! '#$! 3%('! ,38%/')*'! %.! '#$($! .)2'%/(! ,*! '#$! 2%*'$Q'! %.!
?&$*2#,*-!DBRF;!
!

"#$! '#$/3)0! 2%*+&2',9,'6! ,(! )0(%! )! (,-*,.,2)*'! .)2'%/! ,*! '#$! #$)'!

'/$)'3$*'!)*+!'#$!&($!%.!('$$0(;!"$38$/)'&/$!-/)+,$*'(!+&/,*-!2%%0,*-!2)*!0$)+!
'%! 3,2/%('/&2'&/)0! -/)+,$*'(! )*+! '%! /$(,+&)0! ('/$(($(! ,*! ('$$0! 2%38%*$*'(;!
"#$/3)0!'/)*(,$*'(!2)*!,*.0&$*2$!'#$!+$9$0%83$*'!%.!('/$(($(!/$+&2,*-!($/9,2$!
0,.$!)*+!().$'6!DBB=!BSF;!!!
!

T$0,)50$!8/$+,2',%*!%.!'#$!',3$:'$38$/)'&/$!#,('%/6=!3,2/%('/&2'&/$!)*+!

)(:?&$*2#$+! 8/%8$/',$(! %.! ('$$0! /$?&,/$(! )22&/)'$! +)')! %.! '#$! 5%&*+)/6!
2%*+,',%*(! .%/! '#$! 8/%2$((! (,3&0)',%*;! O&//$*'06=! %*$! %.! '#$! -/$)'$('!
,38$+,3$*'(! '%! )! .&00! 8/$+,2',9$! ?&$*2#! (,3&0)',%*! '%%0! ,(! '#$! ,*)5,0,'6! '%!
2#)/)2'$/,@$!'#$!(&/.)2$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'!DBU=!BEF;!

1 Introduction and Literature review

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Figure 1-1: Coupling effect between cooling rate, phase


transformation and stresses, and their influence on material
properties.

1: Temperature dependent phase transformations.

2: Thermal stress.

3: Latent heat.

4: Heat of deformation.

5: Transformation strain.

6: Stress-induced transformation.

!
!
!
!

1 Introduction and Literature review

"#$! 3)7%/! -%)0! %.! '#,(! 1%/4! ,(! '#$! )22&/)'$! $(',3)',%*! %.! '#$! #$)'!
'/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! .%/! ('$$0(! )'! '#$! ,*'$/.)2$! 5$'1$$*! '#$! ('$$0! )*+! '#$!
?&$*2#,*-!3$+,&3!)(!)!.&*2',%*!%.!'$38$/)'&/$=!5)($+!%*!'#$!2%%0,*-!2&/9$(!
%5'),*$+!56!?&$*2#,*-!)!8/%5$!,*'%!'#$!?&$*2#)*';!
"#$!%'#$/!),3!,(!'%!+$9$0%8!)!*$&/)0!*$'1%/4!3%+$0!'%!8/%9,+$!'#$/3)0!
2%*+&2',9,'6! 9)0&$(! %.! '#$! ('$$0! 5$,*-! &($+! )*+! #%1! ,'! 2#)*-$(! 1,'#!
'$38$/)'&/$!+$8$*+,*-!%*!,'(!2#$3,2)0!2%38%(,',%*!
I*! )++,',%*=! '#,(! 8/%7$2'! .%2&($(! %*! '#$! $Q8$/,3$*')006! +$'$/3,*$+!
5$#)9,%&/! %.! +,..$/$*'! ?&$*2#)*'(! )22%/+,*-! '%! '#$,/! 8#6(,2)0! 8/%8$/',$(!
A'$38$/)'&/$!)*+!9,(2%(,'6C;!"#$!2%%0,*-!2&/9$!1)(!3$)(&/$+!56!'#$!+$(,-*$+!
8/%5$! )*+! &($+! '%! 2)02&0)'$! '#$! ?&$*2#! .)2'%/;! I*! '#$! 8/$($*'! 1%/4! )! 4,*$',2!
8/%-/)3!3&2-NU!DBKF!1)(!&($+!'%!%5'),*!'#$!$?&)',%*!'#)'!+$(2/,5$(!'#$!',3$:
'$38$/)'&/$:'/)*(.%/3)',%*!A"""C!2&/9$!.%/!'#$!)00%6!('$$0!%.!,*'$/$('!'%!)9%,+!
'#$! *$$+! .%/! '#$! $?&)',%*! 2%*(')*'(! 1#,2#! /$8/$($*'! '#$! 3),*! 8/%50$3! ,*! '#$!
%0+!)88/%)2#!,*!+$'$/3,*,*-!'#$!?&$*2#!.)2'%/!AGVC;!

1 Introduction and Literature review


1.2

Literature review
"#$!8/,3)/6!.&*2',%*!%.!)!?&$*2#)*'!,(!'%!2%*'/%0!'#$!#$)':'/)*(.$/!/)'$!

./%3! )*! %57$2'! +&/,*-! '#$! ?&$*2#,*-! 8/%2$((! )*+! '%! 8/%+&2$! '#$! +$(,/$+!
2%35,*)',%*!%.!#)/+*$((=!('/$*-'#=!)*+!'%&-#*$((;!"#$!?&$*2#)*'!(#%&0+!)0(%!
3,*,3,@$!+,('%/',%*!+&$!'%!'#$!+$9$0%83$*'!%.!/$(,+&)0!('/$(($(!56!8/%3%',*-!
'#$!&*,.%/3,'6!%.!2%%0,*-!%9$/!'#$!(&/.)2$!%.!'#$!2%38%*$*';!"#$!3$2#)*,2)0!
8/%8$/',$(! %5'),*$+! )/$! (,-*,.,2)*'06! )..$2'$+! 56! '#$! 2%%0,*-! /)'$(! )''),*$+!
+&/,*-!?&$*2#,*-!DBL:BNF;!
O%%0,*-! 2&/9$! )*)06(,(! ,(! '#$! 3%('! &($.&0! '%%0! ,*! ($0$2',*-! '#$!
)88/%8/,)'$! ?&$*2#,*-! 3$+,&3! .%/! '#$! #$)'! '/$)'3$*'! %.! ('$$0! 8)/'(;! "#$!
'$2#*,?&$!$9)0&)'$(!'#$!2%%0,*-!8%1$/!%.!?&$*2#,*-!3$+,)!56!3$)(&/,*-!'#$!
'#$/3)0!/$(8%*($!%.!)!8/%5$=!(&,')506!,*('/&3$*'$+!1,'#!'#$/3%2%&80$(!1#,2#!
)/$! &($+! 0)'$/! '%! $(',3)'$! ?&$*2#! ($9$/,'6! )*+! ?&$*2#! .)2'%/;! "#$! 3%('!
2%33%*!8/%5$!2%*.,-&/)',%*!,(!)!260,*+/,2)0!5)/!1,'#!)!0$*-'#!'#)'!,(!)'!0$)('!
.%&/!',3$(!'#$!+,)3$'$/!'%!3,*,3,@$!$*+!2%%0,*-!$..$2'(!A.,-&/$(!B:S!'%!B:KC;!W!
'#$/3%2%&80$! ,(! &(&)006! 0%2)'$+! )'! '#$! -$%3$'/,2! 2$*'/$! %.! '#$! 8/%5$;! X/%5$(!
1,'#! 3&0',80$! '#$/3%2%&80$(! $35$++$+! )/$! )0(%! &($+! ,*! %/+$/! '%! 3$)(&/$!
'#$/3)0!-/)+,$*'(!DBM:SBF;!
G&$*2#,*-! 8/%5$(! )/$! &(&)006! 2%*('/&2'$+! ./%3! 3)'$/,)0(! '#)'! +%! *%'!
$Q#,5,'!)*6!8#)($!'/)*(.%/3)',%*!+&/,*-!?&$*2#,*-=!(&2#!)(!I*2%*$0!LRR!DBP=!
SS:SEF=!(,09$/!DBP=!SS=!SKF!%/!URE!('),*0$((!('$$0!DSL:SMF=!'%!)00%1!'#$!/$(&0'(!'%!
5$! ,*'$/8/$'$+! 1,'#%&'! '#$! 2%380,2)',%*! %.! $Q%'#$/3,2! '/)*(.%/3)',%*;! I*!
)++,',%*=!&(,*-!(&2#!3)'$/,)0(!$0,3,*)'$(!'#$!+)*-$/!%.!2/)24,*-!%.!'#$!8/%5$H!
$(8$2,)006!,*!'#$!3%/$!($9$/$!?&$*2#!3$+,);!

1 Introduction and Literature review

W!9)/,$'6!%.!,*('/&3$*'$+!8/%5$(!(,@$(=!(#)8$(=!3$')0(!)*+!+)')!)*)06(,(!
('/)'$-,$(! #)9$! 5$$*! &($+! .%/! 2%%0,*-! 2&/9$! )*)06(,(! 1,'#! 9)/,%&(! +$-/$$(! %.!
(&22$((! DBP:UBF;! "#$/$! #)9$! 5$$*! )''$38'(! '%! (')*+)/+,@$! 8/%5$! +$(,-*! ,*!
%/+$/!'%!.)2,0,')'$!'#$!2%38)/,(%*!%.!2%%0,*-!2&/9$!+)');!Y%3$!%.!'#$!(')*+)/+(!
+$9$0%8$+!,*20&+$H!'#$!Z)8)*$($!(')*+)/+!(,09$/!8/%5$!)*+!'#$!J%0.(%*!8/%5$!
1#,2#! ,(! 2%*('/&2'$+! ./%3! ,*2%*$0! LRR;! ")50$! B:B! (#%1(! )! 2%38)/,(%*! %.!
2%%0,*-!2&/9$!(')*+)/+(;!
")-)6)! )*+! ")3&/)! +$9$0%8$+! '#$! Z)8)*$($! ,*+&('/,)0! (')*+)/+! AZIYC!
DUS=!UUF!.%/!2%%0,*-!2&/9$!)2?&,(,',%*!&',0,@,*-!)!260,*+/,2)0!(,09$/!8/%5$!1,'#!)!
'#$/3%2%&80$! )(($3506! (8$2,.,2)006! 2%*('/&2'$+! '%! +$'$/3,*$! '#$! 2#)*-$! ,*!
(&/.)2$!'$38$/)'&/$!1,'#!',3$!+&/,*-!?&$*2#,*-!A.,-&/$!B:SC;!"#$!260,*+/,2)0!
(,09$/!8/%5$!1)(!)+%8'$+!.%/!'#$!ZIY!3$'#%+!5$2)&($!%.!,'(!#,-#!2%*+&2',9,'6=!
'#$!)5($*2$!%.!8#)($!'/)*(.%/3)',%*=!)*+!*%!(&/.)2$!%Q,+,@)',%*H!'#,(!3$)*(!,'!
#)(! )! #,-#! ($*(,',9,'6! )*+! $Q2$00$*'! /$8/%+&2,5,0,'6! %.! /$(&0'(;! <%1$9$/=! ,'(!
'#$/3)0!2%*+&2',9,'6!,(!?&,'$!+,..$/$*'!./%3!'#)'!%.!('$$0;!I'!)0(%!#)(!)!#,-#!2%('!
%.! 3)*&.)2'&/,*-=! )*+! ,'! ,(! +,..,2&0'!'%! 8/$8)/$! +$0,2)'$! (&/.)2$!'#$/3%2%&80$!
)(($350,$(=!5$2)&($!(,09$/!,(!3$2#)*,2)006!1$)4;!
"#$! 8/%5$! 2&//$*'06! 1,'#! '#$! 1,+$('! )22$8')*2$! )(! (')*+)/+! ,(! '#$!!!!!
BS;K!33!+,)3$'$/!LR!33!0$*-'#!I*2%*$0!LRR!8/%5$;!"#,(!8/%5$!,(!(8$2,.,$+!,*!
'#$! IY>! 3$'#%+! A.,-&/$! B:UC! DBN=! UEF! 3),*06! 5$2)&($! %.! ,'(! $Q2$00$*'!
3$2#)*,2)0! 8/%8$/',$(;! <%1$9$/! ,'(! ($*(,',9,'6! ,(! 0$((! '#)*! '#)'! %.! '#$! (,09$/!
8/%5$;!W0(%=!'#$!(&/.)2$!2%*+,',%*!%.!'#,(!IY>!8/%5$!,(!*%'!(')50$!+&/,*-!,*,',)0!
#$)',*-=!1#,0$!'#)'!%.!'#$!(,09$/!8/%5$!,(!)01)6(!(')50$;!"#$!I*2%*$0!8/%5$!#)(!
)! '#$/3)0! 2%*+&2',9,'6! 1#,2#! ,(! 3&2#! 20%($/! '%! '#)'! %.! ('$$0! '#)*! ,(! '#$! 2)($!
1,'#!(,09$/;!I'!)0(%!+%$(!*%'!$Q#,5,'!)*6!8#)($!'/)*(.%/3)',%*(!DBP=!SS:SEF;!!
!

1 Introduction and Literature review

Table 1-1: Comparison of probe specifications standards.

Variable

Probe

ISO

AFNOR

9950:1995(E)

NFT-60778

(International)

(France)

JIS K 2242

ZBE 45003-88

(Japan)

(China)

Proposed
ASTM
(United State)

Y,09$/=!

Y,09$/=!

PP;PPP[!

PP;PP[!

8&/$!

8&/$!

BS;K!! !LR!

BL!! !EN!

BR!! UR!

BR!! UR!

BS;K!! LR!

NKR\!K!

NRR\!K!

NBR\!K!

NBR\!K!

NKR\!K!

I*2%*$0!LRR!

Y,09$/=!PP;PL[!
8&/$!

I*2%*$0!LRR!

Probe
dimensions,
Diameter !
Length, mm
Probe
quenching
temperature, C

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure
1-2: JIS Silver
probe [18].

Figure 1-3: Inconel 600


probe [18].

1 Introduction and Literature review

])'$(! )*+! "%''$*! DUKF! #)9$! &($+! )*! )0&3,*,&3! 8/%5$! 1,'#! 3&0',80$!
'#$/3%2%&80$(!A.,-&/$!B:EC!'%!3$)(&/$!'$38$/)'&/$!-/)+,$*'(!1#,0$!2%%0,*-!,*!
9)/,%&(! ?&$*2#,*-! 3$+,);! "#$! 3)Q,3&3! +,..$/$*2$! ,*! '$38$/)'&/$! 5$'1$$*!
'#$!(&/.)2$!)*+!'#$!2$*'/$!%.!'#$!8/%5$!2)*!5$!&($+!'%!$(',3)'$!'#$!8/%8$*(,'6!
.%/!('/$((!.%/3)',%*!)*+!+,('%/',%*!+&/,*-!?&$*2#,*-;!
<,*$(! )*+! ^&$00$/! DBNF! 2%38)/$+! '#$! 8$/.%/3)*2$! %.! SK_BRR! 33!
260,*+/,2)0!WIYI!BKEL!('$$0!AR;EL!O:B;SK!^*!1'[C!)*+!'68$!URE!('),*0$((!('$$0!
8/%5$(!A.,-&/$!B:KC;!"#$,/!/$(&0'(!(#%1$+!'#)'!'#$!0%1!#)/+$*)5,0,'6!WIYI!BKEL!
8/%5$!2%*(,('$*'06!8/%+&2$+!0%*-$/!9)8%&/!.,03!(')-$!',3$!'#)*!'#$!'68$!URE!
8/%5$=! 5%'#! %.! 1#,2#! 1$/$! ?&$*2#$+! ,*'%! '#$! ()3$! 3$+,&3;! "#,(! 5$#)9,%&/!
1)(! )''/,5&'$+! '%! '#$! $Q%'#$/3,2! 8#)($! '/)*(.%/3)',%*! %.! )&('$*,'$! '%! .$//,'$!
)*+!8$)/0,'$!,*!'#$!WIYI!BKEL!('$$0;!Y,3,0)/!/$(&0'(!1$/$!%5'),*$+!&(,*-!WIYI!
KBLR!('$$0!8/%5$!AR;L!O:R;N!O/:R;NN^*:R;SUY,!1'[C;!!
!
!
!
M;L!23!

! R;U!23!
!

BK;S!23!

!
!
!

U;N!23!

Figure 1-4: Multiple thermocouples


! probe [18].

Figure 1-5: Hines-Mueller type


304 stainless steel probe [18].

1 Introduction and Literature review

1.2.1!!!!!Calculation of heat transfer coefficient


!

G&$*2#,*-! )! #%'! %57$2'! ,*'%! )! 0,?&,+! 3$+,&3! ,*9%09$(! )! 2%380$Q! #$)'!

'/)*(.$/!8/%2$((;!<$)'!$Q'/)2',%*!./%3!'#$!(&/.)2$!%.!'#$!%57$2'!%22&/(!'#/%&-#!
($9$/)0!+,..$/$*':#$)'!'/)*(.$/!3$2#)*,(3(!)*+!,*!+,(',*2'!'$38$/)'&/$!/)*-$(;!
"#$! (')-$(! )/$`! .%/3)',%*! %.! 9)8%&/! 50)*4$'! .,03=! *&20$)'$! 5%,0,*-=! )*+!
2%*9$2',%*! 2%%0,*-! (')-$;! T$0,)50$! (,3&0)',%*! %.! '#$! ?&$*2#,*-! 8/%2$((!
/$?&,/$(!)22&/)'$!+)')!%.!'#$!5%&*+)/6!2%*+,',%*(H!'#$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'!
,(!'#$!3%('!,38%/')*'!8)/)3$'$/!+&/,*-!)!?&$*2#,*-!8/%2$((!DUL:UMF=!)*+!,'!#)(!!
)!-/$)'!,*.0&$*2$!&8%*!'#$!+$9$0%83$*'!%.!3,2/%('/&2'&/$!)*+!/$(,+&)0!('/$(($(!
,*! ('$$0! 8)/'(;! I'! ,(! '#$! 4$6! 8)/)3$'$/! ,*! *&3$/,2)0! (,3&0)',%*(! %.! '#$!
?&$*2#,*-!8/%2$((!DBL=!SP=!UN:EUF;!
!

I*!3&2#!%.!'#$!8/$9,%&(!/$($)/2#=!'#$!(&/.)2$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'(!

#)9$! &(&)006! 5$$*! '/$)'$+! )(! 2%*(')*'(;! I*! /$)0,'6=! 2%$..,2,$*'(! )/$! *%*0,*$)/!
.&*2',%*(! %.! '#$! '$38$/)'&/$! )*+! '#$! 9%0&3$! ./)2',%*(! %.! '#$! 8#)($(! DEUF;!
"#$/$!#)9$!5$$*!)''$38'(!'%!$9)0&)'$!2%$..,2,$*'(!)(!)!.&*2',%*!%.!'$38$/)'&/$!
.%/!('$$0(!+&/,*-!'#$!2%&/($!%.!?&$*2#,*-;!!
!

"#$! $(',3)',%*! %.! '#$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! ,(! 2%380,2)'$+! 56! '#$!

0)'$*'!#$)'!/$0$)($+!+&/,*-!8#)($!'/)*(.%/3)',%*(;!I*!)++,',%*=!'#$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!
2%$..,2,$*'! +&/,*-! ?&$*2#,*-! %.! 3$')0(! +$8$*+(! *%'! %*06! %*! '#$! ?&$*2#)*'!
.)2'%/! 5&'! )0(%! %*! 1%/4:8,$2$! .)2'%/(! (&2#! )(! ,'(! +,3$*(,%*! )*+! (&/.)2$!
2%*+,',%*;!O%*($?&$*'06=!)*!$(',3)',%*!%.!'#$!2%$..,2,$*'(!./%3!2%%0,*-!2&/9$!
+)')! %5'),*$+! &(,*-! '#$! (')*+)/+! 8/%5$! ,(! %.'$*! 2%*+&2'$+;! ]$2)&($! ,'! ,(!
+,..,2&0'! '%! +,/$2'06! 3$)(&/$! '#$! 2%%0,*-! 2&/9$! %*! '#$! (&/.)2$! %.! )! ?&$*2#$+!
8/%5$=! '#$! ,*9$/($! 2)02&0)',%*! 3$'#%+! %.! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! 5$2%3$(! )!
3)7%/! 3$'#%+!.%/! (%09,*-!'#$!)5%9$! 8/%50$3! DBU=! SS=! UM=! EE:KSF;! V,-&/$! B:L!
(#%1(!'#$!(&/.)2$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'!)(!)!.&*2',%*!%.!(&/.)2$!'$38$/)'&/$!

1 Introduction and Literature review

10

%5'),*$+! &(,*-! +,..$/$*'! 8/%5$(! 3)'$/,)0(=! '#$! 8/%5$(! +,3$*(,%*(! )/$! UR_PR!
33!260,*+$/!?&$*2#$+!,*!1)'$/!)'!BN!aO=!'#$!8/%5$(!3)+$!./%3!*,24$0=!O/b,:
('$$0=! )*+! I*2%*$0! LRR;! "#$! .,-&/$(! B:M! '%! B:P! (#%1! '#$! $..$2'! %.! ?&$*2#)*'!
8)/)3$'$/(!%*!'#$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'(=!1#,2#!1,00!5$!$Q80),*$+!,*!2#)8'$/!
U;!
>*$! %.! '#$! .,/('! )''$38'(! '%! +$9,($! )! 3$'#%+! %.! $Q8$/,3$*')0!
3$)(&/$3$*'! %.! %9$/)00! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'(! 1)(! 56! c)35$/'! )*+!
d2%*%3%8%&0%(!DUMF;!"#,(!3$'#%+!,*9%09$+!'#$!,*'/%+&2',%*!%.!)!8/%5$!,*(,+$!
'#$! $*9,/%*3$*'! ,*9$(',-)'$+! A/$#$)',*-! .&/*)2$=! ?&$*2#,*-! 5)'#C! 1#,0$!
/$2%/+,*-! '#$! ',3$:'$38$/)'&/$! 2&/9$! %.! )! -,9$*! 8%,*'! ,*! '#$! 8/%5$;! W*+! '#$!
%9$/)00!#$)':'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'(!1$/$!2%38&'$+!%*!'#$!5)(,(!%.!$Q8$/,3$*')0!
/$(&0'(=!&(,*-!)!*&3$/,2)0!(%0&',%*!%.!'#$!,*9$/($!#$)'!2%*+&2',%*!8/%50$3=!'#$!
8/%5$(!1$/$!3)+$!./%3!'1%!+,..$/$*'!3)'$/,)0(=!*,24$0!)*+!3,0+!('$$0;!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 1-6: Heat-transfer coefficients as a function of temperature
during
quenching of cylindrical probe with 30!90 mm dimensions [18].
!

1 Introduction and Literature review

11

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Figure 1-7: Effect of quenchant composition on the heat-transfer


coefficients [18].
a-NaCl

b-NaOH

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Figure 1-8: Heat-transfer coefficients as a function of temperature


during quenching in various viscosity oil quenching [18]:
a- 113.9!106 m2 s-1

b- 68.3!106 m2 s-1

c- 31.1!106 m2 s-1

d- 22.9!106 m2 s-1

1 Introduction and Literature review

12

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Figure 1-9: Cooling rates as a function of temperature obtained


using silver ball with 20 mm diameter quenched in a different
temperatures still water [1].

!
!

^)*6!'$2#*,?&$(!#)9$!5$$*!+$9$0%8$+!.%/!'#$!,*9$/($!)*)06(,(!3$'#%+!

'%! 2%38&'$! (&/.)2$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! +,('/,5&',%*! ./%3! $Q8$/,3$*')0!


+)');! "#$! ,*8&'(! '%! '#$! )*)06(,(! )/$! '#$! 8/%5$! -$%3$'/6=! 3)'$/,)0! 8/%8$/',$(=!
)*+! '#$! 3$)(&/$+! '$38$/)'&/$! #,('%/,$(=! )*+! '#$! %&'8&'! ,(! '#$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/!
2%$..,2,$*'!DBU=!EE:ENF;!
!

b)/)@)4,! et al.! DEPF! ('&+,$+! '#$! ,*.0&$*2$! %.! '#$! )22&/)26! %.! '#$! #$)'!

'/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'(! %*! '#$! (,3&0)',%*! %.! ?&$*2#,*-! 8/%2$((! %.! ('$$0;! "#$6!
.%&*+! '#)'! '#$! 2)02&0)'$+! 2%%0,*-! 2&/9$(! &(,*-! '#$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'!
1#,2#!,(!$(',3)'$+!56!'#$!2%%0,*-!2&/9$!+)')!%.!'#$!ZIY!(,09$/!8/%5$!%/!'#$!IY>!
I*2%*$0! 8/%5$=! 1$/$! ,*! /$)(%*)50$! )-/$$3$*'! 1,'#! '#$! 3$)(&/$+! 2%%0,*-!
2&/9$(!+&/,*-!1)'$/!?&$*2#,*-=!1#,0$!'#$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'!,*!8%063$/!
?&$*2#,*-!(#%&0+!5$!3%+,.,$+!1,'#!'#$!2%%0,*-!2&/9$!+)')!%.!('$$0!(8$2,3$*;!

1 Introduction and Literature review

13

"#$6!)0(%!2%*.,/3$+!'#$!$..$2'(!%.!'#$!)22&/)'$!8/$+,2',%*!%.!'#$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!
2%$..,2,$*'!%*!'#$!2)02&0)'$+!3)/'$*(,'$!'/)*(.%/3)',%*!)*+!'#$!8)/'!+,('%/',%*!
&(,*-!'#$!(,3&0)',%*!3$'#%+(;!
V&*)')*,! et al.! DSSF! '/,$+! '%! 20)/,.6! '#$! $..$2'! %.! '#$! (#)8$=! (,@$! )*+!
3)'$/,)0! %.! 8/%5$(! %*! '#$! /$(&0'! %.! '#$! 2%%0,*-! 2&/9$! '$('! .%/! %,0(=! 1)'$/! )*+!
8%063$/! (%0&',%*(;! "#$6! .%&*+! '#)'! (,09$/! 8/%5$(! #)9$! 5$''$/! ($*(,',9,'6! '#)*!
'#%($!3)+$!%.!I*2%*$0=!)*+!-,9$!3%/$!&($.&0!+)')!.%/!'#$!3$)(&/$3$*'!%.!#$)'!
'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*';!
e,..$/$*'! 2%33$/2,)0! 2%38&'$/! 5)($+! ,*('/&3$*'(! +$(,-*$+! .%/! '$(',*-!
?&$*2#,*-! 3$+,)! ,*! )22%/+)*2$! 1,'#! '#$($! (')*+)/+(! )/$! )9),0)50$;! V%/!
$Q)380$=! IfV! ?&$*2#! '$('=! (,*2$! BPNN! DKRF! )*+=! IfV! (3)/'! ?&$*2#! (6('$3=!
(,*2$! SRRU! DKBF=! 1#,2#! ,*20&+$! '#$! *$2$(()/6! 2%38&'$/! (%.'1)/$;! "#,(!
,*('/&3$*'! )00%1(! '#$! 3$)(&/$3$*'! %.! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! A.%/! '#$! IY>!
PPKR! 8/%5$C! 56! '#$! ,*9$/($! 3$'#%+H! '#$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! 2)*! '#$*! 5$!
&($+! .%/! 2)02&0)',%*! %.! '#$! 3,2/%('/&2'&/)0! 2%*(','&$*'(! )*+! '#$! #)/+*$((!
8/%.,0$!%.!260,*+/,2)0!()380$(!%.!)/5,'/)/6!+,)3$'$/!DKSF;!!
g*',0! *%1! 8/%5$(! +,3$*(,%*(! %.! 0$((! '#)*! BR! 33! )/$! *%'! %.'$*! &($+!
5$2)&($! %.! '#$! +,..,2&0'6! %.! '$38$/)'&/$! 2%*'/%0! +&/,*-! '#$! '/)*(.$/! ./%3! '#$!
.&/*)2$! '%! '#$! ?&$*2#! 5)'#=! 1#,2#! 3)4$! ,'! 9$/6! +,..,2&0'! '%! 2#)/)2'$/,@$! '#$!
/$)0! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! .%/! ('$$0=! )*+! '#)'! ,(! '#$! -/$)'$('! ,38$+,3$*'! '%!!!!!
)!.&00!8/$+,2',9$!?&$*2#!(,3&0)',%*!'%%0;!
1.2.2!!!!!Quench factor analysis
G&)*',.6,*-!?&$*2#,*-!)*+!'#$!2%%0,*-!$..$2'!%.!?&$*2#)*'(!#)9$!5$$*!
('&+,$+!$Q'$*(,9$06;!>*$!3$'#%+!'#)'!?&)*',.,$(!'#$!?&$*2#!8)'#!)*+!3)'$/,)0!

1 Introduction and Literature review

14

4,*$',2!8/%8$/',$(!,(!2)00$+!'#$!?&$*2#!.)2'%/!)*+!1)(!+$(2/,5$+!%/,-,*)006!56!
Y')0$6!)*+!d9)*2#%=!5)($+!%*!'#$!W9/)3,!%/!)++,',9,'6!/&0$!DKE:KKF;!
<,('%/,2)006!'#$!)9$/)-$!?&$*2#!/)'$!#)(!5$$*!&($+!'%!8/$+,2'!8/%8$/',$(!
)*+!3,2/%('/&2'&/$!).'$/!?&$*2#,*-=!5&'!,'!,(!*%'!(&..,2,$*'!'%!8/%9,+$!)22&/)'$!
8/%8$/'6!+)')=!)*+!($/9$!)(!)!8/$+,2',9$!'%%0;!I*!)00!2)($(!'#$!?&$*2#!.)2'%/!1)(!
+$9$0%8$+!'%!?&)*',')',9$06!8/$+,2'!8/%8$/',$(!DKLF;!!
Y,*2$! ,'(! +$9$0%83$*'=! G&$*2#! .)2'%/! )*)06(,(! #)(! 5$$*! )880,$+! '%! )!
1,+$!/)*-$!%.!)0&3,*,&3!)00%6!)*+!('$$0(!'%!8/$+,2'!8/%8$/',$(!)*+h%/!%8',3,($!
,*+&('/,)0! ?&$*2#,*-! 8/%2$+&/$(=! )*+! #)(! 5$$*! /$2%-*,($+! )(! )*! ,38%/')*'!
'$2#*,?&$!.%/!3%+$00,*-!8/%8$/'6!9)/,)',%*!+&/,*-!2%*',*&%&(!2%%0,*-!DSM=!KM:
LBF;!
"#$! 8/%2$+&/$(! .%/! +$9$0%8,*-! '#$! ?&$*2#! .)2'%/! #)9$! 5$$*!
+%2&3$*'$+H! '#$! /$(&0'(! 2)*! 5$! &($+! ,*! )*! )88/%8/,)'$! 3$'#%+! '%! 8/$+,2'!
'$*(,0$! 8/%8$/',$(=! #)/+*$((! )*+! 2%*+&2',9,'6=! 5&'! ,'! ,(! .%&*+! '#)'! '#$! ?&$*2#!
.)2'%/! 2%&0+! *%'! 5$! &($+! '%! 8/$+,2'! $0%*-)',%*! 5$2)&($! %.! ,'(! ('/%*-!
+$8$*+$*26!%*!-/),*!(,@$!DKKF;!
"#$! ?&$*2#! .)2'%/! 2)*! 5$! 2)02&0)'$+! /$0)',9$06! $)(,06! ./%3! ',3$! i!
'$38$/)'&/$! 2&/9$(! )*+! '#$! $?&)',%*! +$(2/,5,*-! '#$! ',3$:'$38$/)'&/$:
'/)*(.%/3)',%*! 2&/9$! A"""! 2&/9$C! +$/,9$+! .%/! '#$! )00%6! %.! ,*'$/$(';! "#$! """!
2&/9$!,(!&(&)006!+$(2/,5$+!,*!'#$!.%/3!DSM=!KKF`:!
!




1 Introduction and Literature review

15

1#$/$`!
"#$!2/,',2)0!',3$!/$?&,/$+!'%!.%/3!)!2%*(')*'!)3%&*'!%.!)!*$1!8#)($!
%/!/$+&2$!'#$!#)/+*$((!56!)!(8$2,.,$+!)3%&*';!A"#$!0%2&(!%.!'#$!2/,',2)0!',3$!
9)0&$(!)(!)!.&*2',%*!%.!'$38$/)'&/$!.%/3$+!'#$!"""!2&/9$;C!
j! 2%*(')*'! 1#,2#! $?&)0(! '#$! *)'&/)0! 0%-)/,'#3! %.! '#$! ./)2',%*!
&*'/)*(.%/3$+!+&/,*-!?&$*2#,*-;!
 j!2%*(')*'!/$0)'$+!'%!'#$!/$2,8/%2)0!%.!'#$!*&35$/!%.!*&20$)',%*!(,'$(;!
 j!2%*(')*'!/$0)'$+!'%!'#$!$*$/-6!/$?&,/$+!'%!.%/3!)!*&20$&(;!
 j!2%*(')*'!/$0)'$+!'%!'#$!(%09&(!'$38$/)'&/$;!
 j!2%*(')*'!/$0)'$+!'%!'#$!)2',9)',%*!$*$/-6!%.!+,..&(,%*;!
R!j!N;UBEUh!Z!k:B!3%0:B;!
T!j!'$38$/)'&/$h!aO;!
"#$!2%*(')*'(!     !+$.,*$!'#$!(#)8$!%.!'#$!"""!2&/9$;!
J#,0$! ?&$*2#! .)2'%/! )*)06(,(! )88$)/(! '%! 5$! )*! $Q2$00$*'! '$2#*,?&$! %.!
2%//$0)',*-!2%%0,*-!2&/9$(!1,'#!3$')00&/-,2)0!/$(8%*($=!,'!(&..$/(!./%3!)!0)24!
%.! )9),0)5,0,'6! %.! '#$! 2%*(')*'(! .%/! '#$! ! .&*2',%*=! )00! %.! '#$3! 3&('! 5$!
3$)(&/$+!DBM=!KKF;

1 Introduction and Literature review


1.3

16

Objective of the study

"#$!3),*!%57$2',9$(!%.!'#$!('&+6!)/$`!
B; "%! ,*9$(',-)'$! )*+! &*+$/(')*+! '#$! /%0$! %.! '#$! ?&$*2#)*'! '68$! )*+!
?&$*2#)*'! '$38$/)'&/$! %*! '#$! 2%%0,*-! /)'$! )*+! '#$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/!
2%$..,2,$*'=! )*+! 2%*($?&$*'! $..$2'(! %*! '#$! 3,2/%('/&2'&/$! )*+! '#$!
8/%8$/',$(!%.!('$$0;!
S; "%!+$9$0%8!)!/$0,)50$!8/%5$!+$(,-*!'%!+$'$/3,*,*-!'#$!)22&/)'$!(&/.)2$!
#$)':'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'!.%/!('$$0(!)(!)!.&*2',%*!%.!(&/.)2$!'$38$/)'&/$=!
&(,*-!3$)(&/$+!'$38$/)'&/$!8/%.,0$(;!
U; "%!,*9$(',-)'$!'#$!$..$2'!%.!?&$*2#,*-!8)/)3$'$/(!%*!'#$!?&$*2#!.)2'%/!
)*+!'#$!/$(&0',*-!#)/+*$((;!
E; "%!+$9$0%8!)!*$&/)0!*$'1%/4!3%+$0!'%!8/$+,2'!'#$!'#$/3)0!2%*+&2',9,'6!
%.!('$$0(!)(!)!.&*2',%*!%.!'$38$/)'&/$=!)0%*-!1,'#!3$)*,*-.&0!$(',3)'$(!
%.!'#$!)22&/)26!%.!'#$!8/$+,2',%*(;!
K;

"%! +$9$0%8! )! 2%38&'$/! 8/%-/)3! &(,*-! '#$! 2%*'/%0! 9%0&3$! 3$'#%+! '%!
(,3&0)'$! '#$! ?&$*2#,*-! 8/%2$((! )*+! 2)02&0)'$! '#$! '$38$/)'&/$! 8/%.,0$!
,*(,+$!'#$!('$$0;!"#$!5%&*+)/6!2%*+,',%*(!.%/!'#$!3%+$00,*-!8/%-/)3!)/$!
'#$! $(',3)'$+! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! )*+! '#$! 8/$+,2'$+! '#$/3)0!
2%*+&2',9,'6;!

1.4

Research work layout


"#$!/$($)/2#!1%/4!8/$($*'$+!,*!'#,(!'#$(,(!,(!,*!($9$*!2#)8'$/(;!
O#)8'$/!B=!1#,2#!#)(!5$$*!)0/$)+6!,*'/%+&2$+=!,(!)*!,*'/%+&2',%*!)*+!)!

