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Energy demand and comparison of current

defrosting technologies of frozen raw materials in

defrosting tunnels
Bezovsky, Marek; Stricik, Michal; Prascakova, Maria
The optimization process of coal defrosting in defrosting tunnels is solved in this
article. Individual technical solutions of defrosting tunnels, as well as energy
demands, are dealt with in this report. Defrosting tunnels are used for the defrosting
of deep-frozen substrates like coal, ore or powdery substances. There are two
different ways of defrosting. The first one is based on convective heating and the
second one on radiant heating. Nowadays, convective heating is used much more
than radiant heating. However, theory and practice show that the radiant heating is
much more efficient.
The aim of this article is to describe the design and construction of a multifunctional
method of a defrosting tunnel. In the second stage we make experimental
measurements of convective and radiant methods of defrosting on a built model. Its
third aim is to make energy and economy assessments of defrosting process on the
model. Finally, to implement the acquired knowledge in the practice, determining the
conditions, in which the change of present-day convective defrosting technology to
the new radiant technology becomes effective.

The rate of heat flow between two systems is measured in watts (joules per second).
The formula for rate of heat flow is:
Q/t = -KAT/x,
where Q/t is the rate of heat flow;
-K is the thermal conductivity factor;
A is the surface area;
T is the change in temperature and
x is the thickness of the material
N.B: The quotient T/x is called the temperature gradient and is always negative because of the
heat of flow always goes from more thermal energy to less).

Assume there are two systems with the same mass and specific heat. System A has an average
temperature of 500 kelvin and system B has an average temperature of 400 K. If thirty seconds
after the systems are put in contact they both reach 450 K, then the average rate of heat flow is:

50 J/30 s, or rather 1.67 W.

(note: specific heat capacities = 1 J/(kg K) and masses = 1 kg)

From Ivaylo Rudarsky:

Appendix B
Calculation B.1 Turbo Jet engine fuel consumption
Because kg is unit for mass and litter is unit for volume a direct conversion factor
does not exist. However the two units can be related through the formula V=m/.
V is the volume m is the mass; in kilograms of kerosene is the density, kerosene
at STP has a density of 804kg/m3 . [29] V=1kg/804kg/m3 =0.0012m3 ; however
this is the volume in meter cube, the volume in liters is V litters= V meter cube x
1000 litters= 1.2 litters. So 1kg of kerosene = 1.2 litters, hence the engine fuel
consumption EFC= 95kg/h x1.2l=114l/h. From this follows that total consumption
for the engines is 4 x 114l/h=456l/hThe working time of the four jet engines is
119min. and the fuel consumption is 456l/h. Hence 456l/60min. x 119 min.
=904l.Then at price of 0.77EU per liter, the monetary cost for using the four jet
engines for the specified period is 904l x 0.77EU=696EU
Calculation B.2 Conductive heat transfer through the metal of the wagon
The circular diameter of one jet engine is 1.095 m and it can deliver convective
heat temperature to the wagon at 850 C. The convective heat continues to
propagate, once it heats the metal surface of the wagon via conduction.
The rate of heat conduction can be calculated using the following formula:
qconduction= kA =16W/mK126m2855/0.2=8.618400
Where: K is thermal conductivity of the material; in this case steel
K= 16 (W/mK)30
A is the surface area of the material; in this case 126m2 (see calculation 2 above)
T is the difference between the hot side and the cold side; in this case from the
outside 850C due to the jet engine and -5C from the inside, so T =855C x is
the thickness of the material which is 200mm or 0.2m
Calculation B.3 Quantity of heat required to defrost one wagon of coal
Knowing the amount of ice to be melted 5.5m3 the quantity of heat (Q) required
to melt the ice can be calculated by using the following formula
Q=TCm=6Cx2.027.000J/kgK x5043=61332966000 J/s or W Where: T is
change in temperature; in this case T=6 C is the specific heat capacity of the
material; in this case ice C=2.027 kJ/kgK31 or C=2 027 000J/kgK m is the mass of
the material in kg; the mass can be derived from the volume of the ice which was
calculated previously by using the relationship between volume, density and
mass m=VxP. The density of water at -5C is 917kg/m3 . 32 The volume is
already calculated v=5.5m3 . Plugging in the numbers m=5.5m3 x917kg/m3
=5043kg 27 | P a g e F i n a l P r o j e c t R e p o r t 2 0 1 5 Calculation B.4
Insulation width The insulation width is calculated by using the following formula:

Iw = x dop = 3.14 x 0.4m=1.2561.26m Where: Iw is the width of the

insulation in m is a constant ratio- 3.14 dop is the outside diameter of the bare
steam pipe- 400mm or 0.4m Lp is the length of the pipe- 200m
Calculation B.14 Benefits for one year using steam instead of kerosene During
the four winter months from December till March the power plant is consuming
932.019t of coal. So far it has been calculated that in order to defrost 4 wagons
of coal with capacity 38m3 each, total of 152m3 ,the power plant has to spend
696Eu for 119min. To calculate the amount of money necessary for the defrosting
of the 932.019 tons of coal, first it has to be determined how many tons are there
in 152m3 of coal. Since the power plant is predominantly burning lignite (brown
coal), the amount of kilograms per one cubic meter of lignite coal can be
determined by its average bulk density- 793kg/m3 [37] . Hence, in 152m3 of coal
there are 152 x 793kg=120536kg or 120.536tons of coal. However the amount of
coal that 34 | P a g e F i n a l P r o j e c t R e p o r t 2 0 1 5 has to be defrosted is
8 times more (932.019t/120.526t=7.7322874493927 8 ). Therefore the price is
increased eightfold: the total for the price is 8 x 696Eu =5568EU.