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September 1 EDPS 410

Interest Groups
- school admin
- school board/district
parents
students
ata
ministry of ed
teachers
community
Social Contexts
- History
- economic
- cultural
- political
Relationships of Power
- race
- class
- ability
- gender (gender identity)
- sexual orientation
- language
- FNMI
Values, Attitudes, and Beliefs (Dispositions)

Personal - Professional Pedagogical

September 6, 2016
Ethos from the Greek
- a persons character, nature, or disposition

Ethics
- the study of right and wrong
- a branch of philosophy dealing with moral conduct, duty, and judgment
- a system of conduct or behavior
- professional rules
- moral principles by which a person is guided
Morals
- personal beliefs, principles, or standards of conduct
- a natural system of ethics
- the distinction between right and wrong
- accepted rules or standards of behavior
Law
-

a statute or long-settled principle


the system of rules formed to protect society or some other group
a rule or principle that must be obeyed
the law is regarded as a core matter or principle the legal system utilizes in
order to regulate the affairs and conduct or persons or institutions in
society

What are the important laws, policies, and regulations that teachers should take
into consideration in their professional practice and decision-making?
Sources of School Law
1. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
2. Education/School Act
3. Ministerial Regulations/Orders
4. School Board Policies
- Why
- What
- How
- Do not have the force of Law unless they are tied to another source
of legal responsibility
5. Common Law

Sources of Law for Education


- Criminal Law
- Labour Law (Employment)
- Copyright Law
- Family Law
Legal Chain of Command/Authority
- Discuss with School Board
- Human Rights complaint
- Provincial Court
- Provincial Court of Appeal
- Supreme Court of Canada
Important Legal Concepts
- In Loco Parentis (in place of parent)
- Parents Patriae (Teacher acts in place of the state)
- Duty of Care
- Reasonable Person/Careful Parent

Roles of the Modern Teacher


- Parent
- Police Officer
- Social Worker
- Educator
- Coach
- Lawyer
September 8, 2016
The Characteristics of a Profession
- a discrete body of knowledge
- formal preparation & continuous growth
- work with a large degree of autonomy
- membership in a cooperative association

influence over standards, admission, licensing, and professional


development
serves a higher societal purpose

4 Programs
- Member services and teacher welfare
- Government & Professional development

You as a professional teacher


- your values and beliefs related to teaching and learning
- your wisdom gained from experience
- legal and legislated frameworks
- your professional repertoire of knowledge, skills, and abilities
Pedagogical Tact
School Act

September 13, 2016


What are a teachers professional ethical responsibilities?
Cynthia Allen Case Study
If Cynthia does not fail Henry because she feels the punishment is too great in
this case, she would be paying more attention in her thinking to the harmful
consequences of her actions than to the obligation she has to obey the rules.
- This ethical thinking is called consequentialist
If Cynthia takes her personal sense of honesty and her professional obligation to
maintain and administer the academic code of her institution fairly to all, she
would reach her decision as a Non Consequentialist.
One for whom duty obligation and principle are more important considerations
than consequences.
Aspects to Consider in Ethical Decision Making
neither perspective in this typology is sufficient. Each view, in some
aspects, makes up for absences in the other
political ideals need to be considered: democracy, freedom, and social
justice
examine equity and its relationship to power
explore the role of the teacher, student, and other interest groups as
required by the situation
examine contexts: social, cultural, political and historical
understand relationships of power: race, ethnicity, gender, class, sexual
orientation, age, and ability
be aaware of dispositions: attitudes, beliefs, and values
take into account demographics: geographic location of the school, class
size, economic status, race/ethnicity, etc.

September 15, 2016


The complexity of our ices makes the study of critical ethical issues and
education an imprecise science at best. However, by struggling to understand the

complexity of our lives and teaching we are taking the first steps to wisdom (p
67)
Code of Professional Conduct:
- pupils
- colleagues
- school authorities
- profession

September 20, 2016


Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982)
- every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right
to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without
discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, color,
religion, sex, age, or mental or physical disability
- The charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the
preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of
Canadians
Teachers are governed by:
- Canadian charter of rights and freedoms
- Criminal code of Canada
i. Youth criminal Justice Act
- School Act
- Alberta Regulations
i. Child, youth, and family enhancement Act; Human Rights
Act; Teaching Profession Act, etc.
- School board Policies and Regulations
- Local School Policies and Regulations
Teaching in Alberta
- Alberta Teachers Association
- Ministry of Education
- Faculties of Education