'#%/%&-#!/$9,$1!%.!'#$!/$0$9)*'!0,'$/)'&/$!)*+!8/$9,%&(!1%/4!+%*$!,*!'#$!.,$0+!

1 Introduction and Literature review

17

%.!?&$*2#,*-;!"#$!0,'$/)'&/$!/$9,$1!.%2&($(!%*!2%%0,*-!2&/9$!)*)06(,(!)(!)!'%%0!
'%! $9)0&)'$! '#$! 2%%0,*-! 8%1$/! %.! ?&$*2#)*'(=! )*+! %*! '#$! '68$! %.! 8/%5$(!
)9),0)50$!'%!3$)(&/$!2%%0,*-!2&/9$(;!!
O#)8'$/! S! +$)0(! 1,'#! '#$! ?&$*2#,*-! 8/%2$((! )*+! ,'(! (')-$(=! )*+! '#$!
3$2#)*,(3(!%.!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!+&/,*-!'#$($!(')-$(=!)*+!'#$!8)/)3$'$/(!'#)'!)..$2'!
'#$($! 3$2#)*,(3(;! Y')/',*-!1,'#! '#$! /$0$9)*'! 0,'$/)'&/$! )*+! (#%1,*-! #%1! '#$!
4*%10$+-$! 2)*! 5$! &($+! '%! +$9$0%8! '#$! 3%+$0(=! '#,(! 2#)8'$/! )0(%! +$(2/,5$(!
3)'$/,)0!8#6(,2)0!8/%8$/',$(!A(8$2,.,2!#$)'!)*+!#$)'!2%*+&2',9,'6C!)(!)!.&*2',%*!
%.!'$38$/)'&/$!)*+!'#$!3)'#$3)',2)0!+$(2/,8',%*!%.!?&$*2#,*-!8/%2$((;!
O#)8'$/!U!,(!)*!%9$/9,$1!%.!'#$!'#$/3)0!2%*+&2',9,'6!)*+!'#$!8/%50$3(!
%.! 3%+$00,*-! 2%380$Q! 8/%8$/',$(! )*+! +$(2/,5$(! '#$! 5)6$(,)*! *$&/)0! *$'1%/4!
3%+$0!.%/!'#$/3)0!2%*+&2',9,'6!.%/!('$$0(!)*+!'#$!+)')!&($+!,*!,'(!2/$)',%*!)*+!
)0(%!,'(!8/$+,2',9$!)5,0,'6;!
I*! 2#)8'$/! E=! '#$! $Q8$/,3$*')0! 1%/4=! '#$! +$(,-*! %.! )! 8/%5$! )*+!
?&$*2#,*-!(6('$3!'%!3$)(&/$!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'!,(!+$(2/,5$+=!)0%*-!1,'#!
$Q8$/,3$*')0! +$'),0(! (&2#! )(! '#$! 8/%5$! 8/$8)/)',%*! )*+! '#$! 3$'#%+(! .%/!
)*)06(,*-!'#$!2%00$2'$+!+)');!
I*! 2#)8'$/! K! '#$! /$(&0'(! %.! '#$! $Q8$/,3$*')0! 1%/4! )*+! )((%2,)'$+!
+,(2&((,%*!)/$!8/$($*'$+;!"#$!/$(&0'(!,00&('/)'$!#%1!'#$!,*9$/($!3$'#%+!,(!&($+!
'%! 2)02&0)'$! '#$! #$)'! '/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'! &(,*-! 8/%5$! '$2#*,?&$! .%/! +,..$/$*'!
('$$0(! )*+! .%/! )! 9)/,$'6! %.! ?&$*2#)*'(! )'! +,..$/$*'! '$38$/)'&/$(;! "#$! /$(&0'(!
)0(%! ,00&('/)'$! '#$! $..$2'! %.! ?&$*2#)*'! '68$! )*+! ?&$*2#)*'! '$38$/)'&/$! %*!
2%%0,*-! /)'$=! #$)':'/)*(.$/! 2%$..,2,$*'=! ?&$*2#! .)2'%/=! )*+! $(',3)'$+! )(:
?&$*2#$+! #)/+*$((;! W! 2)($! ('&+6! ,(! 8/$($*'$+! '%! +$3%*('/)'$! '#$! 3%+$00,*-!

1 Introduction and Literature review

18

'$2#*,?&$! +$(2/,5$+! ,*! 2#)8'$/! E! )*+! '%! )(($((! '#$! )880,2)5,0,'6! %.! '#$!
2)02&0)'$+!#$)'!'/)*(.$/!2%$..,2,$*'!'%!%'#$/!()380$(!1,'#!+,..$/$*'!+,3$*(,%*(;!
O#)8'$/! L! ,*20&+$(! 2%*20&(,%*(=! /$2%33$*+)',%*(! )*+! (&--$(',%*(! .%/!
'#$!.&'&/$!1%/4;!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Chapter 2

Theoretical background

2.1 Quenching and quenching stages


!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'(%)! *$+$*,! -.! -'$! /*.&$,,! .+! &..0(%)! 1$-20! /2*-,! +*.1! -'$!
2#,-$%(-(3(%)!.*!,.0#-(.%!-*$2-(%)!-$1/$*2-#*$!4-5/(&2005!+*.1!6(-'(%!-'$!*2%)$!
.+!789!-.!7:;!<=!+.*!,-$$0>!,#++(&($%-05!*2/(?05!-.!2@.(?!-'$!+.*12-(.%!.+!,#&'!
/*.?#&-,! 2,! +$**(-$A! /$2*0(-$! 2%?! B2(%(-$! C8:A! DEFG! H'$! I#$%&'(%)! /*.&$,,! (,!
-'$*$+.*$!?$+(%$?!2,!-'$!&.%-*.00$?!$J-*2&-(.%!.+!'$2-A!-'$!/*(12*5!+#%&-(.%!.+!
-'$! I#$%&'2%-! B$(%)! -.! &.%-*.0! -'$! '$2-! -*2%,+$*! *2-$,! +*.1! -'$! /2*-! 2%?!
/*.?#&$! -'$! ?$,(*$?! '2*?%$,,A! ,-*$%)-'! 2%?! -.#)'%$,,G! H'$! I#$%&'2%-! ,'.#0?!
20,.!1(%(1(3$!?(,-.*-(.%!2%?!*$,(?#20!,-*$,,$,!B5!$%,#*(%)!#%(+.*1(-5!.@$*!-'$!
6'.0$! .+! -'$! ,21/0$G! H'$! /'5,(&20! /*./$*-($,! .B-2(%$?! 2*$! ?(*$&-05! *$02-$?! -.!
&..0(%)!*2-$,G!"#$%&'2%-,!&2%!B$!0(I#(?A!,.0(?A!.*!)2,!CDKFG!
!!!!!!!!!!L$-'.?,!+.*! ?$-$*1(%(%)!-'$! 2B(0(-5! .+! 2! I#$%&'2%-!-.!$J-*2&-!'$2-!&2%!
B$!?(@(?$?!(%-.!-6.!B*.2?!&2-$).*($,M!1$&'2%(&20!2%?!-'$*120G!H'$!1$&'2%(&20!
/*.&$?#*$,! #,#2005! $1/0.5! '2*?%$,,! 1$2,#*$1$%-,! .*! $-&'(%)! /*.&$?#*$,!
2//0($?!-.!I#$%&'(%)!/2*-,G!H'$,$!1$-'.?,!?$-$*1(%$!-'$!?$/-'!.+!12*-$%,(-$!

2 Theoretical background
!

20

!"#$%&'"() '() &*+) ,&++-) ."(.+#(+/) %!&+#) 01+(.*'(2) 1(/+#) ,&%(/%#/'3+/)


."(/'&'"(,4) 5*+#$%-) &+.*('01+,) '(6"-6+) $+%,1#'(2) &*+) &'$+) #+01'#+/) &") .""-)
7+&8++(),9+.'!'+/)&+$9+#%&1#+,:)/+&+#$'('(2)&*+)#%&+)"!).""-'(2)'()%),&%(/%#/)
,9+.'$+(:)"#)/+!'('(2)7;),"$+)"&*+#)&*+#$%-)$+%(,)&*+)%7'-'&;)"!)01+(.*%(&)&")
+<&#%.&)*+%&)=>?@4)
))))))))))5*+)+<%$'(%&'"()"!)01+(.*'(2)9+#!"#$%(.+)7;).""-'(2).1#6+)%(%-;,',)',)
7+."$'(2) '(.#+%,'(2-;) 9"91-%#) %(/) 9+#*%9,) &*+) $",&) '(!"#$%&'6+) $+&*"/) "!)
.*%#%.&+#'3'(2) %) 01+(.*%(&4) 5*+) .""-'(2) .1#6+) 9#"/1.+/) 8*+() %) ."$9"(+(&:)
'('&'%--;) %&) %) &+$9+#%&1#+) 8+--) %7"6+) &*+) 7"'-'(2) 9"'(&) "!) &*+) 01+(.*%(&:) ',)
'(&#"/1.+/) '(&") &*+) -'01'/:) ',) $1.*) $"#+) ."$9-+<) &*%() &*%&) ,122+,&+/) 7;)
A+8&"(B,) -%8) "!) .""-'(2C) *+%&) &#%(,!+#) ',) ."(&#"--+/) 7;) /'!!+#+(&) .""-'(2)
$+.*%(',$,)=>:)DE@)%,),*"8()'()!'21#+)FG>4)5*+)$%<'$1$)*+%&)&#%(,!+#)"..1#,)
/1#'(2)&*+)(1.-+%&+)7"'-'(2),&%2+4))

2.1.1

Stage-A Heat Removal

)))))))))))5*+) !'#,&) ,&%2+) HIJ) "!) .""-'(2) ',) .*%#%.&+#'3+/) 7;) &*+) !"#$%&'"() "!) %)
01+(.*%(&G6%9"1#)7-%(K+&)%#"1(/)&*+)9%#&C)8*+()&*+)*"&),&++-)!'#,&)+(."1(&+#,)
&*+) -'01'/:) 6%9"1#) 7177-+,) %#+) (1.-+%&+/:) %(/) 2#"8:) %&) &*+) *"&) '(&+#!%.+4)
L('&'%--;:) &*+) (1.-+%&'"() %(/) 2#"8&*) #%&+,) %#+) ,") *'2*) &*%&) &*+) ,1#!%.+) "!) &*+)
,&++-)',)."6+#+/)8'&*)%)."(&'(1"1,)6%9"1#)!'-$)=DM@4)
))))))))))5*+) 6%9"1#) 7-%(K+&) ',) $%'(&%'(+/) 8*'-+) &*+) ,199-;) "!) *+%&) !#"$) &*+)
'(&+#'"#) "!) &*+) 9%#&) &") &*+) ,1#!%.+) +<.++/,) &*+) %$"1(&) "!) *+%&) (++/+/) &")
+6%9"#%&+) &*+) 01+(.*%(&4) N+-%&'6+-;) ,-"8) .""-'(2) "..1#,) /1#'(2) &*',) 9+#'"/)
7+.%1,+) &*+) 6%9"1#) +(6+-"9+) %.&,) %,) %() '(,1-%&"#:) %(/) .""-'(2) "..1#,)
9#'(.'9%--;) 7;) #%/'%&'"() &*#"12*) &*+) 6%9"1#) !'-$4) 5*+) &+$9+#%&1#+) %7"6+)

2 Theoretical background
!

21

!"#$"% &% '('&)% *&+(,-% .)&/01'% #2% 3&#/'&#/14% #2% $&))14% '"1% $"&-&$'1-#2'#$%
'13+1-&',-1%(5%'"1%)#6,#47%&)2(%0/(!/%&2%'"1%81#41/5-(2'%'13+1-&',-1%9:;7%:<=>%
%%%%%%%%%%?"1% *&+(,-% .)&/01'% 2'&@1% #2% /('% ,2,&))A% +-121/'% #/% +&-'2% 6,1/$"14% #/%
&6,1(,2%2(),'#(/2%$(/'&#/#/@%3(-1%'"&/%&.(,'%B%!'C%(5%&/%#(/#$%3&'1-#&)%2,$"%
&2%+('&22#,3%$")(-#417%)#'"#,3%$")(-#417%2(4#,3%"A4-(D#417%(-%2,)+",-#$%&$#4>%
E"1/%'"1%2&',-&'14%2&)'%$-A2'&)2%41+(2#'%(/%'"1%31'&)%&-1%"1&'14%.A%'"1%31'&)7%
!&'1-% 12$&+12% 5-(3% '"13% .A% 3#$-(2$(+#$% 1D+)(2#(/2% '"1-1.A% .-1&0#/@% '"1%
*&+(,-%.)&/01'%&/4%5&$#)#'&'#/@%'"1%/,$)1&'#(/%(5%*&+(,-%.,..)12>%F2%&%-12,)'7%
'"1%4,-&'#(/%(5%'"1%*&+(,-%.)&/01'%2'&@1%#2%2"(-'1/14%(-%2(31'#312%'"#2%2'&@1%
4(12%/('%($$,-%&'%&))%&/4%#2%-1+)&$14%.A%'"1%.(#)#/@%2'&@1%GFH>%I(/*1-21)A7%"1&'%
'-&/251-%#/%@&2%6,1/$"&/'2%2,$"%&2%&#-%&/4%#/1-'%@&212%($$,-2%1D$),2#*1)A%.A%&%
*&+(,-%.)&/01'%31$"&/#23%9:7%JJ=>%

2.1.2

Stage-B Heat Removal

%%%%%%%%%%%?"1%"#@"12'%$(()#/@%-&'12%($$,-%#/%2'&@1%K%(-%'"1%/,$)1&'1%.(#)#/@%2'&@1>%
F2% '"1% 2'11)% $(()27% '"1% -&'1% (5% /,$)1&'#(/% &/4% @-(!'"% (5% '"1% *&+(,-% .,..)12%
.1$(312% 23&))1-7% &/47% !"1/% &% -1@#(/% (5% '"1% *&+(,-% .-1&02% 5-(3% '"1% 2,-5&$1%
,/41-%'"1%.,(A&/$A%5(-$12%&/4%-#212%#/%'"1%)#6,#47%5-12"%)#6,#4%#2%2!1+'%#/%'(%'"1%
-1@#(/% #'% ($$,+#14>% ?"#2% $()4% &/4% 5-12"% )#6,#4% "1&'2% '(% '"1% .(#)#/@% +(#/'% &/4%
*&+(,-%.1@#/2%'(%5(-3%&@&#/L%,+(/%-1&$"#/@%&%$1-'&#/%2#M17%'"#2%.,..)1%.-1&02%
5-11>% ?"1% +-($122% #2% -1+1&'14% .1$&,21% #/% '"#2% 2'&@1% '"1% $()41-% )#6,#4% #2%
$(/2'&/')A% .-(,@"'% #/'(% $(/'&$'% !#'"% '"1% "('% 2,-5&$1% &/4% *&+(-#2147% '"1% 2'11)%
$(()2%'"1%5&2'12'7%&/4%"#@"%"1&'%1D'-&$'#(/%-&'12%&-1%&$"#1*14%9:7%J;=>%
%
%

2 Theoretical background
!

2.1.3

22

Stage-C Heat Removal

!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&! '! ()*+,*&-! #.&! /++,()%! +0! #.&! ,(12(3! $)3! 4&%()-! 5.&)! #.&!
#&67&8$#28&! +0! #.&! -#&&,! -280$/&! 8&$/.&-! $! 7+()#! 5.&8&! ,(12(3! /+)*&/#(+)! (-!
-200(/(&)#! #+! 9&&7! (#! 08+6! 4+(,()%:! ;&,+5! #.(-! #&67&8$#28&<! 4+(,()%! -#+7-! $)3!
/++,()%!#$9&-!7,$/&!4=!/+)32/#(+)!$)3!/+)*&/#(+)!()#+!#.&!12&)/.$)#<!$)3!#.&!
8$#&!+0!/++,()%!$%$()!3&/8&$-&-:!>.&!/++,()%!8$#&-!()!#.(-!-#$%&!$8&!3&7&)3&)#!
+)!#.&!*(-/+-(#=!+0!#.&!12&)/.$)#:!?,,!+#.&8!0$/#+8-!4&()%!&12$,<!/++,()%!8$#&-!
3&/8&$-&!5(#.!()/8&$-()%!*(-/+-(#=:!
!!!!!!!!!!@7#(6$,!12&)/.()%!78+/&--&-!2-2$,,=!8&12(8&!6$A(626!?!$)3!;!-#$%&!
/++,()%!8$#&-!#+!$*+(3!#.&!7&$8,(#&!#8$)-0+86$#(+)!8&%(+)!$)3!6()(6$,!'!-#$%&!
/++,()%!8$#&-!4&/$2-&!#.&!#&)3&)/=!0+8!3(-#+8#(+)!$)3!/8$/9()%!(-!6+8&!,(9&,=!#+!
.$77&)! ()! #.&! #&67&8$#28&-! 5.&8&! #.&! 6$8#&)-(#&! -#82/#28&! /$)! 0+86&3! BCD<!
EDF:!
!

Figure 2-1:!Cooling curve and cooling rate curve at the centre of a 25 mm


diameter probe quenched with 95 C water flowing at 0.25 m sec-1 [17].

2 Theoretical background
!

2.2

23

Cooling curve analysis

!!!!!!!!!!"#$!%&'(!)'$*)+!,-.!&*!-//)0-($+.!1$'/023245!(#$!/&%6+$7!%$/#-42'%!
&*!8)$4/#245!2'!(&!1$9$+&6!-!/&&+245!/)09$!*&0!(#$!8)$4/#245!%$12)%! )41$0!
/&4(0&++$1! /&412(2&4':! ;! /&&+245! /)09$! ($'(! '2%)+-($'! /&412(2&4'! &*! -/()-+!
/&&+245!24!-!($'(!62$/$!&*!(#$!'-%$!%$(-+!&*!,#2/#!(#$!6-0(!2'!(&!3$!%-1$!1)0245!
8)$4/#245! 24(&! (#$! ($'(! %$12)%:! "#$! -4-+.'2'! &*! (#$! 0$')+(245! /&&+245! /)09$!
.2$+1'!8)-4(2(-(29$!#$-(!(0-4'*$0!1-(-!-'!-!*)4/(2&4!&*!($%6$0-()0$!<=>?!@@A:!!
"#$!6-0-%$($0'!&3(-24$1!*0&%!/&&+245!/)09$'!-0$B!
"#$!%-72%)%!/&&+245!0-($!C%-7DB!
!E')-++.!2(!2'!1$'20-3+$!*&0!(#$!%-7! (&!&//)0!-(!($%6$0-()0$!24!(#$!0$52&4!
&*!(#$!*$002($!-41!6$-0+2($!(0-4'*&0%-(2&4!0$52&4!2*!%-72%)%!#-014$''!2'!
1$'20$1?!'24/$!(#2'!$4')0$'!(#$!%242%2'-(2&4!&*!*$002($!-41!6$-0+2($:!
!
"#$!/&&+245!0-($!-(!-3&)(!FGG!HI!C%-7DB!
!I&&+245! 0-($'! 24! (#$! 0$52&4! ,#$0$! -)'($42($! (0-4'*&0%! 24(&! %-0($4'2($!!
'#&)+1!3$!%242%2J$1!(&!0$1)/$!(#$!6&($4(2-+!*&0!/0-/K245!-41!12'(&0(2&4!
<=?!=LA:!

2.2.1

Effect of quenching parameters on cooling curve

!!!!!!!!!!M-02&)'! *-/(&0'! 24! -112(2&4! (&! ,&0K! 62$/$! /&4*25)0-(2&4! %-.! -**$/(! (#$!
#$-(!$7(0-/(245!6&($4(2-+!&*!8)$4/#245!+28)21?!24/+)1245B!

2 Theoretical background
!

2.2.1.1

24

Quenchant type

!!!!!!!!!!"#$!%&'%()$!(*!+#$!,&$-.#/-+!0)!+(!.(-+'(1!#$/+!+'/-)*$'!*'(2!+#$!#(+!
2$+/1! 3('4! %0$.$5! "#$! +6%$! (*! ,&$-.#/-+! &)$7! #/)! /! 7'/2/+0.! $**$.+! (-!
.((10-8! '/+$5! 9/-6! 2/+$'0/1)! /-7! )(1&+0(-)! #/:$!;$$-! &)$7! /)! ,&$-.#/-+)!
*('! )+$$1)5! "#$! */)+$)+! ,&$-.#! '/+$)! /'$! (;+/0-$7! &)0-8! 3/+$'! ('! ;'0-$!
<3/+$'=)/1+! )(1&+0(->5! ?1(3$'@! 1$))! 7'/)+0.! ,&$-.#/-+)! 0-.1&7$! +#$! 3/+$'!
;/)$7! %(162$')@! (01! /-7! )/1+)5! A$'6! )1(3! .((10-8! ./-! ;$! (;+/0-$7! 0-! /0'@!
0-$'+!8/)!/+2()%#$'$)!('!:/.&&2!BC@!CDE5!

2.2.1.2

Quenchant temperature

!!!!!!!!!!"#$! +$2%$'/+&'$! (*! +#$! ,&$-.#/-+! (;:0(&)16! /**$.+)! 0+)! /;010+6! +(!
$F+'/.+! #$/+5! G(3$:$'@! 0+! 0)! -(+! /13/6)! +'&$! +#/+! /! .(17$'! ,&$-.#/-+! 3011!
80:$! */)+$'! $F+'/.+0(-5! H/+$'! 1()$)! 0+)! .((10-8! %(3$'! /)! 0+! /%%'(/.#$)! 0+)!
;(010-8!%(0-+@!;&+!+#0)!0)!-(+!+#$!./)$!*('!(01@!3#0.#!;$.(2$)!1$))!:0).(&)!/)!
+#$! +$2%$'/+&'$! 0-.'$/)$75! "#$! '$7&.$7! (01! :0).()0+6! (**)$+)! /-6! '$7&.$7!
,&$-.#0-8!/;010+6!./&)$7!;6!+#$!+$2%$'/+&'$!'0)$5!
!!!!!!!!!!I-.'$/)0-8! +#$! +$2%$'/+&'$! (*! +#$! 3('4! %0$.$! #/)! '$1/+0:$16! 10++1$!
$**$.+!(-!0+)!/;010+6!+(!+'/-)*$'!#$/+!+(!+#$!,&$-.#0-8!2$70&2!;$./&)$!(*!+#$!
1/'8$! +$2%$'/+&'$! 70**$'$-.$! 30+#! +#$! ,&$-.#0-8! 2$70&25! "#$! 2()+!
-(+0.$/;1$!.#/-8$!0-!/;010+6!+(!+'/-)*$'!#$/+!%'(;/;16!.(2$)!*'(2!+#$!2('$!
'/%07! (F07/+0(-! (*! +#$! +$)+! %0$.$! /+! #08#$'! +$2%$'/+&'$)J! +#0)! ./-! $0+#$'!
0-.'$/)$! ('! 7$.'$/)$! +#$! #$/+! +'/-)*$'! ./%/;010+6@! 7$%$-70-8! (-! +#$!
+#0.4-$))!(*!+#$!(F07$!7$:$1(%$7!BCD@!KLE5!
!

2 Theoretical background
!

2.2.1.3

25

Quenchant agitation

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&%$'(! ')! *')+,-! +$)+./&%$'(! '*! %0,! 1.,(+0&(%! 0&2! &! -)&3&%$+!
$(*/.,(+,! '(! 0,&%! %)&(2*,)4! 5%! +&.2,2! &(! ,&)/$,)! 3,+0&($+&/! -$2).6%$'(! '*! %0,!
7&6'.)! 8/&(9,%! $(! 2%&#,! "! &(-! 6)'-.+,2! 23&//,):! 3'),! *),1.,(%/;! -,%&+0,-!
7&6'.)! 8.88/,2! -.)$(#! 2%&#,! <4! 5%! +&(! 3,+0&($+&//;! -$2).6%! ')! -$2/'-#,! #,/2!
&(-!2'/$-2!*)'3!%0,!2.)*&+,!'*!%0,!%,2%!6$,+,!')!%0'2,!2.26,(-,-!&%!%0,!,-#,!'*!
%0,! 7&6'.)! 8/&(9,%:! %0.2! 6)'-.+$(#! *&2%,)! 0,&%! %)&(2*,)! $(! 2%&#,! =4! "#$%&%$'(!
&/2'! +$)+./&%,2! +''/! /$1.$-! %'! ),6/&+,! %0,! 0,&%,-! /$1.$-! 2.))'.(-$(#! %0,! >')9!
6$,+,4! "#$%&%$'(! +&(! 8,! &++'36/$20,-! 8;! 3,+0&($+&//;! 3'7$(#! %0,! 6&)%2!
%0)'.#0! %0,! 8&%0:! 6.36$(#! %'! ),+$)+./&%,! %0,! 1.,(+0&(%! ')! 3,+0&($+&//;!
&#$%&%$(#!%0,!*/.$-!?@:!ABC4!
!
2.2.2

Estimating as quenched hardness of steel from cooling curve

!!!!!!!!!!D.,(+0!*&+%')!&(&/;2$2!6,)3$%2!%0,!-$),+%!+')),/&%$'(!'*!%0,!20&6,!'*!%0,!
+''/$(#! +.)7,! >$%0! %0,! &66)'6)$&%,! 6)'6,)%;! +.)7,! -,7,/'6,-! *')! %0,! 2%,,/! '*!
$(%,),2%4!
!!!!!!!!!!E0,! 9,;! *'.(-&%$'(&/! 6)$(+$6/,! '*! 1.,(+0! *&+%')! &(&/;2$2 $2! %0,! .2,! '*!
$2'%0,)3&/! %)&(2*')3&%$'(! 9$(,%$+2! %'! ,2%$3&%,! %)&(2*')3&%$'(! 8,0&7$'.)!
-.)$(#! +'(%$(.'.2! +''/$(#4! <;! ),6),2,(%$(#! &! 1.,(+0$(#! +.)7,! &2! &! 2,)$,2! '*!
+'(2,+.%$7,!$2'%0,)3&/!%)&(2*')3&%$'(!,7,(%2!&(-!&--$(#!%'#,%0,)!%0,!&3'.(%!
%)&(2*')3,-! -.)$(#! ,&+0! $2'%0,)3&/! 2%,6:! %0,! ,**,+%! '*! %,36,)&%.),! '(!
%)&(2*')3&%$'(! )&%,! +&(! 8,! %&9,(! $(%'! &++'.(%! *')! 7$)%.&//;! &(;! 2%,66,-!
1.,(+0$(#! ')! +'(%$(.'.2! +''/$(#! %0,)3&/! 6&%04! ='(2,1.,(%/;:! %0,! ,**,+%! '*!
1.,(+0! )&%,! '(! 6)'6,)%$,2! +&(! 8,! 3'-,//,-! 3.+0! 3'),! &++.)&%,/;! %0&(! $*! &(!
&7,)&#,!1.,(+0,2!)&%,!&66)'&+0!$2!%&9,(4!E0,!.2,!'*!$2'%0,)3&/!-&%&!%'!3&9,!

2 Theoretical background
!

26

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
M<7N-O!-A&P-2%$!?-O4Q#3HRRS#OTDU:V-G.$?2)(-W#WI-.")-&'(-*"0(,,$!?-".&)+!%.")*+&$"!%-$!-%&((,%<-H'$%-/)"?)+*-+,,"A%-1+,12,+&$"!%-".-B$!(&$1%-.")-&'(%",$0- %&+&(- /'+%(- &)+!%.")*+&$"!%- .)"*- +2%&(!$&(- &"- *+)&(!%$&(9- @+$!$&(9X$0*+!%&Y&&(!-.())$&(9-+,,"&)$"*")/'$1-.())$&(9-"#$<-68K;<-

2 Theoretical background

27

!!!!!!!!"#$!"""!%&'()'*!+,-.&./.!,0!/1,!23+4)5$.!)$6)$.$-/&-(!/#$!&-&/&'/&,-!,0!
/)'-.0,)*'/&,-7! "#$! #&(#$)! /$*6$)'/4)$! 28+4)5$! &.! 0,)! )$+,-./)4+/&5$!
9%&004.&,-':;!)$'+/&,-.!.4+#!'.!'::,/)&,*,)6#&+!0$))&/$!'-%!6$'):&/$7!"#$!:,1$)!
23+4)5$! &.! 0,)! %&.6:'+&5$! )$'+/&,-.! .4+#! '.! <&%*'-./=//$-! 0$))&/$! '-%! >'&-&/$!
,)!'+&+4:')! 0$))&/$7!<#$-! *'?&-(!'!@4$-+#! 0'+/,)! +':+4:'/&,-A! '-! &-+)$*$-/':!
@4$-+#! 0'+/,)A !0,)! $'+#! /&*$! ./$6! & !-! /#$! /)'-.0,)*'/&,-! )'-($! &.! 0&)./!
+':+4:'/$%!4.&-(!/#$!0,::,1&-(!$@4'/&,-!BCDA!CEFG!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9H7C;!

!!1#$)$G!!
!/#$!+)&/&+':!/&*$!)$@4&)$%!/,!,>/'&-!/#$!0&)./!%$/$+/'>:$!'*,4-/!,0!0$))&/$A!
6$'):&/$A! ,)! >'&-&/$! /I6&+'::I! J7C! ,)! J7KL!9/#$! :,+4.! ,0! /#$! +)&/&+':!/&*$! &.!/#$!
./')/!,0!/)'-.0,)*'/&,-!23+4)5$;7!!!!!!!
!!!/#$!/&*$!./$6!4.$%!&-!%'/'!'+@4&.&/&,-7!
!!!!!!!!!!"#$! &-+)$*$-/':! @4$-+#! 0'+/,)! 5':4$.! ')$! .4**$%! ,5$)! /#$!
/)'-.0,)*'/&,-!)'-($!>$/1$$-! !'-%! /,!6),%4+$!/#$!+4*4:'/&5$!@4$-+#!
0'+/,)A!"A!'++,)%&-(!/,!/#$!$@4'/&,-G !

!!!!!!!!
!

9H7H;!
!
!
!
!

2 Theoretical background

28

!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!! Figure 2-2: Calculation of quench factor from cooling curve
and C-Curve for Fe-0.16 C-0.16 Si-0.67 Mn wt% steel.
!
!

!"#$!%&'&()*+,$!-&$.%#!/)%*01!1$/($%*2!*#$!#$)*!$3*1)%*+0.!%#)1)%*$1+2*+%2!)2!)!
/&.%*+0.! 0/! *#$! -&$.%#).*! *45$6! -&$.%#).*! )7+*)*+0.6! ).8! -&$.%#).*!
*$'5$1)*&1$!0,$1!*#$!*1).2/01')*+0.!1).7$!0/!*#$!2*$$(!9$+.7!-&$.%#$8:!"#$2$!
/)%*012! +.%(&8$! 2$%*+0.! *#+%;.$226! )7+*)*+0.6! ).8! 2&1/)%$! /+.+2#! $//$%*2! 0.!
%00(+.7! 1)*$! )2! <$((! )2! *#$! *1).2/01')*+0.! 1)*$! 0/! *#$! )((04:! "#$! %)(%&()*+0.!
510%$22!+2!+((&2*1)*$8!2%#$')*+%)((4!+.!/+7&1$!=>=:!
!!!!!!!!!!"#$!-&$.%#!/)%*01!%).!9$!&2$8!*0!$2*+')*$!*#$!)2>-&$.%#$8!#)18.$22!+.!
2*$$(!&2+.7!*#$!/0((0<+.7!$-&)*+0.!?@A6!@B6!AC6!ADEF!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!G=:HI!

2 Theoretical background
!

29

!!"#$%$&!
!'#$!(%$)*+'$)!#,%)-$../!
!'#$!0,1*020!#,%)-$..!34%!,5546!70,%'$-.*'$!#,%)-$..8/!
!'#$!0*-*020!#,%)-$..!34%!,5546!73$%%*'$9($,%5*'$!#,%)-$..8/!!
! '#$! +4-.',-'! "#*+#! $:2,5.! '#$! -,'2%,5! 54;,%*'#0! 43! '#$! <4520$! 3%,+'*4-!
,2.'$-*'$! -4'! '%,-.34%0$)! ,=4<$! '#$! ! )2%*-;! +445*-;>! '#,'! *.?! '#$! 3%,+'*4-!
)$3*-$)!=6!'#$!@9+2%<$?!'6(*+,556!5-!A/BBC!D!9A/AACAE!
!'#$!:2$-+#!3,+'4%/!
!!!!!!!!!F#$! +%*'*+,5! <,52$! 43! '#$! :2$-+#! 3,+'4%! *.! '#$! 0,1*020! <,52$! '#,'! "*55!
(%4)2+$!'#$!)$.*%$)!#,%)-$..!*-!'#$!(,%'*+25,%!.'$$5!=$*-;!:2$-+#$)/!
!!!!!!!!!G,1*020! #,%)-$..! ,-)! .'%$-;'#! <,52$.! ,%$! 4=',*-$)! "*'#! 54"! :2$-+#!
3,+'4%.! =2'! 0*-*020! :2$-+#*-;! .'%$..$.! ,%$! 4=',*-$)! "*'#! #*;#! :2$-+#!
3,+'4%./! G*-*020! %$.*)2,5! .'%$..! ,-)! )*.'4%'*4-! +4-.*.'$-'! "*'#! '#$! :2$-+#!
3,+'4%!*.!H2.'!=$54"!'#$!+%*'*+,5!<,52$/!
!!!!!!!!!F#$! ;4,5! 43! :2$-+#! 3,+'4%! ,-,56.*.! *.! '4! *-'$%%$5,'$! ,5546! #,%)$-,=*5*'6!
,-)! :2$-+#*-;! <,%*,=5$.?! ,-)! ,554"! $0(*%*+,5! (%$)*+'*4-.! '4! =$! 0,)$! ,=42'!
#,%)-$..!,-)!.'%$-;'#!*-!.($+*3*+!,5546.!,-)!.($+*3*+!54+,'*4-.!*-!(,%'./!I-+$!,!
:2$-+#! 3,+'4%! *.! $.',=5*.#$)! '#,'! "*55! (%4<*)$! '#$! %$:2*%$)! #,%)-$..! ,-)!
.'%$-;'#/! J! :2$-+#! .#425)! =$! .$5$+'$)! ,-)! 2.$)! *-! .2+#! ,! ",6! '#,'! '#$%0,5!
.'%$..!,-)!'#$!'$-)$-+6!34%!)*.'4%'*4-!,-)!:2$-+#!+%,+K*-;!*.!0*-*0*L$)/!!!
!
!

2 Theoretical background

30

2.3 Quenching as a heat transfer process


2.3.1

Unsteady state heat transfer

!!!!!!!!!!"#$!#$%&!&'%()*$'!+)!,()&$%-.!/#$(!%!&$01$'%&,'$!%&!%(.!2+3$(!456%&+5(!
+(!%!).)&$0!6#%(2$)!/+&#!&+0$7!
!!!!!!!!!"#$! 1#$(50$(5(! 5*! ,()&$%-.! )&%&$! #$%&! &'%()*$'! 566,')! 5*&$(! +(!
+(-,)&'+%4! 1'56$))$)8! ),6#! %)! 9,$(6#+(2!5*! 0$&%4)7! :(! &#$)$! %114+6%&+5()8! #$%&!
&'%()*$'!+)!%!-.(%0+68!&+0$!-$1$(-$(&!1'56$))7!!
!!!!!!!!!"#$! ,()&$%-.! 1'5;4$0)! %'$! *5'0,4%&$-! %665'-+(2! &5! !" #$%&! 5'! !"
'()*+(,$*-'" ).)*-%" !/!#.)()7! <5(3$6&+3$! #$%&! &'%()*$'! &#'5,2#! ;5,(-%'+$)! +)!
+015'&%(&! +(! &#$! *5'0,4%&+5(! %(-! )54,&+5(! 5*! 65(-,6&+5(! 1'5;4$0)7! "#$!
-+0$()+5(4$))! *5'0! 5*! &#$! ;5,(-%'.! 65(-+&+5(! .+$4-)! &#$! =+5&!
(,0;$'8/#+6#! +)! &#$! '%&+5! 5*! &#$! $>&$'(%4! 65(-,6&%(6$! &5! +(&$'(%4!
65(-,6&%(6$!?@AB7!!

"""""""""!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!CD7EF!

0"G!#$%&!&'%()*$'!65$**+6+$(&!H!I!0JD!K<!JL7!
"#$'0%4!65(-,6&+3+&.!5*!&#$!9,$(6#$-!1%'&!H!I!0JL!K<!JL7!
<#%'%6&$'+)&+6!4$(2&#!*5'!&#$!1%'&!H!07!
!!M,'*%6$!%'$%!5*!&#$!1%'&!;$+(2!9,$(6#$-!H!0D7!
"!N54,0$!5*!&#$!1%'&!H!0O7!
!!!!!!!!!!I#$(! &#$! +(&$'(%4! '$)+)&%(6$! +)! ($24+2+;4$! C5'! /#$(! &#$! $>&$'(%4!
65(-,6&%(6$!+)!4%'2$F8!1"2" !!!%(-! !P!&#+)!6%)$!65''$)15(-)!&5!%!)0%44!
3" 5'! 4%'2$! 1! 8! %(-! 1$'0+&)! &#$! 50+))+5(! 5*! &#$! )1%&+%4! &$01$'%&,'$! 3%'+%&+5(!

2 Theoretical background

31

!"#!"$%&'()*#+,-+,."+/-($%*#0+.*1&$2+,.&3+'-$%&,&-$4+,.(3+&,+)"*%3+,-+!"#$%&'("
)*)+'%"!,!#*)-)."
++++++++++5."$+ ,."+ &$,"#$*)+ *$%+ "6,"#$*)+ #"3&3,*$'"3+ 7-#+ '-$%(',*$'"8+ *#"+
'-9!*#*/)":+ ,."+ 2"$"#*)+ /-($%*#0+ '-$%&,&-$+ '*$$-,+ /"+ 3&9!)&;&"%+ *$%+ ,."+
!#-/)"9+ 9(3,+ /"+ 3-)1"%+ &$+ ,"#93+ -;+ ,.&3+ '-$%&,&-$<+ =.&3+ '*3"+ #">(&#"3+ +/'"
(-)+0-1$+'(")*)+'%"!&&02!3/."
++++++++++=."+ '*)'()*,&-$+ -;+ ."*,+ ,#*$3;"#+ '-";;&'&"$,3+ ,.#-(2.+ ,."+ (3"+ -;+ ,."+
)(9!"%+3(9+9-%")+9*?"+&,+!-33&/)"+,-+"3,&9*,"+,."+*9-($,+-;+,&9"+*+303,"9+
,*?"3+,-+#"*'.+3,"*%0+3,*,"+'-$%&,&-$3+@AB:+CDE<+

2.3.2

Heat transfer during quenching

++++++++++F"*,+ #"9-1*)+ ;#-9+ !*#,3+ %(#&$2+ >("$'.&$2+ '*$+ /"+ 9*,."9*,&'*))0+


%"3'#&/"%+&$+,"#93+-;+,."+";;"',&1"+&$,"#;*'"+."*,+,#*$3;"#+'-";;&'&"$,<+
++++++++++G+ >("$'.*$,+ 9(3,+ &9!*#,+ *+ 3(;;&'&"$,)0+ .&2.+ &$,"#;*'"+ ."*,+ ,#*$3;"#+
'-";;&'&"$,+ ,-+ !#-%('"+ *+ '--)&$2+ #*,"+ ,.*,+ H&))+ 9&$&9&I"+ ,#*$3;-#9*,&-$+ -;+
*(3,"$&,"+ ,-+ ;"##&,"+ -#+ !"*#)&,"+ *$%+ 0&")%+ ,."+ %"3&#"%+ *9-($,+ -;+ 9*#,"$3&,"+ -#+
/*&$&,"<+
=."+&$,"#;*'"+."*,+,#*$3;"#+'-";;&'&"$,+&3+%";&$"%+*3+@CD:+CJEK+

H."#"K+
+N+F"*,+;)-H+;#-9+,."+!*#,+,-+,."+>("$'.*$,<+
4+N+O*#,+*#"*<+

"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""7L<M8"

2 Theoretical background
!

32

 !"#$%"&'()"*+(,'-%")%.&%(')+(%/"
!"#$%"%012(30.%0)")%.&%(')+(%/"
""""""""""#$%" 20)%(,'-%" $%')" )('0*,%(" -3%,,2-2%0)" +04%(" -3042)230*" 3," 20)%(%*)" -'0"
5%"4%)%(.20%4"56"(%-3(4207" '" -338207" -+(1%" +*207" '" )$%(.3-3+&8%" 83-')%4" 20"
)$%" -%0)(%" 3," -68204(2-'8" )%*)" &(35%*" 92)$" &'()2-+8'(" 42.%0*230*/" #$%" -338207"
(')%" -'0" 5%" 4%)%(.20%4" 31%(" '" &'()2-+8'(" )%.&%(')+(%" ('07%" ,(3." )$%" -338207"
-+(1%:" )3" %*)2.')%" )$%" 20)%(,'-%" $%')" )('0*,%(" -3%,,2-2%0)/" #$')" &(3124%*" )$%"
%,,%-)21%" 20)%(,'-%" $%')" )('0*,%(" -3%,,2-2%0)" 31%(" )$%" )%.&%(')+(%" ('07%" 3,"
20)%(%*)/"
""""""""""#$%" 5%0%,2)" 3," ;039207" 3(" %<&%(2.%0)'886" 4%)%(.20207" 20)%(,'-%" $%')"
)('0*,%("-3%,,2-2%0)*"&(34+-%4"56"'"*&%-2,2-"=+%0-$'0)"+04%(";0390"-3042)230*"
2*" )$')" )$%*%" 1'8+%*" -'0" 5%" +*%4" 92)$" -30,24%0-%" 20" ,202)%" %8%.%0)" 3(" ,202)%"
42,,%(%0-%"$%')")('0*,%("-'8-+8')230*")3".34%8")$%")$%(.'8"5%$'123+("3,"&'()*"3("
-3.&30%0)*" )$')" $'1%" 03)" '-)+'886" 5%%0" 20*)(+.%0)%4/" #$%*%" -'8-+8')%4"
-338207"-+(1%*"-'0")$%0"5%"+*%4")3"%*)2.')%")$%"'*>=+%0-$%4"$'(40%**"20")$%*%"
83-')230*/"
"
2.3.3

Determination of heat transfer coefficient using inverse method

""""""""""?0")$%"0+.%(2-'8"*2.+8')230"3,"=+%0-$207"&(3-%**:")$%")%.&%(')+(%",2%84"
2*"+*+'886"4%)%(.20%4"+*207")$%"$%')")('0*,%("%=+')230/"?)"2*")$%0"0%-%**'(6")3"
;039" )$%" 1'(23+*" -3%,,2-2%0)*:" )$%" 53+04'(6" -3042)230*:" '04" )$%" 202)2'8"
-3042)230:"20"3(4%(")3"(%'-$")$%"*38+)230/"@%"833;"20")$')"-'*%",3(")$%"(%*&30*%"
3,")$%"*6*)%."92)$"'";0390"202)2'8")%.&%(')+(%",2%84")3")$%"$%')")('0*,%("82.2)%4"
56" ;0390" 53+04'(6" -3042)230*/" #$%" *+(,'-%" $%')" )('0*,%(" -3%,,2-2%0)" 2*" )$%"

2 Theoretical background
!

33

!"#$%&!'"($)*$%+",*-)(.%/"*-&$&"*%)*-%01.%')()!1$1(%2"(%'("/1##%#&!,3)$&"*%
4567%89:;%
%%%%%%%%%%<$% &#% )3#"% '"##&+317% =">1?1(7% $"% (1?1(#1% $=1% '("+31!;% @=1% &*?1(#1%
'("+31!% &#% -12&*1-% )#% "*1% &*% >=&/=% $=1% #",A=$% "+B1/$&?1% "(% $=1% ?)3,1% $"% +1%
-1$1(!&*1-%&#%,*)$$)&*)+31%+.%-&(1/$%1C'1(&!1*$#7%)*-%/"*/3,#&"*#%/"*/1(*&*A%
$=1&(%/=)()/$1(&#$&/#%)(1%-()>*%2"33">&*A%&*-&(1/$%!1)#,(1!1*$#%"2%')()!1$1(#;%
@=1% +",*-)(.% /"*-&$&"*#% "2% =1)$% $()*#21(% )(1% #",A=$% &*% $=1% &*?1(#1% !1$="-%
4DE:;% @=1%'("/1##% 1221/$#% /)*% +1% -1$1(!&*1-% +.% $=1% $1!'1()$,(1% /=)*A1#% )$% )%
'"&*$%3"/)$1-%)$%$=1%A1"!1$(&/%/1*$(1%2"(%)%'("+17%>=1(1%$=1%'("+1%-&!1*#&"*#%
/)*%+1%-1$1(!&*1-%,#&*A%$=1%3,!'1-%/)')/&$)*/1%$=1"(.%4D57%D8:;%
%%%%%%%%%%@1!'1()$,(1%=&#$"(.%!1)#,(1!1*$%&#%,#1-%)#%)*%&*',$%$"%)*%&*?1(#1%=1)$%
/"*-,/$&"*% !"-13% $"% 1#$&!)$1% $=1% =1)$% $()*#21(% /"122&/&1*$% )$% $=1% !1$)3%
FG,1*/=)*$%&*$1(2)/1;%@=1%*"*H3&*1)(%#,(2)/1%=1)$%$()*#21(%/"122&/&1*$#%&*/3,-1%
$=1%/",'31-%1221/$#%+1$>11*%'=)#1%$()*#2"(!)$&"*%)*-%$1!'1()$,(1%45E7%D9:;

2.3.3.1

Lumped Capacitance Models

%%%%%%%%%%%<*% )% G,1*/=&*A% '("/1##% =1)$% $()*#21(% &#% )% -.*)!&/7% $&!1% -1'1*-1*$%


'("/1##;%I=1*%$=1%$=1(!)3%'("'1($&1#%"2%$=1%+"-.%,*-1(%&*?1#$&A)$&"*%)*-%$=1%
$=1(!)3%/"*-&$&"*#%"2%&$#%#,(2)/1%)(1%#,/=%$=)$%$=1%$1!'1()$,(1%&*#&-1%$=1%+"-.%
?)(&1#%,*&2"(!3.%&*%$&!1%)*-%$=1%+"-.%&#%)$%)*.%!"!1*$%)3!"#$%&#"$=1(!)37%$=1%
3,!'1-%/)')/&$)*/1%!1$="-%&*%$=&#%/)#1%&#%)%/"*?1*&1*$7%#&!'31%)*-%)//,()$1%
$""3%"2%$=1(!)3%)*)3.#&#;%<2%$=1%')($%&#%&!!1(#1-%)$%!"#"$%&*%)%/""3&*A%23,&-%>&$=%
% 7% $=1% $1!'1()$,(1% &*#&-1% $=1% +"-.% J K% -1/(1)#1#% #!""$=3.% )*-%
!"*"$"*",#3.7%$"%(1)/=%1?1*$,)33.%$=1%1G,&3&+(&,!%?)3,1%& '(%

2 Theoretical background

34

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%! &'! %($)'*#((#+! &)'&+#! %,#! -.+/! -/! 0.)+10%&.)! $)+! -/! 0.)2#0%&.)!
*(.3!%,#!-.+/!%.!%,#!'1((.1)+&)4!*51&+!(#'#(2.&(6!7*!%,#!%,#(3$5!(#'&'%$)0#!.*!
%,#! -.+/! &'! '3$55! $'! 0.38$(#+! 9&%,! %,$%! .*! %,#! *51&+! : ! ! ;6<=>! %,#)! %,#!
&)'%$)%$)#.1'! %#38#($%1(#! *&#5+! &)'&+#! %,#! -.+/! &'! 1)&*.(3>! $)+! %,#! &)%#()$5!
%#38#($%1(#!4($+&#)%'!$(#!)#45&4&-5/!'3$556!?,#!#)#(4/!-$5$)0#!#@1$%&.)!%,#)!
%$A#'!%,#!8$(%&015$(!*.(3!BC;>!C<>!CCDE!
!" !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:F6G=
 ! ! %,#! 0,$)4#! &)! %,#! %,#(3$5! #)#(4/! '%.($4#! &)! %,#! '.5&+6! ?,#! #@1$%&.)!
+#'0(&-&)4!%,&'!8(.0#''!&'E!


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:F6C=!

!?,#(3$5!#)#(4/!%($)'*#((#+!-#%9##)!%,#!8$(%!$)+!%,#!*51&+!'1((.1)+&)4!
&%6!?,#!#@1$%&.)!1'#+!%.!+#'0(&-#!%,&'!3#0,$)&'3!&'E!
:F6H=!
?,&'!3#$)'E!!

9,#(#E!
!!?#38#($%1(#!.*!%,#!8$(%!'1(*$0#!J!KL6!
! M!?#38#($%1(#!.*!%,#!@1#)0,$)%!J!KL6!
!M!N$%#(&$5!+#)'&%/!J!A4!3OP6!
!Q8#0&*&0!,#$%!J!R!A4O<!KL!O<6!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:F6I=!

2 Theoretical background

35

!!"#$%#&'()&#!*!+,-!
".#!'/01#!#2)'(304!5'4!/#!$'43%)6'(#7!(0!73&#5(68!9061#!:0&!;!

2.3.3.2

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!<=->?@!

Applicability of lumped capacity analysis

!!!!!!!!!!".#! &'(30! 0:! (.#! 34(#&4'6! <5047)5(31#@! &#939('45#! (0! (.#! #A(#&4'6!
<5041#5(31#@! &#939('45#! :&0$! '! 90637! #A5.'4B34B! .#'(! C3(.! '! :6)37! 5'4! /#!
7#40(#7!/8!(.#!D30(!4)$/#&E!"#-!
!!!!!!!!!!".39! 73$#49304'6! 2)'4(3(8! %6'89! '4! 3$%0&('4(! &06#! 34! (.#! #1'6)'(304! 0:!
(.#! 34(#&4'6! 5047)5(304! .#'(! (&'49:#&! %&05#99! C3(.! 9)&:'5#! 5041#5(304!
50473(3049E!'47!3(!$'8!/#!)9#7!(0!'99#99!(.#!1'6373(8!0:!(.#!6)$%#7!5'%'53('45#!
$#(.07! :0&! '! %'&(35)6'&! 5'9#-! F99#4(3'668E! "#! ! $%&! $#'49! (.'(! (.#! 34(#&4'6!
5047)5(304! (.#&$'6! &#939('45#! 0:! (.#! /078! 39! $)5.! 9$'66#&! (.'4! (.'(! 7)#! (0!
5041#5(304-!
!!!!!!!!!!G#45#E! (.#! 6)$%#7! 5'%'53('45#! $07#6! 39! 504939(#4(! '47! 5'4! /#! )9#7!
9':#68-!H)5.!'4!'4'68939!$'8!/#!#A%#5(#7!(0!83#67!&#'904'/6#!#9(3$'(#9!C3(.34!
'/0)(!IJ!%#&5#4(!K>>E!>=E!LLM-!

2 Theoretical background
!

2.4

36

Material physical properties

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%! $%&'()*! +#,-.+$/0/$1! !"#! ),-! 23&+/4/+! %&)$! ! #! 0)*.&2! #4! $%&!
()$&'/)*! ,&&-! $#! 5&! &63'&22&-! )2! )! 4.,+$/#,! #4! $&(3&')$.'&! -.'/,7! $%&!
8.&,+%/,7!3'#+&22!/,!#'-&'!$#!/,+'&)2&!$%&!)++.')+1!#4!$%&!+)*+.*)$/#,29!
!!!!!!!!!!!:%&! -&,2/$1! ;<! /2! )22.(&-! )2! +#,2$),$! ;=>?>! @7! (AB<! 5&+).2&! $%&!
0)'/)$/#,!#4!/$2!0#*.(&!-.&!$#!&63),2/#,!-.'/,7!$%&!8.&,+%!/2!2()** CDDE!=DF9!

2.4.1

Specific heat capacity

!!!!!!!!!!G3&+/4/+! %&)$! +)3)+/$1! 0)'/&2! H/$%! 5#$%! $&(3&')$.'&! ),-! 2$'.+$.'&9! I,!
3)'$/+.*)'! /$! $&,-2! $#! 2%#H! ),#()*#.2*1! %/7%! 0)*.&2! ,&)'! $%&! $&(3&')$.'&2! )$!
H%/+%! ()7,&$/+! $'),24#'()$/#,2! #++.'9! :%&! 3#2/$/#,! #4! $%&! 3&)@2! -.&! $#! $%&!
%/7%! 0)*.&2! #4! $%/2! 3'#3&'$1! -&3&,-! .3#,! $%&! $&(3&')$.'&! )$! H%/+%!
$'),24#'()$/#,!#++.'!C=JE!=>F9!
!!!!!!!!!!:%&'(#-1,)(/+!+)*+.*)$/#,2!H&'&!+)''/&-!#.$!H/$%!K:LM:M!2#4$H)'&!
$#! 3'&-/+$! $%&! &8./*/5'/.(! 3%)2&! 4')+$/#,! ;4/7.'&! NA! B<! ),-! $#! &2$/()$&! $%&!
23&+/4/+!%&)$!#4!O&AJ9DP!QAJ9DP!G/AJ9P=!K,!H$R!)2!)!4.,+$/#,!#4!$&(3&')$.'&9!
L.'/,7! $%&! +)*+.*)$/#,! $H#! +#,-/$/#,2! H&'&! .2&-E! 4/'2$E! #,*1! ).2$&,/$&! H)2!
)**#H&-!$#!&6/2$9!:%&!-)$)!4#'!$%&!23&+/4/+!%&)$!+),!5&!4/$$&-!$#!#,&!3#*1,#(/)*!
&8.)$/#,!$#!+#0&'!$%&!&,$/'&!$&(3&')$.'&!'),7&!)2!2%#H,!/,!4/7.'&!NA!S!;DNJJ!
TQ!U!:!U!JTQ<9!:%/2!&8.)$/#,!H)2!.2&-!$#!+)*+.*)$&!$%&!2.'4)+&!%&)$!$'),24&'!
+#&44/+/&,$! -.'/,7! $%&! 8.&,+%/,7! 3'#+&22! 4#'! $%&! 3'#5&E! H%/+%! /2! &63&+$&-! $#!
'&()/,!)2!).2$&,/$&!.,$/*!$%&!K2!$&(3&')$.'&!/2!'&)+%&-9!
!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!;N9DD<!

2 Theoretical background

37

!"#$#%&'(")#'$*'+*$,-(".#$+%,&"-,&#/&00-,&#$")#'&1&",-,&#2&0&#$**(2&)#,(#&3-%,4#
56&#)$,$#/(0#,6&#%7&'-/-'#6&$,#'$"#8&#/-,,&)#89#$#/-/,6#(0)&0#7(*9"(1-$*#,(#'(:&0#
,6&#&",-0&#,&17&0$,+0&#0$";&#$%#%6(2"#-"#/-;+0&#<=#>#?@<AA#BC#D#5#D#ABCE4#56-%#
&F+$,-("#2$%#+%&)#-"#,6&#70(;0$1#,(#'$*'+*$,&#,6&#,&17&0$,+0&#)-%,0-8+,-("#
-"%-)&#,6&#%$17*&4#!"#8(,6#'$%&%#,6&#%7&'-/-'#6&$,#'$7$'-,9#%,$0,&)#,(#8&#%-1-*$0#
$/,&0#GH#,&17&0$,+0&4#!"#8(,6#'$%&%#$*%(.#,6&#)-%'(",-"+-,9#-"#,6&#6&$,#'$7$'-,9#
)+&#,(#,0$"%/(01$,-("%#2$%#(1-,,&).#26-'6#0&70&%&",%#$#1+'6#%1$**&0#$1(+",#
(/#&"&0;9#26&"#'(17$0&)#,(#,6&#6&$,#0&*&$%&)#89#,6&#'((*-";#70('&%%4##
    
   ############## ##############?<4@<E#
#


!#
!!#
#
#

Figure 2-3: Evolution of equilibrium phase fraction using MTDATA


calculation for Fe- 0.16 C- 0.16 Si- 0.67 Mn wt% steel. Only ferrite,
austenite, cementite were allowed to exist.

2 Theoretical background
!

38

Figure 2-4: Calculated specific heat capacity of Fe- 0.16 C- 0.16 Si-0.67
Mn wt% steel as a function of temperature using MTDATA.

2.4.2

Thermal conductivity

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'(!)*+,-)./0/.1!/2!'!3-+)./*+!*3!.#$!)*&4*2/./*+!'+,!.#$!2.%-).-%$!
*3! .#$! &'.$%/'(5! 6.! 7$+$%'((1! ,$)%$'2$2! 8/.#! .$&4$%'.-%$9! '-2.$+/.$! #'2! .#$!
(*8$2.! )*+,-)./0/.1! :;<=5! >/7-%$! ?@A! 2#*82! .#$! ,$4$+,$+)1! *3! .#$%&'(!
)*+,-)./0/.1!*+!.$&4$%'.-%$!'2!4%$,/).$,!-2/+7!'!+$-%'(!+$.8*%B!&*,$(!:CD=!'2!
8/((! E$! $F4('/+$,! /+! )#'4.$%! GH! 8#/)#! )'+! E$! 2-&&'%/I$,! E1! '! .#/%,! *%,$%!
4*(1+*&/'(! $J-'./*+! .*! /+,/)'.$! .#$! 0'%/'./*+! *3! .#$%&'(! )*+,-)./0/.1! 8/.#!
.$&4$%'.-%$5 "#/2!$J-'./*+!)*0$%2!.#$!.$&4$%'.-%$!%'+7$!2#*8+!/+!.#$!3/7-%$!
KLMMM!NO!P!"!P!MNOQ5!
       !
  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!R!&@L!S@L!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!K?5LGQ!

2 Theoretical background

39

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure
2-5: Calculated thermal conductivity for Fe- 0.16 C- 0.16 Si!!
0.67 Mn wt% steel as a function of temperature using the thermal
conductivity neural network model.

2.5

Theoretical and experimental investigation

!!!!!!!!!!"#$! %&'()*+,%(&! +-(.,! +! /.$&0#%&1! 2)(0$33! 0+&! -$! (-,+%&$4! -5! ,6(!
*+%&!*$,#(437!$82$)%*$&,+9!%&:$3,%1+,%(&!+&4!,#$()$,%0+9!0+90.9+,%(&!;<=>?!
!!!!2.5.1

Experimental investigation

!!!!!!!!!!!"#$! *(3,! )$9%+-9$! %&'()*+,%(&! +-(.,! +! 2#53%0+9! 2)(0$33! %&! (',$&! 1%:$&!
-5! +0,.+9! *$+3.)$*$&,?! @&! $82$)%*$&,+9! %&:$3,%1+,%(&! %&:(9:%&1! '.99! 30+9$!
$/.%2*$&,! %3! 2)(#%-%,%:$95! $82$&3%:$! +&4! (',$&! %*2(33%-9$?! "#$! +9,$)&+,%:$!
,#$&! %3! ,(! 2$)'()*! $82$)%*$&,3! (&! 3*+99! 30+9$! *(4$93?! "#$! )$3.9,%&1!
%&'()*+,%(&7!#(6$:$)7!*.3,!-$!$8,)+2(9+,$4!,(!9+)1$!30+9$?!
!

2 Theoretical background
!

2.5.2

40

Theoretical calculation

!!!!!!!!!"#$%&$'()*+! ,&$-()'(%.! /%&01! %2'! '#$! )%.1$32$.)$1! %4! *! 5*'#$5*'()*+!


5%-$+6! &*'#$&! '#*.! '#%1$! %4! *.! *)'2*+! ,#71()*+! 5%-$+8! 9%&! '#$! 32$.)#(.:!
,&%)$11$1!%4!(.'$&$1'!#$&$6!'#$!5*'#$5*'()*+!5%-$+!5*(.+7!)%.1(1'1!%4!*!1$'!%4!
-(44$&$.'(*+!$32*'(%.18!
2.5.3

Advantages of computer model over experiments

x ;.! (5,%&'*.'! *-<*.'*:$! %4! )%5,2'*'(%.*+! ,&$-()'(%.! (1! ('1! +%/! )%1'! (.! 5%1'!
*,,+()*'(%.1=! '#$! )%1'! %4! *! )%5,2'$&! &2.! (1! 5*.7! %&-$&1! %4! 5*:.('2-$! +%/$&!
'#*.!'#*'!%4!*!5$*12&$5$.'8!
x ;!)%5,2'$&!1%+2'(%.!%4!*!,&%>+$5!)*.!:(<$!-$'*(+$-!*.-!)%5,+$'$!(.4%&5*'(%.8!
?'! )*.! ,&%<(-$! '#$! <*+2$1! %4! *++! '#$! &$+$<*.'! <*&(*>+$1! '#&%2:#! '#$! -%5*(.! %4!
(.'$&$1'8! @><(%21+76! .%! $A,$&(5$.'*+! 1'2-7! )*.! >$! $A,$)'$-! '%! 5$*12&$! '#$!
-(1'&(>2'(%.1! %4! *++! <*&(*>+$1! %<$&! '#$! $.'(&$! -%5*(.8! 9%&! '#(1! &$*1%.6! $<$.!
/#$.! *.! $A,$&(5$.'! (1! ,$&4%&5$-6! '#$&$! (1! *! :&$*'! <*+2$! (.! %>'*(.(.:! *!
)%5,*.(%.! )%5,2'$&! 1%+2'(%.! '%! 12,,+$5$.'! '#$! $A,$&(5$.'*+! (.4%&5*'(%.!
BCDE8
2.6 Mathematical description of quenching process
!!!!!!!!!!"#$! 4%&52+*'(%.! %4! *! 32$.)#(.:! ,&%)$11! (.<%+<$1! '&*.1+*'(.:! '#$!
,&%>+$5!(.'%!*!5*'#$5*'()*+!4%&56!212*++7!-(44$&$.'(*+!$32*'(%.18!
!!!!!!!!!!9%&52+*'(%.! %4! #$*'! )%.-2)'(%.! (.! '#&$$! -(5$.1(%.1! (1! >*1$-! %.!
-(44$&$.'(*+! #$*'! >*+*.)$! %<$&! *! 12('*>+7!)#%1$.! 15*++! <%+25$! $+$5$.'! (.! '#$!
171'$58! @.$! %4! '#$! '#&$$! )%55%.! )%%&-(.*'$! 171'$51F'#$! &$)'*.:2+*&!
G*&'$1(*.6! '#$! )7+(.-&()*+! ,%+*&6! *.-! '#$! 1,#$&()*+! ,%+*&! 5*7! >$! 1$+$)'$-!

2 Theoretical background
!

41

!"#"$!%$&' (#)$' *+"' &"),"*-%./0' 1+/#"' )2' *+"' 3)!4' %$' 5+%.+' .)$!(.*%)$' )-'
!%22(1%)$')2'+"/*'%1'*/6%$&'#0/."'789:;
2.6.1

Control Volume Formulation

''''''''''<+"'3/1%.'%!"/')2'*+"'.)$*-)0'=)0(,"'2)-,(0/*%)$'%1'"/14'*)'($!"-1*/$!'
/$!' 0"/!1' %*1"02' *)' !%-".*' #+41%./0' %$*"-#-"*/*%)$;' <+"' ./0.(0/*%)$' !),/%$' %1'
!%=%!"!'%$*)'/'$(,3"-')2'$)$')="-0/##%$&'.)$*-)0'=)0(,"1'1(.+'*+/*'*+"-"'%1'
)$"' .)$*-)0' =)0(,"' 1(--)($!%$&' "/.+' &-%!' #)%$*;' <+"' !%22"-"$*%/0' ">(/*%)$' %1'
%$*"&-/*"!')="-'"/.+')2'*+"1";'
''''''''''<+"',)1*'/**-/.*%="'2"/*(-"')2'*+"'.)$*-)0'=)0(,"'2)-,(0/*%)$'%1'*+/*'*+"'
-"1(0*%$&'1)0(*%)$'5)(0!'%,#04'*+/*'*+"'%$*"&-/0'.)$1"-=/*%)$')2'>(/$*%*%"1'1(.+'
/1',/11?',),"$*(,?'/$!'"$"-&4'%1'"@/.*04'1/*%12%"!')="-'/$4'&-)(#')2'.)$*-)0'
=)0(,"1'/$!?')2'.)(-1"?')="-'*+"'5+)0"'./0.(0/*%)$'!),/%$;'<+%1'.+/-/.*"-%1*%.'
"@%1*1' 2)-' /$4' $(,3"-' )2' &-%!' #)%$*1A' $)*' B(1*' %$' /' 0%,%*%$&' 1"$1"' 5+"$' *+"'
$(,3"-' )2' &-%!' #)%$*1' 3".),"1' 0/-&";' <+(1?' "="$' *+"' .)/-1"C&-%!' 1)0(*%)$'
5)(0!'"@+%3%*'"@/.*'%$*"&-/0'3/0/$."1'789:;'
2.6.2

Mathematical formulation and heat balance

''''''''''<+"' .40%$!-%./0' #)0/-' .))-!%$/*"' 141*",' +/1' 3""$' (1"!' 2)-' *+"'
,/*+",/*%./0' 2)-,(0/*%)$;' <+"' .+)%."' )2' *+"' .))-!%$/*"' /@"1' /$!' *+"'
.40%$!-%./0'3)!4'%1'1+)5$'%$'2%&(-"'DCEA'/01)'1+)5$'%$'*+"'1/,"'2%&(-"'%1'*+"'
1,/00' /$$(0/-' .40%$!-%./0' "0","$*' )2' -/!%(1' !"?' *+%.6$"11' !?' +"%&+*' #?' /$!'
#)0/-' /$&0"$' <+"' +"/*' 3/0/$."' +/1' 3""$' */6"$' )="-' *+%1' 1,/00' "0","$*;'
<+"-"'/-"'1%@'+"/*')(*#(*'*"-,1'2)-'*+"'1%@'1(-2/."1')2'*+"'=)0(,"'"0","$*'/$!'
*+"' /..(,(0/*%)$' *"-,?' *+"-"' %1' $)' &"$"-/*%)$' *"-,' %$' +"/*' 3/0/$."1' 3"./(1"'
*+"-"'%1'$)'+"/*'1)(-.";'

2 Theoretical background

42

!"#$"#%&$'%(%)*#$#+,%&-.)$-/$01-&&#)$%/$2345$675$6389$
$

!"#$*"%)F#$-)$&"#$&"#1@%($

#)#1FE$/&.1%F#$.B$&"#$D.(,@#$

$
L#%&$&1%)/B#11#C$.,&$.B$&"#$
D.(,@#$#(#@#)&$B1.@$%(($.B$

-&/$/-C#/$C,1-)F$"$

#(#@#)&$C,1-)F$"$
$

 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$:4;3<=$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$:4;>=$

  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:4;3?=!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:4;3>=!

0"#1#$  %1#$&"#$&#@A#1%&,1#/$.B$&"#$).C#/$%&$&-@#/$"!#!$!"$%)C$

"! #! %$&'(! "$ 1#/A#*&-D#(E;$ 1#A1#/#)&/$ &"#$ &#@A#1%&,1#$ *"%)F#$


.B$&"#$).C#$C,1-)F$&"#$&-@#$-)&#1D%($%"(;$
H

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

$$$$

Figure 2-6:$The volume element for the cylindrical coordinate system.$

2 Theoretical background

43




 




 !
"#$%!&'()*&%+'(!+(!%,#!-'*%,!)+.#&%+'(!'/!%,#!(')#0


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!120345!

!"#$%!&'()*&%+'(!+(!%,#!('.%,!)+.#&%+'(!'/!%,#!(')#0!


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!120365!

!"#$%!&'()*&%+'(!+(!%,#!#$-%!)+.#&%+'(!'/!%,#!(')#0


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!120375!

!"#$%!&'()*&%+'(!+(!%,#!8#-%!)+.#&%+'(!'/!%,#!(')#0!


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!120295!

!"#$%!&'()*&%+'(!+(!%,#!.#$.!)+.#&%+'(!'/!%,#!(')#0


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!120235!

2 Theoretical background

44

!"#$%!&'()*&%+'(!+(!,-'(%!)+-#&%+'(!',!%.#!(')#/


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!01/112!

!
3*45%+%*%#!%.#5#!#6*$%+'(5!+(!%.#!7$+(!#6*$%+'(!01/892:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!01/1;2!

!
<+=+)+(>!4'%.!5+)#5!4?! !$()!5*45%+%*%+(>!

!-#5*@%5:!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!01/1A2!

B.#-#!


!!!!!!!!!0 2!



!



!

2 Theoretical background
!

45

!"#$%&'(%)*%+*,'++'(-*.%/01%




%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%234356%

7"*+*8%
%
!"*+*90+*%/"*%/*:;*+'/<+*%&"'(-*%#(%0(*%#/*+'/#0(%90+%/"*%#(/*+('=%(0.*%2(0.*%
>6%#$%-#?*(%)@1%




%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%2343A6%

%
B(=@%/"*%9#('=%*C<'/#0($%90+%/"*%0/"*+%(0.*$%7#==%)*%-#?*(%#(%/"*%$*&/#0(%3,A,D,
34%

2.6.3

Initial condition and boundary nodes

%%%%%%%%%E#-<+*% 3,F% $"07$% /"*% &@=#(.+#&'=% $"';*% 09% /"*% ;'+/% '(.% /"*% '$$0&#'/*.%
#(#/#'=%'(.%)0<(.'+@%&0(.#/#0($4%
%
%
%

2 Theorretical bacckground
d

46

One Node
N

A3

D!

B
!

;
!

AG
AA

A!

3!
F
!

AB
AC

A
AF!

AA@!

A?
A;

Figgure 2-7: The cylin


ndrical shape of thee part and
d the bou
undary noode
disstribution
n, nodes tyypes are labelled 1-- 18.!

2.6.3.1

Initial condition
c

"#! $#$%$&&4! 5(#)$%$((#! )$5%&%228! %>2! %26


692.&%-.2! /(.! $%8! )$88%.$'-%$(#88<! E$%>$#! %>2!
'()*!&%!++2.(!%$627!
!"#$%%%%%&%(%)%(%*$%%%%%&%(%+%(%,$%%%%%%&%(
(%-%(%./%%%
%%'" "%=--2#5>$#1!%%2692.&%--.27%
2.6.3.2

Boundaary condittions

()*!
,(-#)&..*!#()28!89925$0*!%>22!%2692.&%--.28!&%!%>22!'(-#)&.$28!2#54(88$#1!%>2!'(
/0$1-.2!33:;<7!

2 Theoretical background

47

Node 2:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$!"#"$%""""""&"'"("'"$%""""""")"'"*"'"$"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$5%6$+,7$




$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$5898:6$

0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$+,$;+3')$<=7$
$

Node 3:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$!"#"+%""""""&"'"("'"$%""""""")"'"*"'"$"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$,-.$+,7$




$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$5898>6$

0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$+,$;+3')$<=7$
$

Node 4:$$
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$!"#"$%""""""("#"&%""""""")"'"*"'"$"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$,-.$+,7$

2 Theoretical background

48



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$!#%&!

'()*)!+()! !,-.!+()!/0123)!)1)3)-+!,*)!45/)-!678!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !

Node 5:
90*!+()!:0-.5+50-;!!!!"#"$%""""""&"#"'%"""""""(")"*")"+"
<()!+)3=)*,+2*)!0>!+()!-0.)!,>+)*!0-)!+53)!5-+)*/,1!,-.!5;8!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$?@&!

'()*)!+()! !,-.!+()!/0123)!)1)3)-+!,*)!45/)-!678!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !

Node 6:
90*!+()!:0-.5+50-;!!!$")"!")"+%""""""&"#"'%"""""""(")"*")"+"
<()!+)3=)*,+2*)!0>!+()!-0.)!,>+)*!0-)!+53)!5-+)*/,1!,-.!5;8!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$?A&!

'()*)!+()! !,-.!+()!/0123)!)1)3)-+!,*)!45/)-!678!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !

2 Theoretical background

49

Node 7:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$!"#"$%""""""&"'"("'"$%""""""")"#*"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$+,-$+,5$





$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$67897:$

;&'#'$%&'$ $0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$0#'$<+3')$=>5$$$$$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Node 8:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$!"#".%""""""&"'"("'"$%""""""")"#*"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$+,-$+,5$




$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$67899:$

;&'#'$%&'$ $0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$0#'$<+3')$=>5$$$$$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Node 9:$$
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$."'"!"'"$%""""""&"'"("'"$%""""""")"#"*"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$+,-$+,5$

2 Theoretical background

50




!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!

()*+*!,)*! !-./!,)*!01234*!*2*4*.,!-+*!560*.!789!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Node 10:
:1+!,)*!;1./6,61.<!!!!!"#$%""""""&"#"'%"""""""("#)"
=)*!,*4>*+-,3+*!1?!,)*!.1/*!-?,*+!1.*!,64*!6.,*+0-2!*+,!6<9!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%@'!