Reasons Why Educators Should Know the Law


- the law has deep roots in our value system
- educators are responsible for creating safe, caring, and inclusive
school environments
- knowing procedural aspects of the law allows educators to
incorporate the values of fairness, equality and due process into
their practices and institutions
- knowing the law helps educators to act reasonably and to focus on
prevention
- knowing the law can help educators to potentially limit liability
Negligence
-

Liability: the condition of having been responsile for a possible or


actual loss, penalty, expense, or burden
Negligence: the omission to do something that a reasonable person
would do or something which a reasonable person would not do. A
duty to act in a way that avoids causing harm when such harm
might be reasonably foreseen
Unintentional harm cause by a failure to meet the required standard
of care. Legally, negligence involves a lawsuit for damages based
on harm. If there is no harm, there can be no negligence.

September 22, 2016


Case Study Analysis
-

standard of a careful or prudent parent


no breech of the coaches instructions about tackling techniques
court rejected long, lean swan neck theory
theory not widely knownd and no reason that the board or coaches
would have known of risk potential or increased student
vulnerability
coaches and board found

Schools must take reasonable precautions to safeguard students from physical or


mental harm

The TEST a Court Will Use


Before the fact:
1. Is there a duty of care owed to the student
2. Is there foresseable risk of harm in the situation?
3. What is the standard of care that must be met?
4. What must I do to meet this standard?
After the fact:
1. Was loss or injury sustained by the student to whom the teacher owed a
duty of care?
2. Was loss or injury caused by the teachers failure to meet the standard of
care?
3. Was the type of injury foreseeable in the circumstances?
4. Was the injured student (or any other person) partly responsible?
Duty of Care: Automatic for teacher in charge of students
Standard of Care: is a varying standard
Supreme Court of Canada Standard of Care Requirements:
1. Is the activity suitable to the age, mental, and physical conditions of the
students?
2. Have the students been previously taught to perform the activity properly?
3. Is the equipment adequate and suitable arranged?
4. Is the activity being supervised properly?

Most Common Failures of Standards of Care


- lack of adequate supervision by teacher or other staff member
- improper, inadequate or defective equipment
- failure to warn students of specific dangers in doing an activity
- failure to train students in proper use of equipment and/or safety
procedures
- failure to take reasonable precautions against injury or loss
- failure to hire competent staff and provide necessary training
- failure to properly treat injury
Teacher Liability

Liability: 1 The state or fact of being legally responsible or under obligation; 2


Responsibility for ones conduct, such as contractual liability, tort liability, or
criminal liability; 3 an obligation to do or refrain from doing something; 4 A duty
that eventually must be performed
Litigious: Having the propensity to engage in litigation. Thus, a person who
repeatedly sues a school board over various issues would be called litigious
Why is teacher/school liability important?
1. Schools are prone to accidents and therefore litigation. Accidents can lead
to allegations of teacher negligence.
2. Courts in Canada and the US have awarded large sums of money to
students who were seriously and permanently injured at school.
3. Our society is growing increasing litigious and inficiduals have a better
understanding of their legal rights.
The Principle of in loco parentis
- in place of the parent
- teachers have some of the same privileges of parents, but also
added responsibility such as a higher standard of care
- serve as unofficial guardian
- for example, a teacher could be liable for damages cause to a pupil
where the teachers conduct falls below the normal parent-child
relationship
Case study Assault on a Teacher
A student responds to a teacher rebuke for not having an assignment done by
leaping to his feet, shoving the teacher against the wall, and repeatedly shoving
and striking him well yelling suggestions about what the teacher can do with his
assignment. The student is big and angry and plainy accustomed to fighting. The
teacher is none of these things, but badly needs to regain some composure and
control in the situation. What do you do as the teacher?
- Were your actions in favor of the safety of the school environment?
-

document the incident (including witness statements)

report to administration (who will enforce school/district policy)

notify parents

involve police where circumstances warrant (eg


age/intent/behavioural history of the student)

notify the school crisis response team, if available

ensure disciplinary action is quick and decisive. Consequences


must be immediate, and apparent to both students and teachers

Why is Record Keeping important?


- critical part of due process
i. due process: also known as procedural fariness or natural
justice
- the more serious the episode or consequence, the more important
due process and record keeping become
- for example: school suspensions vs all students having the right to
an education
- burden of proof is on the school to rationalize/justify the approach
taken
- courts (appeals) generally look to determine if the discipline was fair
and reasonable. Did teachers use their best professional
judgement?
Criminal Code of Canada
Section 43 states: Every school teacher, parent or person standing in place of
the parent is justified in using force by the way of correction toward a pupil or
child, as the case may be, who is under his/her car, if the force does not exceed
what is reasonable under the circumstances
Opposition to Section 43
1.Opposition to the use of corporal punishment in schools.
2. Concerns about child abuse.
3. Violates the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

In Alberta, would a teacher be held civilly liable for administering reasonable


corporal punishment to a student?
As a result of in loco parentis, teachers are permitted to take whatever
reasonable steps are required (including corporal punishment) to maintain control
of students.
This includes:
- use of corrective force, which may not be punitive in nature
Section(s) 7,
12 Cruel and Unusual Punishment
15 Equality provision
Canadian Teachers Federation
Argues that the removal of Section 43 would be detrimental to maintaining a safe
and secure environment for all students
Examples include:
- need to protect teachers or students when a fight occurs at school
- escorting uncooperative students to the Principals office
- ejecting a student who refuses to leave the classroom or school
- placing a young student on a bus
- restraining a behaviourlaly challenged/cognitiviely impaired student
- intervening in a potentially disruptive situation to prevent further
escalation
In the use of corrective force, courts will consider:
- what was the nature of the offence calling for correction?
- Was the force reasonable to the the circumstance?
- What was the age and disposition of the student?
- What would be the likely effect of punishment on the student? Will it
do any good?
- What was the gravity of the punishment?
- Under what circumstances was the punishment inflicted?
- Were injuried suffered? If so, to what extent?
Does the physical punishment as means of discipline uphold regard for the
personal dignity and integrity of students?

Discipline and due Process


- Mr Fuse Case Study
i. How can Mr Fuse be accused of not following procedures
that are important in establishing guilt?
1. Mr. Fuse failed to five Alex a chance to defend himself
2. Mr Fuse failed to tell Alex why he believed him to be
guilty so that he could defend himself
3. Mr Fuse relied on an anonymous note
4. Mr Fuse had no idea if the author of the note was
reliable
5. Mr Fuse did not give Alex a chance to confront his
accuser
6. Mr Fuse failed to investigate the matter thoroughly
7. Mr Fuse made not attempt to determine the
authorship or authenticity of the note
8. Mr Fuse failed ot question the students about the
incident
- School Rules
i. Making rules is a type of legislative function
ii. Enforcing rules is an administrative function
iii. Penalizing for infraction is a judicial function
iv. School rules must comply with Charter values
Questions to ask?
- Why do we need a rule?
- What is the effect on students?
- Is the rule unfair or arbitrary?
The Charter and Discipline
The justice system realizes the educational process is essential to society and
disrupting it is clearly wrong
Key elements:
- section 12: Everyone has the right not to be subjected to any cruel
or unusual treatment or punishment Punishment must be
reasonable
i. types: punish, rehabilitate, deter, protect the public
ii. The principle of human dignity lies at the heart of Section 12

Section 7 Life, liberty, or security of the person, except in accordance with the
principles of fundamental justice
- freedom from threat or physical suffering
- This means
i. Due process school rules are made known and clearly
communicated to students and parents
ii. Fundamental justice all accused have the right to know the
case/charges against them
iii. All students have the right to dignity of persons
iv. All teachers have the right to teach and maintain order
How does the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Impact Schools?
- minority language rights
- students with disabilities (access and accommodation)
- funding of religious schools
- freedom of conscience and religion (right to hold different beliefs)
- freedom of association
- freedom of expression
- non-discrimatory environments (equality provisions)
To Search or not to search?
Did this search violate the students privacy rights (section 8 of charter)?
Why or Why not?
Was the search reasonable to maintain the order and safety of the school
environment?

September 29, 2016


Child Abuse: Duty to Report
- What is Abuse?
i. Neglect: occurs if the guardian is unable or unwilling to:
1. Provide the child with necessities of life
Guidelines to Consider:
- search/seizure must be related to the enforcement of school
policy/discipline/order
- there is a lower legal expectation of privacy in schools

probable cause is not needed, but reasonable suspicion


need for credible information
search must be reasonable/lest intrusive method given
circumstance
immediacy of danger/pending safety concerns