()*+*!,)*! !-./!,)*!01234*!*2*4*.,!-+*!560*.!789!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Node 11:
:1+!,)*!;1./6,61.<!!!!!"#-%""""""&"#"'%"""""""("#)"
=)*!,*4>*+-,3+*!1?!,)*!.1/*!-?,*+!1.*!,64*!6.,*+0-2!*+,!6<9!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%A'!

()*+*!,)*! !-./!,)*!01234*!*2*4*.,!-+*!560*.!789!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

2 Theoretical background

51

Node 12:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$!"#"$"#"%&""""""'"()&"""""""*"(+"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$,-.$+,5$



$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6789:;$

<&'#'$%&'$ $0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$0#'$=+3')$>?5$$$$$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Node 13:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$$"(%&"""""")"#"'"#"%&"""""""*"(%"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$,-.$+,5$




$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6789@;$

<&'#'$%&'$ $0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$0#'$=+3')$>?5$$$$$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Node 14:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$$"(!&"""""")"#"'"#"%&"""""""*"(%"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$,-.$+,5$

2 Theoretical background

52




!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!

()*+*!,)*! !-./!,)*!01234*!*2*4*.,!-+*!560*.!789!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Node 15:
:1+!,)*!;1./6,61.<!!!!"#"$"#"%&""""""'"#"("#"%&""""""")"*"%"
=)*!,*4>*+-,3+*!1?!,)*!.1/*!-?,*+!1.*!,64*!6.,*+0-2!+,-!6<9!




!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$@A'!

()*+*!,)*! !-./!,)*!01234*!*2*4*.,!-+*!560*.!789!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Node 16:
:1+!,)*!;1./6,61.<!!!$"*%&""""""("*"'&""""""")"*%"
=)*!,*4>*+-,3+*!1?!,)*!.1/*!-?,*+!1.*!,64*!6.,*+0-2!+,-!6<9!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$@B'!

()*+*!,)*! !-./!,)*!01234*!*2*4*.,!-+*!560*.!789!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

2 Theoretical background

53

Node 17:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$!"#$%""""""&"#"'%"""""""("#)"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$*+,$+,5$



$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$67897:$

;&'#'$%&'$ $0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$0#'$<+3')$=>5$$$$$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Node 18:
!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$$"-"!"-")%""""""&"#"'%"""""""("#)"
-&'$%'./'#0%1#'$"2$%&'$)"*'$02%'#$")'$%+.'$+)%'#304$*+,$+,5$



$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6789?:$

;&'#'$%&'$ $0)*$%&'$3"41.'$'4'.')%$0#'$<+3')$=>5$$$$$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

The centre:
@%$%&'$(')%#'$!"#$%&'$(")*+%+"),$$$)""!""$%""""""&"#)%""""""")""("."
;&'#'A$

/B B$

2 Theoretical background
!

54

2.6.4!!!!!Program description
!!!!!!!!!"#$! %&'(&)*! +,! -+.+-$-! +/0'! 01'! ,$20+'/,3! +/%40! 5! +/+0+)6+7)0+'/! )/-!
,'640+'/!'8!0#$!0$*%$&)04&$!%&'8+6$!)0!$)2#!0+*$!+/2&$*$/0!9:+(4&$!;<=>?!
!
Input and Initialization3!@$0,!0#$!/4*A$&!'8!/'-$,B!*)0$&+)6!%&'%$&0+$,B!+/+0+)6!
2'/,0)/0! 0$*%$&)04&$! -+,0&+A40+'/! 1+0#+/! 0#$! A'-C! )0! 7$&'! 0+*$B! 0#$! )*A+$/0!
D4$/2#)/0!0$*%$&)04&$B!0#$!,+*46)0+'/,!,0'%!0$*%$&)04&$!)0!0#$!%)&0!2$/0&$B!)/-!
0#$!%)&0!-+*$/,+'/,?!
!
!Temperature Profile3!
x "#$!*)+/!6''%!+,!+/+0+)0$-!)/-!2'/0+/4$,!4/0+6!0#$!/'-$,!)0!0#$!%)&0!
2$/0&$!&$)2#!0#$!,0'%!0$*%$&)04&$!9%)&0!2$/0&$!0$*%$&)04&$!E!D4$/2#)/0!
0$*%$&)04&$>?!
!
x F'2)0$!0#$!/'-$!%',+0+'/,!)/-!0#$+&!$D4)0+'/!9+/0$&/)6!'&!,4&8)2$!/'-$,>?!
!
!
x G%-)0$! 0#$! 0$*%$&)04&$! %&'8+6$! )/-! 0$*%$&)04&$! ,0$%! A),$-! '/! 0#$!
24&&$/0! 0$*%$&)04&$! %&'8+6$! )/-! 84/20+'/! '8! *)0$&+)6! %&'%$&0+$,! )/-!
2)6246)0$-! 0#$&*)6! 2'/-420+.+0C! )0! $)2#! ,0$%! 8'&! +/0$&/)6! /'-$,B! )/-!
84/20+'/!'8!*)0$&+)6!%&'%$&0+$,!)/-!2)6246)0$-!0#$&*)6!2'/-420+.+0C!)/-!
#$)0!0&)/,8$&!2'$88+2+$/0!8'&!0#$!,4&8)2$!/'-$?!
!
x G%-)0$!0#$!0+*$<0$*%$&)04&$!#+,0'&C!*)0&+H?!

2 Theoretical background

55

!
!

Program transient
temperature

!
!
!
!
!

Input & Initialization


"!#$%&'(!)*!#)+',-!
"!./01023!4'%5'(21$('!67$'/890/:!
1'%5'(21$(';!
"!<%&0'/1!4'%5'(21$('!67$'/892/1!
4'%5'(21$('-;!
"!=2(1!+0%'/,0)/,-!
"!!=2(1!%21'(023!5()5'(10',-!
"!>1)5!1'%5'(21$('-!

!
!

Has the centre reached


the stop temperature?

!
!

No

!
!
!

Temperature Profile

"!?238$321'!k@ 2/+ h!A23$',!2,!2!*$/810)/!


)*!1'%5'(21$('-!
"!>)3A'!*)(!1'%5'(21$('!5()*03'!0/!0/1'(/23!2/+!
,$(*28'!/)+',-!
"!B5+21'!10%'!C!1'%5'(21$('!90,1)(D!%21(0E-!!

END

Figure 2-8: Temperature profile program flowchart.

Yes

Chapter 3
Neural Network Model for Prediction of
Thermal Conductivity of Steels
!
3.1

Introduction
"#$%&'(%)!*+,&$--$-!.+$!-$%-(/(0$!/,!/'$!/'$+1.2!&,%3#&/(0(/45!6&&#+./$!

1,3$22(%)!.%3!*+,7$!3$-()%!+$24!,%!8%,92$3)$!,:!/'(-!*.+.1$/$+!.-!3(-&#--$3!
(%!&'.*/$+!;5!<'$!3$*$%3$%&$!,:!/'$+1.2!&,%3#&/(0(/4!,%!/$1*$+./#+$!1#-/!7$!
8%,9%!:,+!/'$!-/$$2!-/#3($3!=$>#./(,%!;5?@AB!(/!&,%/+,2-!.:/$+!.22!/'$!1.)%(/#3$!
,:! /'$! /'$+1.2! )+.3($%/-! 9'(&'! ,&&#+! (%! &,1*,%$%/-! 3#+(%)! >#$%&'(%)5!
C+.3($%/-! 2$.3! /,! /'$+1.2! -/+$--$-D! .%3! 1.4! .2-,! 2$.3! /,! 0.+(./(,%! (%!
1(&+,-/+#&/#+$D!7,/'!,:!9'(&'!2(1(/!/'$!-(E$!,:!&,1*,%$%/-!/'./!&.%!7$!9(/'!/'$!
3$-(+$3!',1,)$%$,#-!1(&+,-/+#&/#+$5!
F%!/'$!.7-$%&$!,:!.%4!>#.%/(/./(0$!1,3$2!/'$!,%24!&',(&$!(-!/,!2,,8!:,+!
-(1(2.+! &,1*,-(/(,%-! &,%/.(%$3! (%! *#72(-'$3! /.72$-! ,:! 3./.! GHID! JID! J?KD! 7#/!
.**+,*+(./$!(%:,+1./(,%!1.4!%,/!.29.4-!7$!.0.(2.72$5!!
L#$! /,! /'$! &,1*2$M(/4D! %,! *'4-(&.2! 1,3$2! $M(-/-! /'./! &.%! $-/(1./$! /'$!
/'$+1.2!&,%3#&/(0(/4!,:!.%!.+7(/+.+4!-/$$2B!/'(-!2(1(/-!/'$!.7(2(/4!/,!1,3$2!/'$!
>#$%&'(%)! 7$'.0(,#+5! N$0$+/'$2$--! .! 2,/! ,:! &,%3#&/(0(/4! 3./.! '.0$! 7$$%!
*#72(-'$3B!(/!9.-!3$&(3$3!/,!3$0$2,*!.!>#.%/(/./(0$!%$#+.2!%$/9,+8!/,!$M*+$--!
/'$!(%:,+1./(,%!(%!1#2/(0.+(./$!:,+15!

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

57

!" #$%&'(" #$)*+&," -'#" .$" &$/'&0$0" '1" '" /$#$&'(" 2+&3" +2" &$/&$114+#5"
6&+7404#/" '#" '66&+'-8" .9" *84-8" '" :%'#)4)')47$" 6&$04-)4+#" 3'9" .$" 3'0$" 4#"
14)%')4+#1"*8$#")8$"-+36($;4)9"+2")8$"6&+.($3" 3',$1"'"!"#$%&'((#)*%+,-*,-$)
)&$')3$#)" 04224-%()<" =+*$7$&5" )8$" )$-8#4:%$" -'#" .$-+3$" .'/"0.'/%&'((#)
*%+,-*,-$) *8$#" 0$7$(+6$0" 4#" '" >'9$14'#" 2&'3$*+&,5" 14#-$" )8$" &$($7'#-$" +2"
$'-8"0')%3"'#0"$'-8"7'&4'.($"-'#")8$#".$"4#2$&&$0"'%)+3')4-'((9<
3.2

Modelling Complex Properties


?8$&$" '&$" 3')$&4'(" 6&+6$&)4$1" )8')" -'#" .$" 3+0$(($0" 1436(9" '#0"

'#'(9)4-'((95" 1%-8" '1" -&91)'((4@')4+#" ,4#$)4-1" +&" )8$" )$#14($" 6&+6$&)4$1" +2"
-+36+14)$" 3')$&4'(1<" =+*$7$&5" 4#" 1+3$" -'1$1" )8$" 6&+6$&)9" '&41$1" 2&+3" 3'#9"
4#)$&'-)4#/" $22$-)15" #+)" '((" +2" *84-8" '&$" *$((" %#0$&1)++0<" A7$#" 42" )8$"
3$-8'#4131" '&$" ,#+*#" 4)" 3'9" #+)" .$" -($'&" 8+*" )8$9" *+&," )+/$)8$&5" '#0"
1436(424-')4+#"+2")8$"6&+.($3"3'9".$"%#'--$6)'.($"2&+3"'#"$#/4#$$&4#/"6+4#)"
+2" 74$*<" ?8$" 94$(0" 1)&$11" +2" '" 3$)'(" 2+&" $;'36($5" -'##+)" .$" -'(-%(')$0" 2&+3"
24&1)" 6&4#-46($15" '()8+%/8" )8$" 0$6$#0$#-$" +#" 7'&4'.($1" 1%-8" '1" /&'4#" 14@$5"
041(+-')4+#"0$#14)95"$)-5"41"%#0$&1)++0<""
B#" -'1$1" (4,$" )8$1$5" 6&+6$&)4$1" -'#" .$" $1)43')$0" .'1$0" +#" 3+0$(1" )8')"
8'7$" .$$#" 24))$0" )+" )8$" '7'4('.($" $364&4-'(" 0')'<" !" #$%&'(" #$)*+&," -'#" 3',$"
)8$".$1)"%1$"+2"$;41)4#/"-+36($;5"3%()4C043$#14+#'("0')'"$7$#"*8$#")8$"0')'"
'&$" 16'&1$5" #+)" %#42+&3(9" 041)&4.%)$0" 4#" )8$" 7'&4'.($" 16'-$5" +&" .+)8<" ?8$"
6%&6+1$"+2")8$"0')'C24))4#/"41")+"'11$11")8$"-+#)&4.%)4+#"+2"$'-8"4#6%)"6'&'3$)$&"
)+" )8$" +%)6%)5" '#0" )+" 3',$" :%'#)4)')47$5" &')8$&" )8'#" 3$&$(9" :%'(4)')47$5"
6&$04-)4+#1<"?841"'66&+'-8"8'1".$$#"0$3+#1)&')$0"'1"'"6+*$&2%(")++(")+"'40")8$"
-&$')4+#"+2"#$*"3')$&4'(1"DEFCEGH<"
"

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

3.3

58

Thermal conductivity
!"#$ %&'(#$ "#&)$ *+,-.*)/0/)1$ +2$ 3#)&%4$ /4$ +,#$ +2$ )"#/'$ 3+4)$ +'-/,&'1$

5'+5#')/#46$ 7#*&.4#$ 7+)"$ #%#*)'+,4$ &,-$ 5"+,+,4$ 8)"#$ %&))/*#$ 0/7'&)/+,9$


*+,)'/7.)#$)+$)"#$)"#'3&%$*+,-.*)/0/)1:$!"#$"#&)$*+,-.*)/0/)1$*&,$7#$-#4*'/7#-$
&4$;<=>?$

!"#   8@:A9$


$
B"#'#$ $/4$)"#$45#*/2/*$"#&)$*&5&*/)1$6$0#%+*/)16$&,-$$/4$)"#$3#&,$2'##$5&)":$
!"#$ 2/'4)$ )#'3$ /,$ )"/4$ #C.&)/+,$ /4$ )"#$ %&))/*#$ *+,)'/7.)/+,6$ )"#$ 0#%+*/)1$ /,$ )"/4$
)#'3$/4$&%3+4)$*+,4)&,)$8)"#$45##-$+2$4+.,-96$&,-$)"#$4#*+,-$)#'3$*+3#4$2'+3$
#%#*)'+,46$)"#$0#%+*/)1$/4$)"#$3#&,$45##-$+2$)"#$'#45+,4/7%#$#%#*)'+,4:$D,$3#)&%4$
)"#$ #%#*)'+,$ *+,)'/7.)/+,$ /4$ -+3/,&,)6$ B"#'#&4$ 2+'$ 4#3/*+,-.*)+'4$ &,-$
/,4.%&)+'46$)"#$5"+,+,$*+,)'/7.)/+,$/4$-+3/,&,):$
D,$ (++-$ #%#*)'/*&%$ *+,-.*)+'4$ &$ '&)"#'$ %&'(#$ ,.37#'$ +2$ 2'##$ #%#*)'+,4$
3+0#$ &7+.)$ )"#$ %&))/*#$ +2$ )"#$ 3&)#'/&%:$ E.4)$ &4$ )"#4#$ #%#*)'+,4$ 3&1$ )'&,45+')$
#%#*)'/*$ *"&'(#6$ )"#1$ 3&1$ &%4+$ *&''1$ )"#'3&%$#,#'(1$ 2'+3$ &$ "/("$ )#35#'&).'#$
'#(/+,$ )+$ &$ %+B$ )#35#'&).'#$ '#(/+,:$ F,#'(1$ 3&1$ &%4+$ 7#$ )'&,43/))#-$ &4$
0/7'&)/+,&%$#,#'(1$/,$)"#$%&))/*#$4)'.*).'#$+2$)"#$3&)#'/&%:$D,$(#,#'&%6$"+B#0#'6$
)"/4$%&))#'$3+-#$+2$#,#'(1$)'&,42#'$/4$,+)$&4$%&'(#$&4$)"#$#%#*)'+,$)'&,45+')6$&,-$
2+'$ )"/4$ '#&4+,$ (++-$ #%#*)'/*&%$ *+,-.*)+'4$ &'#$ &%3+4)$ &%B&14$ (++-$ "#&)$
*+,-.*)+'46$ %/G#$ *+55#'6$ &%.3/,/.3$ &,-$ 4/%0#'6$ &,-$ #%#*)'/*&%$ /,4.%&)+'4$ &'#$
.4.&%%1$(++-$"#&)$/,4.%&)+'4A$;<=>:$

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
A

$$H/&3+,-$/4$&,$#I*#5)/+,6$7#/,($&,$#%#*)'/*&%$/,4.%&)+'6$7.)$*&5&7%#$+2$)"#'3&%$
*+,-.*)/0/)1$2/0#$)/3#4$&4$"/("$&4$4/%0#'$+'$*+55#'$8&7+.)$JKKK$L$3MA$NMA$&)$'++3$
)#35#'&).'#96$7#*&.4#$+2$)"#$4)'+,($*&'7+,M*&'7+,$/,)#'&*)/+,$&,-$)"#$#I*#5)/+,&%%1$"/("$
0#%+*/)1$+2$4+.,-$8A<KK$3$4MA9:$

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

3.3.1

59

Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity


!"#$%& '(%& )*%%& %+%$'*,#-& .*%& *%-/,#-"0+%& ),*& '(%& %+%$'*"$.+& .#1& '(%*2.+&

$,#13$'"4"'"%-& ,)& $,#13$',*-5& 2.#6& *%-%.*$(%*-& 3-%& '(%& 7"%1%2.##89*.#:8


;,*%#:& +.<& ',& .''%2/'& ',& *%+.'%& '(%& '(%*2.+& $,#13$'"4"'6& ',& '(%& %+%$'*"$.+&
*%-"-'"4"'6& =%>3.'",#& ?@?A@& B("-& $.#& 0%& .#& %C'*%2%+6& 3-%)3+& .//*,C"2.'",#5&
-"#$%& "'& "-& 23$(& %.-"%*& ',& 2%.-3*%& *%-"-'"4"'6& '(.#& '(%*2.+& $,#13$'"4"'6D&
(,<%4%*5& '(%6& 1,& #,'& E%#%*.++6& (.4%& '(%& -.2%& '%2/%*.'3*%& 1%/%#1%#$%& FGH&
5IJKL&
&


=?@MA&

&
<(%*%& & "-& '(%& %+%$'*"$.+& *%-"-'"4"'65& '(%& N,+':2.##& $,#-'.#'5& %& "-& '(%&
%+%$'*,#&$(.*E%5& &$.++%1&'(%&;,*%#:&#320%*&<("$(&"-&'(%&-.2%&),*&.++&2%'.+-&
=  A&'(%#L&


B&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&=?@?A&

&
3.3.2

Effect of temperature
O-& '(%& '%2/%*.'3*%& "-& "#$*%.-%15& %+%$'*,#8/(,#,#& -$.''%*"#E& 0%$,2%-&

1,2"#.#'& 1%$*%.-"#E& '(%& '(%*2.+& $,#13$'"4"'6& "#& 2%'.+-@& B(%& 2%.#& )*%%& /.'(&
),*&-3$(&-$.''%*"#E&*%13$%-&<"'(&"#$*%.-"#E&'%2/%*.'3*%&= &<"'(&!&+.*E%*&
'(.#&3#"'6AD&'(%&2%.#&)*%%&/.'(&,)&%+%$'*,#&.'&*,,2&'%2/%*.'3*%&"-&'6/"$.++6&,#&
'(%&,*1%*&,)&PH&#2&1%/%#1"#E&,#&'(%&2.'%*".+@&O-&.&*%-3+'&,)&%+%$'*,#8/(,#,#&
-$.''%*"#E5& '(%*2.+& $,#13$'"4"'6& ,)& 2%'.+-& 1%$*%.-%-& .'& ("E(& '%2/%*.'3*%-@&
B(%*%& "-& .+-,& '(%& /,--"0"+"'6& ),*& .& 2,*%& $,2/+%C& 0%(.4",3*& 13%& ',&
(%'%*,E%#%,3-&2"$*,-'*3$'3*%-&.#1&/(.-%&'*.#-),*2.'",#-&FIQK@&&

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

3.3.3

60

Effect of alloying
!"#$ %"#&'()$ (*+$ %"#$ #)#,%&-,()$ &#.-.%(*,#$ /0$ ())/1.$ 2-%"$ %"#$ 0/&#-3*$

(%/'.$ -*$ ./)-+$ ./)4%-/*$ -.$ *#(&)1$ ()2(1.$ 3&#(%#&5$ (*+$ -*$ ./'#$ ,(.#.$
,/*.-+#&(6)1$3&#(%#&5$%"(*$%"(%$/0$($74&#$'#%()$89:;<$=*#$(%/'-,$7#&,#*%$/0$%-*$
(++#+$ %/$ ,/77#&$ 2-))$ -*,&#(.#$ %"#$ .7#,-0-,$ #)#,%&-,()$ &#.-.%(*,#$ 0&/'$ ><::$ %/$
?<>:$@$,'<$A*$+-)4%#$,/*,#*%&(%-/*.$%"#$#00#,%$/0$())/1-*3$-.$-*+#7#*+#*%$/0$
%#'7#&(%4&#<$ !"#$ "-3"$ &#.-.%(*,#$ /0$ ())/1.$ ,(*$ 6#$ #B7)(-*#+$ 61$ #)#,%&/*$
-*%#&(,%-/*.$ 2-%"$ %"#$ '(%&-B<$!"#$ &#.-.%(*,#$ /0$ ($ 74&#$ '#%()$ -.$ )(&3#)1$ +4#$ %/$
%"#$ +-.%4&6(*,#$ %/$ %"#$ 7#&-/+-,-%1$ /0$ %"#$ )(%%-,#$ 61$ %"#&'()$ (3-%(%-/*<$ C"#*$
0/&#-3*$(%/'.$(&#$(++#+$%"#1$,(4.#$7#&%4&6(%-/*.$-*$%"#$)(%%-,#5$(*+$#)#,%&/*.$
2-))$6#$+#0)#,%#+$#D#*$-*$%"#$(6.#*,#$/0$%"#&'()$(3-%(%-/*$89:5$9E;<$
F#,"%#)6#&3#&$ 89G;$ #'7-&-,())1$ &#)(%#+$ %"#$ ,"(*3#$ -*$ %"#&'()$
,/*+4,%-D-%1$/0$0#&&-%#$61$())/1-*3$%/$%"#$%"#&'()$,/*+4,%-D-%1$/0$74&#$-&/*$61$
(*$#H4(%-/*$/0$%"#$0/&'I$

!"!#!$!)*!!%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!$JK<?L$
$
2"#&#$ B$ 2(.$ %"#$ ())/1-*3$ #)#'#*%$ -*$ M<$ N#&"(7.$ .4,"$ ($ &#)(%-/*$ ,(*$ 6#$
O4.%-0-#+$-0$2#$,/*.-+#&$%"#$+-.%4&6(*,#$-*$7#&-/+-,-%1$61$())/1-*3<$
P-*,#$%"#&#$-.$($)(&3#$#00#,%$/*$%"#&'()$,/*+4,%-D-%1$61$(*1$+-.%4&6(*,#$
-*$%"#$7#&-/+-,-%15$%"#$"#(%$%&#(%'#*%$/0$.%##).$,(*$6#$#B7#,%#+$%/$"(D#$($)(&3#$
#00#,%$ /*$ ,/*+4,%-D-%1Q$ (0%#&$ ())5$ ($ )(&3#$ D(&-#%1$ /0$ '-,&/.%&4,%4&#.$ ,(*$ 6#$
(,"-#D#+$ (%$ ,/*.%(*%$ ,/'7/.-%-/*<$ R/&$#B('7)#5$ H4-,S)1$ ,//)-*3$ ($ .%##)$ 0&/'$
%"#$ (4.%#*-%#$ &(*3#$ -.$ )-S#)1$ %/$ 7&/+4,#$ ($ '(&%#*.-%-,$ '-,&/.%&4,%4&#5$ 2-%"$
,(&6/*$(*+$/%"#&$())/1-*3$#)#'#*%.$7&#.#*%$-*$($.47#&T.(%4&(%#+$./)-+$./)4%-/*<$
U#(%-*3$2-))$%"#*$%&-33#&$%#'7#&-*3$6#"(D-/&5$(.$,(&6-+#.$7&#,-7-%(%#$(*+$3&/2<$
A*$ ,/*%&(.%5$ .)/2$ ,//)-*3$ 2/4)+$ 7&/+4,#$ ($ ,/(&.#&$ '-B%4&#$ /0$ ,#'#*%-%#$ (*+$

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

61

!"##$%"& '$%(& )*'"#& +,*-.%/& *!& /*)-%"& ")",".%/& $.& !"##$%"0& +.1& '$%(& +& )*'"#&
1"!"2%&1"./$%34&5("&%("#,+)&2*.1-2%$6$%3&*!&%("&,+#%"./$%"&+%&#**,&%",7"#+%-#"&
'*-)1&8"&)*'"#0&8-%&'*-)1&%".1&%*'+#1/&%(+%&*!&%("&!"##$%"92",".%$%"&,$:%-#"&
-7*.&("+%&%#"+%,".%&8")*'&%("&+-/%".$%"&7(+/"&!$")14&
;/& %",7"#+%-#"/& $.2#"+/"& $.%*& #+.<"& =>>9?>>& @A& %("& %("#,+)&
2*.1-2%$6$%3& *!& 1$!!"#".%& /%"")/& 2*.6"#<"0& %($/& 2+.& 8"& ":7)+$."1& 83& %("&
$.2#"+/"1& $,7*#%+.%& *!& 7(*.*.& /2+%%"#$.<0& +)/*& %("& 7(+/"& 2(+.<"& %*& +-/%".$%"&
*22-#/&+.1&")",".%/&<*&$.%*&/*)-%$*.4&
B$2(%"#&CDDE&+.1&F*'"))&CD?E&(+6"&/(*'.&%("&%("#,+)&2*.1-2%$6$%$"/&+/&+&
!-.2%$*.& *!& %",7"#+%-#"& !*#& +& .-,8"#& *!& 1$!!"#".%& /%"")/4& 5("& %("#,+)&
2*.1-2%$6$%$"/& *!& %("& +))*3/& 1$6"#<"& +/& %",7"#+%-#"& $/& 1"2#"+/"10& 7-#"& $#*.&
(+6$.<& %("& ($<("/%& %("#,+)& 2*.1-2%$6$%30& !*))*'"1& 83& /%"")/0& +))*3& /%"")/& +.1&
%(".& %("& ($<(9+))*3& /%"")/4& G$<(9+))*3& /%"")/& (+6"& #")+%$6")3& )*'& %("#,+)&
2*.1-2%$6$%3& +%& +,8$".%& %",7"#+%-#"& %(+.& +%& ($<(& %",7"#+%-#"/4& ;%& ($<("#&
%",7"#+%-#"/&'(".&+-/%".$%"&!*#,/&$.&+))&%("&+))*3/0&%("&%("#,+)&2*.1-2%$6$%$"/&
8"2*,"&/$,$)+#&H!$<-#"&I9JK4&
5("&%("#,+)&2*.1-2%$6$%3&*!&+.&+))*3&'$))&1"7".1&-7*.&%",7"#+%-#"&+.1&
,$2#*/%#-2%-#"&H%("#"!*#"&%$,"&$.&/*,"&2+/"/K4&L.&7#$.2$7)"0&+.&+22-#+%"&,*1")&
/(*-)1&8"&7*//$8)"&'(".&%("&,$2#*/%#-2%-#"&2+.&8"&7#"1$2%"1&H+&7#*8)",&'($2(&
$/&/%$))&%("&%*7$2&*!&+&<#"+%&1"+)&*!&#"/"+#2(K4&M$6$.<&2*.%#$8-%$*./&%*&1$!!"#".%&
7(+/"/& '$%(& 1$!!"#".%& 2*.%#$8-%$*./0& +& )+'& *!& ,$:%-#"/& #-)"& /(*-)1& 8"&
/-22"//!-)N&$.1""1&/-2(&+.&+77#*+2(&(+/&8"".&-/"1&!*#&2+/%&$#*./&CJ=E4&
&

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

3.4

62

Bayesian Neural Networks


!"#$%&"'#( "#&( )*+,'$%$( -.+( /+0)*%"%1&',%( *%,'%.&( +1( -"%( 2&%( #1$(

)%*3+*0#1/%( +3( 1%2*#4( 1%-.+*5&( '1( 0#-%*'#4&( &/'%1/%( 6789( :;<=( .'-"( -"%(
+>?%/-',%(+3(%1/+2*#@'1@(-"%()*+)%*(#))4'/#-'+1(+3(-"'&(0%-"+$A(B"%(#))*+#/"(
2&%$( '1( -"'&( /"#)-%*( 3+44+.&( -"%( .+*5( +3( C#/D#E( 6:F<9( ."+( #))4'%$( 1%2*#4(
1%-.+*5&( 0+$%4&( '1( #( !#E%&'#1( 3*#0%.+*5( 0#5'1@( '-( )+&&'>4%( -+(
GH2#1-'-#-',%4E(%0>+$E(I//#0J&(*#K+*J8A(

a
b
c

Figure 3-1: Variation of thermal conductivities of iron


and steels with temperature [88].
a-Iron.
c- Alloy steels.

b- Carbon steel.
d- High alloy steels.

((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((
8

(I//#0L&(*#K+*('&(-"%()*'1/')4%(-"#-(&-#-%&(#()*%3%*%1/%(3+*(&'0)4%(-"%+*'%&A(MN//%)-(-"%(
&'0)4%&-(%O)4#1#-'+1(-"#-(3'-&(-"%($#-#LA(

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

63

!"#$%& '()*& )*+& ,-.+/(-$& -001#-2*& 3-24-.& -"/#& 1+2#55+$6/&


($2#10#1-)($%&)*+&781)*+1&5+)*#6/&'*(2*&2-$&-"/#&2#$)1(98)+&)#&)*+&/822+//&#7&
5#6+""($%:&;*+&1#98/)$+//&(/&781)*+1&(501#<+6&9.&/0"())($%&)*+&6-)-&($)#&)+/)($%&
-$6& )1-($($%& /+)/=& '*(2*& -""#'/& )*+& /+"+2)(#$& #7& 5#6+"/& '*(2*& -<#(6&
#<+17())($%:&38")(0"+&/89>5#6+"/&-1+&)1-($+6&)#&7#15&-$&#0)(585&2#55())++&#7&
5#6+"/&?@A>@BC:&;*+/+&5+)*#6/&781)*+1&-))+50)&)#&7($6&)*+&-001#01(-)+&"+<+"&#7&
2#50"+D().& 71#5& )*+& 6-)-& 01#<(6+6=& -$6& 01#<(6+& -& 1#98/)& /#"8)(#$& '*(2*&
%+$+1-"(E+/&'+"":&;*+&-001#-2*&8/+6&*-/&9++$&-00"(+6&01+<(#8/".&($&5-)+1(-"/&
/2(+$2+=&?@F>GHHC=&-&%##6&+D0"-$-)(#$&#7&)*+&8/+&#7&)*+&2#55())++&#7&5#6+"/&
*-/&9++$&01#<(6+6&9.&I#815-("&!"#$%&&?GHGC:&
&
&

J$08)&8$()/&

L(66+$&8$()/&

K8)08)&8$()/&

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
Figure
3-2: An example of three layer neural network with four inputs
and five hidden units.

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

64

!"#$#% &'% ()% &*+,&-&.% (''/*+.&0)% &)% )#/$(,% )#.10$2% *03#,,&)4% ."(.% ."#%
&)+/.% 5($&(6,#'% ($#% $#,(.#3% .0% ."#% 0/.+/.% 67% (% -0).&)/0/'% ()3% 3&88#$#).&(6,#%
8/)-.&0)9% :)% .$(&)&)4% ."#% )#.10$2% ."#% (&*% &'% .0% *&*&-% ."#% 6#"(5&0$% 08% ."&'%
8/)-.&0)9% ;(-<(7% =>?@% "('% '"01)% ."(.% (% '/88&-&#).,7% -0*+,#A% ."$##B,(7#$%
)#.10$2C% ('% '"01)% &)% 8&4/$#% DB?C% /'&)4% "7+#$60,&-% .()4#).% 8/)-.&0)'% &)% ."#%
80$*%08%#E/(.&0)%D9FC%&'%(6,#%.0%&*&.(.#%()7%'/-"%)0)B+#$&03&-%8/)-.&0)9%
!"#%)#/$(,%)#.10$2%&)%."&'%-('#%&'%'&*+,7%(%8,#A&6,#%#E/(.&0)%."(.%-()%6#%
8&.%.0%()7%3(.(%'#.C%67%(3G/'.&)4%."#%+($(*#.#$'%0$%H1#&4".'9%:.%&'%/'/(,%80$%."#%
#E/(.&0)%D9F%.0%6#%."#%'/*%08%*()7%"7+#$60,&-%.()4#).%8/)-.&0)'%#E/(.&0)%D9I9%
!"#%0/.+/.%5($&(6,#%&'%#A+$#''#3%('%(%,&)#($%'/**(.&0)%08%(-.&5(.&0)%8/)-.&0)'C%
%1#&4".#3%67%."#%1#&4".'% ()3%."#%6&('%9%
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%JD9FK%
:)%."#%-('#%08%(%"7+#$60,&-%.()4#).%80$*/,(.&0)C%."#%(-.&5(.&0)%8/)-.&0)%80$%(%
)#/$0)%!%&)%."#%"&33#)%,(7#$%&'%4&5#)%67L%
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%JD9IK%
1&."%1#&4".'% ()3%6&('#'% %:)%0$3#$%.0%(,,01%'&*+,#%-0*+($&'0)%6#.1##)%
&)+/.'%1"0'#%*(4)&./3#%($#%($6&.$($7C%#(-"%5($&(6,#%&'%)0$*(,&'#3%1&."&)%."#%
$()4#%MN9F%/'&)4%."#%8/)-.&0)L%
%


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%JD9OK%

1"#$#% &'% ."#% /)B)0$*(,&'#3% &)+/.C% % ()3% % ($#% ."#% *&)&*/*% ()3%
*(A&*/*%5(,/#'%&)%."#%3(.(6('#%80$%."(.%&)+/.C%()3% %&'%."#%)0$*(,&'#3%5(,/#9%
P!$(&)&)4%."#%)#.10$2Q%&'%(-"&#5#3%67%(,.#$&)4%."#%+($(*#.#$'%.0%8&.%."#%
8/)-.&0)'% .0% ."#% 3(.(% /'&)4% P6(-2% +$0+(4(.&0)Q% 4$(3&#).% 3#'-#).% 0+.&*&R(.&0)%

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

65

!"#$%&'"%() *+,-./) 0#) 123212(%) 43) #56%$027%) 8'3$02#3) 9:2$:) 54;43$%()


$#1!;%<20=)43&)4$$'"4$=/)0=!2$4;;=>)
)
 )?@ABC)
) 2() 4) "%D';4"2E402#3) 8'3$02#3) 0#) !%34;2E%) 1#"%) $#1!;%<) 8'3$02#3(/) 9:2$:)
:47%);4"D%")3'15%")#8):2&&%3)'320()43&)2()D27%3)5=>)
)

)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))?@AFC)

)2()0:%)#7%"4;;)%""#")5%09%%3)04"D%0)#'0!'0)74;'%()43&)3%09#"G)#'0!'0)74;'%(/)
D27%3)5=>)
)

)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))?@A+,C)

9:%"%) ) 43&) ) 4"%) 0:%) 04"D%0) 43&) $#""%(!#3&23D) #'0!'0) 74;'%() 8#") 0:%)
%<41!;%) 23!'0) 8"#1) 0:%) 0"42323D) &404) A) ) 43&) ! 4"%) $#30"#;) !4"41%0%"()
9:2$:) 238;'%3$%) 0:%) 54;43$%) 5%09%%3) 4) (21!;%) 5'0) 234$$'"40%) 1#&%;/) 43&) 43)
#7%"$#1!;%</)4;(#)234$$'"40%)1#&%;A)H4$I4=J()4;D#"20:1)4;;#9()0:%)238%"%3$%)
#8)0:%(%)!4"41%0%"()8"#1)0:%)&404/)!%"120023D)4'0#1402$)$#30"#;)#8)0:%)1#&%;)
$#1!;%<20=) 0:2() 2() 3%$%((4"=) 0#) D%3%"40%) 4) 1#&%;) #8) 4!!"#!"240%) $#1!;%<20=/)
9:2$:)$43)823&)0:%)D%3%"4;)0"%3&()8"#1)0:%)&404A)
K:%)8234;)74;'%()#8)0:%)9%2D:0()&%!%3&)'!#3)0:%)232024;)D'%(()14&%)8#")
0:%)!"#5452;20=)&2(0"25'02#3)#8)0:%)9%2D:0()43&)0:%)3'15%")#8):2&&%3)'320(A)
K:%"%8#"%)4);4"D%)3'15%")#8)(%!4"40%)1#&%;()4"%)0"423%&)920:)&288%"%30)(04"023D)
$#3&202#3(A)
L'5M1#&%;()4"%)5%(0)%74;'40%&)'(23D)0:%);#D)!"%&2$027%)%""#")?NOPC/)23)
$#1!4"2(#3)0#)$4;$';4023D)0:%)0%(0)%""#")?('1)(Q'4"%&)%""#"C)0:2()8'3$02#3)
!%34;2(%()234$$'"40%)!"%&2$02#3();%(()9:%3)0:%=)4"%)4$$#1!432%&)5=);4"D%)%""#")

66

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

!"#$%&'$$()*+,&-."-&/0#&1"2.&13")451&)&-.1&)0615&,*71$&"&4#16*2-*0+&

"220#6*+,&-0&-.1&+0#)"5&6*$-#*!(-*0+&8*-.&"71#",1& "+6&7"#*"+21& &


!

!!&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&9:%;;<&

=.*$&*$&20)!*+16&8*-.&2#0$$>7"5*6"-*0+&-0&/(#-.1#&,("#6&","*+$-&071#>
/*--*+,%&=.1&6"-"&*$&$45*-&*+-0&-#"*+*+,&"+6&-1$-*+,&$1-?&-.*$&"5508$&"5-1#+"-1&$(!>
)0615$&-0&!1&20)4"#16&!@&-.1*#&41#/0#)"+21&*+&4#16*2-*+,&-.1&(+$11+&6"-"&
($*+,&1A("-*0+&9:%;;<%&'&205512-*0+&0/&-.1&!1$-&)0615$&"$&612*616&!@&-.1&5081$-&
BCD&*$&20)!*+16&-0&)"E1&"&20))*--11&)0615%&=.1&4#16*2-*0+&*$&-.1&"71#",1&0/&
-.0$1&0/&-.1&$(!>)0615$%&=.1&1##0#$&/0#&-.1&6*//1#1+-&20))*--11$&2"+&!1&
2"52(5"-16&"+6&-.1&0+1&8*-.&-.1&5081$-&41#21*716&4#16*2-*71&1##0#&*$&($16%&
&
3.4.1

Overfitting the model of neural network


F71#/*--*+,& -.1& 6"-"& *$& "& 6*//*2(5-@& 2"($16& !@& -.1& ($1& 0/& 4081#/(5&

+0+5*+1"#&#1,#1$$*0+&)1-.06$%&&G+&"66*-*0+&-0&-.1&)1-.06$&61$2#*!16&"!071&-0&
.154&"70*6&-.*$?&-.1&1341#*)1+-"5&6"-"&2"+&!1&6*7*616&*+-0&-80&$1-$?&"&-#"*+*+,&
6"-"$1-& "+6& "& -1$-& 6"-"$1-%& =.1& )0615& *$& *+*-*"55@& 4#06(216& ($*+,& 0+5@& -.1&
-#"*+*+,& 6"-"%&=.1& -1$-& 6"-"& "#1& -.1+& ($16& -0& "$$1$$& -.1& )0615& !1."7*0#& 8.1+&
4#1$1+-16&8*-.&4#17*0($5@&(+$11+&6"-"%&=.*$&*$&*55($-#"-16&*+&H*,(#1&:>:?&8.*2.&
$.08$&-.#11&"--1)4-$&"-&)06155*+,&+0*$@&6"-"&/0#&"&2"$1&8.1#1&"&$.0(56&7"#@&
8*-.&#$%&'&5*+1"#&)0615&9H*,(#1&:>:&9"<<&*$&-00&$*)451&"+6&601$&+0-&2"4-(#1&-.1&
#1"5&20)4513*-@&*+&-.1&6"-"%&'+&071#&20)4513&/(+2-*0+&$(2.&"$&-."-&*55($-#"-16&
*+& H*,(#1& :>:& 92<& "22(#"-15@& )0615$& -.1& -#"*+*+,& 6"-"& !(-& ,1+1#"5*$1$& !"65@%&
=.1&04-*)()&)0615&*$&*55($-#"-16&*+&H*,(#1&:>:&9!<%&=.1&-#"*+*+,&"+6&-1$-&1##0#$&
"#1&$.08+&$2.1)"-*2"55@&*+&H*,(#1&:>:&96<I&+0-&$(#4#*$*+,5@?&-.1&-#"*+*+,&1##0#&
9-.1& )*$)"-2.& !1-811+& )0615& 4#16*2-*0+$& "+6& -.1& -#"*+*+,& 6"-"$1-<& -1+6$& -0&

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

67

!"#$"%&"'#()*+),(,&-.'%&'*/"'0(!"-'#(01-"2+*.'+)#$"%&"&3'4*'+&'*/"'0+)+0,0'+)'
*/"' *"&*' "$$($' 5*/"' 0+&0%*#/' 6"*7"")' 0(!"-' 1$"!+#*+()&' %)!' */"' *"&*' !%*%&"*8'
7/+#/'")%6-"&'*/%*'0(!"-'*('6"'#/(&")'7/+#/'9")"$%-+&"&'6"&*'*(',)&"")'!%*%'
:;<=>;<?@3'
'
3.4.2

Noise and uncertainties


A/"$"' %$"' *7(' B+)!&' (C' "$$($&' *(' #()&+!"$D' 7/")' #()!,#*+)9'

"21"$+0")*&D'*/"')(+&"'+)'*/"'!%*%'%)!'*/"',)#"$*%+)*.'(C'0(!"--+)93'A/"')(+&"'
$"&,-*&'+)'%'!+CC"$")*'(,*1,*'C($'*/"'&%0"'&"*'(C'+)1,*&'7/")'*/"'"21"$+0")*'+&'
$"1"%*"!3' A/+&' +&' !,"' *(' "$$($&' +)' 0"%&,$"0")*D' %)!' !,"' *(' E%$+%6-"&' 7/+#/'
7"$"' )(*' #()*$(--"!' &(' */"+$' +)C-,")#"' +&' )(*' +)#-,!"!' +)' */"' %)%-.&+&3' A/"'
&"#()!' B+)!' !"%-&' 7+*/' */"' ,)#"$*%+)*.' (C' 0(!"--+)9F' */"$"' %$"' 0%).'
0%*/"0%*+#%-' C,)#*+()&' 7/+#/' #%)' %!"G,%*"-.' $"1$"&")*' */"' &%0"' &"*' (C'
"01+$+#%-'!%*%3''
H&' &/(7)' +)' I+9,$"' J>?' */"' "$$($' 6%$&D' 7/+#/' %$"' #%-#,-%*"!' ,&+)9'
K%."&+%)' +)C"$")#"D' $"1$"&")*' 6(*/' "21"$+0")*%-' )(+&"' 5$"9+()' H8' %)!' */"'
,)#"$*%+)*.'+)'1$"!+#*+()'!,"'*('-%#B'(C'B)(7-"!9"'5$"9+()'K8':;<=@3'
A/+&' 0"*/(!(-(9.' /%&' 1$(E"!' *(' 6"' "2*$"0"-.' ,&"C,-' +)' 0%*"$+%-&'
&#+")#"'7/"$"'1$(1"$*+"&')""!'*('6"'"&*+0%*"!'%&'%'C,)#*+()'(C'%'E%&*'%$$%.'(C'
+)1,*&3'4*'+&'*/")',)-+B"-.'*/%*'*/"'+)1,*&'%$"',)+C($0-.'!+&*$+6,*"!'+)'*/"'+)1,*'
&1%#"3'
'
'
'
'
'

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

68

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 3-3: Variations in the test and training errors as a function of
model complexity, for noisy data in a case where y should vary with x3.
The filled points were used to create the models (training data), and the
circles constitute the test data [102].
(a) A linear function which is too simple.
(b) A cubic polynomial with optimum representation of both the training
and test data.
(c) A fifth order polynomial which generalizes poorly.
(d) Schematic illustration of the variation in the test and training errors
as a function of the model complexity.

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

69

!
!

Figure 3-4: Schematic illustration of the uncertainty in defining a


fitting function in regions where data are sparse (B) or where there is
scatter (A).The thinner lines represent error bounds due to
uncertainties in determining the weights [102].

3.5

Procedures
"#!$%&'()$*+)'!),'!-#./#($)$#%!0'/'%0'%-'!#1!),'!),'2.+3!-#%04-)$&$)56!

+!0+)+7+('!8+(!-#33+)'0!+%0!+!%'42+3!%')8#29!/2#04-'0:!;#0'33$%*!8+(!-+22$'0!
#4)! 4($%*! ),'! <+5'($+%! %'42+3! %')8#29! +1)'2! ;+-9+5! +(! $./3'.'%)'0! $%! ),'!
7$*7+-9!/2#*2+.!4($%*!),'!-#..'2-$+335!+&+$3+73'!='42#.+)!.#0'3!.+%+*'2!
(#1)8+2'!$%)'21+-'!>?@AB:!
",'! 0+)+7+('! #1! ),'! ),'2.+3! -#%04-)$&$)5! #1! ()''3(! 8+(! #7)+$%'0! 12#.!
),'!/473$(,'0!3$)'2+)42'!>C@6!C?B:!D+)+!+2'!*'%'2+335!+&+$3+73'!$%!+!1#2.!*$&$%*!
),'! -,'.$-+3! -#./#($)$#%6! )'./'2+)42'! +%0! (#.')$.'(! ),'! ,'+)! )2'+).'%)!
-#%0$)$#%!#1!),'!()''3:!D')+$3(!#1!),'!$%$)$+3!-#%0$)$#%!#1!),'!()''3!,+&'!7''%!

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

70

!"#$$%&'()!"'$*#+'"!&%,'+!'-+'$!'"-.%'#$'"!)%'/%0%)-,,1'-22,#3-4,%5'6*#+'-,+!'
-7!#&+'-01'3!"2,#3-$#!0+'8*#3*'8!9,&'4%'#0$)!&93%&'()!"'&#((%)%03%+'#0'$*%'
%:2%)#"%0$-,' 2)!3%&9)%' 9+%&' $!' &%$%)"#0%' $*%' $*%)"-,' 3!0&93$#7#$1' )%2!)$%&5'
;01'&#((%)%03%+'&9%'$!'"#3)!+$)93$9)%'+*!9,&'4%'#03!)2!)-$%&'#0$!'$*%'+2)%-&'
!('$*%'2)%&#3$%&'7-,9%+5'
6*%' &-$-4-+%' 3!0$-#0%&' <=<' 2-#)+' !(' #029$+' >3!"2!+#$#!0' -0&'
$%"2%)-$9)%?' -0&' !9$29$' >$*%)"-,' 3!0&93$#7#$1?' )%2)%+%0$#0/' @@A' +$%%,+5' B!)'
"-01' !(' $*%' +$%%,+' $*%)"-,' 3!0&93$#7#$1' *-&' 4%%0' )%2!)$%&' !7%)' -' )-0/%' !('
$%"2%)-$9)%+C' 8*%)%-+' !$*%)+' 8%)%' !0,1' -++!3#-$%&' 8#$*' -' )!!"' $%"2%)-$9)%'
"%-+9)%"%0$' !0,15' D%$-#,+' !(' $*%' #029$+' -0&' $*%' )-0/%+' (!)' 8*#3*' &-$-' 8%)%'
-7-#,-4,%'3-0'4%'+%%0'#0'$-4,%'AEF5'6*%'&-$-'-)%'-,+!'-7-#,-4,%'!0,#0%'GFHIJ5'
K0'$*%'3-+%'!('LC'MC'N)'$*%)%'8%)%'#0+9((#3#%0$'&-$-'$!'"!&%,'$*#+'%((%3$'
#0'-'9+%(9,'"-00%)5'K$'8-+'$*%)%(!)%'-++9"%&'$*-$'$*%'+"-,,'-"!90$+'!('N)C'M'
-0&' L' &!' 0!$' #0(,9%03%' $*%' $*%)"-,' 3!0&93$#7#$1O' $*%+%' #029$+' 8%)%' )%"!7%&'
49$'$*%'+$%%,+'3!03%)0%&'8%)%'.%2$'#0'$*%'&-$-4-+%'9+%&'(!)'$)-#0#0/5'K$P+',#.%,1'
$*-$'-,,'$*%'-,,!1+'#0'$*%'&-$-4-+%'#03,9&%'+!"%',%7%,'!('0#$)!/%0'&9%'$!'+$%%,E
"-.#0/'2)!3%++%+'49$'$*%'3!03%0$)-$#!0+'8%)%'0!$')%2!)$%&'!)'"%-+9)%&5'6*#+'
#+'$)9%'!('"-01'%,%"%0$+C'8*#3*'8#,,'9+9-,,1'4%'2)%+%0$'#0'$)-3%'-"!90$+'49$'
-)%' 0!$' /%0%)-,,1' )%2!)$%&5' ;01' %((%3$' !(' $*%+%' %,%"%0$+' +*!9,&' $*%)%(!)%' 4%'
)%(,%3$%&'8#$*'/)%-$%)'903%)$-#0$1'#0'$*%'2)%&#3$#!0+5'B#/9)%'AE='#,,9+$)-$%+'$*%'
)-0/%' -0&' $*%' &#+$)#49$#!0' !(' $*%' 7-)#-4,%+' 2,!$$%&' -/-#0+$' $*%' $*%)"-,'
3!0&93$#7#$15'
6*%'&-$-'8%)%'&#7#&%&'#0$!'$8!'/)!92+C'$*%'$)-#0#0/'-0&'$%+$'&-$-'+%$+5'K0'
$*%'#&%-,'3-+%'$*%'&-$-'8!9,&'4%'-')-0&!"'+-"2,%'()!"'$*%'#029$'+2-3%C'8#$*'
%-3*' #029$' 3*-0/#0/' #0&%2%0&%0$,15' 6*#+' #+' 0%7%)' /!#0/' $!' 4%' $*%' 3-+%' #0'
2)-3$#3%5' 6*%)%' #+' $*%)%(!)%' -0' -&7-0$-/%' #0' 3-)%(9,,1' +%,%3$#0/' 8*#3*' !(' $*%'
&-$-'+*!9,&'4%'#03,9&%&'#0'$*%'$)-#0#0/'-0&'$*%'$%+$#0/'+%$+5'6*#+'#+'0%3%++-)1'$!'

71

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

!"#$%!&'()'&!)*(&#!'&+#&)&%!,%!#!"')'+-!&#).,/!&01&'(!&0-!%)//&2)')3&)"2&'0&(!/,&
)-0+2& 0-!%41+''+"5& 67& $#+"5& )#& .)"7& )#& ,0##+6/!& 2+11!%!"'& *0.,0#+'+0"#&
!8).,/!#&+"&!)*(&#!'&)"2&!"#$%!&'()'&#0.!&*0.,0#+'+0"#&)%!&$#!2&0"/7&+"&'(!&
'!#'+"5& #!'9& :+"*!& +'& +#& 2!#+%!2& '0& ,%02$*!& )& .02!/& *),)6/!& 01& ,%!2+*'+"5& '(!&
'(!%.)/&*0"2$*'+-+'7&01&$"#!!"&*0.,0#+'+0"#3&+'&+#&+.,0%')"'&'0&'!#'&'(+#&2$%+"5&
'(!&'%)+"+"5&,%0*!2$%!9&
&
Table 3-1: Summary of the database of steel thermal conductivities,
&
all elements
are in wt%.
Input

Minimum Maximum

Average

Standard
Deviation

;!&<'=&&

>9?>@&&

ABB&&

>C9DD&&

A?9DE&

F&<'=&&

B9B&&

A9DD&&

B9DC&&

B9D?&&

G"&<'=&&

B9B&&

AH9B&&

B9@I&

A9DE&&

J+&<'=&&

B9B&&

?H9B&&

H9ED&&

>9H>&&

G0&<'=&&

B9B&&

I9>B&&

B9HH&

B9>D&&

K&<'=&&

B9B&&

H9BB&&

B9B@&

B9HA&

F%&<'=&&

B9B&&

HB9IB&&

H9>D&&

?9>?&&

F$&<'=&&

B9B&&

B9?C&&

B9BH&

B9A&

L/&<'=&&

B9B&&

AA9BB&&

B9AH&

A9AI&&

J6&<'=&&

B9B&&

H9BB&&

B9B?&

B9HH&

:+&<'=&&

B9B&&

H9EB&&

B9D@&

B9I@&

M&<'=&&

B9B&&

A>9EB&&

B9I>&&

D9@?&

N+&<'=&&

B9B&&

A9IB&&

B9BAE&

B9AA&

F0&<'=&&

B9B&&

EE9C&&

B9CH&

?9BE&&

N!.,!%)'$%!&OF&&

PDBB&&

AE@A&&

H>I9HI&&

HHD&

F0"2$*'+-+'7&O&M&.PA&QPA&&

AB9C&&

>H9>A&&

HH9EC&&

AA9?>&&

&

&

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 3-5: Distribution of data.

72

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

73

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
! Figure 3-6: Significance of each input in each sub-model used to build
!
! the committee model, T is the temperature.

"#$%&%&'!()!*+,-.(/01*!2%34!,03200&!5!$&/!67!4%//0&!+&%3*!$&/!+*%&'!8!
/%))0#0&3!#$&/(.!*00/*!#0*+130/!%&!579!*+,-.(/01*!*+::0**)+11;!3#$%&0/!)#(.!
667! /%))0#0&3! %&%3%$1! :(&/%3%(&*<! "0*3%&'! 0$:4! ()! 340*0! .(/01*! :$=$,%1%3%0*! 3(!
=#0/%:3!340!+&*00&!30*3%&'!*03!$11(20/!$!#$&>%&'!,;!340!1('!=#0/%:3%?0!0##(#<!@!
:(..%3300!.(/01!()!340!,0*3!*%A!.(/01*!2$*!*010:30/!*%&:0!34%*!#0*+130/!%&!340!
1(20*3!:(.,%&0/!30*3!0##(#<!
B%'+#0! 9CD! *4(2*! 340! *%'&%)%:$&:0! ()! 0$:4! ()! 340! %&=+3! ?$#%$,10*! $*!
=0#:0%?0/! ,;! 340! &0+#$1! &032(#>! %&! %&)1+0&:%&'! 340! 340#.$1! :(&/+:3%?%3;E! 340!
.$'&%3+/0!()!340!*%'&%)%:$&:0!%*!$!.0$*+#0!()!340!0A30&3!3(!24%:4!$!=$#3%:+1$#!
%&=+3!0A=1$%&*!340!?$#%$3%(&!%&!340#.$1!:(&/+:3%?%3;<!"40!.(/01!=0#:0%?0*!1(2!
*%'&%)%:$&:0! )(#! F+E! F#E! @1E! G,E! H%E! IE! "%E! J! $&/! HE! 34%*! .$;! .0$&! 340!
#01$3%(&*4%=!%*!?0#;!*%.=10E!)(#!0A$.=10!1%&0$#!34#(+'4(+3!340!#$&'0!()!%&=+3E!
(#! 34$3! 340#0! %*! $! 1(2! :(##01$3%(&! ,03200&! 340*0! %&=+3*! $&/! 340! 340#.$1!
:(&/+:3%?%3;<!K3!$1*(!.%'43!,0!340!:$*0!34$3!340*0!010.0&3*!4$?0!,00&!:(+&30/!
)(#!34#(+'4!340!LB0L!%&=+3<!F$#,(&!4$*!4%'40#!*%'&%)%:$&3!34$&!340*0!010.0&3*<!
M%))0#0&3! *+,C.(/01*! $**%'&0/! /%))0#0&3! *%'&%)%:$&:0*! 3(! N&E! G%E! N(E! O! $&/!
F(! 24%:4! *(.03%.0*! 4$/! *%'&%)%:$&:0! *%.%1$#! 3(! :$#,(&! $&/! *(.03%.0*! 4$/!

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

74

!"#$%& '%($)*+,& -%./%#"*0#%& "12& *)%& +0.& 34& *)%& %!%.%1*+& 56%7& '%#%& #380+*!9&
/%#:%(;%2&*3&8%&+($1(4(:"1*&(1/0*+,&
&
3.6

Model predictions
6($0#%& <=>& +)3'+& "& :3./"#(+31& 8%*'%%1& *)%& /#%2(:*%2& *)%#."!&

:3120:*(;(*9&0+(1$&1%0#"!&1%*'3#?&.32%!&"12&*)%&*"#$%*&2"*"&4#3.&*)%&*%+*&+%*,&
-)%#%& (+& $332& "$#%%.%1*& 8%*'%%1& *)%.@& ')(:)& (12(:"*%+& 3/*(.0.&
/%#43#."1:%&43#&*)%&.32%!,&
6($0#%&<=A&+)3'+&*)%&(14!0%1:%&34&(1:#%"+(1$&*%./%#"*0#%&31&*)%&*)%#."!&
:3120:*(;(*9& 34& (#31& "12& 2(44%#%1*& +*%%!& :3./3+(*(31+,& B":)& :3./3+(*(31& )"+&
2(44%#%1*&*)%#."!&:3120:*(;(*9&;"!0%&"*&#33.&*%./%#"*0#%,&C+&*)%&*%./%#"*0#%&
(+& (1:#%"+%2@& /)3131& +:"**%#(1$& +*"#*+& *3& 23.(1"*%& "12& *)%& .%"1& 4#%%& /"*)&
#%20:%+&'(*)&(1:#%"+(1$&*%./%#"*0#%@&"12&"*&)($)&*%./%#"*0#%+&5"0+*%1(*%&/)"+%&
4(%!27& *)%& *)%#."!& :3120:*(;(*9& (+& .0:)& !%++& 2%/%12%1*& 31& *)%& /0#(*9& 34& *)%&
+"./!%&8%:"0+%&"!!&*)%&%!%.%1*+&$3&*3&*)%&+3!0*(31@&*)%&;"!0%+&:31;%#$%,&
6($0#%+&4#3.&<=D&*3&<=<E&+)3'&*)"*&*)%#."!&:3120:*(;(*9&2%:#%"+%+&43#&
%":)& %!%.%1*& "+& "!!39(1$& (1:#%"+%+@& "+& %F/%:*%2& 4#3.& %G0"*(31& <,E,& -)%&
."H3#(*9& 34& *)%& %!%.%1*+&2%:#%"+%& *)%& *)%#."!& :3120:*(;(*9&')%1&"22%2&83*)&
*3& /0#%& (#31& "12& I,J& :"#831& +*%%!,& -)%& %44%:*& (+& .3#%& /#31301:%2& "*& !3'%#&
*%./%#"*0#%+,& K"1"2(0.& "12& :3//%#& "#%& 83*)& %F:%/*(31+@& (*& (+& !(?%!9& *)%&
%F/!"1"*(31& (+& *)"*& *)%+%& %!%.%1*+& "#%& 13*& $%1%#"!!9& (1& +3!(2& +3!0*(31,&
K"1"2(0.&'(!!&#%.3;%&:"#831&4#3.&+3!0*(31&*3&43#.&:"#8(2%+@&"12&:3//%#&'(!!&
43#.& :3//%#& /#%:(/(*"*%+@& ')(:)& )";%& .0:)& )($)%#& :3120:*(;(*9& *)"1& (#31,&
L(.(!"#!9&*(*"1(0.&:"1&8%&+%%1&*3&)";%&"1&%44%:*&(1&*)%&I,J&:"#831&+*%%!&5')%#%&
-(M& '(!!& 43#.7& 80*& (1*%#%+*(1$!9& 13*& (1& *)%& /0#%& (#31,& B44%:*& 34& (1:#%"+%2&
:3120:*(;(*9& 43#& ;"1"2(0.& "22(*(31& *3& /0#%& (#31& 54($0#%& <=J>7& (+& /#38"8!9& "1&

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

75

!"#$%!&#' ()' #*$' +,-$./' 0$&!12$' #*$' +!3,"(#4' ,%' -!#!' !"$' %,"' 2#$$.2' 5&,)#!()()6'
&!"0,)78'

Figure 3-7: Comparison of predicted against the measured


thermal conductivity for the final committee.

Figure 3-8: predicted influence of temperature on the thermal


conductivity of iron and different compositions steels.

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!Figure 3-9: Predicted influence of carbon addition to pure iron
at different test temperatures.
!
!
!
!
!
!

Figure 3-10: Predicted influence of carbon addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

76

3
!!

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

77

Figure 3-11: Predicted influence manganese addition to pure


iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-12: Predicted influence of manganese addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

3
!

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-13: Predicted influence of nickel addition to pure iron


at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-14: Predicted influence of nickel addition to 0.1C1.5Mn steel at different test temperatures.

78

3
!

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

79

Figure 3-15: Predicted influence of molybdenum addition to


pure iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-16: Predicted influence of molybdenum addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-17: Predicted influence of vanadium addition to pure


iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-18: Predicted influence of vanadium addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

80

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

81

Figure 3-19: Predicted influence of chromium addition to pure


iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-20: Predicted influence of chromium addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-21: Predicted influence of copper addition to pure iron


at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-22: Predicted influence of copper addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

82

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-23: Predicted influence of niobium addition to pure


iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-24: Predicted influence of niobium addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

83

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-25: Predicted influence of aluminum addition to pure


iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-26: Predicted influence of aluminum addition to 0.1C1.5Mn steel at different test temperatures.

84

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-27: Predicted influence of silicon addition to pure iron


at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-28: Predicted influence of silicon addition to 0.1C1.5Mn steel at different test temperatures.

85

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-29: Predicted influence of tungsten addition to pure


iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-30: Predicted influence of tungsten addition to 0.1C-1.5Mn


steel at different test temperatures.

86

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-31: Predicted influence of titanium addition to pure


iron at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-32: Predicted influence of titanium addition to 0.1C1.5Mn steel at different test temperatures.

87

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-33: Predicted influence of cobalt addition to pure iron


at different test temperatures.

Figure 3-34: Predicted influence of cobalt addition to 0.1C1.5Mn steel at different test temperatures.

88

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

3.7

89

Predictive ability
!"#$ %#&#'()$ *#'+,'-(&.#$ ,+$ /"#$ -,0#)$ .(&$ 1#$ /#2/#0$ 13$ *'#04./4&%$ ,&$

5&2##&$ 0(/(6$ !"#$ -,0#)$ 42$ +,5&0$ /,$ 1#$ (1)#$ /,$ %#&#'()47#$ 25++4.4#&/)3$ /,$
'#*',05.#$ /"#$ 1(24.$ /'#&0$ 4&$ /"#$ 0(/(8$ (&0$ 1#$ .(*(1)#$ ,+$ -(94&%$ 52#+5)$
*'#04./4,&2$,+$5&2##&$.,-*,24/4,&2$:+4%5'#2$;<;=$/,$;<>?@8$/"#2#$A#'#$%',5*#0$
4&/,$ /",2#$ A4/"4&$ /"#$ '(&%#$ ,+$ 0(/($ 52#0$ +,'$ /'(4&4&%$ (&0$ /",2#$ ,5/240#$ /"#$
'(&%#$ (&0$ /"42$ 0,#2$ &,/$ &#.#22('4)3$ .)(224+3$ /"#-$ (2$ 4&/#'*,)(/4,&$ (&0$
#B/'(*,)(/4,&$ 1#.(52#$ 4/$ 42$ *,2241)#$ /,$ "(C#$ /"#$ #)#-#&/2$ 4&$ 04++#'#&/$
.,-14&(/4,&28$A"4."$A#'#$&,/$*'#2#&/$4&$/"#$0(/(1(2#6$$$
$
3.7.1

Unseen data within the range of model


D4%5'#2$;<;=$/,$;<;E$2",A2$/"#$*'#04./4,&2$-(0#$/,$.,-*('#$(%(4&2/$/"#$

5&2##&$ 0(/($ %4C#&$ 13$ F,)-(&$ GH?I8$ ,&)3$ /"#$ %'(0#2$ ,+$ 2/##)2$ A#'#$ %4C#&$ 13$
/"42$ (5/",'$ 2,$ 2,-#$ (225-*/4,&2$ (2$ /,$ /"#$ .,-*,24/4,&$ "(0$ /,$ 1#$ -(0#J$ /"#$
.,-*,24/4,&2$52#0$('#$2",A&$4&$/(1)#$;<;6$K(."$#)#-#&/$42$A4/"4&$/"#$'(&%#2$
2",A&$4&$/(1)#$;<L6$
!"#$ *'#04./4,&2$ .,-*('#$ +(C,'(1)3$ A4/"$ /"#$ '#+#'#&.#$ 1,,9$ 0(/(8$ (2$
2",A&$4&$/"#$+4%5'#28$(&0$()2,$A4/"$/"#$#B*#./#0$/#-*#'(/5'#$0#*#&0#&.#$+',-$
+4%5'#$ ;<M8$ '#*',05.4&%$ /"#$ .,''#./$ 0#*#&0#&.#$ 5*,&$ /#-*#'(/5'#$ +,'$ /"#$
2/(4&)#22$ 2/##)8$ -#045-$ (&0$ "4%"$ .('1,&$ 2/##)26$ !"#$ *'#04./4,&2$ 0#-,&2/'(/#$
/"(/$ -,0#)$ .(&$ *'#04./$ /"#$ .,''#./$ /#-*#'(/5'#$ 0#*#&0#&.#$ +,'$ /"#2#$ /3*4.()$
.,-*,24/4,&2$,+$2/##)6$$
N&,/"#'$.,-*('42,&$+,'$/"#$*'#04./4,&$,+$/"#$-,0#)$A(2$(%(4&2/$0(/($+,'$
+#''4/4.$2/##)$(&0$(&$(52/#&4/4.$2/(4&)#22$2/##)$52#0$4&$&5.)#('$4&052/'3$GM?HI6$O&$
/"#2#$.(2#2$:+4%5'#2$;<;P$/,$;<>?@$4/$.(&$1#$2##&$/"(/$/"#$-#(25'#0$C()5#2$)4#$

90

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

!"#$%&'&%()*+',+-)',&)&..".)/0.1)"2)',&)#"3&%4)&5&-)',"67,)',&)&80!')50.+0'+"-)
01) 0) 26-!'+"-) "2) '&#$&.0'6.&) .&$".'&3) +1) -"') #0'!,&34) $0.'+!6%0.%() 2".) ',&)
2&..+'+!)1'&&%9):,&)3+22&.&-!&)+-)',&)$.&3+!'+"-)2".)',&)2&..+'+!)1'&&%)+1)1+#+%0.)'")
',&)&8$&.+#&-'0%)3+22&.&-!&).&$".'&3)+-)50.+"61)$0$&.19)
:0/%&);<=)1,"*1)',0')',&)$&.!&+5&3)&..".)"2)',&)#"3&%4)*,+!,).&$.&1&-'1)
>) 1'0-30.3) 3&5+0'+"-) #0'!,&3) *&%%) *+',) ',&) .""') #&0-) 1?60.&3) &..".4) +-) ',&)
+3&0%)!01&)',&)'*")50%6&1)1,"6%3)/&)&?60%9):,&)#"3&%)"5&.&1'+#0'&3)',&)&..".)
2".)6-1&&-)30'04)/6')',&)20!')',0')',&)#"3&%)+-3+!0'&3)',&)6-!&.'0+-'()+1)0)61&26%)
*0.-+-79)
)
)
) Table 3-3: Compositions for the steels used to test predictive capability.
Steel

Fe-18Cr-8Ni

Mn

Mo V

Cr

Cu Al Nb Si

Ti

Co

D9>@)) D9;@) B))

D))

D))

>B))

D))

D)) D))

D))

D))

D))

D))

Fe-0.5C

D9@)) D9@)) D))

D))

D))

D))

D))

D)) D))

D9C@)) D))

D))

D))

Fe-1C

>))

D9@)) D))

D))

D))

D))

D))

D)) D))

D9C@)) D))

D))

D))

Fe-1.5C

>9@)) D9@)) D))

D))

D))

D))

D))

D)) D))

D9C@)) D))

D))

D))

Ferritic steel

D9C)

>)

D9@ >C)

D)

D)

D)

D9C@) D9@) D)

D)

>;9@ D)

D)

D)

D9E@) D)

D9C)

Austenitic steel D9D=) C)

Ni

D9@)

>@9@ C)

D)

D9C@ D)

)
)
)
)

)
)

Table 3-4: The prediction ability of the model against the unseen data.
Data set

)
)
)

Perceived error Root mean squared error

Unseen data within the range of model.

@9@)

A9>)

Data beyond range of model.

BC9;)

@D9B)

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-35: Prediction for an 18-chromium 8-nickel stainless


!

steel.

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Figure 3-36: Prediction for 0.5wt% Carbon steel.

91

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-37: Prediction for a 1wt% carbon steel.

Figure 3-38: Prediction for a 1.5wt% Carbon steel.

92

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

Figure 3-39: Prediction for austenitic stainless steel.

Figure 3-40: Prediction for ferritic stainless steel.

93

Neural Network Model for Prediction of Thermal Conductivity of Steels

94

Summary
!" #$%&'" $(" )*&+#,'" -$.%/-)010)2" *,3" 4&&." 5+$%/-&%" )$" 5+$10%&" )*&"
.&-&33,+2" %,)," ($+" 6&.&+,'" 5+&%0-)0$." $(" 7/&.-*0.6" 4&*,10$+8" 9*&" #$%&'" 03"
.,01&" 0." )*,)" 0)" *,3" .$" &:5'0-0)" ;.$<'&%6&" $(" ,''" )*&" 5*230-,'" 5*&.$#&.$."
<*0-*"3*$/'%"%&)&+#0.&")*&")*&+#,'"-$.%/-)010)2=")*&"4066&3)"$#0330$."03")*,)"
.$";.$<'&%6&"$(")*&"5+&10$/3")*&+#,'"*03)$+2"<,3"0.-'/%&%="<*0-*"03";.$<."
)$" ,((&-)" )*&" #0-+$3)+/-)/+&" ,.%" )*&+&($+&" )*&" )*&+#,'" -$.%/-)010)28" 9*03" <,3"
$." $.&" *,.%" $#0))&%" )$" ,''$<" 30#5'&" ,55'0-,)0$." $(" )*&" #$%&'=" 3&-$.%'2" )$"
30#5'0(2")*&"#$%&''0.6"5+$-&%/+&=",.%")*0+%'2")$",''$<")*&"6+&,)&3)",#$/.)"$("
%,)," )$" 4&" 0.-$+5$+,)&%" 0." )*&" #$%&'8" 9*&" &++$+" 4,+3" $(" )*&" #$%&'" ,+&" ," ;&2"
(&,)/+&="0.%0-,)0.6")*&"'&1&'"$("-&+),0.)2"0.")*&"1,'/&3"5+&%0-)&%8""
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

"

Chapter 4

Experimental work

4.1

Introduction
A calculation of the heat transfer coefficient needs accurate data for the

temperature history within the sample. In this chapter, the design of the probe
and the quenching system used to generate the necessary data (cooling curves)
for steels is described. Experimental details such as the preparation of the
probe and the method for analysing the collected data are also described.
Figure 4-1 shows the details of the experimental work as a flow chart,
showing the factors considered in the design of the experiments and
summarising the test conditions.
4.2

Quenching system design


Previous researchers have utilised a multitude of probe techniques to

predict the heat transfer coefficient (as discussed in chapter 1), but probe
dimensions of less than 10 mm are not often used because of the difficulty of
temperature control during the transfer from the furnace to the quench bath.

4 Experimental work

Figure 4-1: Flow chart details for the experimental work.

96

4 Experimental work

97

Figure 4-2: The Quenching system.

In this work, a controlled quenching system was designed to ensure that


the probe is not excessively cooled in air during the transfer from the furnace
to the quenchant tank. Figure 4-2 illustrates the experimental arrangement.
The system consists of a data- acquisition system, a small axial furnace,
0.25 litre beaker for the quenchant and a K-type thermocouple inserted in to
the geometric centre of the probe where it is held in place by a 35 cm steel
tube. This allowed temperature data to be taken at the geometric centre of the
probe. The tube also acts to guide the movement of the probe as it is dropped,
and increases the probe transfer speed from inside the furnace to the
quenchant tank using gravity.

4 Experimental work

98

All components were held in place by a stand to guide the probe as it is


traversed from the middle of the furnace to the middle of the quench tank, as
shown in figure 4-2.

4.2.1

The furnace
Carbolite axial furnace with maximum operating temperature 1000C,

inside diameter is 2.5 cm, and heated length 13 cm is placed in the frame as
shown in figure 4-2 to allow the probe to transfer from the furnace to the
quench tank.

4.2.2

Quench tank
A 0.25 litre glass beaker is used as a quench tank. This size of beaker is

enough to keep the quenchant temperature with no significant change during


the quenching process.