Objective is to balance students privacy rights (Section 8) vs. the need to


maintain a sage and orderly school environment
What are the privacy rights of the studnets in schools?
- privacy rights are not absolute
- focus on maintaining the safety and order of the school
environment
- lower expectation of privacy in schools
- searches must be credible, reasonable, and minimally intrusive
- student safety may override a students Charter rights
School Searches
- what is the purpose of the search?
- Teachers are placed in positions of trust and responsibility for
student safety and wellbeing
- Must have reasonable grounds/suspicion of breach of school rules
- Cannot search on a whim or capriciously
- Level of search is related to severity of infraction/risk
- Cannot act as an agent of police
- Focus is to maintain school discipline, not enforce the criminal laws
of Canada
Questioning Students in School
- Teachers are persons of authority under YCJA (S.146(2))
- Statements must be made voluntarily
- Students must be told of rights in plain language
- Right to consult with an appropriate adult
- Parets are not required to testify against their children, but a teacher
mau be compelled to do so
- Important difference between a school investigation for breach of
school rules and a police investigation involving criminal acts

October 4, 2016
- Walsh
i. Could and could not eat
ii. Students requested to move from class due to being
inconsiderate
Search, Seizure, and Discipline
- the greater the discipline, the more transparency and due process
become important
- be aware of Charter implications
Section 15- race culture etc
Section 12 cruel and unusual punishment
Section 7 Right to fundamental justice
Section 2
Section 8
Due Process of Law: implies that the powers of government are exercised in
similar situations in order to protect indiciduals rights. Also known as natural
justice
Natural Justice: (1) person judging should not be biased (2) right to a fair hearing
(procedural fairness)
^ Section 7
Why is Due Process Important to Educators?
- ensures that decisions made about students are procedurallybased and are not arbitrary or capricious
- decisions are arbitrarily made when they are made without
evidence
- decisions are made capriciously when they are made
unsystematically or based on irrelevant grounds
Autistic molester
- Hall
- Sexual assault of a disabled person
- Lost jobs when the trial became public

Saskatoon
-

Elementary teacher
Farthing
Sent inappropriate pictures to young student

Simard
-

Aublin commit suicide


Affair with Aublin
Simard stripped of membership
Requested province remove her certificate

three counts of professional misconduct


former principal
17 y/o girl
i. had a child
ATA membership suspended

Lethebe

Teacher Sexual Misconduct


- inappropriate use of power
- potential to harm future well-beign and development
- failure to meet duty of care
- institutions (and employees) are required to operate in a safe and
caring manner
October 6, 2016
- Climate (classroom/school climate):
i. The attitudes and conditions that exist among a body of
people
ii. Must be maintained
iii. Offenses committed off school property must affect
classroom climate if you want to penalize the student
- Unbecoming (Conduct)
i. Conduct outside of teacher practice
- Section 23: unprofessional conduct

Fiduciary relationship A person who stands in the position of trust and


confidence toward another person and has a duty to act in that persons best
interests
Examples include:
- lawyer/client
- parent/child
- doctor/patient
- executor/beneficiary
- director/company
The courts have held
- teachers are mediums that are required to uphold the values,
beliefs and knowledge sought to be transmitted by the school
system
- if a teachers off-duty conduct can be traced to the creation of a
poisoned environment or a loss in confidence in the teacher or
educational system, the teacher may be found in breach of their
fiduciary obligations
- the standard of behavior of that a teacher is required t omeet is
greater than the minimum standard of conduct expected of
members of the public
- The fiduciary concept serves as a useful model for understanding
the obligation of teachers in a wide variety of settings and legal
concepts
Freedom of Expression in Schools
- courts support the control of schools, not unrestricted freedom of
expression
- schools are not always considered to be an open/public forum
- school censorship is permitted as long as it is linked ot a legitimate
pedagogical concern
- courts tend to defer to the educational expertise of schools to make
appropriate decisions
All educators are subject to Section 2(b) which relates to the selection and use of
reading and classroom materials.
2(b) Freedom of Expression

Everyone has the following freedoms:


b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the
press and other media communication
In selecting appropriate learning materials for classes, school boards must use
government mandated guidelines.
General criteria set forth states that recommended learning resources need to be
appropriate in terms of the age, maturity , and learning needs of the student and
needs to be fair, free from gratuitous violence, propaganda and discrimination
Loring Endacott
- Loring teacher by day, dancer by night
- Endacott principal at the school
Teacher Freedom of Expression
- conduct, dress, and speech can be limited
- a teachers off duty conduct must be consistent with the values of a
positive, discrimination free learning environment.
Key Cases to Consider:
1. Malcom Ross v New Brunswick
a. Schools must be seen to be impartial and
tolerant
2. R. v Keegstra
a. Avoid indoctrination
3. Kempling v BCCT
a. Off-duty condut can be found to poison the
school environment as it could be reasonably
seen to adversely impact the learning
environment