4.2.3

The thermocouple
A 1 mm diameter, 1 m long K-type inconel 600 sheathed thermocouple

is used for time-temperature data recording. The thermocouple is inserted to


the geometric centre of the probe through a side hole at the upper end (figure
4-3). And a screw is used to fix it in position.
The response time of the thermocouple used is sufficiently short in
order to register the change during quenching of the probe.

4 Experimental work

Figure 4-3: The arrangement of probe, thermocouple and


guide shaft. The 1 mm shielded thermocouple passes through
centre of guide shaft and into the probe.

99

4 Experimental work
4.2.4

100

Data acquisition system


National instruments SCXI-1000-1328 data acquisition system with a

Virtual bench-logger software and computer was used to collect the timetemperature data from the thermocouple inside the probe during the quenching
process.
The thermocouple is connected to the connector box which is connected
to the computer via National Instrument DAG card- 6036E. The connector can
accommodate a maximum of 4 thermocouple connections. Data were
collected every 0.001 s.

4.2.5

The probe

4.2.5.1

Probe materials

The probe was made from different alloy steels (table 4-1) in order to
characterise its cooling rates and the heat transfer coefficients and to ensure
that the coupling of heat flow and structural transformations can be obtained.

Table 4-1: Chemical composition in wt%.


Steel

Si

Mn

Ni

Mo

Cr

Al

Co

Cu

Pb

Ti

Sb

0.16

0.16

0.67

0.08

0.02

0.06

0.15

1.19

1.5

0.08

0.31

1.19

0.02

0.136

0.78

1.6

2.02

0.25

1.01

1.37

3.87

0.55

0.22

0.77

0.15

0.05

0.2

0.001

0.54

0.2

0.74

0.17

0.05

0.2

0.001

0.16

0.22

0.3

2.93

0.389

1.47

0.28

0.01

0.004

0.001

0.003

0.001

0.013

0.011

4 Experimental work
4.2.5.2

101

Probe dimensions

The probe was designed using the lumped heat capacity method (as
discussed in chapter 2) to be able to justify an assumption of uniform probe
temperature during the cooling process. The dimensional quantity plays an
important role in assessing the applicability of the lumped capacitance
method. Essentially, with !"##$%&, the results are expected to yield reasonable
estimates within about 5%.

########

(2.4)

The thermal conductivity values for the steels are about 50 W/ m C


[17] while the maximum heat transfer coefficient value expected is 10000
W/ m2 C for quenching in agitated water. By using the above values for ' and
(, and 0.1 for the !" number in equation 2.4, it is possible to calculate the
appropriate dimensions for the probe for measuring the heat transfer
coefficient for steels in different quenching conditions (figure 4-4).
The length of the probe is 5 times its diameter in order to neglect heat
extraction through the ends of the cylinder, consistent with the supposition
that at the half length cross-section only a radial-symmetrical heat flow exists.
Because the objective of cooling curve analysis is to measure the ability
of the quenchant to attenuate heat transfer under various conditions, it is
desirable that the experiment is not perturbed by the measurement process
itself; therefore, a probe with semi- infinite dimensions is usually selected.

4 Experimental work
4.2.5.3

102

Probe surface finish

The surface finish of the probe is kept standard by machining and


grinding all the probes surface in the same way before quenching, in order to
avoid any additional effect for the surface roughness.

Figure 4-4: The design and the dimensions of the probe,


showing positioning of thermocouple within the probe,
and details of fixture.

4 Experimental work
4.3

103

Probe preparation and test procedure


1. The probe was cleaned using an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 min before
quenching in order to avoid surface contamination between the
thermocouple and the probe surface, to insure good contact to measure
the necessary temperature.
2. A small amount of fine graphite powder was used in order to attain
better contact between the thermocouple tip and the probe.
3. Alumina paste was used to seal the gap between the probe and the
thermocouple in order to avoid the leakage of the quenchant solution
into the thermocouple, which can cause the thermocouple to cool faster
than the probe and result in erroneous readings. The alumina was
applied and furnace hardened for 8 h at 200C.
4. The furnace was set to 850C and held there for 10 min, which is the
time needed to reach 850C.
5. The probe and guide shaft was inserted through the guide hole holding
the thermocouple in the centre of the furnace for 4 min, this period of
time is enough to reach the designed quenching temperature.
6. The thermocouple is connected to the data logging system and the data
logging is started with scan rate 1000 scan/s.
7. The probe and guide shaft assembly is released and falls under gravity
until the probe enters the quenching tank when the stopping flange
reaches the guide hole in the holding frame.
8. The data logging system was switched off after the thermocouple
reading reached the quenchant temperature.
9. The used probe was removed from the end of the guide shaft, replaced
with an unused probe for the next test.

4 Experimental work
4.4

104

Data analysis
A minimum of three quenching experiments were performed to test the

repeatability of probe for each condition. In each experiment, many thousands


of data points were collected; to avoid the effect of noise, the data were
smoothed using a rolling average of 11 points before plotting or using in the
analysis. The smoothed data were used to calculate the cooling rate which is
the first derivative as a function of temperature. The cooling rate is then used
as an input in the inverse heat conduction model to estimate the heat transfer
coefficient at the metal/quenchant interface.
4.5

Experimental plan

4.5.1

Different steel compositions


The quench test was repeated many times using probes made from

different steels to show the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on steel
composition.
4.5.2

Different quenchant type and quenchant temperatures


Different quenchant type and different quenchant temperatures were

used to determined the effect of the type and the temperature on the results,
table 4-2 shows the testing conditions during the experimental work.
Table 4-2: Quenching test conditions.
Quenchant type

Quenchant temperature / C

Water

23

42

Oil

20

85

150

Brine

20

70

100

60

75

100

4 Experimental work
4.5.3

105

Case study
A cylindrical sample was used to demonstrate the validity of the

calculated heat transfer coefficient using the modelling techniques and to


assess its applicability to different dimensions. The sample was with 52 mm
diameter and 20 mm length, and with three K-type thermocouples inserted as
illustrated in figure 4-5 (geometric centre-midpoint between the centre and the
surface 1 mm from the surface). The thermocouples were connected to the
data logger to record the cooling curves during the quenching process. The
cooling curves were then analysed to predict the hardness profile in the
sample.

Figure 4-5: The cylindrical sample with three inserted


thermocouples.

!
!
!
!
!

%4&6*10!"!

812)'*2!&,3!3+2()22+.,!

!
!
"#$!!!!!%&'()'&*+,-!./!(..'+,-!0&*12!&,3!41&*!*0&,2/10!(.1//+(+1,*2!/.0!
3+//101,*!(.56.2+*+.,!2*11'27!
!""#$%&'( )*+',,-./( *0( 1#'."2-./( 3$*"'44( .'"'44-&%&'4( &2%&( &2'( 2'%&(
&$%.40'$("*'00-"-'.&()#4&(5'(&$'%&'+(%4(%(0#."&-*.(*0(&2'(4#$0%"'(&')3'$%&#$'(%4(
3$'6-*#4,7( 42*8.( -.( 92%3&'$( :;( <*( -.6'4&-/%&'( &2'( /'.'$%,-&7( *0( &2'( )'&2*+4(
+'6',*3'+( -.( &2'( 8*$=( +'4"$-5'+( -.( 92%3&'$( >?( +-00'$'.&( "*)3*4-&-*.( 4&'',(
3$*5'4(8'$'(#4'+(&*($'"*$+(&2'("**,-./("#$6'4(+#$-./(1#'."2-./(-.&*(8%&'$(%&(
@:A9(%4(42*8.(-.(&%5,'(>BC;(
D-/#$'(EBC(42*84(&2'($'"*$+'+("**,-./("#$6'(*0(&2'(3$*5'()%+'(*0(4&'',(
!?( %,*./( 8-&2( &2'( "*$$'43*.+-./( "**,-./( $%&'( "#$6'( F!"#!$G;( H%&%( 8'$'(
"*,,'"&'+( 8-&2( %( $'4*,#&-*.( *0( I;IIC( 4;( <*( +'%,( 8-&2( .*-4'( &2'( +%&%( 8'$'(
4)**&2'+(#4-./(%($*,,-./(%6'$%/'(*0(CC(3*-.&4(5'0*$'(3,*&&-./;(
((((((((((<2'( "**,-./( "#$6'( 8%4( #4'+( &*( "%,"#,%&'( &2'( "**,-./( $%&'( %.+( &2'( 2'%&(
&$%.40'$( "*'00-"-'.&( %4( %( 0#."&-*.( *0( 4#$0%"'( &')3'$%&#$'?( %4( +'4"$-5'+( -.(
92%3&'$(@;(

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%! &'! ()$! #&*+,$#(! -./0! ()$! )$.(! (1.'#2$1! 34$22&3&$'(! .(! .! 2&5$%!
($*+$1.(61$! 1$+1$#$'(#! ()$! +4($'3/! 42! ()$! 76$'3).'(! .'%! 3.'! 8$! 6#$%! .#! .!
34'9$'&$'(!34*+.1&#4'!42!%&22$1$'(!*$%&.!41!76$'3)&':!34'%&(&4'#;!<4-$9$10!
8/! 1$+1$#$'(&':! ()$! )$.(! (1.'#2$1! 34$22&3&$'(! 8/! .! 26'3(&4'! %$+$'%.'(! 4'!
($*+$1.(61$=! &(! 3.'! 8$! 6#$%! .#! .! 846'%.1/! 34'%&(&4'! &'! ()$! #&*6,.(&4'! 42!
344,&':!+143$##$#0!.#!-&,,!8$!%$*4'#(1.($%!,.($1!&'!()&#!>).+($1;!
!

?14*!2&:61$!@AB!&(!&#!$9&%$'(!().(!()$!*.5&*6*!)$.(!(1.'#2$1!34$22&3&$'(!

C!"#$D! %61&':! ()$! 76$'3)&':! 42! #($$,! E! &'! -.($1! .(! BFG>! 43361#! .(! .146'%!
BHHG>!-)&,$!()$!)&:)$#(!)$.(!(1.'#2$1!34$22&3&$'(!&'!()$!+$.1,&($!(1.'#241*.(&4'!
($*+$1.(61$!1.':$!8$(-$$'!IHH!.'%!@HHG>!&#!F@HH!J!  ;!
?&:61$#! @AF! (4! @AKB! #)4-! ()$! 1$341%$%! 344,&':! 3619$#! .'%! ()$! )$.(!
(1.'#2$1!34$22&3&$'(#!.#!.!26'3(&4'!42!()$!#612.3$!($*+$1.(61$!241!%&22$1$'(!#($$,!
+148$#!%61&':!76$'3)&':!&'!-.($1!.(!BFG>;! !
!
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
2+''*$3$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

4/5)6'$%7!8$911*/-5$0)6:'$,-.$.'6/:'.$011*/-5$6,+'$0)6:'$;16$
(+''*$3$<)'-0='.$/-$>?$@9$A,+'6B$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

4/5)6'$%7>8$C',+$+6,-(;'6$01';;/0/'-+$;16$(+''*$3$,($,$;)-0+/1-$
1;$()6;,0'$+'DE'6,+)6'$.)6/-5$<)'-0=/-5$/-$A,+'6$,+$>?@9B$

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

2+''*$3$
!

4/5)6'$%789$:11*/-5$0)6;'$<(1*/.=$,-.$.'6/;'.$011*/-5$6,+'$0)6;'$
>16$(+''*$3$?)'-0@'.$/-$A8$B:$C,+'6D$

4/5)6'$%7E9$F',+$+6,-(>'6$01'>>/0/'-+$>16$(+''*$3$,($,$>)-0+/1-$1>$
()6>,0'$+'GH'6,+)6'$.)6/-5$?)'-0@/-5$/-$C,+'6$,+$A8$B:D$

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!!"#

1*&&)#2##
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

3.4(5&#$6$7#200).,4#/(58&#9'0).-:#+,-#-&5.8&-#/00).,4#5+*&#/(58&#;05#
'*&&)#2#<(&,/=&-#.,#>?#@2#A+*&5B#

3.4(5&#$6C7#D&+*#*5+,';&5#/0&;;./.&,*#;05#'*&&)#2#+'#+#;(,/*.0,#0;#
'(5;+/&#*&EF&5+*(5&#-(5.,4#<(&,/=.,4#.,#A+*&5#+*#>?#@2B#

"

# $%&'()&"*+,",-&.'&&-/+"

!!!"

0)%%("1""
!
!

2-3'4%"#567"8//(-+3".'49%":&/(-,;"*+,",%4-9%,".//(-+3"4*)%".'49%"
</4"&)%%("1"='%+.>%,"-+"?@"A8"B*)%4C"

2-3'4%"#5D7"E%*)")4*+&<%4"./%<<-.-%+)"</4"&)%%("1"*&"*"<'+.)-/+"
/<"&'4<*.%")%FG%4*)'4%",'4-+3"='%+.>-+3"-+"B*)%4"*)"?@"A8C"

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!!"#

1*&&)#2##
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

3.4(5&#$678#900).,4#/(5:&#;'0).-<#+,-#-&5.:&-#/00).,4#5+*&#/(5:&#
=05#'*&&)#2#>(&,/?&-#.,#"@#A9#B+*&5C#

!
!
!
!

3.4(5&#$6!D8#E&+*#*5+,'=&5#/0&==./.&,*#=05#'*&&)#2#+'#+#=(,/*.0,#0=#
'(5=+/&#*&FG&5+*(5&#-(5.,4#>(&,/?.,4#.,#B+*&5#+*#"@A9C#

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!!"#

1*&&)#2##
!

2.3(4&#$5!!7#@00).,3#/(4B&#C'0).-D#+,-#-&4.B&-#/00).,3#4+*&#/(4B&#
904#'*&&)#2#<(&,/=&-#.,#6"#?@#>+*&4A#
#

2.3(4&#$5!67#8&+*#*4+,'9&4#/0&99./.&,*#904#'*&&)#2#+'#+#9(,/*.0,#09#
'(49+/&#*&:;&4+*(4&#-(4.,3#<(&,/=.,3#.,#>+*&4#+*#6"#?@A#

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!!"#

!"#$%&'()*+',-./,'011'2-&'3&%"4&3'5..1"6#'%02&'5$%4&,'7.%'2-&',2&&1,'$,&3'
2.#&2-&%' /"2-' 2-&' -&02' 2%06,7&%' 5.&77"5"&62,8' 9-&' &,,&62"01' 5-0%052&%",2"5,' .7'
2-&,&'5$%4&,'0%&',":"10%;'&,<&5"011='"6'2-&'%06#&'>??'2.'@(?'AB'/-&%&'$,$011='
<&0%1"2&' 7.%:,8' C2&&1' D' -0,' 0' 1./&%' -&02' 2%06,7&%' 5.&77"5"&62' 2-06' 2-&' .2-&%'
,2&&1,'"63"502"6#'7&%%"2&'7.%:02".6'3$&'2.'"2,'1./'50%E.6',2&&1F''
G./&4&%;' 2-&%&' 0%&' ":<.%2062' 3"77&%&65&,' /"2-' %&,<&52' 2.' 011.=,' D' 063'
B;' E.2-' .7' /-"5-' -04&' &H-"E"2&3' 0' -"#-' 5..1"6#' %02&' 3$%"6#' 2-&' I$&65-' 02'
2&:<&%02$%&,'E&1./'0E.$2'J??AB'K!"#F'()*+LF'D11.='D'3.&,'6.2'-04&',$77"5"&62'
-0%3&60E"1"2=' "6' .%3&%' 2.' &6,$%&' 0' 7$11=' :0%2&6,"2"5' :"5%.,2%$52$%&' .6'
I$&65-"6#'K!"#F'()*JF'0L8'2-&',0:<1&'-0,'0'-0%36&,,'.7'.61='M>?'GN'"6'"2,'7"601'
,202&' K90E1&' ()*LF' D11.2%".:.%<-"5' 7&%%"2&' 7.%:,' 02' -"#-' 2&:<&%02$%&,;' ,.' 2-02'
2-&' 0:.$62' .7' 0$,2&6"2&' /-"5-' $63&%#.&,' :0%2&6,"2"5' 2%06,7.%:02".6' ",'
%&3$5&3;'%&,$12"6#'"6'0',:011&%'&62-01<='5-06#&'063'-&65&'0'70,2&%'5..1"6#'%02&'
K%&102"4&'2.'2-.,&'011.=,'/-"5-'E&5.:&'7$11=':0%2&6,"2"5L'02'1./'2&:<&%02$%&,'
3$%"6#'2-&'I$&65-F'

O6' 2-&' 50,&' .7' 011.=' B;' 2-&' -0%3&60E"1"2=' ",' ,$77"5"&62' 2.' ="&13'''''''''''''''''
0':0%2&6,"2"5':"5%.,2%$52$%&'K!"#F'()*JF'0L8'/"2-'0'-0%36&,,'.7'P(+'GN'K+?'Q#L;'
E$2'5015$102".6,'$,"6#'R9SD9D',.72/0%&'%&4&01&3'2-02'2-&'&62-01<='5-06#&'02'
2-&'RC'T'M?M'AB'7.%'011.='B'",'G'T'J>??'U':.1*;'/-"5-'5.:<0%&,'/"2-'G'T'
>???VP???'U':.1*'7.%'2-&'.2-&%',2&&1,'K!"#F'()*(L'9-&',:011&%'%&1&0,&'"6'-&02'
.6' 2%06,7.%:02".6' ",' 5.6,",2&62' /"2-' 2-&' :.%&' %0<"3' 5..1"6#' %02&' 02' 1./'
2&:<&%02$%&,'7.%'011.='BF'
O6',2&&1'W'063'!'012-.$#-'2-&'50%E.6'5.62&62'",'2-&',0:&'0,',2&&1'D'E$2'
2-&' 011.="6#' &1&:&62,' 0%&' :$5-' -"#-&%' /-"5-' "65%&0,&' 2-&"%' -0%3&60E"1"2=' 0,'
,-./6'"6'2-&'-0%36&,,'%&,$12,'"6'20E1&'()*8'O6'2-&,&',2&&1,'2-&'-0%36&,,'.7'2-&'
<%.E&'",'01:.,2'2-&',0:&'0,'2-&'-0%36&,,'.7'2-&'7$11=':0%2&6,"2"5',2%$52$%&'K2-&'
:&0,$%&:&62'.7'2-&'7$11=':0%2&6,"2"5',2%$52$%&'-0%36&,,'",'3&,5%"E&3'"6',&52".6'

!!"#

" $%&'()&#*+,#,-&.'&&-/+#

!"#"$"%&"'()*+,-'!.$%"'/'01230'4502'6146'61-'7)8,206,+86+,-0'92,'61-0-'06--50'4,-'
74,6-:0)6-"'
'
D*E(%#"F!G#7*8,+%&&#8%&'()&#*+,#)H%#.8-)-.*(#)%:2%8*)'8%&#I/8#)H%#&)%%(&J#
'

0)%%(#

3&456# 7*8,+%&& 3*9-:':#

)12%#

456 456' ;#<'&)%+-)%#


*)#=>?#56!#

7*8,+%&&#

0)%%(#<#
0)%%(#@#
0)%%(#6#
0)%%(#A#
0)%%(#B#
0)%%(#C#

%!!'
%R!'
#M#'
#PT'
#SP'
%M!'

#PMQ'N"P'
%!PQRR"N'
S!RQ#'
S#NQ$R'
SR!Q$!'
%!NQP"N'

R!$QS"P'
%S$Q!"T'
S%NQS"R'
SR$QM'
S#MQ!"!'
%SRQ$R"%'

SM!'
S#!'
SNM'
S$!'
S$!'
SMM'

NR!'
NS!'
T$!'
S!M'
S!M'
SSM'

TP'
$MM'
$MM'
$MM'
$MM'
$MM'

'

;86+455<' 61-' 546-:6' 1-46' 29' 6,4:092,746)2:' )0' :26' 64=-:' ):62' 4882+:6' ):'
61)0' ,-0-4,81>' 45612+*1' 61)0' )0' 5-00' 614:' 40028)46-?' 3)61' 7-56):*' 4:?'
025)?)9)846)2:>')6'?2-0'499-86'61-'6-7@-,46+,-'9)-5?'4:?'6,4:092,746)2:'61,2+*1'
61-,745' 6,4:0)-:60' -A6-:?):*' 61,2+*12+6' 61-' /2?<' 29' 61-' 047@5->' -B-:' 46'
@20)6)2:0' 434<' 9,27' 61-' C+-:814:6"' D1-' 546-:6' 1-46' 4:?' 61-' @140-.
6,4:092,746)2:' 9,486)2:' 499-86' -481' 261-,' E9)*+,-' $.$&>' 4:?' 74<' /-' 4' 0+)64/5-'
62@)8'92,'9+6+,-',-0-4,81'62')7@,2B-'61-'72?-5'/<'):85+?):*'61-'546-:6'1-46'):'
61-' 8458+546)2:0>' ):' 61)0'840-' 61-' -C+46)2:' 92,' 1-46' 6,4:09-,' 82-99)8)-:6' 012+5?'
,-@,-0-:6'4534<0'61-'74A)7+7'B45+-0'3-'2/0-,B-?"'
F)61'61-'8+,,-:6'72?-5'61-'@,2/5-7')0'025B-?'/<'+0):*'4'@,2/-'9,27'61-'
047-'746-,)45'29'):6-,-06'62'2/64):'61-'-C+46)2:'29'1-46'6,4:09-,'82-99)8)-:6'40'4'
9+:86)2:'29'6-7@-,46+,->'31)81')0':--?-?'40'4'/2+:?4,<'82:?)6)2:'62'0)7+546-''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
$

'''''D1-'B45+-0'92,'  8458+546-?'+0):*'61-'
GDH;D;'029634,-'?-@-:?):*'2:'61-),'81-7)845'827@20)6)2:0'E0-86)2:'#.%.$&"'I6--50'J'4:?'K'74?-'3)612+6'
0)5)82:'0):8-'GDH;D;'140'/--:'92+:?'62'*)B-'0)5)82:'4:'-A8-00)B-5<'06,2:*'9-,,)6-.92,7):*'6-:?-:8<'):'61-'
0<06-70'29'82:8-,:'L$MNO>'61-0-',-0+560'4502'B-,)9)-?'/<'7+8*'@,2*,47'LPPO"''

!!"#

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&#$4!56#7&3.8&-#/00).,2#3+*&#/(38&'#+,-#9&+*#*3+,':&3#
/0&::./.&,*'#:03#-.::&3&,*#/0;<0'.*.0,'#'*&&)#<30=&'#>(&,/9&-#.,#
?5#@A#B+*&3C#

!
!

!!"#

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!"#$%&#'(")'*$+,-(#../$0!"#,1).#2$3((#+!345#$,#.&5!.$(3'$4#$-4!3)'#6$47$
&.)'*$!"#$#%&3!)-'$8,-9$3'7$-'#$8,-9$!"#$.!##5.$:;2$<2$=2$>?$)'$!345#$@AB/$
>)*&,#$CABD$."-1.$!"#$"#3!$!,3'.8#,$(-#88)()#'!$3.$3$8&'(!)-'$-8$.&,83(#$
!#9+#,3!&,#$-4!3)'#6$&.)'*$!",##$6)88#,#'!$+,-4#.E$F'(-'#5$DGG2$HFI$JKBL2$3'6$
!"#$+,-4#$6#.)*'#6$)'$!").$1-,M/$
$

$
1*&&)#3

$ 1*&&)#2#
$

+
$

$
$

!!"#

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#
!
!

!
!
!
!
!
!
=*&&)#># !

=*&&)#?

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
=*&&)#@#

=*&&)#1
!

;
!

1.2(3&#$4!56#7./30'*3(/*(3&'#803#*9&#-.88&3&,*#'*&&)#:30;&'<#
!

!!"#

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1*&&)#23#4156$$#78#

1*&&)#93#41#56:$#78#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1*&&)#83#41#5;<;#78#

1*&&)#=3#41#5;>"#78#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1*&&)#?3#41#5;@>#78#

1*&&)#A3#41#56<$#78#

A.B(C&#$D!$E#8+)/()+*&-#&,*F+)GH#/F+,B&#I0C#*C+,'I0CJ+*.0,#
IC0J#+('*&,.*&#*0#I&CC.*&#I0C#*F&#-.II&C&,*#'*&&)'K#

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

2/3)4'$%5!67$8',+$+4,-(9'4$01'99/0/'-+$,($,$9)-0+/1-$19$()49,0'$+':;'4,+)4'$
!
1<+,/-'.$)(/-3$./99'4'-+$;41<'($+=;'($>)'-0?'.$/-$@,+'4$,+$411:$+':;'4,+)4'7$
!
ABC$,-.$B-01-'*$6##$@?/0?$,4'$;4'D/1)(*=$;)<*/(?'.$@14E$FG!HI$,-.$+?'$;41<'$
.'(/3-'.$/-$+?/($@14EJ$
!
!

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!"!#

$1"#####2&30,'*4+*.0,#05#30-&)6!!
"#$!%&'%()$!(*!+#$!,('-!%'$)$.+$/!0.!+#0)!)$1+0(.!0)!+(!/$2(.)+'3+$!+#$!
)&11$))! (*! +#$! 2(/$440.5! +$1#.06&$)! %'$70(&)48! /$7$4(%$/! &)0.5! 3! 1(.+'(4!
7(4&2$!2$+#(/!+(!)02&43+$!+#$!6&$.1#0.5!%'(1$))9!"#$!2(/$440.5!+$1#.06&$)!
3'$! %'$)$.+$/! #$'$! 3)! 3! 13)$! )+&/8! 3./! 7340/3+$/! :8! 1(2%3'0)(.! 3530.)+!
$;%$'02$.+34! '$)&4+)9! <+! ,3)! 34)(! :$40$7$/! 02%('+3.+! +(! 3))$))! +#$! 2(/$4)!
3%%4013:040+8!+(!(+#$'!)+$$4)!,0+#!/0**$'$.+!1(2%()0+0(.!=)+$$4!>!0.!+3:4$!?@AB9
!!!!!!!!!"#$!1((40.5!1&'7$)!3'$!*0')+!$)+023+$/!+(5$+#$'!,0+#!+#$!#3'/.$))!%'(*04$!
'$)&4+0.5!*'(2!6&$.1#0.5!3!43'5$!1840./$'C!,0+#!DE!22!/032$+$'!3./!EF!22!
4$.5+#C! (*! 3! F9DD! ,+!G! 13':(.! 344(8! 0.+(!,3+$'!3+!EH!IJ9! "#$! )$1(./! )$1+0(.!
/$+304)!+#$!$;%$'02$.+34!,('-9!!
!

####$1"1!#####70-&)).,8#*&/9,.:(&6#######
###########"#$!%'(1$/&'$!*('!2(/$440.5!+#$!6&$.1#0.5!%'(1$))!0)!3)!*(44(,)K!#
!1 "#$!+#$'234!1(./&1+070+8!3./!)%$10*01!#$3+!*('!+#$!)+$$4!3'$!$)+023+$/!
3)! 3! *&.1+0(.! (*! +$2%$'3+&'$! &)0.5! 3! .$&'34! .$+,('-! 2(/$4! 3./!
L">M"M!+#$'2(/8.3201!1341&43+0(.)9!
"1 "#$!)&'*31$!#$3+!+'3.)*$'!1($**010$.+!0)!1341&43+$/!3)!3!*&.1+0(.!(*!+#$!
)&'*31$!+$2%$'3+&'$!*'(2!+#$!2$3)&'$/!1((40.5!1&'7$)!&)0.5!3!%'(:$!
+$1#.06&$9!
;1 "#$)$! %'(%$'+0$)! 3'$! &)$/! 34(.5! ,0+#! +#$! /02$.)0(.)! (*! +#$! )32%4$!
3./! +#$! 3&)+$.0+0)3+0(.! 3./! 6&$.1#3.+! +$2%$'3+&'$)! +(! 1341&43+$! +#$!
+$2%$'3+&'$!3+!$31#!%(0.+!0.!+#$!)32%4$!3)!3!*&.1+0(.!(*!+02$9!
<1 J341&43+0(.! (*! +02$@+$2%$'3+&'$@+'3.)*('23+0(.! /3+3! 0*! &.-.(,.C!
+#$)$!3'$!&)$/!3)!0.%&+)!+(!1341&43+$!+#$!6&$.1#!*31+('9!

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!""#

$1 !"#$%#"&'()* (+* &,-* .%-)$,* +"$&(/* %0')1* -.%"&'()* 232* ')* $(45')"&'()*
6'&,*&,-*7778$%/9-*"):*&,-*!8$%/9-3*
21 7,-*.%-)$,*+"$&(/*$")*5-*$()9-/&-:*')&(*,"/:)-00*%0')1*-.%"&'()*23;*
"):*&,-*4-"0%/-:*4"<'4%4*"):*4')'4%4*,"/:)-00*9"#%-3*
#
$1"1!1!#####345'./+)#6706&7*.&'#
**********7,-/4(:=)"4'$* $"#$%#"&'()0* 6-/-* $"//'-:* (%&* %0')1* >7?@7@* 6'&,*
AB7C* :"&"5"0-* &(* $"#$%#"&-* &,-* 0D-$'+'$* ,-"&* +(/* 0&--#* ?* "0* "* +%)$&'()* (+*
&-4D-/"&%/-*')*&6(*$():'&'()0*"0*:'0$%00-:*')*$,"D&-/*23**
!!!!!!!!!* EF3GH*
*************
C.%"&'()*F3G*6"0*%0-:*&(*/-D/-0-)&*&,-*0D-$'+'$*,-"&*9"#%-*"0*"*+%)$&'()*
(+* &-4D-/"&%/-* E H* ')* &,-* $"#$%#"&'()* (+* &,-* 0%/+"$-* ,-"&* &/")0+-/*
$(-++'$'-)&* :%/')1* &,-* .%-)$,')1* D/($-00* +(/* &,-* D/(5-3*7,'0* -.%"&'()* $(9-/0*
&,-*&-4D-/"&%/-*/")1-*0,(6)*')*+'1%/-*F8GI*EG2JJ*K!*L**L*JK!H3*
  
    !!!!!!!!! EF32H****
********
***********C.%"&'()* F32* 6"0* %0-:* ')* &,-* D/(1/"4* &(* /-D/-0-)&* &,-* 0D-$'+'$* ,-"&*
9"#%-* "0* "* +%)$&'()* (+* &-4D-/"&%/-* E H* ')* &,-* $"#$%#"&'()* (+* &,-*
&-4D-/"&%/-* :'0&/'5%&'()* ')0':-* &,-* 0"4D#-3* 7,'0* -.%"&'()* $(9-/0* &,-*
&-4D-/"&%/-*/")1-*0,(6)*')*+'1%/-*F8GI*EG2JJ*K!*L*7*L*JK!H3*
*
*

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!!
!!!!!!
!
!
!
!!
!
!!!!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5!67$8,*0)*,+'.$(9'0/:/0$;',+$0,9,0/+<$1:$(+''*$=$,($,$
!!!! :)-0+/1-$1:$+'>9'4,+)4'$)(/-3$?@=A@AB$
!
"#$!%$&'()!%$*+,'-!.,/$)!,0!*#$'.()!1,%/&1*232*4!+(5!&5$/!*,!6'$/21*!
*#$!/$6$%/$%1$!,%!*$.6$'(*&'$7!"#25!+(5!5&..('28$/!94!02**2%:!(%!('92*'('4!
6,)4%,.2()!$;&(*2,%!0,'!2%1)&52,%!2%!*#$!6',:'(.7!<;&(*2,%!=7>!()),+5!
1()1&)(*2,%!,0!*#$!*$.6$'(*&'$!/25*'29&*2,%!2%52/$!*#$!5(.6)$7!"#25!$;&(*2,%!
1,3$'5!*#$!*$.6$'(*&'$!'(%:$!5#,+%!2%!02:&'$!=?@A!B@CCC!DE!F!"!F!CDEG7!
        !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!H!.?@!I?@!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!B=7>G!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

$
6/7)4'$%8!9:$;<'4=,*$01-.)0+/>/+?$15$(+''*$@$,($,$5)-0+/1-$15$
+'=A'4,+)4'$A4'./0+'.$B?$-')4,*$-'+C14D2$

$
%2"2!2"$$$$$3',+$+4,-(5'4$01'55/0/'-+$
!!!!!!!!!!"#$! %$&'$()%*($! #+,%-(.! /),! &$),*($0! *,+12! )! 3! &&! 0+)&$%$(! '(-4$!
/+%#! 5! &&! 0+)&$%$(! %#$(&-6-*'7$! +1,$(%$0! +1,+0$! %#$! '(-4$8! %#$! 0$,+21! -9!
/#+6#!+,!0+,6*,,$0!+1!6#)'%$(!3:!"#$!%$&'$()%*($!#+,%-(.!/),!*,$0!%-!6)76*7)%$!
%#$! 6--7+12! ()%$! !"#$"%&' ;9+2*($! <=5>?! /#+6#! 6)1! 4$! *,$0! ),! )1! +1'*%! %-! %#$!
+1@$(,$!#$)%!6-10*6%+-1!&-0$7!%-!$,%+&)%$!%#$!#$)%!%()1,9$(!6-$99+6+$1%!)%!%#$!
&$%)7A!B*$16#)1%!+1%$(9)6$:!!

'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''';3:5C?'

''''''''''D+2*($!<=3C!,#-/,!%#$!0$'$10$16.!-9!%#$!$,%+&)%$0!#$)%!%()1,9$(!
6-$99+6+$1%!-1!%#$!,*(9)6$!%$&'$()%*($:!

# %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$

!"#$

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!()*+!,-./,!0-'!-'10!0&12,3'&!4.'33#4#'20!.3!"')!56((!7)!56**!8#)!
5699!:2)!56*!7&)!56+(!;#!/0!<!,0''=!1,!1!3%240#.2!.3!0#>'!?%&#2$!@%'24-#2$!#2!
/10'&!10!*AB76!
!
!

1.2(3&$#4!56$700).,2$/(38&$+,-$/+)/()+*&-$/00).,2$3+*&$/(38&$09$
'*&&)$:$;30<&$=(&,/>&-$.,$"?@7$A+*&3B$

1.2(3&$#4"C6$D&+*$*3+,'9&3$/0&99./.&,*$+'$+$9(,/*.0,$09$'(39+/&$
*&E;&3+*(3&$09$'*&&)$:$;30<&$-(3.,2$=(&,/>.,2$.,$A+*&3$+*$"?@7B$

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

$
$
$
$
$
$
$ ,$

@$

$
7/5)6'$%8"!9$:',+$+6,-(;'6$01';;/0/'-+$,($,$;)-0+/1-$1;$<,=$>11*/-5$
$6,+'?$<@=$+/A'?$.)6/-5$B)'-0C/-5$/-$D,+'6$,+$"3E>2$

$
%2"2!23$$$$$41.'**/-5$6'()*+($
!!!!!!!!!"#$!%&&'()*!%+,-$.!/)0!1#$!%&&'()*!,/1$.!2$,$!%/'%+'/1$0!/1!3!4&.(1(&).!
2(1#()! /! ./54'$! 2(1#! 67! 55! 0(/5$1$,! /)0! 78! 55! '$)*1#! 91#$! %$)1,$:! 1#$!
5(04&()1!;$12$$)!1#$!%$)1,$!/)0!1#$!.+,</%$:!1#$!.+,</%$=!/.!.#&2)!()!<(*+,$!!
6>77! +.()*! 1#$! %&)1,&'! -&'+5$! 4,&*,/5! 0$.%,(;$0! ()! %#/41$,! 7?! @(*+,$! 6>73!
.#&2.!1#$!,$.+'1.!&<!1#$!5&0$''()*!4,&*,/5?!
!
!
!

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
!
!

7!((!
76!((!

56!((!

F*,-'$9/'>$
!

"!#!$%&'()*)+,-&.!
/0./1&!2%&!.3(,-&4!

$
$

G1;$9/'>$

$
$

85!((

$
$

2/3)4'$%5""7$(+''*$0?*/-.'4$(,=;*'$>/+@$+@'$6$;1(/+/1-($/-$>@/0@$
+@'$011*/-3$0)49'($>'4'$0,*0)*,+'.E$ $
!

2/3)4'$%5"67$8,*0)*,+'.$011*/-3$0)49'($,-.$011*/-3$4,+'$0)49'($:14$
./::'4'-+$;1/-+($<:41=$*':+7$0'-+4'5=/.$>,?$+1$+@'$()4:,0'5()4:,0'A$
/-(/.'$%"$==$./,='+'4$,-.$"B$==$*'-3+@$41)-.$./(0$.)4/-3$
C)'-0@/-3$/-$>,+'4$,+$"6D8E$

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
%2"2!23$$$$$4)'-05$6,0+17$,-.$5,7.-'(($8716/*'$

!!!!!!!!!!"#! $%&'()*! *+&! +,%'-&..! $%#/(0&1! (*! (.! -&)&..,%2! *#! ),0)30,*&! *+&! 43&-)+!
/,)*#%!/%#5!*+&!&.*(5,*&'!)##0(-6!)3%7&.!,-'!*+&!"""!)3%7&!,.!5&-*(#-&'!(-!
)+,$*&%! 8! 9/(63%&! :;8<=>! """! )3%7&! ?,.! ),0)30,*&'! 3.(-6! *+&! @ABCDE!
$%#6%,5!,-'!&43,*(#-!8>8!?,.!3.&'!*#!),0)30,*&!*+&!43&-)+!/,)*#%>!