October 20, 2016


Freedom of Expression test: do actions or materials present a material or
substantial disruption to the school environment?
Imposed school grading policy teacher refuses teacher suspended

Teachers should be free to:


1: Supplement curriculum with current and relevant materials and examples
2: Critique materials that are stereotypical, offensive, or factually incorrect
3: Use their professional judgment to adapt/adjust teaching methods to determine
the best pedagogical approach
Striking the Right Balance: Placing Limits on Academic Freedom for Teachers
- Actions should not infringe upon the rights of others
- Cause a disruption of the school environment
- Should not be lewd, vulgar, or indecent
- Connected to a legitimate pedagogical purpose
- Factually accurate
- Does not condone any illegal or illicit activity
- Taught in an age-appropriate way
The conduct of a teacher bears directly upon the communitys perception of the
ability of a teacher to fulfill such a position of trust and influence, and upon the
communitys confidence in the public school system as a whole (SSC)
4 Key Principles to Remember
1. Teachers are mediums and role models for society.
2. All school boards have a positive (legal) duty to provide a
discrimination-free environment and protect students from harm.
3. There must be a reasonable inference that teacher actions can create
a poisoned environment that undermines the trust and confidence in the
educational system or causes disruption or controversy
4. Where free speech and equality right clash. Equality will win out in
schools. Non discrimination is a core value of the education system.
Educate
-

comes from the Latin Educare, which means to cause to grow

Student Autonomy is an important goal of education


- to question different view points
- to think critically and analytically
- cognitive dissonance is central to learning in a diverse society

The right to freedom of expression is not absolute in order to protect the


interests of society, it is sometimes necessary to limit the freedom of expression.
Off duty conduct that negatively impacts the school system can face disciplinary
action
September 25, 2016
Students Freedom of Expression:
- school authorities have a special duty of care to students
i. must take reasonable measures and prevent forseeable risks
of harm in the school environment
ii. duty to maintain order and discipline in the school
Cases to Consider:
- Tinker student protest arm bands
- Shanley underground student newspaper
- Canadian Cases
i. Cyberbullying Facebook (2008)
ii. Drug Dealing (2009)
- School must establish, on the balance of probabilities, a clear and
direct and casual link between students (on or off duty activity) and
a definitive impact on the school environment (p.103)
- Speculation and general assertations are not sufficient
- Must be a clear and direct link to a negative impact on the school
environment
Examples of Material or Substantive Disruption may include:
- students afraid to come to school
- students indicate a fear for their safety, health or well-being
- parents complain about disruption t the school environment
- school community is traumatized or in shock
- school staff are worried about their physical or emotional safety or
well-being
September 27, 2016

Freedom of Expression (Section 2b)


Vs.
Duty to provide a safe, orderly, educational environment
To restrict students freedom of expression there must be a substantial and
pressing objective or reason to protect the greater good
Schools must restrict freedom of expression by the least intrusive method
possible (minimal impairment)
A schools authority to control/limit student conduct is not dependent on the time
and place it occurred (ie at school), but on the effect it has on school safety and
order (which includes school climate and morale)
Key elements:
- must be a clear connection/nexus to the school environment
- burden of proof is on the school to demonstrate the connection to
school disruption and harm done
Schools may restrict students rights when:
1. Evidence of foreseeable and substantial disruption to
the school environment
2. Lewd or vulgar speech
3. School-sponsored speech (ie school assembly
newspaper, yearbook, school websites, etc)
4. Speech promoting illicit drug use/activity
Any material, which substantially interferes with the maintenance of an orderly
school environment, can result in restrictions on student or teacher speech.
Lewd or offensive speech can also be limited because schools have a role in
inculcating values and serving as role models for students
Written speech associated with school curriculum or administrators can also
regulate classroom activity
Free speech is a hallmark of democrat; it can not/should not be restricted easily

In Canada, we try to find a balance between freedom of expression and te rights


of individuals vs. the importance of maintaining a safe and orderly school
environment.
Any limitations must be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society
November 1, 2016
Parental Rights Case Study Chamberlain c Surrey School Board
- Arguments against the books
i. Conflicts with parental rights/views/religious beliefs
ii. May cause cognitive dissonance or be embarrassing to
parents
iii. Not curricularly relevant
iv. Not age-appropriate
- Arguments for the books
i. Exposure to different views/identities is important as it
prepares students for a diverse world
ii. Should discuss all, not just some (majority) families in
curriculum
iii. Respects autonomy of children to make up their own minds
and opinions (critical thinking)
iv. Teaching tolerance is always age-appropriate
Parental Rights: Are there limits?
- Parental right to educate children:
i. Section 2(a): freedom of religion and conscience
ii. Section 7: best intersts of the child (do parents know best?)
- *parents rights are not absolute
- important to consider voices of the child, interests of the state,
opinions of the teacher when considering the best interests of the
child
Who wants to have a say in the education of children and why?
- The state wants children to (1) become responsible/respectful
citizens; and (2) develop into independent, self-sufficient adults
- Children have an interest in becoming independent and
autonomous adults

Parents want to impart their own values/beliefs on their children and


to promote their welfare and success

Examples of conflict of rights


- should the lords prayer be a part of public schools?
i. You can teach religion in public schools, but not from only
one faith or perspective (indoctrination). Teaching must be
open minded and cannot impose bias or personal beliefs
What rle should religion play in public schools?
- religion should be encouraged, but must respect Charter values
- All freedoms, including religious freedoms, are subject to
reasonable limits
- These reasonable limits can help to avoid indoctrintation and
fundamentalism, and to serve to promote tolerance,
understanding, and compromise (p 352)
- Key cases: Keegstra: antisemetic
- , Ross: used position to publicly talk about antisemitism, Kempling:
anti LGBT letters to editor, Chamberlain: bring in materials depicting
same-sex families but was challenged
Supreme Court of CanadA: Freedom of religion can not be used to undermine
the dignity of others (p356)
Section 15- values of equality
Section 23 Values of Multiculturalism
The educational goal is to focus on equal recognition and respect to members of
all minority groups
- Respect for diversity is paramount
- Religious diversity is a hallmark of Canada
- We must show respect for persons and their views even when they
do not align with our own
The objective of public education is to promote non-denominational education
Question: How do we create a dialogic classroom community with principles of
respect and consideration at its core?

Students need to be exposed to diversity and difference (identities, orientations,


expressions, abilities, cultures, languages, etc.)
Teachers as professionals should:
- avoid indoctrination
- promote critical thinking
- advance equality
A model to consider?
Religion and Public Schools in Quebec
1997 Quebec ended denominational school boards
2008 Introduced a new Ethics and Religious Culture course in all schools
- promote understanding of multiple faiths/cultures, not only Catholic
or Protestant
- adopted government policy of neutrality
- importance of exposing children to realities different from those
encountered at home
- parents can still teach their own religious values at home or for
private or home school education
Exposure to different beliefs/realities is an important part of Canadas
multicultural and pluralistic society.
The goal of public education is to promote shared understandings, respect,
tolerance, and the need to get along (in peaceful and civil ways) in spite of our
differences (p 181)
Tracing the Rituals of Racism (Schick, 2011)
What is the impetus for equity?
- Canada is a settler colonial nation with a history of genocide, land
appropriation, and residential schooling
- The problems of apologies
i. Focuses on wrongs/actions in the past
ii. Removes accountability for present and ongoing injustices
iii. We need to move beyond a token or feel good curriculum
Most educational changes proposed in policy and curriculum are surface level
and do little to change colonial power relations

education needs to be connected to injustices of the past and


colonial exploitation
it is important to be specific and name the problems (how they were
created and maintained) that need to be addressed
the problem of being color blind
you cannot separate the need for Aboriginal Education from
conversations about racism, poverty, and exploitation.

Technology in the Classroom: Teachers, Students, and Social Media


Tips for Teachers:
- consider all social media a public form of communication
- always use the highest privacy settitngs
- hace clear professional boundaries. Do not friend or add parents or
students. Colleagues?
- Never criticize colleagues publicly or on social media
- Keep the personal and professional separate
- Facebook/Twitter: Mrs Smiths Grade 7 Class
- Consider everything you post as public. Ask yourself: Would I post
this on my classroom bulletin board?
- Keep a record of any online chats with students and parents
- Use email sparingly. Always be professional in address and tone.
- Never text students or parents. Too informal and curt.
- Google yourself often.
- Internet filters are not fool proof
- Use work computers/phones for work only. They may be monitored
- All work-related product may not be owned by you or copyright
protected.