 !!

98>8=!

!
!
!
!
!

!!!!!!
!
!
!
9/:)7'$%;"3<$=,*0)*,+'.$>>>$./,:7,?$16$(+''*$@$A/+5$011*/-:$
0)7B'($/-$./66'7'-+$81/-+($/-(/.'$%"$??$./,?'+'7$71)-.$./(0$
,-.$"C??$*'-:+5$.)7/-:$D)'-05/-:$/-$A,+'7$,+$"EF=2$G',+$
+7,-(6'7$'D),+/1-($A'7'$)('.$+1$0,*0)*,+'$+'?8'7,+)7'$
./(+7/H)+/1-$/-(/.'$+5'$(,?8*'2$$
!
!

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!!!"#$%!&#$!'($%)#!*+)&,-!.+/($!0+1!),%.$-&$2!3%&,!#+-2%$11!(13%4!$'(+&3,%!
567!03&#!&#$!8$+1(-$2!8+938(8!+%2!83%38(8!:3);$-1!#+-2%$11!.+/($1!*,-!
&#31!1&$$/!<8+-&$%13&$!+%2!*$--3&$!=!>$+-/3&$!1&-()&(-$1?!<*34(-$!@A5@?6!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!<567?!
!!!!!!!!!!B34(-$! @A5C! 1#,01! &#$! )#+%4$! 3%! &#$! '($%)#! *+)&,-! 03&#! &#$! 231&+%)$!
*-,8! &#$! )$%&-$! &,! &#$! 1(-*+)$! 0#3/$! *34(-$! @A5D! 1#,01! &#$! ),--$1>,%23%4!
23**$-$%)$!3%!&#$!)+/)(/+&$2!#+-2%$116!
$
2',()3'4'-+$15$4,6/4)4$,-.$4/-/4)4$7,3.-'(($
!!!!!!!!!!",! 8$+1(-$! &#$! 8+938(8! #+-2%$11! +! 8+-&$%13&3)! 83)-,1&-()&(-$! 0+1!
,E&+3%$2!EF!+(1&$%3G3%4!+!1+8>/$!H!88!23+8$&$-!+%2!H!88!/$%4&#I!+&!J@K!LM!
*,-!7K!83%!*,//,0$2!EF!'($%)#3%4!3%!0+&$-6!"#$!1>$)38$%!0+1!1$+/$2!2(-3%4!
+(1&$%3&31+&3,%! 3%! +%! $.+)(+&$2! '(+-&G! &(E$! E+);! *3//$2! 03&#! >(-$! +-4,%! &,!
>-,&$)&!&#$!1+8>/$!+4+3%1&!,932+&3,%6!"#$!83%38(8!#+-2%$11!0+1!,E&+3%$2!EF!
1383/+-/F!+(1&$%3G3%4!&#$!1+8>/$!+&!J@K!LM!*,-!7K!83%!E(&!03&#!+%!31,&#$-8+/!
20$//!+&!C@K!LM!*,-!5!#!*,//,0$2!EF!1/,0!),,/3%4!3%132$!&#$!*(-%+)$!&,!$%1(-$!
&#$!*,-8+&3,%!,*!>$+-/3&$6!"#$!8+938(8!#+-2%$11!0+1!D7N!O!K!P:@K!+%2!&#$!
83%38(8!#+-2%$11!0+1!NQ@!O!K6D!P:@K6!
!
!
!
!
!

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!
!
!
!

@,3+'-(/+/0$
6/031(+3)0+)3'$
78%#9:$;$?"!$$

!
!
!
!
!
!

2'33/+'$4$5',3*/+'$
!
6/031(+3)0+)3'$
!

78%#9:$;$!<%$=$#>?$
!
!
!
!
!

2/:)3'$%AB%C$@,3+'-(/+'$,-.$D'33/+'A5',3*/+'$(+3)0+)3'($531.)0'.$+1$
6',()3'$+E'$6,F/6)6$,-.$+E'$6/-/6)6$E,3.-'((>$
!
!

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&#$4567#8+)/()+*&-#9(&,/:#;+/*03#+'#+#;(,/*.0,#0;#-.'*+,/&#
;30<#*:&#/&,*3&#*0#*:&#'(3;+/&=#

1.2(3&#$45>7#8+)/()+*&-#:+3-,&''#+'#+#;(,/*.0,#0;#-.'*+,/&#;30<#
*:&#/&,*3&#*0#*:&#'(3;+/&=#

!"!#

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
%2#2#$$$$$345'6/7'-+,*$/-8'(+/9,+/1-$

!!!!!!!!!!!"! #$%&'()&#*%! +*,-%.! /*+! 0+.(! /&12! 12)..! 341$-.! 12.),5#50-%.+!


&'+.)1.(! *+! &%%0+1)*1.(! &'! 6&70).! 84! 8! 97.5,.1)&#! #.'1).4,&(-5&'1! :.1/..'! 12.!
#.'1).!*'(!12.!+0)6*#.!;<!,,!15!12.!+0)6*#.=>!?2.!+*,-%.!(&,.'+&5'+!*).!12.!
+*,.! *+! 12.! (&,.'+&5'+! &'! 12.! ,5(.%%&'7! -)57)*,! 98@! ,,! (&*,.1.)! *'(! @A!
,,! %.'712=>! ?2.! 12.),5#50-%.+! /.).! #5''.#1.(! 15! 12.! (*1*! %577.)! 15! ).#5)(!
12.! #55%&'7! #0)B.+! (0)&'7! 12.! C0.'#2&'7! -)5#.++>! ?2.! #55%&'7! #0)B.+! /.).!
0+.(!15!-).(&#1!12.!2*)('.++!-)56&%.!&'!12.!+*,-%.!0+&'7!12.!+*,.!-)5#.(0).!*+!
&'!+.#1&5'!8>@><>!D&70).!84@E!+25/+!12.!#0)B.+!*'(!12.!#5)).+-5'(&'7!#55%&'7!
)*1.! *+! *! 60'#1&5'! 56! 1.,-.)*10).! *1! 12.! 12)..! %5#*1&5'+>! F2&%.! 6&70).! 84@G!
+25/+!12.!???!(&*7)*,!56!+1..%!H!/&12!+0-.)-5+.(!#55%&'7!#0)B.+!*1!(&66.).'1!
-5+&1&5'+! &'+&(.! 12.! +*,-%.I! "'(! 6&70).! 84JA! +25/+! 12.! .K-.)&,.'1*%%$!
,.*+0).(!2*)('.++!*+!*!60'#1&5'!56!(&+1*'#.!6)5,!12.!#.'1).!15!12.!+0)6*#.!56!
12.!+*,-%.>!D&70).!84J<!+25/+!12.!,&#)5+1)0#10).!56!12.!+*,-%.!*+!*!60'#1&5'!

56!(&+1*'#.!6)5,!12.!#.'1).!15!12.!+0)6*#.!65)!12.!+*,.!+*,-%.>
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

1.2(3&#$4567#89:&3.;&,*+)#/00).,2#/(3<&'#+,-#/00).,2#3+*&#/(3<&'#=03#
-.==&3&,*#:0.,*'#>=30;#)&=*7#/&,*3&4;.-#?+@#*0#*A&#'(3=+/&4'(3=+/&BC#
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&#$45D7#EEE#-.+23+;#0=#'*&&)#F#?.*A#'(:&3:0'&-#/00).,2#
/(3<&'#+*#-.==&3&,*#:0'.*.0,'#.,'.-&#*A&#'+;:)&C##

!""#

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

6$;;$

2/3)4'$%5"67$8',()4'.$9,4.-'(($,($,$:)-0+/1-$1:$./(+,-0'$:41;$
+9'$0'-+4'$+1$+9'$()4:,0'<$

#$;;

!"#$

# %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$

$
$
$
$
$
!

$
<$88$

!;$88$

$
$
$
$
$
$
!<$88$

;=$88$

1.2(3&$#4"!5$6./30'*3(/*(3&'$+'$+$7(,/*.0,$07$-.'*+,/&$7308$*9&$/&,*3&$*0$
$
*9&$'(37+/&:$

$
$
$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

%232"$$$$$4156,7/(1-$8'+9''-$+:'$51.'**/-;$671;7,5$7'()*+($,-.$+:'$
'<6'7/5'-+,*$7'()*+($
!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!()*+!,-./,!0!1.230&#,.4!5'6/''4!6-'!1071%706'8!1..7#4$!1%&9',!
5:!%,#4$!6-'!-'06!6&04,;'&!1.';;#1#'46!#4!;#$%&'!()+<!048!6-'!2'0,%&'8!1..7#4$!
1%&9',!/#6-!6-'!===!8#0$&02!.;!6-'!,6''7>!=-'!1.230&#,.4!,-./,!$..8!
0$&''2'46!5'6/''4!6-'!6/.!1%&9',>!
!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!()**!,-./,!6-'!1071%706'8!-0&84',,!%,#4$!?%'41-!;016.&!0407:,#,!
048! '@3'&#2'4607! 2'0,%&'8! -0&84',,>! A'0,.4057'! 0$&''2'46! /0,! ;.%48!
5'6/''4! 5.6-! .;! 6-'2! ',3'1#077:! 06! 6-'! ,%&;01'B! 048! 6-'4! 6-'! 8#;;'&'41'!
5'6/''4! 6-'2! /#77! #41&'0,'! /#6-! 6-'! 8'1&'0,'! #4! 6-'! -0&84',,! 907%'>! C4! ;016B!
6-'! '&&.&! #4! 6-'! 1071%706'8! -0&84',,! %,#4$! ?%'41-! ;016.&! 0407:,#,! #417%8'! 6-'!
8#;;'&'41'! .;! 6-'! ,#D'! 5'6/''4! 6-'! ,6''7! ,3'1#2'4! 048! 6-'! 3&.5'! 048! 077! 6-'!
3.,,#57'! '&&.&! 8%&#4$! 6-'! ',6#206#.4! .;! 6-'&207! 1.48%16#9#6:! 048! 6-'! ,3'1#;#1!
-'06!;.&!6-'!,6''7!%,#4$!4'%&07!4'6/.&E!2.8'7!048!F=GH=H!6-'&2.8:402#1!
1071%706#.4I!C4!088#6#.4B!6-'!-'06!6&04,;'&!1.';;#1#'46!0337#'8!#4!6-'!2.8'77#4$!
3&.$&02!#417%8',!6-'!1.%37'8!';;'16!.;!6'23'&06%&'!1-04$#4$!/#6-#4!6-'!3&.5'!
048! 6-'! 706'46! -'06! ;.&! 6-'! 20&6'4,#6'! 6&04,;.&206#.4! 5'10%,'! 6-'! 3&.5'! /#6-!
6-'! +! 22! 8#02'6'&! ,6&%16%&'! /0,! ;%77:! 20&6'4,#6#1! 0;6'&! 6-'! ?%'41-#4$! 6',6B!
/-#1-! 20E',! 6-'! 3&'8#16#.4! 2.&'! 011%&06'! /-'4! 6-'! ,6&%16%&'! #,! 2.,67:!
20&6'4,#6#1>!!
=-','!&',%76,!0&'!#4!0$&''2'46!/#6-!6-.,'!.;!=.66'4!!"#$%>!J*KLB!/-.!07,.!
;.%48! 6-06! 6-'! 3&'8#16'8! -0&84',,! %,#4$! ?%'41-! ;016.&! 0407:,#,! 048! 6-'!
'@3'&#2'4607! 2'0,%&'8! -0&84',,! ;.&! HCMC! K<N(! ,6''7! 0$&''! 17.,'7:! %46#7! 6-'!
20&6'4,#6'! 1.46'46! ;077,! 5'7./! (<O! 06! 0! -0&84',,! .;! 033&.@#206'7:! *+! PAQ>!
=-'! #405#7#6:! .;! ?%'41-! ;016.&! 0407:,#,! 6.! 3&'8#16! -0&84',,! ,%11',,;%77:! .9'&!
6-'! /-.7'! &04$'! .;! -0&84',,! 0&#,',! 5'10%,'! #6! #,! 9'&:! 8#;;#1%76! 6.! 2.8'7! 6-'!

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$!%!&'( $)*+,( #$)-.+#+/-.( 0$/%( ./0#!$( 0!$$+#+12*!)$&+#+1( .#$31#3$!.( #/(


%)$#!-.+#!4(
(
(
(
(
(
(

>,?

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

$
$

>;?

2/3)4'$%5"67$819:,4/(1-$;'+<''-$+='$0,*0)*,+'.$>,?$,-.$+='$
9',()4'.$>;?$011*/-3$0)4@'($</+=$+='$AAA$./,34,9$1B$2'5CD%%$
85CD66$E/5CD##F-5CD6$845CD!%$G/$<+$H$(+''*D
$

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

2'-+3'$

4/..*'$

5)36,0'$

78$

9,3.-'(($

78$

9,3.-'(($

78$

9,3.-'(($

""#!

$##!

%&!

$'(!

()!

&(&!

0,*0)*,+'.$011*/-<$ "'&!

*+&!

"#$!

$#+!

()!

&()!

:3'./0+/1-$631;$
;',()3'.$011*/-<$
0)3='(>$
:3'./0+/1-$631;$
0)3='(>$
4',()3'.$

()#!,!"'-"*!

?,3.-'(($

*+&!,!"#-+'!

&+#!,!(&-'*!

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

8/<)3'$%@""A$2,*0)*,+'.$,-.$;',()3'.$?,3.-'(($,($,$6)-0+/1-$16$
./(+,-0'$631;$+?'$0'-+3'$+1$+?'$()36,0'>$
$
$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

%GHG6$$$$$I1;<,4/(1-$='+J''-$+9'$;',()4'.$9,4.-'(($,-.$+9'$<4'./0+'.$
9,4.-'(($)(/-3$./::'4'-+$<41='($
"#$!%&'%$(!$)!*+,%'$-'(.''#$(/'$+%!-'$&'012#'&$1#$(/'$+%'0'#($.!%3$,#&$
(/'$!(/'%$(.!$0(,#&,%&$+%!-'0$0/!.#$1#$(/'$4125%'0$678$,#&$679$:;"<$+%!-'$,#&$
"#)!#'=$ >??$ +%!-'@A$ (/'$ /',($ (%,#04'%$ )!'441)1'#($ '0(1*,('&$ 501#2$ ;"<$ ,#&$
"#)!#'=$>??$+%!-'0$:4125%'$B76>@$.'%'$,++=1'&$,0$,$-!5#&,%C$)!#&1(1!#$(!$(/'$
*!&'==1#2$ +%!2%,*$ (!$ +%'&1)($ (/'$ /,%&#'00$ &10(%1-5(1!#$ .1(/1#$ (/'$ 0,*+='$ 1#$
4125%'$B788D$E125%'$B79F$0/!.0$(/'$%'05=(0$4!%$(/'$*',05%'&$,#&$(/'$'0(1*,('&$
/,%&#'00$ 501#2$ (/%''$ &144'%'#($ +%!-0D$ G/10$ 4125%'$ 0/!.0$ (/,($ (/'$ /,%&#'00$
+%'&1)(1!#$501#2$"#)!#'=$>??$,#&$;"<$+%!-'0$,%'$)=!0'$(!$',)/$!(/'%$./1='$(/'$
)=!0'0($ +%'&1)(1!#$ (!$ (/'$ *',05%'&$ /,%&#'00$ .,0$ 501#2$ (/'$ +%!-'$ &'012#'&$ 1#$
(/10$.!%3D$G/'$H,=5'0$4!%$(/'$/',($(%,#04'%$)!'441)1'#($4!%$(/'$;"<$,#&$"#)!#'=$
>??$+%!-'0$.'%'$(,3'#$4%!*$%'4'%'#)'$I6J$501#2$,$+=!($&121(1K'%$+%!2%,*D$$$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

2/3)4'$%5"67$8',()4'.$,-.$0,*0)*,+'.$9,4.-'(($,($,$:)-0+/1-$1:$
./(+,-0'$:41;$+9'$0'-+4'$+1$+9'$()4:,0'$)(/-3$+94''$./::'4'-+$
<41='(7$>?@$ABCD$?-01-'*$EFF$ACD$,-.$+9'$.'(/3-'.$<41='$A!CG$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

%23$$$$$455'0+$15$6)'-07,-+$+'89':,+):'$1-$7',+$+:,-(5':$15$(+''*($/-$;,+':<$
=:/-'$,-.$1/*$
!!!!!!!!!!"#$!$%%$&'!(%!)*$+&#,+'!'$-.$/,'*/$!(+!'#$!&((01+2!&*/3$4!&((01+2!/,'$!
,+5! #$,'! '/,+6%$/! &($%%1&1$+'! 16! 5$6&/17$5! 1+! '#16! 6$&'1(+8! "#$! &(--(+!
)*$+&#,+'6!6'*51$5!1+&0*5$!9,'$/4!(10!,+5!7/1+$8!
%232!$$$$$>11*/-?$0):@'($,-.$011*/-?$:,+'($:'()*+($
%232!2!$$$$$A,+':$6)'-07/-?$
!

:12*/$6! ;<=! ,+5! ;<>! 6#(9! '#$! &((01+2! &*/3$4! &((01+2! /,'$! ,+5! #$,'!

'/,+6%$/!&($%%1&1$+'!%(/!6'$$0!?@A!./(7$8!:12*/$!;<B;!6#(96!'#$!-1&/(6'/*&'*/$!
(%! '#$! ./(7$! ,%'$/! )*$+&#1+2! 1+! 9,'$/! ,'! >BCDE! 1'! 16! 7,+5$5! ,+5! 16! +('! %*00F!
-,/'$+61'1&4!&(+616'$+'!91'#!'#$!#,/5+$66!(%!>;G!HI8!"#$!#,/5+$66!(%!,!%*00F!
-,/'$+61'$! 6'/*&'*/$! 1+! '#16! 6'$$0! 16! B;=JK! HI;L4! (7',1+$5! 7F! )*$+&#1+2! ,+!!!!!
K! --! M! =>! --! &F01+5$/! 51/$&'0F! %/(-! K;L! CD! 1+'(! 9,'$/! ,+5! -$,6*/1+2! '#$!
#,/5+$66!(%!'#$!6*/%,&$E!'#$!6,-.0$!9,6!1+!,!)*,/'N!'*7$!5*/1+2!'/,+6%$/!%/(-!
'#$!%*/+,&$!'(!'#$!)*$+&#,+'!91'#!'#$!'*7$!7/(O$+!1--$51,'$0F!1'!/$,&#$5!'#$!
)*$+&#1+2!',+O8!
!!!!!!!!!!:12*/$6!;<BP!'(!;<QB!6#(9!'#$!/$&(/5$5!&((01+2!&*/3$64!5$/13$5!&((01+2!
/,'$! &*/3$6! ,+5! '#$! #$,'! '/,+6%$/! &($%%1&1$+'6! ,6! ,! %*+&'1(+! (%! '#$! 6*/%,&$!
'$-.$/,'*/$! 5*/1+2! )*$+&#1+2! 1+! 9,'$/! ,'! 51%%$/$+'! '$-.$/,'*/$6! RQ>4! PL4! S;!
,+5!=LLCDT8!"#$!3,/1,'1(+!'#,'!(&&*/6!%(/!)*$+&#1+2!1+'(!9,'$/!,'!LCD!&,+!7$!
6$$+!1+!:12*/$6!;<QQ!,+5!;<Q;8!"#$!$U.$/1-$+'!9,6!/$.$,'$5!'#/$$!'1-$6!91'#!
'#$! 6,-$! &(+51'1(+64! 7*'! 51%%$/$+'! 7$#,31(*/! 9,6! +('1&$5! (+! $,&#! (&&,61(+8!
"#16! 1+51&,'$6! '#$/$! 16! 6(-$! *+&(+'/(00$5! 3,/1,70$! 9#1&#! 16! ,%%$&'1+2! '#$!
)*$+&#1+2!,'!L!CD4!9#1&#!*6$6!,!-1U'*/$!(%!1&$!,+5!9,'$/8!

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!"!#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!1.2(3&#$45$6#7./30'*3(/*(3&#08#*9&#:30;&#+8*&3#<(&,/9.,2#.,#=+*&3#

=.*9#>5#?@A#B+C#D0,2.*(-.,+)#'&/*.0,A###B;C#E3+,'F&3'&#'&/*.0,A##

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
!
!
!
!
!
!

E,F$

!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%56C8$A11*/-3$0)4D'$E(1*/.F$,-.$.'4/D'.$011*/-3$4,+'$0)4D'$
E.,(>'.F$:14$(+''*$G$=)'-0>'.$/-$"#@A$?,+'4B$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

EHF$
!

2/3)4'$%5678$9',+$+4,-(:'4$01'::/0/'-+$,($,$:)-0+/1-$1:$()4:,0'$
+';<'4,+)4'$.)4/-3$=)'-0>/-3$/-$?,+'4$,+$"#@AB$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5#D7$B11*/-3$0)4E'$F(1*/.G$,-.$.'4/E'.$011*/-3$4,+'$0)4E'$
F.,(='.G$914$(+''*$H$<)'-0='.$/-$?@AB$>,+'4C$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5#67$8',+$+4,-(9'4$01'99/0/'-+$,($,$9)-0+/1-$19$()49,0'$
+':;'4,+)4'$.)4/-3$<)'-0=/-3$/-$>,+'4$,+$?@ABC$

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!""#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!
!

1.2(3&#$4"A5#?00).,2#/(3B&#C'0).-D#+,-#-&3.B&-#/00).,2#3+*&#/(3B&#
C-+';&-D#703#'*&&)#E#:(&,/;&-#.,#=$>?#<+*&3@#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!
1.2(3&#$4"!5#6&+*#*3+,'7&3#/0&77./.&,*#+'#+#7(,/*.0,#07#'(37+/&#
*&89&3+*(3&#-(3.,2#:(&,/;.,2#.,#<+*&3#+*#=$>?@#

# %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$

!"#$

!
!

1.2(3&$#4"B6$@00).,2$/(3C&$D'0).-E$+,-$-&3.C&-$/00).,2$3+*&$
/(3C&$D-+'<&-E$803$'*&&)$F$;(&,/<&-$.,$!>>?@$=+*&3A$

1.2(3&$#4"56$7&+*$*3+,'8&3$/0&88./.&,*$+'$+$8(,/*.0,$08$'(38+/&$
*&9:&3+*(3&$-(3.,2$;(&,/<.,2$.,$=+*&3$+*$!>>?@A$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5""6$B'4/C'.$011*/-3$4,+'$0)4C'$8419$+<4''$./88'4'-+$
'D:'4/9'-+($814$(+''*$E$;)'-0<'.$/-$>?@$=,+'4A$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5"%6$7',+$+4,-(8'4$01'88/0/'-+$,($,$8)-0+/1-$18$()48,0'$
+'9:'4,+)4'$.)4/-3$;)'-0</-3$/-$=,+'4$,+$>?@A$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!()*+!,-./,!0-'!1..2#3$!435!0-'!1421%240'5!1..2#3$!&40'!1%&6',!
7.&! 4! 8! 99! :&.;'! <%'31-'5! #3! /40'&! 40! 4! 64&#'0=! .7! 0'9:'&40%&',>! ?-'!
<%'31-#3$!4;#2#0=!,=,0'940#1422=!#31&'4,',!4,!0-'!/40'&!0'9:'&40%&'!#,!&'5%1'5>!
?-'! 1..2#3$! &40'! &4:#52=! #31&'4,',! 435! #0,! 94@#9%9! ,-#70,! 0./4&5,! -#$-'&!
0'9:'&40%&',!A:'4&2#0'!0&43,7.&940#.3!&'$#.3B!/-'3!0-'!<%'31-430!0'9:'&40%&'!
#,! &'5%1'5! 7&.9! CDD! 0.! 8EFG>! ?-'! '77'10! .7! 0-'! 4::'4&431'! .7! 0-'! 64:.%&!
;243H'0!#,!'6#5'30I!40!0'9:'&40%&',!12.,'!0.!0-'!;.#2#3$!:.#30!.7!0-'!/40'&J!43!
#31&'4,'! #3! 0-'! 0'9:'&40%&'! .7! 0-'! <%'31-#3$! /40'&! &'5%1',! 0-'! '3'&$=!
&'<%#&'5! 0.! '64:.&40'! 0-'! /40'&! 435! 94H',! 0-'! 64:.%&! ;243H'0! ,04$'! &43$'!
A,04$'! GB! 0.! /#5'3! 0.! 4;.%0! (*D! FG! 5%&#3$! <%'31-#3$! #3! /40'&! 40! CDD! FG!
1.9:4&#3$! /#0-! KDD! FG! #3! /40'&! 40! K(FG>! ?-#,! /.%25! 94H'! #0! 5#77#1%20! 0.!
-4&5'3! 24&$'! 5#49'0'&! 1.9:.3'30,>! L0! #,! 0-'&'7.&'! 3.0! 3.&942! 0.! 1.30&.2! 0-'!
1..2#3$!&40',!;=!45M%,0#3$!<%'31-430!0'9:'&40%&'>!"#$%&'!()!*+!42,.!,-./,!0-40!
0-'!94#3!5#,4564304$'!.7!%,#3$!:24#3!/40'&!#3!<%'31-#3$!0-'!,0''2,!#,!0-40!0-'!
&4:#5! 1..2#3$! &40'! :'&,#,0,! 0.! 2./'&! 0'9:'&40%&',J! 0-#,! /#22! 2'45! 0.! 24&$'!
0'9:'&40%&'!435!,0&',,!$&45#'30,!435!94H'!5#,0.&0#.3!435!1&41H#3$!9.&'!2#H'2=!
0.!.11%&>!!!

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5"67$811*/-3$0)49'($,-.$011*/-3$4,+'($:14$(+''*$;$
<41='$,+$./::'4'-+$>)'-0?,-+$@A,+'4B$+'C<'4,+)4'(D$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!()*+!,-./,!0-'!-'10!0&12,3'&!4.'33#4#'20!3.&!5%'24-#2$!#20.!/10'&!
10! 0'67'&10%&'! #2! 0-'! &12$'! 89! 0.! :;;! <=>! ?-'! 4.'33#4#'20! #,! ,'2,#0#@'! 0.! 0-'!
0'67'&10%&'!A#33'&'24'!B'0/''2!0-'!5%'24-120!12A!0-'!,%&314'!.3!0-'!610'&#1C>!
D'7'2A#2$! .2! 0-'! 0E7'! .3! 5%'24-120F! A#33'&'20! 3140.&,! 412! A.6#210'! -'10!
0&12,3'&! 6'4-12#,6G! 4.2A%40#.2F! 4.2@'40#.2! 12A! &1A#10#.2>! H,%1CCE! 0-'! -'10!
0&12,3'&! BE! 4.2A%40#.2! #,! ,61CC! #2! 4.671&#,.2! 0.! 0-10! BE! 4.2@'40#.2! 12A!
&1A#10#.2!6'4-12#,6,>!!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

9/8):'$%;"<=$>',+$+:,-(?':$01'??/0/'-+$,($,$?)-0+/1-$1?$():?,0'$
+'@A':,+):'$.):/-8$6)'-07/-8$,+$./??':'-+$B,+':$+'@A':,+):'(2$

!
%232!24$$$$$5/*$6)'-07/-8$
$$$$$$$$$$$I#4&.2! JK! *L;! 6#2'&1C! .#C! /1,! %,'A! 0.! ,0%AE! 0-'! '33'40! .3$ .#C!
0'67'&10%&'!.2!0-'!-'10!0&12,3'&!7&.7'&0#',!.3!,0''C!M2$?-'!.#C!-1,!8*(!<=!3C1,-!
7.#20!12A!*L8!668!,):!N#2'610#4!@#,4.,#0E!10!*;<=>!$

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$

!"#$

!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!()*+!,-./,!0-'!1..2#3$!1%&4'!536!0-'!1..2#3$!&50'!1%&4'!7.&$,0''2!
8!9&.:'!;%'31-'6!#3!.#2!50!<=>?@!A-'!B5#3!5645305$'!/#0-!.#2!#,!0-'!!5:#2#0C!0.!
9&.6%1'!&'250#4'2C!-#$-!1..2#3$!&50',!6%&#3$!0-'!#3#0#52!,05$'!.7!0-'!;%'31-#3$!
9&.1',,D! 0-%,! 54.#6#3$! 0-'! 7.&B50#.3! .7! ,.70! 9'5&2#0'! 7.22./'6! :C! 5! 2./'&!
1..2#3$! &50'! 5,! 0-'! ,0''2! 599&.51-',! 0-'! B5&0'3,#0#1! 0&53,7.&B50#.3!
0'B9'&50%&'D! E*FG! >?! #3! 0-#,! ,0''2H! /-#1-! -'29,! 0.! 54.#6! 1&51I#3$! 536!
6#,0.&0#.3@!
!!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&'!()*J!,-./,!0-'!1521%250'6!-'50!0&53,7'&!1.'77#1#'30!5,!5!7%310#.3!
.7!0-'!,%&751'!0'B9'&50%&'@!A-'!B5K#B%B!-'50!0&53,7'&!1.'77#1#'30!6%&#3$!0-'!
;%'31-#3$!9&.1',,!#,!L==!M!  !50!L(=>?@!"#$%&'!()(=!0.!()(N!,-./!0-'!
&'1.&6'6!1..2#3$!536!1..2#3$!&50'!1%&4',D!536!0-'!-'50!0&53,7'&!1.'77#1#'30,!5,!
5! 7%310#.3! .7! ,%&751'! 0'B9'&50%&'! 6%&#3$! ;%'31-#3$! #3! .#2! 50! 6#77'&'30!
0'B9'&50%&',!E+(!536!G(=>?H@!
!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&',! ()(*! 0.! ()(F! ,-./! 0-'! '77'10! .7! .#2! 0'B9'&50%&'! .3! #0,! -'50!
0&53,7'&! 9&.9'&0#',@! A-'! ;%'31-#3$! ,'4'&#0C! #,! -5&62C! 6'9'36530! .3! 0-'! .#2!
0'B9'&50%&'O!0-#,!#,!.3'!.7!0-'!1-5&510'&#,0#1!7'50%&',!.7!;%'31-#3$!.#2,@!"#$%&'!
()((!52,.!,-./,!0-50!0-'!1..2#3$!&50'!#,!.32C!,2#$-02C!577'10'6!:C!#31&'5,#3$!0-'!
.#2! 0'B9'&50%&'! #3! 0-'! &53$'! :'2./! G==>?! /-#2'! 0-'! 6#77'&'31'! :'1.B',!
$&'50'&!50!G(=>?!:'15%,'!.7!0-'!-#$-!&'6%10#.3!#3!4#,1.,#0C@!P3!7510D!0-'!;%'31-!
,'4'&#0C! .7! 5! 95&0#1%25&! .#2! #,! 6#&'102C! &'250'6! 0.! #0,! 5:#2#0C! 0.! /'0! 0-'! 95&0!
,%&751'D! /-#1-! #31&'5,',! /#0-! 6'1&'5,#3$! 4#,1.,#0C@! 8! 6'1&'5,'! #3! 4#,1.,#0C!
,-.%26!52,.!#31&'5,'!1.34'10#.3!&50',!536!2'56!0.!$&'50'&!5:#2#0C!0.!;%'31-@!!
!
!
!

" $%&'()&#*+,#,-&.'&&-/+#

!"!#

!
!
!
!!!!!!!
!
!
!
!

!
!

0-1'2%#"3456#7//(-+1#.'28%#9&/(-,:#*+,#.*(.'(*)%,#.//(-+1#2*)%#
.'28%#9,*&;%,:#</2#&)%%(#=#>'%+.;%,#-+#?@A7#/-(B#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

0-1'2%#"34C6#D%*)#)2*+&<%2#./%<<-.-%+)#*&#*#<'+.)-/+#/<#&'2<*.%#
)%EF%2*)'2%#,'2-+1#>'%+.;-+1#-+#/-(#*)#?@A7B#

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$
!

!"#$

1.2(3&$"4"56$700).,2$/(38&$9'0).-:$+,-$/+)/()+*&-$/00).,2$3+*&$
/(38&$9-+';&-:$<03$'*&&)$=$>(&,/;&-$.,$?"@7$0.)A$

1.2(3&$"4"!6$B&+*$*3+,'<&3$/0&<<./.&,*$+'$+$<(,/*.0,$0<$'(3<+/&$
*&CD&3+*(3&$-(3.,2$>(&,/;.,2$.,$0.)$+*$?"@7A$

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$"4"56$700).,2$/(38&$9'0).-:$+,-$/+)/()+*&-$/00).,2$3+*&$
/(38&$9-+';&-:$<03$'*&&)$=$>(&,/;&-$.,$!"?@7$0.)A$

1.2(3&$"4"#6$B&+*$*3+,'<&3$/0&<<./.&,*$+'$+$<(,/*.0,$0<$'(3<+/&$
*&CD&3+*(3&$-(3.,2$>(&,/;.,2$.,$0.)$+*$!"?@7A$

!"#$

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$"4"#5$600).,2$/(37&'$803$'*&&)$9$:30;&'$+*$-.88&3&,*$
!
<(&,/=+,*$>0.)?$*&@:&3+*(3&'A$

1.2(3&$"4""5$B88&/*$08$<(&,/=+,*$*&@:&3+*(3&$>0.)?$0,$
/00).,2$3+*&$803$'*&&)$9$:30;&'A$

!"#$

" $%&'()&#*+,#,-&.'&&-/+#

!""#

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

7-6'3%#"8"9:#;%*)#)3*+&<%3#./%<<-.-%+)#*&#*#<'+.)-/+#/<#&'3<*.%#
)%=>%3*)'3%#,'3-+6#4'%+.5-+6#*)#,-<<%3%+)#4'%+.5*+)#
)%=>%3*)'3%&#?/-(@0#

!
!

#
"010!01#####23-+%#4'%+.5-+6#
!!!!!!!!!!"#$%&$'!'()*!'&)$*+&,!-&,*(+,+,.!/01!2&)$3%!45(-*+&,!&4!'()*!67(8)9!:('!
$'%;!('!#$%,-<(,*!(*!=!;+44%5%,*!*%3>%5(*$5%'!?/@!A/!(,;!1//B8!*&!'*$;C!*<%!
%44%-*!&4#D5+,%!*%3>%5(*$5%!&,!*<%!<%(*!*5(,'4%5!>5&>%5*+%'!&4!'*%%)!"!>5&D%0!
!!!!!!!!!!E+.$5%!FGFA!'<&:'!*<%!-&&)+,.!(,;!-&&)+,.!5(*%!-$52%!4&5##$%,-<+,.!*<%#
'*%%)!>5&D%!+,!D5+,%!(*!?/B80!H<%!-&&)+,.!5(*%!+'!<+.<%5!*<(,!*<(*!&D*(+,%;!DC!
*<%! >$5%! :(*%5! (*! *<%! '(3%! *%3>%5(*$5%@! D%-($'%! *<%! >5%'%,-%! &4! '()*! :+))!
;%-5%('%! *<%! >5&>%,'+*C! 4&5! 2(>&$5! D)(,I%*! 4&53(*+&,! (,;! 5%>)(-%! +*! DC! *<%!
D&+)+,.!'*(.%0!
!!!!!!!!!!E+.$5%!FGFJ!'<&:'!*<%!-()-$)(*%;!<%(*!*5(,'4%5!-&%44+-+%,*!('!(!4$,-*+&,!
&4! '$54(-%! *%3>%5(*$5%0! H<%! 3(K+3$3! <%(*! *5(,'4%5! -&%44+-+%,*! ;$5+,.! *<%!

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$

!"#$

!"#$%&'$() *+,%#--) '-) ./00) 1) )  ) 23) 450678) 9$) 3&#) -2:#) ;2<) ='("+#-))))
5>5?) 3,) 5>4/) -&,;) 3&#) +#%,+@#@) %,,A'$() %"+B#-C) 3&#) %2A%"A23#@) %,,A'$() +23#)
%"+B#-)2$@)3&#)&#23)3+2$-D#+)%,#DD'%'#$3-)2-)2)D"$%3',$),D)-"+D2%#)3#:*#+23"+#)
@"+'$()!"#$%&'$()'$)E+'$#)23)@'DD#+#$3)3#:*#+23"+#-)FG0)2$@)H0067I8)
))))))))))9$%+#2-'$() 3&#) E+'$#) 3#:*#+23"+#) *+,@"%#-) 2) @#%+#2-#) '$) 3&#) !"#$%&)
-#B#+'3<)F='("+#-)5>4J)3,)5>45I)2-)'$);23#+)E"3)3&#)@#%+#2-#)'-)$,3)2%%,:*2$'#@)
E<)#K3#$@'$()B2*,"+)EA2$L#3)%,,A'$()-32(#)2-)'$);23#+);&'%&):2L#-)'3)*,--'EA#)
3,) "-#) 3&#) E+'$#) '$) 3&#) 3#:*#+23"+#) %A,-#) 3,) 3&#) E,'A'$() 3#:*#+23"+#) ,D) 3&#)
;23#+8)
M+'$#) !"#$%&'$() ,DD#+-) -"*#+',+) &#23) #K3+2%3',$) 3&2$) ;23#+) !"#$%&'$(8)
N,;#B#+C) 2) :2O,+) *+,EA#:) ;'3&) "-'$() 3&#) E+'$#) !"#$%&2$3-) '-) %,++,-',$8)
1'3&,"3) -*#%'2A) *+#%2"3',$-C) #!"'*:#$3) #K*,-#@) 3,) 3&#) E+'$#) -,A"3',$) ;'AA)
!"'%LA<)E#)%,++,@#@P)3&'-);'AA):2L#)3&#)%,-3),D)3&#)!"#$%&'$();'3&)E+'$#):"%&)
:,+#)#K*#$-'B#C)3&'-)%2$)E#)-##$)D+,:)3&#)@2:2(#)3&23),%%"++#@)3,),"+)!"#$%&)
*+,E#-C)3&#+:,%,"*A#-)2$@)D"+$2%#)FD'("+#)5>44I8))
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$
!
$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$"4"#5$600).,2$/(37&$8'0).-9$+,-$/+)/()+*&-$/00).,2$3+*&$
/(37&$8-+':&-9$;03$'*&&)$<$=(&,/:&-$.,$>?@6$A3.,&B$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
! 1.2(3&$"4"C5$D&+*$*3+,';&3$/0&;;./.&,*$+'$+$;(,/*.0,$0;$'(3;+/&$
!
!

*&EF&3+*(3&$-(3.,2$=(&,/:.,2$.,$A3.,&$+*$>?@6B$

!"#$

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$"4"56$700).,2$/(38&$9'0).-:$+,-$/+)/()+*&-$/00).,2$3+*&$
! /(38&$9-+';&-:$<03$'*&&)$=$>(&,/;&-$.,$?@A7$B3.,&C$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
1.2(3&$"4D@6$E&+*$*3+,'<&3$/0&<<./.&,*$+'$+$<(,/*.0,$0<$'(3<+/&$
! *&FG&3+*(3&$-(3.,2$>(&,/;.,2$.,$B3.,&$+*$?@A7C$
!

!"#$

" %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$"45!6$700).,2$/(38&$9'0).-:$+,-$/+)/()+*&-$/00).,2$3+*&$
/(38&$9-+';&-:$<03$'*&&)$=$>(&,/;&-$.,$!??@7$A3.,&B$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$"45C6$D&+*$*3+,'<&3$/0&<<./.&,*$+'$+$<(,/*.0,$0<$'(3<+/&$
*&EF&3+*(3&$-(3.,2$>(&,/;.,2$.,$A3.,&$+*$!??@7B$

!"#$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5"67$811*/-3$0)49'($:14$(+''*$;$<41='($,+$./::'4'-+$
>)'-0?,-+$@=4/-'A$+'B<'4,+)4'(C$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
2/3)4'$%5"D7$E::'0+$1:$>)'-0?,-+$+'B<'4,+)4'$@=4/-'A$1-$
! 011*/-3$4,+'$:14$(+''*$;$<41='(C$
!

!"#$

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#
!
!
!
!
#
#
#
#
#
#

1.2(3&#$4"$5#6&+*#*3+,'7&3#/0&77./.&,*#+'#+#7(,/*.0,#07#'(37+/&#
*&89&3+*(3&#-(3.,2#:(&,/;.,2#+*#-.77&3&,*#:(&,/;+,*#
*&89&3+*(3&#<=3.,&>?#

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

1.2(3&#$4""5#*;&#-+8+2&#0//(33&-#*0#*;&#7(3,+/&#+7*&3#('.,2#
=3.,&#'0)(*.0,#+'#+#:(&,/;+,*?#

!"!#

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

%232#$$$$$4)'-05$6,0+17$,-.$5,7.-'(($7'()*+($
!"#$%&'$( #$)( *%%"+,'( -.#)( *&-/)( *.,( 0)( 1&.,#+#.#+/)"2( 3)4*-+0)35( +#(
*.,,%#( 3+-)*#"2( 6-%/+3)( +,7%-8.#+%,( .0%&#( #$)( .44%*+.#)3( 8)#.""&-'+*."(
6$),%8),.(.,3(#$)(8)*$.,+*."(6-%6)-#+)49(:$)(8)#$%3(3)4*-+0)3(+,(;$.6#)-(<(
.""%=4( .( 4+,'")( ,&80)-( >1&),*$( 7.*#%-?( #%( 0)( *."*&".#)3( =$+*$( ),*.64&".#)4(
#$)(7.*#%-4(%7(#$)(1&),*$(4)/)-+#25(=$+*$(+4(-)".#)3(#%(8)#.""&-'2(/+.(#$)(#+8)@
#)86@#-.,47%-8.#+%,(*&-/)9(:$)(7.*#%-(+4(-)".#)3(#%(#$)(.4@1&),*$)3($.-3,)44(
&4+,'()1&.#+%,(<9A9((
%232#2!8$9,+'7$:)'-05,-+$
$$$$$$$$$$B+'&-)( C@DE( 4$%=4( #$)( *$.,')( +,( #$)( 1&),*$( 7.*#%-( =+#$( +,*-).4+,'(
=.#)-( #)86)-.#&-)( =$+")( B+'&-)( C@DF( 4$%=4( #$)( *."*&".#)3( $.-3,)44( .4( .(
7&,*#+%,(%7(=.#)-(#)86)-.#&-)9(:$)-)(+4(.(-)*+6-%*."(-)".#+%,4$+6(0)#=)),(#$)(
1&),*$( 7.*#%-( .,3( #$)( $.-3,)445( #$)( "%=)-( 1&),*$( 7.*#%-( /."&)( 0)+,'(
.44%*+.#)3(=+#$($+'$)-(*%%"+,'(-.#)5(8+,+8&8(6-)*+6+#.#+%,(3&-+,'(*%%"+,'(.,3(
$+'$)-( $.-3,)44( ")/)"49( ;%,/)-4)"25( $+'$)-( 1&),*$( 7.*#%-( /."&)( +4( %0#.+,)3(
=+#$(4"%=)-(*%%"+,'(-.#)(.,3(+4(.44%*+.#)3(=+#$("%=)-($.-3,)44(/."&)9(G)(*.,(
4))(7-%8(#$)(7+'&-)(#$.#(#$)(*-+#+*."(/."&)(+4(#$)(8.H+8&8(/."&)(%7(#$)(1&),*$(
7.*#%-5(I5(#$.#(=+""(-)4&"#(+,(#$)(3)4+-)3($.-3,)44(.,3(#$+4(/."&)(*.,(0)(3)7+,)3(
+,(#)-84(%7(#$)(8.H+8&8(.""%=.0")(.8%&,#(%7(#-.,47%-8.#+%,(3&-+,'(*%%"+,'9(
G)( *.,( 4))( #$+4( -)*+6-%*."( -)".#+%,4$+6( +,( .""( #$)( *&-/)4( 7%-( #$)( %#$)-(
1&),*$.,#4(JKE5(AKL9(
$%232#2#$$$$$;/*$:)'-05,-+$
((((((((((B+'&-)( C@DM( .,3( C@EN( 4$%=4( #$)( 1&),*$( 7.*#%-( =+#$( +,*-).4+,'( %+"(
#)86)-.#&-)( .,3( #$)( *."*&".#)3( .4@1&),*$)3( $.-3,)44( .4( .( 7&,*#+%,( %7( %+"(

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!"#$"%&!'%"() !*"%") +,) -+!!-") .&%+&!+/0) /1) !*") .&-'",) 2"$"02+03) /0) 4'"05*&0!)
!"#$"%&!'%")5/#$&%"2)!/)6&!"%)/%)7%+0"8))
%2#232#$$$$$45/-'$6)'-07,-+$
)))))))))9+3'%") :;<=) ,*/6,) !*") 5&-5'-&!"2) 4'"05*) 1&5!/%) .&-'",) +0) !*") !*%"")
!"#$"%&!'%",() &,) ">$"5!"2() !*") 4'"05*) 1&5!/%) .&-'") +05%"&,",) +0!"0,"-?) 6+!*)
+05%"&,+03) 7%+0") !"#$"%&!'%") &02) 1+3'%") :;<@) ,*/6,) !*") 2"5%"&,") /1) &,)
4'"05*"2)*&%20",,)6+!*)+05%"&,+03)7%+0")!"#$"%&!'%")&,)6&,)/7,"%."2)+0)$'%")
6&!"%8)

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))
)
)
)
)

)
)

8/9)5'$%:";<$=)'-07$>,0+15$1>$(+''*$?$,($,$>)-0+/1-$1>$@,+'5$
+'AB'5,+)5'$

)
)
)
)
)
)
)

8/9)5'$%:"C<$D5'./0+'.$7,5.-'(($1>$(+''*$?$,($,$>)-0+/1-$1>$@,+'5$
)
+'AB'5,+)5'2$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5"67$8)'-09$:,0+14$1:$(+''*$;$,($,$:)-0+/1-$1:$1/*$
+'<='4,+)4'>$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%5?@7$A4'./0+'.$9,4.-'(($1:$(+''*$;$,($,$:)-0+/1-$1:$1/*$
+'<='4,+)4'>$

!"#$

# %&'()*'$+,-$-.'/(''.0,$
!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$#45!6$7(&,/8$9+/*03$09$'*&&)$:$+'$+$9(,/*.0,$09$;3.,&$
*&<=&3+*(3&>$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1.2(3&$#45?6$@3&-./*&-$8+3-,&''$09$'*&&)$:$+'$+$9(,/*.0,$
09$;3.,&$*&<=&3+*(3&>$

!"#$

$ %&'()*'#+,-#-.'/(''.0,#

!""#

1023+4.'0,#5&*6&&,#*7&#8(&,/7+,*'#
!"#$"#%&$&'%()*#'$'%&#$+#,'#%)#+$-.&"$.(,'#%).(/$01#(,"%(&$2.),3).&45$
!"#$2.),3).&4$3*$&"#$3.6$%)$%$*1(,&.3($3*$&#78#'%&1'#$-%)$8'32.+#+$94$&"#$
)1886.#'$:;<=>$-".6#$'#*#'#(,#$:;;<>$8'32.+#+$&"#$,3''#)83(+.(/$+%&%$*3'$
-%&#'5#
?./1'#$ @ABC$ )"3-)$ &"#$ ,336.(/$ '%&#)$ *3'$ )&##6$ 8'39#)$ 01#(,"#+$ .($
+.**#'#(&$ 01#(,"%(&)$ %&$ '337$ &#78#'%&1'#$ D-%&#'E$ 9'.(#$ %(+$ 3.6F5$ !"#$ "#%&$
&'%()*#'$'#%,"#)$%$7%G.717$-.&"$&"#$9'.(#$)361&.3($-.&"$;<H$23617#$8#',#(&$
)%6&$ ,3(,#(&'%&.3($ ,378%'#+$ -.&"$ &"#$ "#%&$ &'%()*#'$ .($ 81'#$ -%&#'$ 3'$ 3.65$
I6&"31/"E$.&$.)$(3&$%6-%4)$&'1#$&"%&$&"#$01#(,"%(&$&"%&$8'3+1,#)$'#6%&.2#64$"./"$
,336.(/$'%&#)$+1'.(/$&"#$#%'64$)&%/#)$3*$,336.(/$DIE$JF$%6)3$8'3+1,#)$'#6%&.2#64$
"./"$ ,336.(/$ '%&#$ .($ &"#$ 7%'&#().&#$ &'%()*3'7%&.3($ '#/.3($ DK$ )&%/#$ ,336.(/FE$
9#,%1)#$&"#$81'#$-%&#'$8'3+1,#$%$"./"#'$,336.(/$'%&#$.($&".)$'#/.3(5$
K378%'.(/$ &"#$ 01#(,".(/$ 83-#'$ 3*$ &"#$ -%&#'$ -.&"$ &"%&$ 3*$ &"#$ 3.6$ .($
*./1'#$ @ABL$ '#2#%6)$ $ #G,#8&.3(%6$ 8#'*3'7%(,#$ 3*$ &"#$ -%&#'$ +1#$ ,".#*64$ &3$ .&)$
"./"$6%&#(&$"#%&$3*$2%83'.M%&.3($DN@<<$OP/FE$"./"$)8#,.*.,$"#%&$,%8%,.&4$DL5;Q$O$
/A;$ RA;$ %&$ NCSKFE$ )7%66$ &"#'7%6$ ,3(+1,&.2.&4$ D<5T$ U$ 7A;$ RA;F$ %(+$ &"#$ 63-$
93.6.(/$&#78#'%&1'#$D;<<$SKF5$I66$&"#)#$&"#'7%6$8'38#'&.#)$3*$-%&#'$%'#$V3.(&64$
'#8'#)#(&#+$94$&"#$+.%/'%7$3*$&"#$"#%&$&'%()*#'$,3#**.,.#(&$863&&#+$%)$%$*1(,&.3($
3*$&#78#'%&1'#$3*$&"#$01#(,"#+$8%'&$)1'*%,#5$?./1'#$@ABL$%6)3$)"3-)$&"%&$&"#$
%++.&.3($3*$;<H$23617#$*'%,&.3($)%6&$DW%K6F$.(,'#%)#)$&"#$01#(,"$)#2#'.&4$3*$
-%&#'$ #)8#,.%664$ %&$ "./"#'$ &#78#'%&1'#)E$ 94$ +#)&%9.6.M.(/$ &"#$ 2%831'$ 96%(X#&$
%'31(+$&"#$"3&$7#&%6$+1'.(/$)&%/#AI$,336.(/$-".,"$'#+1,#)$&"#$83)).9.6.&4$3*$
)3*&$)83&)$*'37$)&#%7$D)1'*%,#$%'#%$-.&"$6#))$)#2#'#$01#(,".(/F5$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
2/3)4'$%5#A7$B11*/-3$4,+'$,($,$9)-0+/1-$19$:,4+$()49,0'$+';:'4,+)4'$
914$(+''*$<$>)'-0?'.$/-$./99'4'-+$>)'-0?,-+($,+$411;$+';:'4,+)4'@$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
2/3)4'$%5#67$8',+$+4,-(9'4$01'99/0/'-+$,($,$9)-0+/1-$19$:,4+$()49,0'$
!
+';:'4,+)4'$914$(+''*$<$:41='($>)'-0?'.$/-$./99'4'-+$>)'-0?,-+($,+$
411;$+';:'4,+)4'@$
$

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

2)33,45$
!"#$% $&#'()"&% *&+*"&$,"(% -#."% /""'% ($01,"1% )+&% /&,'"2% 3#$"&2% +,4% #$%
$"5*"&#$0&"(% /"$3""'% 67% $+% 897:;<% =-"% >++4,'?% &#$"(% #'1% -"#$% $&#'()"&%
>+")),>,"'$(%(@($"5#$,>#44@%,'>&"#("%3,$-%1">&"#(,'?%A0"'>-#'$%.,(>+(,$@2%3,$-%
$-"% "B>"*$,+'% +)% 3#$"&% 3-,>-% ,(% #% &"(04$% +)% ,$(% 4+3% .,(>+(,$@% C8% (D8% #$%
69:;E%F887G%#(%,$%>4"#&%)&+5%$-"%),?0&"(%9DH9%#'1%9DHI%#'1%$-"%)+&5#$,+'%+)%#%
.#*+0&%/4#'J"$<%%
K,?0&"%9DH9%(-+3(%$-"%1">&"#("%,'%$-"%.,(>+(,$@%+)%3#$"&%3,$-%,'>&"#("%
,'%,$(%$"5*"&#$0&"2%#'1%),?0&"%9DHI%(-+3(%$-"%-"#$%$&#'()"&%>+")),>,"'$%.#40"%)+&%
$-"% *&+/"% #$% L% 1,))"&"'$% (0&)#>"% $"5*"&#$0&"(% C6772% M772% I77:;E% 10&,'?%
A0"'>-,'?%#(%#%)0'>$,+'%+)%.,(>+(,$@<%
=-"% -"#$% $&#'()"&% *&+*"&$,"(% #&"% 4#&?"4@% #))">$"1% /@% $-"% A0"'>-#'$%
$"5*"&#$0&"2%"(*">,#44@%,'%$-"%$"5*"&#$0&"(%&#'?"%3-"&"%$-"%*"#&4,$"%>#'%)+&52%
$-,(%,(%10"%$+%,$(%"))">$%+'%$-"%),&($%($#?"%+)%>++4,'?%#'1%+'%$-"%3-+4"%>++4,'?%
*&+>"((2%$-+0?-%'+$%)+&%$-"%+,4%/">#0("%+)%,$(%-,?-%.,(>+(,$@%3-,>-%&"10>"(%#(%
$-"%+,4%,(%-"#$"1%*#&$,>04#&4@%#/+."%877:;%C),?0&"%9DHH%#'1%9DHNE<%O"%>#'%(""%
)&+5%),?0&"%9DHN%$-"%,'>&"#("%+)%$-"%-"#$%$&#'()"&%>+")),>,"'$%3,$-%$-"%,'>&"#("%
+)%$-"%A0"'>-#'$%$"5*"&#$0&"%,'%$-"%$"5*"&#$0&"%&#'?"%3-"&"%*"#&4,$"%0(0#44@%
)+&5(%3-,4"%,$%,(%#45+($%$-"%(#5"%/"4+3%I77:;<%
P0"'>-% )#>$+&(% -#."% /""'% >#4>04#$"1% $+% *&+.,1"% ,')+&5#$,+'% #/+0$% $-"%
5">-#',>#4%*&+*"&$,"(%+/$#,'"1%)+44+3,'?%A0"'>-,'?<%=-"%.#40"%+)%$-"%A0"'>-%
)#>$+&% ,'>&"#("(% 3,$-% 1">&"#(,'?% $-"% -"#$% $&#'()"&% *&+*"&$,"(% #'1% $-#$% ,(%
#((+>,#$"1%$++%3,$-%1">&"#(,'?%$-"%#(%A0"'>-"1%-#&1'"((%)+&%$-"%($""4<%
%

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$

!"#$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2/3)4'$%56%7$8,+'4$9/(01(/+:$,($,$;)-0+/1-$1;$<,+'4$+'=>'4,+)4'?$

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
! 2/3)4'$%56"7$@',+$+4,-(;'4$01';;/0/'-+$9,*)'$;14$+A'$>41B'$,+$C$
./;;'4'-+$()4;,0'$+'=>'4,+)4'($DEFFG$HFFG$"FF$"#I$.)4/-3$+A'$
! J)'-0A/-3$,($,$;)-0+/1-$1;$+A'$<,+'4$9/(01(/+:?$
!

% &'()*+($,-.$./(0)((/1-$
!
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

2/3)4'$%5""6$7/*$8/(01(/+9$,($,$:)-0+/1-$1:$1/*$+';<'4,+)4'=$

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
!

2/3)4'$%5">6$?',+$+4,-(:'4$01'::/0/'-+$8,*)'$:14$+@'$<41A'$,+$B$
./::'4'-+$()4:,0'$+';<'4,+)4'($CD%#E$F##E$"##GHI$.)4/-3$+@'$
J)'-0@/-3$,($,$:)-0+/1-$1:$+@'$1/*$8/(01(/+9=$

!"#$

Chapter 6
Conclusions and future work

6.1

Conclusions
1. A probe has been developed to determine the heat transfer coefficient of
steel. The probe dimensions were fixed by ensuring an appropriate Biot
number so that the probe temperature can be as uniform as possible
during the course of the experiments.

2. The latent heat of transformation does affect the temperature field and
transformation through thermal transients extending throughout the
body of the sample, even at positions away from the quenchant.

3. A general neural network model has been developed, which is capable


to predict thermal conductivity.

6 Conclusion and future work

172

4. The confidence in the measured heat transfer coefficients is supported


by the fact that reasonable predictions could be made of the cooling
curves when applied to a steel sample much larger than the probes.
5. The heattransfer coefficients when combined with calculated cooling
and time temperaturetransformation curves, can with the help of the
quench factor method enable the estimation of hardness variation as a
function of distance.
6. It has been demonstrated that the steel probe, which replicates phase
transformations during the course of cooling, is the best for determining
the heattransfer coefficients.
7. The heat transfer properties are greatly affected by the quenchant
parameters.

6 Conclusion and future work


6.2

173

Suggestions for the future work

1. Improving the mathematical model by including the latent heat in the


calculations, in this case the equation for heat transfer coefficient should
represent always the maximum values we observed for different
compositions steels.
2. Study the effect of the other quenching parameters (agitation and
surface roughness) on cooling rate, heat transfer coefficient and
mechanical properties for steels.
3. Repeat the same experiments in inert atmosphere to evaluate the effect
of surface oxide layer on heat transfer properties.
4. The thermal conductivity model could be enhanced by:
1. Including calculation of physically meaningful parameters.
For example the equilibrium volume fraction of austenite,
cementite and ferrite could be included to attempt to
distinguish the effect of the different components as they vary
as a function of temperature.
2. It seems likely that any significant improvement to the model
would require new experiments to be performed to measure
the effect of microstructure, which is required to model
thermal conductivity changes as a function of time and
temperature.

References
[1] B. Liscic, H. M. Tensi and W. Luty, Theory and Technology of
Quenching, Springer-Verlag (1992).
[2] D. V. Doane and J. S. Kirkaldy, Hardenability Concepts with
applications to steel, American Institute of mining, metallurgical and
petroleum engineering, Inc (1978).
[3] B. L. Ferguson, Z. Li and A. M. Frebory, Computational Materials
Science, 34 (2005) pp. 274-281.
[4] G. E. Totten and M. A. H. Howes, Steel Heat Treatment Handbook,
Marcel Dekker, Inc (1997).
[5] H. J. Vergara- Hernndez and B. Hernndez-Morales, Experimental
thermal and fluid Science, Accepted manuscript (2009).
[6] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, in G. Totten, M. Howes and T. Inone, editors,
Handbook of residual stress and deformation of steels, ASM
International, 2002, pp.3-10.
[7] C. imir and C. Hakan Gr, Journal of materials processing
technology, Vol. 207 (2008) pp. 211-221.
[8] R. A. Hardin and C. Beckermann, Proceedings of the 59th Technical
and Operating Conference, SFSA, Chicago, IL, 2005.
[9] B. Smoljan: Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 11
(2002), pp. 75-79.

References

175

[10] R. N. Penha, L. C. Canale, G. E. Totten, G. Sanchez Sarmiento and J.


M. Ventura, Journal of ASTM International , Vol. 3, issue 5 (2006) pp.
89-97.
[11] D. B. Marghitu: Mechanical Engineers Handbook, Academic Press
(2001).
[12] B. K. Dutta, Heat Transfer, Principles and Applications, Prentice Hall
of India (2006).
[13] D. E. Smith, 19th ASM Heat treating Society conference proceeding
including steel heat treating in the new millennium, ASM International,
Material OH, 1999, pp. 325- 333.
[14] N. Chen, L.Han, W. Zhang and X. Hao, Materials letters, 61(2007), pp.
3021- 3024.
[15] Materials algorithms project (MAP), World Wide Web,
www.msm.com.ac.uk/map/mapmain.html.
[16] S. Singer, Journal of Numerical Analysis, Industrial and Applied
Mathematics (JNAIAM), Vol. 2, No. 1- 2, 2007, pp. 103- 114.
[17] Heat Treating of Steel, ASM Handbook Vol. 4, Heat Treating, 1991,
ASM International, Materials Park, OH. pp. 67-121.
[18] C. E. Bates, G. E. Tooten and N. A. Clinton, Handbook of Quenchants
and Quenching Technology, ASM International, Materials Park, OH,
1993.
[19] L. C. F. Canale, G. Sanchez Sarmiento, G. E. Totten, I. Felde and R. N.
Penha, http://www.kbeng.com.ar/rpublications.html
[20] B. Hernndez-Morales, J. S. Tllez-Martinez, A. Ingalls-Cruz and J. A.
Barrera Godlnez, 19th ASM Heat treating Society conference
proceeding including steel heat treating in the new millennium, ASM
International, Material OH, 1999, pp. 284- 291.

References

176

[21] S. Ma, A. S. Varde, M. Takahashi, D. K. Rondeau, M. Maniruzzaman


and R. D. Sisson, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference
on Quenching and the Control of Distortion, 20-23 May 2003, Beijing.
[22] K. Funatani, M. Narazaki and M. Tanaka, 19th ASM Heat treating
Society conference proceeding including steel heat treating in the new
millennium, ASM International, Material OH, 1999, pp. 255- 263.
[23] A. G. Ksenofontov and S. Y. Shevchenko, Metal Science and Heat
treatment, Vol. 40 (1998), pp. 9-10.
[24] N. Chen, W. Zhang, C. Gao, B. Liao, and J. Pan, Solid state
phenomena, Vol. 118 (2006), pp. 227-232.
[25] I. Tamura, N. Shimizu, and T. Okada; J. of Heat Treating, VOL. 3, NO.
4, December (1984), pp. 335-343.
[26] X. Chen, L. Meekisho and G. E. Totten, 19th ASM Heat treating Society
conference proceeding including steel heat treating in the new
millennium, ASM International, Material OH, 1999, pp. 453-460.
[27] G. E. Totten and Y. H. Sun, 19th ASM Heat treating Society conference
proceeding including steel heat treating in the new millennium, ASM
International, Material OH, 1999, pp. 292- 297.
[28] C. Heming, H. Xieqing and X. Jianbin, Journal of Materials Processing
Technology, 138 (2003), pp. 399- 402.
[29] H. K. Kim and S. I. Oh: Journal of Materials Processing Technology,
112 (2001), pp. 157- 165.
[30] D. A. Guisbert and D. L. Moore, 19th ASM Heat treating Society
conference proceeding including steel heat treating in the new
millennium, ASM International, Material OH, 1999, pp. 264- 269.
[31] G. E. Totten, H. M. Tensi and B. Liscic, Heat Treatment of Metals, 4
(1997), pp. 92-94.

References

177

[32] [32] Japanese Industrial Standard K 2242, "Heat Treating Oils", 1980.
[33] Tagaya and I. Tamura, Journal of Hart.-Tech. Mitt., Vol. 18(1963) pp.
63- 67.
[34] ASTM D6200 -01(2007), Standard test method for determination of
cooling characteristics of quench oils by cooling curve analysis.
[35] C. E. Bates and G.E. Totten, Heat Treatment of metals, Vol. 4 (1988)
pp. 89-97.
[36] N. B. Pilling, Physical Review, Vol. XIV., Second series, Septemper
(1991) pp. 222-230.
[37] N. Lambert and M. Economopoulos, Journal of Iron and Steel institute,
October (1970), pp. 917-928.
[38] J.Cai, L. Chuzhoy, C. Berndt, G. Keil, K. Burris and M. Taft, 19th ASM
Heat treating Society conference proceeding including steel heat
treating in the new millennium, ASM International, Material OH, 1999,
pp. 299-300.
[39] M. Maniruzzaman and R. D. Sisson Jr, Journal of Physics IV France
120 (2004), pp. 269-276.
[40] N. Chen, B. Liao, J. Pan, Q. Li and C. Gao, Materials letters, 60 (2006),
pp. 1659-1664.
[41] B. Smoljan, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 175 (2006),
pp. 393- 397.
[42] K. Narayan Prabhu and P. Fernandes, Materials and Design, 28 (2007),
pp. 544- 550.
[43] C. Heming, H. Xieqing and W. Honggang, Journal of Materials
Processing Technology, 89-90 (1999), pp. 339-343.

References

178

[44] I. Felde, T. Rti, G. Snchez Sarmiento, M. G. Palandella, G. E. Totten,


X. L. Chen,
http://www.kbeng.com.ar/pdf/Paper_Indianapolis_2001_Imre.pdf.
[45] K. Narayan Prabhu and P. Fernandes: Materials and design, 28 (2007),
pp. 544-550.
[46] L. Huiping, Z. Guoqun, N. Shanting and L. Yiguo, Finite Element in
Analysis and Design, 42(2006), pp. 1087-1096.
[47] P. Masson, T. Loulou, E. Artioukhine, P. Rogeon, D. Carron and J.
Quemener, International Journal of Thermal Science, 41(2002), pp.
517-527.
[48] J. Taler and W. Zima, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,
42 (1999), pp. 1123-1140.
[49] M. Narazaki, K. Osawa, A. Shirayori and S. Fuchizawa, 19th ASM Heat
treating Society conference proceeding including steel heat treating in
the new millennium, ASM International, Material OH, 1999, pp. 600607.
[50] S. Segerberg and J. Bodin, Heat treating , may (1988), pp. 26-28.
[51] S. Segerberg, J. Bodin and I. Felde, Proceedings of the Fourth
International Conference on Quenching and the Control of Distortion,
20-23 May 2003, Beijing, pp. 183-186.
[52] E. Troell, H. Kristoffersen, J. Bodin, S. Segerberg and I. Felde, Z.
Werkst, Wrmebeh, Fertigung 62 (2007) 3.
[53] L. Huiping, Z. Guoqun, H. Lianfang, and M. Yue: Measurement, Vol.
41(2008), pp. 676- 686.
[54] J. T. Staley and J. W. Evancho, Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 5
(1974), pp. 43- 47.

References

179

[55] G. E. Totten, G. M. Webster and C. E. Bates,


http://www.quenchtek.com/pdf_files/technical_paper/pdf.
[56] D. S. MacKenzie and J. W. NewKirk: International Federation of Heat
Treatment and Surface Engineering Conference, September 11-14, 2001
in Dubrovnik, Croatia.
[57] P. A. Rometsch, M. J. Starink and P. J. Gregson, Materials Science and
Engineering A339 (2003), pp. 255-264.
[58] S. Ma, M. Maniruzzaman, D. S. Mackenzie and R. D. Sisson,
Metallurgical and Material Transactions B, Vol.38B (August 1974), pp.
583-589.
[59] R. J. Flynn and J. S. Robinson, Journal of Materials Processing
Technology, 153-154 (2004), pp. 674-680.
[60] G. P. Dolan and J. S. Robinson, Journal of Materials Processing
Technology, 153-154 (2004), pp. 346-351.
[61] P. A. Rometsch, M. J. Starink and P. J. Gregson, Materials Science and
Engineering A339 (2003), pp. 255-264.
[62] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia and R.W. K. Honeycombe, Steels,
microstructure and properties Elsevier Ltd. (2006).
[63] P. Fernandes and K. Prabhn, Journal of Materials Processing
Technology, 183 (2007) pp. 1- 5.
[64] A. J. Fletcher, Thermal Stress and Strain Generation in Heat
Treatment, Elsevier Applied Science (2001).
[65] C. R. Brooks, Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloy, Hemisphere
Publishing Corporation (1979).
[66] D. S. Mackenzie, Presented at the ASM Heat treating show and
exposition, Indianapolis, IN, 15-18 September, 2003.

References

180

[67] D. S. Mackenzie and D. Lambert, Presented at the 6th International


conference on quenching and control of residual stresses conference,
Beijing PRC, 24-27 November 2003.
[68] A. Zehtab Yazdi, S. A. Sajjadi, S. M. Zebarjad and S. M. Moosavi,
Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 199 (2008), pp. 124129.
[69] V. S. Arpaci, Conduction heat transfer, Addison-Wesley (1966).
[70] J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, Inc (2004).
[71] G. E. Myers, Analytical methods in conduction heat transfer,
McGraw-Hill, Inc (1971).
[72] C. F. Weber: International Journal of Heat and Mass transfer, Vol. 24,
No. 11 (1981), pp. 1783-1792.
[73] S. Chantasiriwan: International Communication in Heat and Mass
transfer, Vol. 27, No. 8 (2000), pp. 1155-1164.
[74] A. Buczek and T. Telejko, Journal of Materials Processing Technology,
155-156 (2004), pp. 1324-1329.
[75] C. Heming, X. Jianbin and L. Jianyun; Computational materials
science, 29 (2004), pp. 453-458.
[76] G. S. Sarmiento, X. Chen, J. Vega, G. Totten, R. Raynoldson, L. Huynh
and L. Meekisho:
http://www.getottenassociates.com/pdf_files/HT%20MOD%20%20A%20Comparison.pdf.
[77] F. Kreith, Mechanical Engineering Handbook, CRC Press LLC
(1999).
[78] W. F. Gale and T.C. Totemeier, Smithells Metals Reference Book,
Elsevier Inc. (2004).

References

181

[79] Materials algorithms project (MAP), World Wide Web,


www.msm.com.ac.uk/map/Steel/ Programs/ Thermal model.html
[80] Efunda material property data, http://www.efunda.com/home.cfm.
[81] Matweb, material property data, http://www.matweb.com/.
[82] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia: ISIJ International, Vol. 39(1999), pp. 966 - 979.
[83] R. Kemp, Alloy design for fusion power plant ,PhD thesis, University
of Cambridge, 2006.
[84] W. M. Rohsenow, J. P. Hartnett and Y. I. Cho, Handbook of heat
transfer, third edition, Mc Graw-Hill companies, Inc. , 1998.
[85] N. F. Mott and H. Jones, The theory of the properties of metals and
alloys, Dover publications, Inc., 1958.
[86] J. M. Ziman, Electron and phonons, the theory of transport phenomena
in solids, Oxford university press, 1960.
[87] E. Nechtelberger, The properties of cast irons up to 500C, Technical
report, Technicopy Ltd, 1980.
[88] F. Richter, Die Wichtigsten Physikalishen Eigenschaften von 52
Eisenwerkstoffen, Verlag Stahleisen mbH, 1973.
[89] R. W. Powell, In The physical properties of a series of steels-part ,
paper No. 23 of the alloy steels research committee, (1964) pp. 116121.
[90] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, R .C. Dmitriu, S. Forsik, J. H. Pak, and J. H.
Ryu, Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 4 (2009) pp. 504510.
[91] David J. C. MacKay, In H. Cerjak and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, editors,
Mathematical modelling of weld phenomena 3.
[92] David J.C. MacKay, Bayesian methods for adaptive models, PhD
thesis, Caltech, 1991.

References

182

[93] D. J. C. MacKay, Neural Computation, Vol. 4 (1992) pp. 415-447.


[94] D. J. C. MacKay, Neural Computation, Vol. 4 (1992), pp. 448-472.
[95] H. Fujii, D. C. MacKay and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, ISIJ International,
Vol. 36, No. 11(1996), pp. 1373-1382.
[96] J. H. Ryu and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, Materials and Manufacturing
Processes, Vol. 24 (2009), pp. 1-7.
[97] L. Gavard, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, D. J. C. MacKay and S. Suzuki,
Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 12 (1996), pp. 453-463.
[98] J. Pak, J. Jang, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia and L. Karlsson, Materials and
Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 24 (2009), pp. 16-21.
[99] M. A. Yescas, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, Vol. 15
(2003), pp. 513-521.
[100] T. Cool and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, Materials Science and Technology,
Vol. 2, January (1996), pp. 40-44.
[101] T. Sourmail, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, and D. J. C. MacKay, Materials
Science and Technology, Vol. 18, June (2002), pp. 655-663.
[102] T. Sourmail and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia in Introduction to materials
modelling,Maney publishing (2005).
[103] D. J. C. MacKay, Neural Computation, Vol. 4, No. 4 (1992), pp. 590604.
[104] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia , Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms in
Materials Science and Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company Ltd., India, January 11-13, 2006,
[105] URL: http://www.neuromat.com/.

References

183

[106] Hasan and Peet,


http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/map/data/materials/thermaldata.html.
[107] L. Leibowitz and R. A. Blomquist, International Journal of
thermophysics, Vol. 9, No. 5(1988), pp. 873-883.
[108] D Carrouge, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia and P. Woollin, Science and
Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 9, No. 5(2004), pp. 377-389.
[109] Technical data sheet for Micron GP 460, Specialised products
(Western) Ltd.
[110] Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity.